The fourth component of complement (C4) is encoded by two closely linked genes (C4A and C4B) within the MHC. Null alleles at either locus (C4AQ0 or C4BQ0) are relatively common, occurring at the C4A locus in approximately 10% of normal individuals and at the C4B locus in approximately 16% of normal individuals. However, the presence of the double null haplotype (C4A*Q0,B*Q0) on the same chromosome is extremely rare. We recently studied a 7-yr-old patient with recurrent sinopulmonary infections in whom we documented the mechanism by which the C4A*Q0,B*Q0 double null haplotype arose. Evaluation revealed significantly reduced levels of both C4 antigen and C4 hemolytic activity. Analysis of extended haplotypes in the family was performed using MHC typing and genomic DNA analysis. The patient was found to have a C4A*3,B*Q0 haplotype and a C4A*Q0,B*Q0 haplotype. The C4A*3,B*Q0 haplotype was contributed by the father. The mother possessed a C4A*Q0,B*1 haplotype and a C4A*3,B*1 haplotype. The first maternal haplotype was involved in a recombination event within the C4B locus on her other chromosome and resulted in a new C4B*Q0 null allele and the patient's C4A*Q0,B*Q0 haplotype. Segregation analysis mapped the recombination to a region 3' to the unique 6.4-kb TaqI restriction fragment of the maternal C4B locus. This is the first demonstration of a recombination event producing a C4 double null haplotype.
M B Fasano, J A Winkelstein, T LaRosa, W B Bias, R H McLean
Type 1 hereditary tyrosinemia (HT1) is a metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH). Using a full-length FAH cDNA and specific antibodies, we investigated liver specimens from seven unrelated HT1 patients (six of French Canadian and one of Scandinavian origin). The expression of FAH in livers of these individuals was analyzed at several molecular levels including mRNA, immunoreactive material (IRM), and enzymatic activity. Four phenotypic variants were differentiated by these assays: (i) presence of FAH mRNA without any IRM or enzymatic activity, (ii) decreased FAH mRNA, IRM, and enzymatic activity, (iii) moderately decreased FAH mRNA and IRM with severely reduced enzymatic activity, and (iv) undetectable FAH mRNA, IRM, and enzymatic activity. These various molecular phenotypes suggest that this disorder may be caused by a variety of FAH mutations. Interestingly, we found no apparent relationship between the clinical and the molecular phenotypes, except that patients with absent IRM and enzymatic activity tend to have higher levels of serum alpha-fetoprotein and an earlier clinical onset. To further analyze the molecular basis of HT1, the FAH cDNA of a patient designated as variant A was amplified and sequenced. An A-to-T transversion, which substitutes asparagine16 with isoleucine (N16I), was identified. This patient was heterozygous as shown by direct sequencing of the amplified region and hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. The N16I allele originates from the father and the second allele appears not to be expressed in the liver of the proband. CV-1 cells transfected with the mutant cDNA produced FAH mRNA, but no protein or hydrolytic activity, as predicted by the "A" phenotype of the patient. This is the first demonstration of heterogeneity in the expression of FAH at the levels of protein, mRNA, and enzymatic activity in the livers of HT1 patients and is the first identification of a causal mutationin this disease.
D Phaneuf, M Lambert, R Laframboise, G Mitchell, F Lettre, R M Tanguay
To better understand the mechanisms of tissue injury during and after carbon monoxide (CO) hypoxia, we studied the generation of partially reduced oxygen species (PROS) in the brains of rats subjected to 1% CO for 30 min, and then reoxygenated on air for 0-180 min. By determining H2O2-dependent inactivation of catalase in the presence of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATZ), we found increased H2O2 production in the forebrain after reoxygenation. The localization of catalase to brain microperoxisomes indicated an intracellular site of H2O2 production; subsequent studies of forebrain mitochondria isolated during and after CO hypoxia implicated nearby mitochondria as the source of H2O2. In the mitochondria, two periods of PROS production were indicated by decreases in the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG). These periods of oxidative stress occurred immediately after CO exposure and 120 min after reoxygenation, as indicated by 50 and 43% decreases in GSH/GSSG, respectively. The glutathione depletion data were supported by studies of hydroxyl radical generation using a salicylate probe. The salicylate hydroxylation products, 2,3 and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), were detected in mitochondria from CO exposed rats in significantly increased amounts during the same time intervals as decreases in GSH/GSSG. The DHBA products were increased 3.4-fold immediately after CO exposure, and threefold after 120 min reoxygenation. Because these indications of oxidative stress were not prominent in the postmitochondrial fraction, we propose that PROS generated in the brain after CO hypoxia originate primarily from mitochondria. These PROS may contribute to CO-mediated neuronal damage during reoxygenation after severe CO intoxication.
J Zhang, C A Piantadosi
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the key enzyme in the synthesis of thyroid hormones, and the TPO defects are believed to be the most prevalent causes of the inborn errors of thyroid metabolism. We investigated an adopted boy with iodide organification defect, who presented with florid hypothyroidism at the age of 4 mo, poorly complied with thyroxine treatment, and developed a compressive goiter necessitating partial resection at the age of 12 yr. Biochemical studies revealed the absence of TPO activity in the resected tissue. Genomic DNA studies identified a 4 base-pair insertion in the eighth exon of the TPO gene, and showed that the patient was homozygous for this frameshift mutation. The direct genetic diagnosis of this mutation can be made by digestion of polymerase chain reaction products with NaeI restriction enzyme. This will help assessing its prevalence among the heterogenous genetic group of TPO defects.
M J Abramowicz, H M Targovnik, V Varela, P Cochaux, L Krawiec, M A Pisarev, F V Propato, G Juvenal, H A Chester, G Vassart
Because various fetal anomalies are seen in diabetic offspring, we examined the effects of sugars on proteoglycans (PGs): extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules modulating morphogenesis. 13-d-old mouse metanephric kidney explants were exposed to mannose for 7 d and labeled with [35S]sulfate, [35S]-methionine, or [3H]thymidine. Mannose exposure caused reduction in kidney size and disorganization of ureteric bud branches with inhibition of glomerulogenesis. Tissue autoradiographic and immunofluorescence studies indicated decreased expression of sulfated PGs in ECMs. Helix pomatia lectin binding to D-GalNAc residues of glomerular epithelial cells was also reduced. Biochemical studies revealed decreased synthesis of sulfated PGs. PGs were of lower molecular weight with reduced charge density and increased chondroitin/heparan sulfate ratio. Immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled proteins confirmed the reduction of PG core peptides. Intracellular ATP levels were reduced. The addition of 0.1 mM ATP to culture media restored kidney size, the population of glomeruli, and the synthesis and characteristics of PGs to almost normal, with no detectable effect on the replication of cells as determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation. The effect of ATP could be partially blocked by the P2y-purinoreceptor, i.e., reactive blue-2. Data suggest that mannose causes energy depletion by cellular ATP consumption and thus selectively alters the synthesis of heavily glycosylated proteins with rapid turnover, such as PGs, resulting in renal dysmorphogenesis.
Z Z Liu, F A Carone, T M Dalecki, B Lelongt, E I Wallner, Y S Kanwar
A young girl presented with recurrent episodes of muscle weakness culminating in a severe attack of generalized muscle weakness. In the muscle mitochondria from the patient there was an abnormal pattern of intermediates of beta-oxidation with an accumulation of 3-hydroxyacyl- and 2-enoyl-CoA and carnitine esters, and 3-oxoacylcarnitines. There was low activity of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase in mitochondria from all tissues. The activity of long-chain 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase was low in muscle mitochondria and 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase activity measured with 3-oxohexadecanoyl-CoA as substrate was low in fibroblast, muscle, and cardiac mitochondria but only partial deficiency was present when the activity was measured with 3-oxooctanoyl-CoA. The activity of the long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and long-chain 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase in fibroblasts from the patient's parents was intermediate between those of controls and the patient. The patient has a combined defect of the long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long-chain 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase, and long-chain 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase which appears to be inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. This suggests there is a multifunctional enzyme catalyzing these activities in human mitochondria and that this enzyme is deficient in our patient.
S Jackson, R S Kler, K Bartlett, H Briggs, L A Bindoff, M Pourfarzam, D Gardner-Medwin, D M Turnbull
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) stimulates the replication of preadipocytes and inhibits their differentiation. In this study we explored whether the same or related polypeptides were produced locally and acted by paracrine/autocrine mechanisms in adipose tissue. Omental preadipocytes from 7 lean and 10 massively obese (> 170% reference) subjects were grown to confluence in subculture. Total RNA was hybridized with a synthetic deoxynucleotide for human bFGF. In the case of all cell strains, there was expression of two major bFGF transcripts, 7.0 and 3.7 kb. Although there was considerable variation in the degree of expression, preadipocytes from massively obese subjects revealed much greater expression than did cells from the lean (P < 0.001). In studies of conditioned media prepared with preadipocytes, the presence of proteins belonging to the heparin-binding (fibroblast) growth factor family was indicated by Western blot analysis, for a 66-kD protein with anti-(1-24)bFGF, and for a 32-kD protein with anti-(40-63)bFGF antibodies. The relative quantity of the 66-kD protein correlated with body mass index at r = 0.72. bFGF-related proteins probably function normally to maintain an appropriate complement of adipocyte precursors. The augmented expression of heparin-binding growth factors in preadipocytes from some massively obese people probably contributes to the excessive cellularity of their fat depots.
K Teichert-Kuliszewska, B S Hamilton, M Deitel, D A Roncari
We studied the adhesion of primitive and committed progenitors from chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and normal bone marrow to stroma and to several extracellular matrix components. In contrast to benign primitive progenitors from CML or normal bone marrow, Ph1-positive primitive progenitors from CML bone marrow fail to adhere to normal stromal layers and to fibronectin and its proteolytic fragments, but do adhere to collagen type IV, an extracellular matrix component of basement membranes. Similarly, multilineage colony-forming unit (CFU-MIX) progenitors from CML bone marrow do not adhere to fibronectin or its adhesion promoting fragments but adhere to collagen type IV. Unlike committed progenitors from normal bone marrow, CML single-lineage burst-forming units-erythroid and granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming units fail to adhere to fibronectin or its components but do adhere to both collagen type IV and laminin. Evaluation of adhesion receptor expression demonstrates that fibronectin receptors (alpha 4, alpha 5, and beta 1) are equally present on progenitors from normal and CML bone marrow. However, a fraction of CML progenitors express alpha 2 and alpha 6 receptors, associated with laminin and collagens, whereas these receptors are absent from normal progenitors. These observations indicate that the premature release of malignant Ph1-positive progenitors into the circulation may be caused by loss of adhesive interactions with stroma and/or fibronectin and acquisition of adhesive interactions with basement membrane components. Further study of the altered function of cell-surface adhesion receptors characteristic of the malignant clone in CML may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying both abnormal expansion and abnormal circulation of malignant progenitors in CML.
C M Verfaillie, J B McCarthy, P B McGlave
Human epidermal keratinocytes (EK) secrete factors able to sustain the proliferation of early myeloid cells and, in particular, the generation of basophils. This activity was previously attributed to IL-3, although no definitive in situ demonstration of this cytokine was provided. In regard to the possible physiological relevance of these data, we investigated herein the nature of EK-derived factors responsible for basophil promotion. Our data show that EK-derived supernatants (EK-sup) contain IL-3 as well as soluble CD23 (sCD23), both known for their colony stimulating activity. Messenger RNA for IL-3 and CD23 were also detected in EK. Blocking experiments using specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAb) further indicate that EK-derived basophil promoting activity is mainly due to the presence of IL-3 and sCD23 in EK-sup. Furthermore, by contrast to IL-3, sCD23 secretion by EK is cortisone sensitive and highly enhanced by IL-4, suggesting distinct regulatory mechanisms for their production.
A H Dalloul, M Arock, C Fourcade, J Y Béranger, P Jaffray, P Debré, M D Mossalayi
Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired in hypercholesterolemia, even before the development of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether infusion of L-arginine, the precursor of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor, nitric oxide, improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypercholesterolemic humans. Vascular reactivity was measured in the forearm resistance vessels of 11 normal subjects (serum LDL cholesterol = 2.76 +/- 0.10 mmol/liter) and 14 age-matched patients with hypercholesterolemia (serum LDL cholesterol = 4.65 +/- 0.36 mmol/liter, P < 0.05). The vasodilative response to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator, methacholine chloride, was depressed in the hypercholesterolemic group, whereas endothelium-independent vasodilation, induced by nitroprusside, was similar in each group. Intravenous administration of L-arginine augmented the forearm blood flow response to methacholine in the hypercholesterolemic individuals, but not in the normal subjects. L-arginine did not alter the effect of nitroprusside in either group. D-arginine had no effect on forearm vascular reactivity in either group. It is concluded that endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired in hypercholesterolemic humans. This abnormality can be improved acutely by administration of L-arginine, possibly by increasing the synthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor.
M A Creager, S J Gallagher, X J Girerd, S M Coleman, V J Dzau, J P Cooke
We have examined the regulation of GLUT-4 phosphorylation in adipocytes isolated from diabetic rats. Despite progressive (40-70%) reductions in GLUT-4 protein contents on the 2nd, 7th, and 14th day of diabetes, the phosphorylation of GLUT-4 was increased two- to fourfold. These alterations were accompanied by concomitant reductions (40-66%) in the insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose transport. Insulin treatment of diabetic animals for 5 d restored glucose transport activity, GLUT-4 protein, and GLUT-4 phosphorylation to control levels whereas vanadate and phlorizin were ineffective. In control adipocytes, insulin promoted GLUT-4 translocation from the low density microsomal (LDM) pool to the plasma membranes (PM) and decreased the state of GLUT-4 phosphorylation. In adipocytes isolated from the diabetic rats, insulin failed to stimulate GLUT-4 translocation and to decrease GLUT-4 phosphorylation. To explore the mechanism of the diabetes-induced increases in the GLUT-4 phosphorylation, we investigated phosphoserine phosphatase (PSPase) activities using 32P-labeled GLUT-4 and phosphorylase "a" as substrates. Diabetes resulted in 50-60% increase in the particulate PSPase activity and concomitant reductions in cytosolic PSPase activities. Although reduced cytosolic PSPase activity correlated with an inadequate dephosphorylation of LDM GLUT-4, the existence of highly phosphorylated PM GLUT-4 in the presence of increased particulate PSPase activity required additional explanation. To address this problem, we used PM GLUT-4 from diabetic rats as a substrate of particulate PSPase. Highly active diabetic particulate PSPase, which dephosphorylated control GLUT-4 and phosphorylase a, failed to dephosphorylate PM GLUT-4 from diabetic rats. These data suggest that PM GLUT-4 from diabetic rats is unable to interact with PSPase or that its phosphorylation sites are not accessible to PSPase action. In summary, an induction of diabetes with streptozotocin resulted in significant increases in GLUT-4 phosphorylation. In contrast to normal cells, insulin failed to promote GLUT-4 recruitment to the plasma membranes and its dephosphorylation in diabetic adipocytes. At the same time, diabetes appears to induce redistribution of PSPases, resulting in lower cytosolic activity and higher particulate activity. It also appears that the existence of highly phosphorylated GLUT-4 in the plasma membranes of diabetic adipocytes resulted from its inability to interact with particulate PSPases.
N Begum, B Draznin
The aim of the present study was to clarify whether prolonged in vitro exposure of human pancreatic islets to high glucose concentrations impairs the function of these cells. For this purpose, islets isolated from adult cadaveric organ donors were cultured for seven days in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and containing either 5.6, 11, or 28 mM glucose. There was no glucose-induced decrease in islet DNA content or signs of morphological damage. However, islets cultured at 11 or 28 mM glucose showed a 45 or 60% decrease in insulin content, as compared to islets cultured at 5.6 mM glucose. Moreover, when such islets were submitted to a 60-min stimulation with a low (1.7 mM) followed by a high (16.7 mM) concentration of glucose, the islets cultured at 5.6 mM glucose showed a higher insulin response to glucose than those of the two other groups. Islets cultured at the two higher glucose concentrations showed increased rates of insulin release in the presence of low glucose, and a failure to enhance further the release in response to an elevated glucose level. Islets cultured at 28 mM glucose showed an absolute decrease in insulin release after stimulation with 16.7 mM glucose, as compared to islets cultured at 5.6 mM glucose. The rates of glucose oxidation, proinsulin biosynthesis, and total protein biosynthesis were similar in islets cultured at 5.6 or 11 mM glucose, but they were decreased in islets cultured at 28 mM glucose. These combined results suggest that lasting exposure to high glucose concentrations impairs the function of human pancreatic islets.
D L Eizirik, G S Korbutt, C Hellerström
Metabolism of retinoic acid to a less active metabolite, 4-hydroxyretinoic acid, occurs via cytochrome P-450 isozyme(s). Effect of a pharmacological dose of retinoic acid on the level of retinoic acid in skin and on cytochrome P-450 activity was investigated. A cream containing 0.1% retinoic acid or cream alone was applied topically to adult human skin for four days under occlusion. Treated areas were removed by a keratome and a microsomal fraction was isolated from each biopsy. In vitro incubation of 3H-retinoic acid with microsomes from in vivo retinoic acid treated sites resulted in a 4.5-fold increase (P = 0.0001, n = 13) in its transformation to 4-hydroxyretinoic acid in comparison to in vitro incubations with microsomes from in vivo cream alone treated sites. This cytochrome P-450 mediated activity was oxygen- and NADPH-dependent and was inhibited 68% by 5 microM ketoconazole (P = 0.0035, n = 8) and 51% by carbon monoxide (P = 0.02, n = 6). Cotransfection of individual retinoic acid receptors (RARs) or retinoid X receptor-alpha (RXR-alpha) and a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter plasmid containing a retinoic acid responsive element into CV-1 cells was used to determine the ED50 values for stimulation of CAT activity by retinoic acid and its metabolites. Levels of all trans and 13-cis RA in RA-treated tissues were greater than the ED50 values determined for all three RARs with these compounds. Furthermore, the level of all trans RA was greater than the ED50 for RXR-alpha whereas the 4-OH RA level was greater than the ED50 for RAR-beta and RAR-gamma but less than for RAR-alpha and RXR-alpha. These data suggest that there are sufficient amounts of retinoic acid in treated skin to activate gene transcription over both RARs and RXR-alpha.
E A Duell, A Aström, C E Griffiths, P Chambon, J J Voorhees
Newborns are less able to concentrate urine than adults are. With development of the concentrating system and a hypertonic medullary interstitium, there is a need to generate intracellular osmolytes such as sorbitol, which is produced in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme aldose reductase. We sought to discriminate between two possible mechanisms of aldose reductase induction during development: (a) a response to an osmotic stimulus generated by the concentrating mechanism; or (b) part of the genetic program for development of the kidney. We measured the change in aldose reductase mRNA and activity in terminal inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs) microdissected from Sprague-Dawley rats during the first month of life. Aldose reductase mRNA was assayed by Northern analysis of total RNA from inner medulla and by detection of the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) product obtained from single IMCDs using aldose reductase-specific primers. Aldose reductase activity was measured in IMCDs taken from the same rats using a fluorescent microassay. Newborn rat IMCDs had minimal aldose reductase mRNA or activity, however mRNA was readily detected in IMCDs from rats older than 3 d of age, with peak expression occurring at 1-3 wk of age before decreasing to adult levels. In contrast, the mRNA level for a housekeeping metabolic enzyme, malate dehydrogenase, did not change during maturation. Aldose reductase enzyme activity was readily detectable by 6 d of age, peaked at 20 d, then decreased to adult levels. Urine osmolality remained < 600 mosmol/kg until 16 d, then increased to > 1,100 mosmol/kg after 20 d. Thus, aldose reductase mRNA and activity increased before urinary osmolality reached 870 mosmol/kg. Because urine osmolality may not be indicative of inner medullary osmolality and because mother's milk may provide excessive free water to the pups under 3 wk of age, half of the animals in several litters were separated from their mothers for 1 d and inner medullary osmolality, in addition to urine osmolality, was measured by vapor pressure osmometry, while aldose reductase mRNA was assessed densitometrically in IMCDs after RT-PCR. Although fluid restriction resulted in a near doubling of urine osmolality and a tendency towards increased aldose reductase mRNA, there was no consistently significant increase in aldose reductase mRNA or inner medullary osmolality during the first 13 d of life compared to the suckling animals. On the other hand, 2-3-wk-old rats showed significant increases in aldose reductase mRNA, accompanied by increases in inner medullary osmolality, after fluid restriction. Thus, the dissociation between the increases in aldose reductase expression and inner medullary hyperosmolality indicates that the maturational induction of the aldose reductase gene is not a consequence of osmotic stimulation, but rather, part of the developmental program of the kidney.
G J Schwartz, B J Zavilowitz, A D Radice, A Garcia-Perez, J M Sands
In previous studies, intrahepatic human biliary epithelial cells (BEC) were isolated in high purity. However, these cells demonstrated only limited growth responses. Here we report that human BEC proliferate in response to human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF), retain BEC-specific phenotype, and can be serially passaged. BEC showed dose-dependent growth in response to 0.01-100 ng/ml hHGF. The maximum S-phase labeling index reached 40% with half-maximal stimulation at 1 ng/ml. The response of cells from normal and primary biliary cirrhotic liver to hHGF was similar. Cultures were immunostained with specific antibodies and then processed for [3H]thymidine autoradiography. Proliferating cells expressed BEC-specific markers (HEA125 and CK-19), but were negative for desmin and factor VIII-related antigen. Occasional vimentin-positive cells were observed, but these were nonproliferative. In conclusion, cells responding to hHGF were clearly BEC in origin. The observation that HGF is mitogenic for BEC as well as hepatocytes has important implications. First, greater yields of intrahepatic BEC are available for subsequent studies of the pathogenesis and etiology of diseases of the biliary epithelium. Secondly, some means of regulating the cellular response to HGF in vivo must operate, in that HGF levels rise early after partial hepatectomy and yet BEC proliferate 24 h later than hepatocytes.
R Joplin, T Hishida, H Tsubouchi, Y Daikuhara, R Ayres, J M Neuberger, A J Strain
To investigate the regulation of expression of the human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene, transgenic mice were prepared using a CETP minigene linked to the natural flanking sequences of the human CETP gene. By using a transgene containing 3.2 kb of upstream and 2.0 kb of downstream flanking sequence, five different lines of transgenic mice were generated. The abundance of CETP mRNA in various tissues was determined on standard laboratory diet or high fat, high cholesterol diets. In three lines of transgenic mice the tissues expressing the human CETP mRNA were similar to those in humans (liver, spleen, small intestine, kidney, and adipose tissue); in two lines expression was more restricted. There was a marked (4-10-fold) induction of liver CETP mRNA in response to a high fat, high cholesterol diet. The increase in hepatic CETP mRNA was accompanied by a fivefold increase in transcription rate of the CETP transgene, and a 2.5-fold increase in plasma CETP mass and activity. In contrast, CETP transgenic mice, in which the CETP minigene was linked to a metallothionein promoter rather than to its own flanking sequences, showed no change in liver CETP mRNA in response to a high cholesterol diet. Thus (a) the CETP minigene or natural flanking sequences contain elements directing authentic tissue-specific expression; (b) a high cholesterol diet induces CETP transgene transcription, causing increased hepatic CETP mRNA and plasma CETP; (c) this cholesterol response requires DNA sequences contained in the natural flanking regions of the human CETP gene.
X C Jiang, L B Agellon, A Walsh, J L Breslow, A Tall
Based on the knowledge that neutrophil elastase (NE) in cystic fibrosis (CF) epithelial lining fluid (ELF) can induce human bronchial epithelial cells to express the gene for interleukin 8 (IL-8), an 8.5-kD neutrophil chemoattractant, we have evaluated CF ELF for the presence of IL-8, and investigated the ability of aerosolized recombinant secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (rSLPI) to suppress NE, and hence IL-8, levels on the respiratory epithelial surface in CF. Enzyme-linked immunoassay revealed 21.9 +/- 4.8 nM IL-8 in CF ELF compared with none in normals. Active NE was detectable in ELF of all individuals with CF and was significantly decreased (P < 0.03) after aerosolization of rSLPI. Human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to CF ELF recovered before rSLPI therapy expressed IL-8 mRNA transcripts, but ELF recovered after rSLPI therapy induced far less bronchial epithelial cell IL-8 gene expression. Consistent with this, rSLPI aerosol therapy caused a marked reduction in CF ELF IL-8 levels (P < 0.05) and neutrophil number (P < 0.02). There was also a clear association between CF ELF active NE and IL-8 levels (r = 0.94). These data suggest that rSLPI therapy not only suppresses respiratory epithelial NE levels, but also breaks a cycle of inflammation on the CF epithelial surface.
N G McElvaney, H Nakamura, P Birrer, C A Hébert, W L Wong, M Alphonso, J B Baker, M A Catalano, R G Crystal
Experimental nephrotic syndrome results in sodium retention, reflecting, at least in part, an intrinsic defect in renal sodium handling in the distal nephron. We studied the relationships among plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentration, sodium excretion (UNaV), and urinary cyclic GMP excretion (UcGMPV) in vivo, and the responsiveness of isolated glomeruli and inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells to ANP in vitro, in rats with adriamycin nephrosis (6-7 mg/kg body weight, intravenously). 3-5 wk after injection, rats were proteinuric and had a blunted natriuretic response to intravenous infusion of isotonic saline, 2% body weight given over 5 min. 30 min after onset of the infusion, plasma ANP concentrations were elevated in normals and were even higher in nephrotics. Despite this, nephrotic animals had a reduced rate of UcGMPV after the saline infusion, and accumulation of cGMP by isolated glomeruli and IMCD cells from nephrotic rats after incubation with ANP was significantly reduced compared to normals. This difference was not related to differences in binding of 125I-ANP to IMCD cells, but was abolished when cGMP accumulation was measured in the presence of 10(-3) M isobutylmethylxanthine or zaprinast (M&B 22,948), two different inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Infusion of zaprinast (10 micrograms/min) into one renal artery of nephrotic rats normalized both the natriuretic response to volume expansion and the increase in UcGMPV from the infused, but not the contralateral, kidney. These results show that, in adriamycin nephrosis, blunted volume expansion natriuresis is associated with renal resistance to ANP, demonstrated both in vivo and in target tissues in vitro. The resistance does not appear related to a defect in binding of the peptide, but is blocked by PDE inhibitors, suggesting that enhanced cGMP-PDE activity may account for resistance to the natriuretic actions of ANP observed in vivo. This defect may represent the intrinsic sodium transport abnormality linked to sodium retention in nephrotic syndrome.
J P Valentin, C Qiu, W P Muldowney, W Z Ying, D G Gardner, M H Humphreys
Jejunal self-filling blind loops with subsequent small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) induce hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible Lewis rats. Lesions consist of portal tract inflammation, bile duct proliferation, and destruction. To determine the pathogenesis of SBBO-induced hepatobiliary injury, we treated Lewis rats with SBBO by using several agents with different mechanisms of activity. Buffer treatment, ursodeoxycholic acid, prednisone, methotrexate, and cyclosporin A failed to prevent SBBO-induced injury as demonstrated by increased plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and elevated histology scores. However, hepatic injury was prevented by mutanolysin, a muralytic enzyme whose only known activity is to split the beta 1-4 N-acetylmuramyl-N-acetylglucosamine linkage of peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS), a bacterial cell wall polymer with potent inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties. Mutanolysin therapy started on the day blind loops were surgically created and continued for 8 wk significantly diminished AST (101 +/- 37 U/liter) and liver histology scores (2.2 +/- 2.7) compared to buffer-treated rats (228 +/- 146 U/liter, P < 0.05, 8.2 +/- 1.9, P < 0.001 respectively). Mutanolysin treatment started during the early phase of hepatic injury, 16-21 d after surgery, decreased AST in 7 of 11 rats from 142 +/- 80 to 103 +/- 24 U/liter contrasted to increased AST in 9 of 11 buffer-treated rats from 108 +/- 52 to 247 +/- 142 U/liter, P < 0.05. Mutanolysin did not change total bacterial numbers within the loop, eliminate Bacteroides sp., have in vitro antibiotic effects, or diminish mucosal PG-PS transport. However, mutanolysin treatment prevented elevation of plasma anti-PG antibodies and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) levels which occurred in buffer treated rats with SBBO and decreased TNF alpha production in isolated Kupffer cells stimulated in vitro with PG-PS. Based on the preventive and therapeutic activity of this highly specific muralytic enzyme, we conclude that systemic uptake of PG-PS derived from endogenous enteric bacteria contributes to hepatobiliary injury induced by SBBO in susceptible rat strains.
S N Lichtman, E E Okoruwa, J Keku, J H Schwab, R B Sartor
To quantitate hepatic glycogenolysis, liver glycogen concentration was measured with 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in seven type II diabetic and five control subjects during 23 h of fasting. Net hepatic glycogenolysis was calculated by multiplying the rate of glycogen breakdown by the liver volume, determined from magnetic resonance images. Gluconeogenesis was calculated by subtracting the rate of hepatic glycogenolysis from the whole body glucose production rate, measured using [6-3H]glucose. Liver glycogen concentration 4 h after a meal was lower in the diabetics than in the controls; 131 +/- 20 versus 282 +/- 60 mmol/liter liver (P < 0.05). Net hepatic glycogenolysis was decreased in the diabetics, 1.3 +/- 0.2 as compared to 2.8 +/- 0.7 mumol/(kg body wt x min) in the controls (P < 0.05). Whole body glucose production was increased in the diabetics as compared to the controls, 11.1 +/- 0.6 versus 8.9 +/- 0.5 mumol/(kg body wt x min) (P < 0.05). Gluconeogenesis was consequently increased in the diabetics, 9.8 +/- 0.7 as compared to 6.1 +/- 0.5 mumol/(kg body wt x min) in the controls (P < 0.01), and accounted for 88 +/- 2% of total glucose production as compared with 70 +/- 6% in the controls (P < 0.05). In conclusion: increased gluconeogenesis is responsible for the increased whole body glucose production in type II diabetes mellitus after an overnight fast.
I Magnusson, D L Rothman, L D Katz, R G Shulman, G I Shulman
We used the cell-attached patch clamp technique to investigate the interaction of exogenous prostaglandins (PG), intracellular [Ca2+]i, and protein kinase C (PKC) on the high selectivity, 4 pS Na+ channel found in the principal cell apical membrane of rabbit cortical collecting tubule (CCT) cultures grown on collagen supports with 1.5 microM aldosterone. Application of 0.5 microM PGE2 to the basolateral membrane decreased mean NP0 (number of channels times the open probability) for apical Na+ channels by 46.5% (n = 9). There was no consistent change in NP0 after apical 0.5 microM PGE2 (n = 12) or after apical or basolateral 0.5 microM PGF2 alpha (n = 8). Release of [Ca2+]i stores with 0.25 microM thapsigargin (n = 7), or activation of apical membrane PKC with apical 0.1 microM 4 beta-phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (n = 5) or 10 microM 1-oleyl-2-acetylglycerol (n = 4) also decreased NP0. Depletion of [Ca2+]i stores (0.25 microM thapsigargin pretreatment) (n = 7) or inhibition of apical PKC (100 microM D-sphingosine pretreatment) (n = 8) abolished the inhibitory effects of basolateral PGE2. Conclusions: (a) apical Na+ transport in rabbit CCT principal cells is modulated by basolateral PGE2; (b) the mechanism involves release of IP3-sensitive, [Ca2+]i stores; and (c) Ca(2+)-dependent activation of apical membrane PKC, which then inhibits apical Na+ channels.
B N Ling, K E Kokko, D C Eaton
We have previously shown that cytokines and postischemic cardiac lymph induce expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54) on canine adult cardiac myocytes. ICAM-1 expression allows adherence of activated neutrophils to myocytes that is blocked by anti-CD18 mAb, R15.7, or anti-ICAM-1 mAb, CL18/6. Interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or interleukin 6-stimulated cardiac myocytes were loaded with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin, and oxidation to the fluorescent dichlorofluorescein was monitored. Fluorescence and neutrophil/myocyte adherence followed the same time course, and both were blocked by monoclonal antibodies to CD18, CD11b, and ICAM-1, but mAb R7.1, recognizing a functional epitope on CD11a, was not inhibitory. The iron chelator, desferroxamine, and the hydroxyl radical scavenger, dimethylthiourea, did not inhibit neutrophil adherence, but completely inhibited fluorescence. In contrast, the extracellular oxygen radical scavengers superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the extracellular iron chelator, starch-immobilized desferroxamine, did not affect either fluorescence or adherence. Under the experimental conditions used, no superoxide production could be detected in the extracellular medium. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that fluorescence began within 5 min after neutrophil adherence to an individual myocyte, and myocyte contracture followed rapidly. Fluorescent intensity was highest initially at the site of myocyte-neutrophil adherence. When only neutrophils were loaded with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein, fluorescence was observed only in those neutrophils adhering to the cardiac myocytes. Thus, adherence dependent on Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) and ICAM-1 (CD54) activates the neutrophil respiratory burst resulting in a highly compartmented iron-dependent myocyte oxidative injury.
M L Entman, K Youker, T Shoji, G Kukielka, S B Shappell, A A Taylor, C W Smith
In a multicenter study more than 300 central European systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients were examined for HLA-B, HLA-DR, and complement C4 phenotypes. For 174 SLE patients MHC haplotypes were determined by family segregation analysis, and for 155 patients C4 gene deletions were determined by TaqI restriction fragment length polymorphism. Two haplotypes, B8-C4AQ0-C4B1-DR3 and B7-C4A3-C4B1-DR2, were identified as risk factors for SLE. These findings were confirmed by applying the haplotype frequency difference (HFD) method, which uses nontransmitted haplotypes from the family study as internal controls. Furthermore, only HLA-DR2, but not DR3, B7, or B8, was significantly increased in SLE patients independently of the two risk haplotypes. C4A gene deletions, but not silent C4AQ0 alleles, were increased in SLE patients and neither C4BQ0 alleles nor C4B gene deletions were increased. The observed frequencies of homozygosity and heterozygosity for the two haplotypes and the frequencies of homozygotes for C4AQ0 and C4A deletions did not differ from the expected values, indicating that the risk for SLE is conveyed by single allele effects. In conclusion, there are two MHC-linked susceptibility factors for Caucasian SLE patients carried by the haplotypes B7-DR2 and B8-DR3. The results argue against C4Q0 alleles being the decisive factors increasing susceptibility to SLE.
K Hartung, M P Baur, R Coldewey, M Fricke, J R Kalden, H J Lakomek, H H Peter, D Schendel, P M Schneider, S A Seuchter
The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is activated by both EGF and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha). Using immunohistochemical and immunoblotting techniques we now report that the EGF receptor, EGF, and TGF-alpha are found in both pancreatic acini and ducts in the normal human pancreas, and that all three proteins are expressed at higher levels in human pancreatic cancer tissues. Using in situ hybridization techniques, we also report that the mRNA encoding the EGF receptor, EGF, and TGF-alpha colocalize with their respective proteins. Northern blot analysis of total RNA indicates that, by comparison with the normal pancreas, the pancreatic tumors exhibit a 3-, 15-, and 10-fold increase in the mRNA levels encoding the EGF receptor, EGF, and TGF-alpha, respectively. Furthermore, by in situ hybridization, there is a marked increase in these mRNA moieties within the tumor mass. These findings suggest that EGF and TGF-alpha may participate in the regulation of normal pancreatic exocrine function, and that overexpression of the EGF receptor and its two principal ligands may contribute to the pathophysiological processes that occur in human pancreatic cancer.
M Korc, B Chandrasekar, Y Yamanaka, H Friess, M Buchier, H G Beger
The influence of hyperglycemia on the microvascular blood perfusion of pancreatic islet isografts of Syrian golden hamsters was analyzed by direct visualization of the islet's microvasculature by means of in vivo fluorescence microscopy. The experiments were performed using the hamster dorsal skinfold preparation, which allows for quantitative analysis of the microcirculation of islets grafted on the striated skin muscle. Islets were isolated from inbred hamsters by collagenase digestion and subsequently transplanted in normoglycemic (controls; n = 8) and hyperglycemic (65 mg/kg streptozotocin intravenously; n = 10) recipients. In both groups, revascularization of the islet grafts was completed on day 10 after transplantation. Quantitative analysis of capillary blood perfusion on days 6, 10, and 14 revealed no differences in functional capillary density and capillary red blood cell velocity of islets grafted into normoglycemic as compared to hyperglycemic animals. However, islet capillaries were significantly wider in hyperglycemic recipients (11.9 +/- 1.3 microns, P < 0.01) as compared to normoglycemic controls (8.9 +/- 0.4 microns). The increase of capillary diameters resulted in a significant rise (P < 0.01) of mean capillary blood perfusion from 1.76 +/- 0.39 nl/min in controls to 2.88 +/- 0.63 nl/min in hyperglycemic recipients, indicating an increase in microvascular blood perfusion due to hyperglycemia. From these results it is concluded that hyperglycemia is associated with higher capillary blood perfusion in revascularized islet isografts, similarly as known for pancreatic islets in situ.
M D Menger, P Vajkoczy, R Leiderer, S Jäger, K Messmer
It has recently been discovered that both mineralocorticoid (MC) and glucocorticoid (GC) hormones can stimulate electrogenic Na+ absorption by mammalian collecting duct cells in culture. In primary cultures of rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells, 24-h incubation with either MC or GC agonist stimulates Na+ transport approximately threefold. We have now determined that the effects were not additive, but the time courses were different. As aldosterone is known to stimulate citrate synthase, Na+/K+ ATPase activity, and ouabain binding in cortical collecting duct principal cells, we determined the effects of steroids on these parameters in IMCD cells. MC and GC agonists both produced a small increase in citrate synthase activity. There was no increase in Na+/K+ ATPase activity but specific ouabain binding was increased more than two-fold by either agonist. To determine the role of apical Na+ entry in the steroid-induced effects, the Na+ channel inhibitor, benzamil, was used. Benzamil did not alter the stimulation of citrate synthase activity by either steroid. In contrast, GC stimulation of ouabain binding was prevented by benzamil, whereas MC stimulation was not. We conclude that there are differences in the way that MC and GC hormones produce an increased Na+ transport. Both appear to produce translocation (or activation) of pumps into the basolateral membrane. GC stimulation of pump translocation requires increased Na+ entry whereas MC stimulation does not.
J R Laplace, R F Husted, J B Stokes
The ability of airway epithelial cells to produce transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) may be an important mechanism for the control of growth, differentiation, and repair of the airway epithelium. To determine whether airway epithelial cells are capable of producing TGF-beta, we examined primary cultures of bovine bronchial epithelial cells. Using a bioassay, TGF-beta activity was detected readily in media conditioned by bovine bronchial epithelial cells. Neutralizing antisera to TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 were used to demonstrate that the majority of the activity was of the TGF-beta 2 isoform. Interestingly, some of the TGF-beta activity was present in the conditioned media as "active" TGF-beta, not requiring acid activation. The production of TGF-beta was variable, depending on cell density and the presence of retinoic acid. The presence of endogenously produced active TGF-beta in the culture media was shown to modulate the behavior of the cell cultures as evidenced by the effects of TGF-beta-neutralizing antisera on cell size and fibronectin production. Our results suggest that active TGF-beta produced by airway epithelial cells may function in an autocrine or paracrine manner to modulate epithelial cell behavior.
O Sacco, D Romberger, A Rizzino, J D Beckmann, S I Rennard, J R Spurzem
Primary human muscle cell cultures were established and the regulation of glucose transport was investigated. Primary cultures were allowed to proceed to the stage of myotubes through fusion of myoblasts or were used for clonal selection based on fusion potential. In clonally selected cultures, hexose (2-deoxy-glucose) uptake into myotubes was linear within the time of study and inhibitable by cytochalasin B (IC50 = 400 nM). Cytochalasin B photolabeled a protein(s) of 45,000-50,000 D in a D-glucose-protectable manner, suggesting identity with the glucose transporters. In the myotube stage, the cells expressed both the GLUT1 and GLUT4 glucose transporter protein isoforms at an average molar ratio of 7:1. Preincubation in media of increasing glucose concentrations (range 5-25 mM) progressively decreased the rate of 2-deoxyglucose uptake. Insulin elevated 2-deoxyglucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner, with half maximal stimulation achieved at 3.5 nM. Insulin also stimulated the transport of the nonmetabolizable hexose 3-O-methylglucose, as well as the activity of glycogen synthase, responsible for nonoxidative glucose metabolism. The oral antihyperglycemic drug metformin stimulated the cytochalasin B-sensitive component of both 2-deoxyglucose and 3-O-methylglucose uptake. Maximal stimulation was observed at 8 h of exposure to 50 microM metformin, and this effect was not prevented by incubation with the protein-synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. The relative effect of metformin was higher in cells incubated in 25 mM glucose than in 5 mM glucose, consistent with its selective action in hyperglycemic conditions in vivo. Metformin (50 microM for 24 h) was more effective than insulin (1 microM for 1 h) in stimulating hexose uptake and the hormone was effective on top of the stimulation caused by the biguanide, suggesting independent mechanisms of action.
V Sarabia, L Lam, E Burdett, L A Leiter, A Klip
B lymphocytes from patients expressing the X chromosome-linked immune deficiency disorder, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), fail to produce antibodies in response to stimulation with polysaccharides and other type-2 T cell-independent antigens. To investigate whether this abnormality reflects a defect in the signal transduction cascade normally triggered by ligation of surface immunoglobulin (sIg) on B cells, we have examined early signaling events induced by anti-Ig antibody stimulation of EBV B lymphoblastoid cell lines from WAS patients and healthy controls. Despite the expression of comparable levels of sIg and sIgM on WAS and control EBV B cells, WAS cells failed to manifest the increased proliferation in response to anti-Ig treatment observed in the control cell lines. WAS and control EBV B cells also differed in the magnitude of the change in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i) induced by sIg ligation; WAS cells showed either markedly diminished or no changes in [Ca2+]i levels whereas control EBV B cells consistently showed increases in [Ca2+]i. Anti-Ig-induced changes in inositol phosphate release were also markedly reduced in WAS compared with control cells. As protein tyrosine phosphorylation is thought to represent a proximal event in the activation of B cells, inducing increases in [Ca2+]i by virtue of tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma, profiles of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and expression of tyrosine-phosphorylated PLC-gamma 1 were compared between WAS and normal EBV B cells before and after sIg cross-linking. These studies revealed that in addition to defective mobilization of Ca2+, the WAS cells manifested little or no increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma 1 or other intracellular proteins after sIg ligation. Together these results indicate the association of WAS with a defect in the coupling of sIg to signal transduction pathways considered prerequisite for B cell activation, likely at the level of tyrosine phosphorylation. The abnormalities observed in these early transmembrane signaling events in WAS EBV B cells may play a role not only in the nonresponsiveness of WAS patient B cells to certain T independent antigens, but also in the genesis of some of the other cellular deficits exhibited by these patients.
H U Simon, G B Mills, S Hashimoto, K A Siminovitch
Human melanoma is a highly metastatic cancer and the regional lymph nodes are generally the first site of metastasis. Adhesion to cryostat sections of human lymph nodes was therefore studied using two human melanoma models established from lymph node metastases, namely, MeWo cell lines of diverse metastatic potentials and a highly metastatic cell line of recent origin designated MIM/8. We found a good correlation between the metastatic potentials of the melanoma cells as measured in nude mice and their ability to adhere to cryostat sections of human lymph nodes. When adhesion to immobilized extracellular matrix proteins was measured, a significant increase in adhesion, which correlated with increased metastasis, was seen mainly on vitronectin and to a lesser extent on fibronectin. The adhesion to vitronectin and to the frozen sections were specifically blocked by an RGD-containing peptide, mAb 661 to vitronectin and mAb LM609 to integrin alpha v beta 3. FACS analysis revealed a significant and specific increase in cell surface expression of alpha v beta 3 on the metastatic cells as compared to the parent line. Together these results suggest that the adhesion of melanoma cells to lymph node vitronectin via the alpha v beta 3 receptor plays a role in the process of lymphatic dissemination.
J Nip, H Shibata, D J Loskutoff, D A Cheresh, P Brodt
IL-5 and granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are important regulators of eosinophil survival, proliferation, and effector function. To determine whether IL-5 and/or GM-CSF are generated by eosinophils at sites of allergic inflammation, we have used in situ hybridization with 35S-labeled RNA probes to study the expression of IL-5 and GM-CSF mRNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils derived from asthmatics (n = 5) before and after endobronchial allergen challenge. Endobronchial allergen challenge induced a significant airway eosinophilia (pre-allergen challenge 0.6 +/- 0.5% eosinophilia vs post-allergen challenge 48.2 +/- 25.6% eosinophilia). Post-allergen challenge eosinophils expressed IL-5 and GM-CSF mRNA, but did not express IL-1 beta or IL-2 mRNA. To determine whether the IL-5 mRNA-positive cells coexpressed GM-CSF mRNA, double mRNA labeling experiments with a digoxigenin-11-UTP nonradioactive labeled IL-5 RNA probe and a GM-CSF 35S-labeled RNA probe were performed. These studies demonstrated that individual eosinophils expressed one of four cytokine mRNA profiles (IL-5+, GM-CSF+, 34 +/- 13%; IL-5+, GM-CSF-, 34 +/- 5%; IL-5-, GM-CSF+, 11 +/- 9%; IL-5-, GM-CSF-, 21 +/- 25%). The expression of IL-5 and GM-CSF by eosinophils at sites of allergic inflammation in asthmatics may provide an important autocrine pathway, maintaining the viability and effector function of the recruited eosinophils.
D H Broide, M M Paine, G S Firestein
60% of chronic caval dogs with ascites did not respond to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) (75 ng.kg-1.min-1) with a natriuresis (TIVC-NR; delta UNaV = 2 +/- 0.8 mu eq/min) whereas the remaining 40% responded normally (TIVC-R; delta UNaV = 216 +/- 50 mu eq/min). Since proximal tubule neutral endopeptidase 24:11 (NEP) destroys most of intrarenal luminal ANP and kinins, we attempted to convert TIVC-NR into TIVC-R by providing NEP inhibition with SQ 28603 at 30 mg/kg. This potent and specific NEP inhibitor produced a natriuresis when administered alone to nine TIVC-NR dogs (delta UNaV = 67 +/- 2 mu eq/min) and permitted a natriuresis in the presence of ANP (delta UNaV = 97 +/- 18 mu eq/min). A natriuretic response to ANP could also be induced in TIVC-NR dogs by providing renal arterial bradykinin or intravenous captopril, a kininase inhibitor. Urodilatin, a natriuretic peptide not destroyed by intrarenal NEP was without effect in TIVC-NR dogs but increased UNaV when given to TIVC-R and normal dogs. Providing bradykinin to TIVC-NR now permitted an increment in delta UNaV (62 mu eq/min) when urodilatin was reinfused. TIVC-R dogs could be converted into TIVC-NR by pretreating with a specific bradykinin antagonist before infusing ANP. We conclude that TIVC-NR dogs are deficient in intrarenal kinins but are converted to responding dogs after NEP inhibition because of increased kinin delivery to the inner medullary collecting duct.
L Legault, P Cernacek, M Levy, E Maher, D Farber
A twofold change in the cisplatin (DDP) sensitivity of 2008 human ovarian carcinoma cells is sufficient to reduce tumor response in vivo. The DDP sensitivity of these cells can be enhanced by activation of the epidermal growth factor and protein kinase C signal transduction pathways. We report here that two endogenous growth factors, bombesin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), enhanced DDP sensitivity by factors of 1.7 +/- 0.1 (SD)-fold and 1.8 +/- 0.1 (SD)-fold, respectively. Both agents also produced sensitization in an 11-fold DDP-resistant 2008 subline. Neither bombesin nor TNF alpha changed the accumulation of DDP, glutathione content, or glutathione-S-transferase activity in 2008 cells. However, a 2-h exposure to both bombesin and TNF alpha was sufficient to increase 2008 cloning efficiency by up to 2.6 +/- 0.1 (SD)-fold and 2.2 +/- 0.1 (SD)-fold, and it increased average colony size by 1.35 +/- 0.1 (SD)-fold and 1.55 +/- 0.1 (SD)-fold, respectively. Bombesin increased intracellular free calcium, and this was blocked by the bombesin receptor-specific antagonist SC196, demonstrating that 2008 cells have functional bombesin receptors. These results indicate that bombesin and TNF alpha can enhance sensitivity to DDP in both DDP sensitive and resistant variants of a human ovarian carcinoma and that both agents serve as growth factors for this tumor.
S Isonishi, A P Jekunen, D K Hom, A Eastman, P S Edelstein, F B Thiebaut, R D Christen, S B Howell
Previously we demonstrated in rats that chronic hyperkalemia had no effect on ammonium secretion by the proximal tubule in vivo but that high K+ concentrations inhibited ammonium absorption by the medullary thick ascending limb in vitro. These observations suggested that chronic hyperkalemia may reduce urinary ammonium excretion through effects on medullary transport events. To examine directly the effects of chronic hyperkalemia on medullary ammonium accumulation and collecting duct ammonium secretion, micropuncture experiments were performed in the inner medulla of Munich-Wistar rats pair fed a control or high-K+ diet for 7-13 d. In situ pH and total ammonia concentrations were measured to calculate NH3 concentrations for base and tip collecting duct and vasa recta. Chronic K+ loading was associated with significant systemic metabolic acidosis and a 40% decrease in urinary ammonium excretion. In control rats, 15% of excreted ammonium was secreted between base and tip collecting duct sites. In contrast, no net transport of ammonium was detected along the collecting duct in high-K+ rats. The decrease in collecting duct ammonium secretion in hyperkalemia was associated with a decrease in the NH3 concentration difference between vasa recta and collecting duct. The fall in the NH3 concentration difference across the collecting duct in high-K+ rats was due entirely to a decrease in [NH3] in the medullary interstitial fluid, with no change in [NH3] in the collecting duct. These results indicate that impaired accumulation of ammonium in the medullary interstitium, secondary to inhibition of ammonium absorption in the medullary thick ascending limb, may play an important role in reducing collecting duct ammonium secretion and urinary ammonium excretion during chronic hyperkalemia.
T D DuBose Jr, D W Good
Scavenger receptors mediate uptake of modified low density lipoproteins by macrophages. The accumulation of lipids via this process is thought to lead to foam cell formation in developing atherosclerotic plaques. Smooth muscle cells, which can also be converted to foam cells in vivo, have not been shown to express the same scavenger receptor previously cloned in macrophages. We report the cloning of two cDNAs that encode type I and type II scavenger receptors isolated from rabbit smooth muscle cells. The deduced protein sequences of these isolates are highly homologous to the scavenger receptors previously isolated from macrophages. Treatment of smooth muscle cells with phorbol esters induced a marked increase in scavenger receptor mRNA and a fivefold increase in receptor degradation activity. Rabbit venous endothelial cells in primary culture and a bovine aortic endothelial cell line had no detectable scavenger receptor mRNA, despite having scavenger receptor degradation activity. The latter finding suggests that endothelial cells may possess a scavenger receptor which is structurally distinct from that found in macrophages and smooth muscle cells. The isolation of cDNAs encoding the rabbit scavenger receptor should prove useful for in vitro and in vivo studies that employ the rabbit as a model of human atherosclerosis.
P E Bickel, M W Freeman
Renal tubule solute and water transport is subject to regulation by numerous factors. To characterize direct effects of the recently discovered peptide endothelin (ET) on renal tubule transport, we determined signaling mechanisms for ET effects on vasopressin (AVP)-stimulated water permeability (PF) in rat terminal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) perfused in vitro. ET caused a rapid, dose-dependent, and reversible fall in AVP- but not cyclic AMP-stimulated PF, suggesting that its effect on PF is by inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation. Indomethacin did not block ET actions, ruling out a role for prostaglandins in its effect. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor calphostin, or pretreatment of perfused tubules with pertussis toxin, blocked ET-mediated inhibition of AVP-stimulated PF. ET caused a transient increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) in perfused tubules, an effect unchanged in zero calcium bath or by PT pretreatment. ET effects on PF and [Ca2+]i desensitized rapidly. Inhibition of PF was transient and largely abolished by 20 min ET preexposure, and repeat exposure to ET did not alter [Ca2+]i. In contrast, PGE2-mediated inhibition of AVP-stimulated PF and increase of [Ca2+]i were sustained and unaltered by prior exposure of IMCD to ET. Thus desensitization to ET is homologous. We conclude that ET is a potent inhibitor of AVP-stimulated water permeability in rat terminal IMCD. Signaling pathways for its effects involve both an inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding protein and phospholipase-mediated activation of PKC. Since ET is synthesized by IMCD cells, this peptide may be an important autocrine modulator of renal epithelial transport.
S P Nadler, J A Zimpelmann, R L Hébert
The F105 mAb, identified in an HIV-1-infected individual, binds to a discontinuous epitope on the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein, blocks the binding of gp120 to the CD4 viral receptor, and neutralizes a broad range of HIV-1 isolates. This study reports the primary nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the rearranged heavy and light chains of the mAb F105. This IgG1k mAb uses a VH gene member of the VH4 gene family (V71-4) and is productively rearranged with a D-D fusion product of the dlr4 and da4 germline DH genes and the JH5 gene. This rearranged heavy chain gene expresses the VH4-HV2a idiotope, which is seen in human monoclonal IgM cold agglutinins. The F105 Vk appears to be derived from the Humvk325 germline gene and is rearranged with a Jk2 gene. For both chains, the mutational pattern in the rearranged VH and VL genes is indicative of an antigen-driven process. These studies show that production of a broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibody that recognizes determinants within the CD4 recognition site of the envelope glycoprotein is achieved by rearrangement of the V71-4 and Humvk325 germline variable region genes along with selected individual point mutations in the rearranged genes.
W A Marasco, J Bagley, C Zani, M Posner, L Cavacini, W A Haseltine, J Sodroski
Interleukin 4 (also known as "B cell stimulatory factor-1"), a cytokine product of T lymphocytes and mast cells, stimulates synthesis of the extracellular matrix proteins, types I and III collagen and fibronectin, by human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Stimulation of collagen by human recombinant (hr)IL-4 was also demonstrated in several fibroblastic synovial cell lines obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The stimulatory effect of hrIL-4 on fibroblast collagen synthesis was specifically neutralized by rabbit anti-hrIL-4 Ig. IL-4 specifically increased the steady-state levels of types I and III procollagen and fibronectin mRNAs, with no effect on cytoplasmic beta-actin mRNA. Quantitative analysis of the levels of Pro alpha 1(I) collagen transcripts in IL-4-treated fibroblast cultures was also corroborated by antisense RNA-mRNA hybridization and RNAse resistant hybrids which showed that IL-4-treated fibroblasts expressed higher levels of Pro alpha 1(I) collagen transcripts. Nuclear run-off transcription experiments indicated that IL-4 stimulated the rates of mRNA biogenesis. Based on these observations we conclude that IL-4 exerts its effect on collagen and fibronectin synthesis at the pretranslational level, resulting in synthesis of these extracellular matrix proteins. These and other data suggest that IL-4 may be a "fibrogenic cytokine" that could be important in promoting biogenesis of extracellular matrix proteins in normal wound healing and in pathological fibrosis in which mast cells and T lymphocytes play a central role.
A E Postlethwaite, M A Holness, H Katai, R Raghow
Individuals infected with HIV may be asymptomatic for years before progressing to overt AIDS. Since HIV can latently infect monocytoid cell lines, we examined whether HIV latency occurs in monocytes in vivo. Freshly isolated monocytes from asymptomatic seropositive individuals examined before and after culture were positive for HIV DNA, but not RNA, as measured by polymerase chain reaction, showing that HIV latency occurs in monocytes in vivo. Coculture of these latently infected monocytes with Con A-activated T cells from HIV-negative normal donors stimulated 90% of the patients' samples and latently infected THP-1 to produce infectious virus. Neither Con A, resting T cells, nor T cell supernatants induced virus. Plasma membranes from activated T cells stimulated HIV production, suggesting cell contact induces factor(s) in monocytes to overcome latency. Thus, monocytes in AIDS patients harbor latent HIV inducible during an immune response, leading to T cell infection and viral-induced pathology.
J A Mikovits, N C Lohrey, R Schulof, J Courtless, F W Ruscetti
We characterized the mechanisms by which recombinant (r) tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IFN-gamma, and IL-1, alone and in combination, regulate human lung fibroblast hyaluronic acid (HA) production. Each cytokine stimulated fibroblast HA production. The combination of rTNF and rIFN-gamma resulted in a synergistic increase in the production of high molecular weight HA. This was due to a synergistic increase in hyaluronate synthetase activity and a simultaneous decrease in HA degradation. In contrast, when rTNF and rIL-1 were combined, an additive increase in low molecular weight HA was noted. This was due to a synergistic increase in hyaluronate synthetase activity and a simultaneous increase in HA degradation. Human lung fibroblasts contained a hyaluronidase that, at pH 3.7, depolymerized high molecular weight HA to 10-40 kD end products of digestion. However, hyaluronidase activity did not correlate with fibroblast HA degradation. Instead, HA degradation correlated with fibroblast-HA binding, which was increased by rIL-1 plus rTNF and decreased by rIFN-gamma plus rTNF. Recombinant IL-1 and rTNF weakly stimulated and rIL-1 and rTNF in combination further augmented the levels of CD44 mRNA in lung fibroblasts. In contrast, rIFN-gamma did not significantly alter the levels of CD44 mRNA in unstimulated or rTNF stimulated cells. These studies demonstrate that rIL-1, rTNF, and rIFN-gamma have complex effects on biosynthesis and degradation which alter the quantity and molecular weight of the HA produced by lung fibroblasts. They also show that fibroblast HA degradation is mediated by a previously unrecognized lysosomal-type hyaluronidase whose function may be regulated by altering fibroblast-HA binding. Lastly, they suggest that the CD44 HA receptor may be involved in this process.
P M Sampson, C L Rochester, B Freundlich, J A Elias
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the rate limiting enzyme for hydrolysis of lipoprotein triglyceride, also mediates nonenzymatic interactions between lipoproteins and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. To determine whether cell surface LPL increases LDL binding to cells, bovine milk LPL was added to upregulated and nonupregulated human fibroblasts along with media containing LDL. LDL binding to cells was increased 2-10-fold, in a dose-dependent manner, by the addition of 0.5-10 micrograms/ml of LPL. The amount of LDL bound to the cells in the presence of LPL far exceeded the capacity for LDL binding via the LDL receptor. Treatment of fibroblasts with heparinase and heparitinase resulted in a 64% decrease in LPL-mediated LDL binding. Compared to studies performed without LPL, more LDL was internalized and degraded in the presence of LPL, but the time course was slower than that of classical lipoprotein receptor mediated pathways. In LDL receptor negative fibroblasts, LPL increased surface bound LDL > 140-fold, intracellular LDL > 40-fold, and LDL degradation > 6-fold. These effects were almost completely inhibited by heparin and anti-LPL monoclonal antibody. LPL also increased the binding and uptake by fibroblasts of apolipoprotein-free triglyceride emulsions; binding was increased > 8-fold and cellular uptake was increased > 40-fold with LPL. LPL increased LDL binding to THP-1 monocytes, and increased LDL uptake (4.5-fold) and LDL degradation (2.5-fold) by THP-1 macrophages. In the absence of added LPL, heparin and anti-LPL monoclonal antibodies decreased LDL degradation by > 40%, and triglyceride emulsion uptake by > 50%, suggesting that endogenously produced LPL mediated lipid particle uptake and degradation. We conclude that LPL increases lipid and lipoprotein uptake by cells via a pathway not involving the LDL receptor. This pathway may be important for lipid accumulation in LPL synthesizing cells.
S C Rumsey, J C Obunike, Y Arad, R J Deckelbaum, I J Goldberg
We have investigated the cell surface recognition mechanisms used by human monocyte-derived macrophages (M phi) in phagocytosis of intact aging human neutrophils (PMNs) undergoing apoptosis. This study shows that the adhesive protein thrombospondin (TSP) was present in the interaction, both associated with the M phi surface and in solution at a mean concentration of 0.59 micrograms/ml. The interaction was inhibited by treatment of M phi (but not aged PMN) with cycloheximide, but could be "rescued" by replenishment with exogenous TSP. Under control conditions, M phi recognition of aged PMNs was specifically potentiated by purified platelet TSP at 5 micrograms/ml, present either in the interaction or if preincubated with either cell type, suggesting that TSP might act as a "molecular bridge" between the two cell types. In support, both aged PMN and M phi were found to adhere to TSP, and phagocytosis of aged PMN was specifically inhibited by (a) excess soluble TSP; (b) antibodies to TSP that also inhibit TSP-mediated adhesion to aged PMN; and (c) down-regulation of M phi receptors for TSP by plating M phi on TSP-coated surfaces. Furthermore, inhibition with mAbs/Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptide of the candidate M phi receptors for TSP, CD36, and alpha v beta 3 exerted synergistic effects on both M phi recognition of aged PMN and M phi adhesion to TSP, indicating that "two point" adhesion of TSP to these M phi structures is involved in phagocytosis of aged PMN. Our findings indicate newly defined roles for TSP and CD36 in phagocytic clearance of senescent neutrophils, which may limit inflammatory tissue injury and promote resolution.
J Savill, N Hogg, Y Ren, C Haslett
The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may contribute to the pathophysiology of heart failure by the generation of angiotensin II at local sites within the kidneys. Angiotensin II may directly influence renal hemodynamics, glomerular contractility, and tubular sodium reabsorption, thereby promoting sodium and fluid retention in this syndrome. In the present study, we examined components of the circulating RAS as well as the intrarenal expressions of renin and angiotensinogen mRNA in rats with stable compensated heart failure (HF) 12 wk after experimental myocardial infarction. Renal angiotensinogen mRNA level in vehicle-treated HF rats increased 47%, as compared with sham control rats (P = 0.001). The increase in angiotensinogen mRNA levels was more pronounced in animals with medium (46%, P < 0.05) and large (66%, P < 0.05) infarcts than in those with small infarcts (31%, P = NS). There were no differences in liver angiotensinogen mRNA, circulating angiotensinogen, angiotensin II, plasma renin concentration (PRC), kidney renin content (KRC), and renal renin mRNA level between sham and HFv. In addition, in a separate group of rats with heart failure, we demonstrated that renal angiotensin II concentration increased twofold (P < 0.05) as compared with that of age-matched sham operated controls. A parallel group of heart failure rats (HFe, n = 11) was treated with enalapril (25 mg/kg per d) in drinking water for 6 wk before these measurements. Blood pressure decreased significantly during treatment (91 vs. 103 mm Hg, P < 0.05). Enalapril treatment in HF rats increased renin mRNA level (2.5-fold, P < 0.005), KRC (5.6-fold, P = 0.005), and PRC (15.5-fold, P < 0.005). The increase in renal angiotensinogen mRNA level observed in HFv rats was markedly attenuated in enalapril treated HF rats (P < 0.001), suggesting a positive feedback of angiotensin II on renal angiotensinogen synthesis. These findings demonstrate an activation of intrarenal RAS, but no changes in the circulating counterpart in this model of experimental heart failure, and they support the concept that the intrinsic renal RAS may contribute to the pathophysiology in this syndrome.
H Schunkert, J R Ingelfinger, A T Hirsch, S S Tang, S E Litwin, C E Talsness, V J Dzau
Since a large body of data has suggested a significant role for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the regulation of the immune response at a number of levels, we examined the possibility of a specific receptor for AFP on the immune recognition cell, the monocyte/macrophage. Microscopic autoradiography exhibited an obvious binding of AFP almost exclusively on human peripheral monocytes but not on lymphocytes. In a human monocyte cell line (U937) Scatchard plot analysis indicated the presence of two distinct AFP-specific binding sites with a Kd of 5 x 10(-11) M, 49 binding sites per cell, and 2.5 x 10(-7) M, 7,800 binding sites per cell. 125I-ASD-AFP, AFP-radiolabeled bifunctional photoactivatable thio-cleavable cross-linker, was used to isolate the AFP binding protein from U937 cells. After ultraviolet photoactivation, 125I-sulfosuccinimidyl 2-(p-azido-salicylamido)ethyl-1,3'-dithiopropionate was covalently linked to the putative receptor. Autoradiography of SDS gradient PAGE under reducing conditions showed a major radiolabeled band at between 62 and 65 kD. To confirm the specificity of the finding, recombination of AFP with the isolated receptor was examined in artificially reconstituted membrane vesicles, which also resulted in a single band at approximately 62-65 kD by SDS-PAGE autoradiography. From the data above, we concluded that human monocytes possess a specific AFP binding protein on the membrane, a putative receptor, which may be involved with the physiological regulation of the immune response.
Y Suzuki, C Q Zeng, E Alpert
An allotypic form of the low affinity IgG Fc receptor Fc gamma RIIa (CD32), termed low responder (LR) because of its weak reactivity with mouse (m) IgG1, interacts efficiently with human (h) IgG2. Fc gamma RIIaLR is the first known human FcR that binds this IgG subclass. In this study, we analyzed the role of Fc gamma RIIa in binding of stable hIgG-subclass dimers, and in induction of T cell mitogenesis using chimeric anti-CD3 mAb. We demonstrate that the functional polymorphism to hIgG2 is expressed on the majority of Fc gamma R-bearing peripheral blood cells: monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets. We were able to assess Fc gamma RII-mediated IgG-binding without interference of other Fc gamma R-classes, by blockade of Fc gamma RI on monocytes, and by using neutrophils of an individual deficient for the Fc gamma RIIIB gene. This study indicates as subclass specificity: hIgG3 >hIgG1,hIgG2 >> hIgG4 for Fc gamma RIIaLR and hIgG3,hIgG1 >> hIgG2 > hIgG4 for Fc gamma RIIaHR. Comparing the serum hIgG levels of individuals homozygous for the two fc gamma RIIa allotypic forms, we observed significantly lower hIgG2 serum levels in individuals expressing the hIgG2-binding LR allotypic form. This observation may implicate that Fc gamma RIIa regulates hIgG subclass production or turnover in man.
P W Parren, P A Warmerdam, L C Boeije, J Arts, N A Westerdaal, A Vlug, P J Capel, L A Aarden, J G van de Winkel
Microelectrode techniques were used to determine the Na+ and K+ transport properties of the collecting duct cell in the isolated cortical collecting duct (CCD) from rabbits 14 d after uninephrectomy (UNX); results were compared with those from sham-operated rabbits (control). UNX had no effects on plasma aldosterone levels. The CCDs from UNX rabbits exhibited structural hypertrophy. The lumen negative transepithelial voltage and the basolateral membrane voltage (VB) were elevated in the UNX group. Although the transepithelial conductance (GT) and the fractional apical membrane resistance (fRA) were not different between the two groups, the conductances of the apical and the basolateral membranes were increased, and the tight junction conductance was decreased in the UNX group. The amiloride-sensitive changes in apical membrane voltage (VA), fRA, and GT were greater in the UNX group. The changes in VA upon raising the perfusate K+ concentration and the changes in VA and GT upon addition of Ba2+ to the perfusate were elevated in the UNX group. Upon raising K+ in the bath, a large depolarization of VB was observed in the UNX group. Lowering the bath Cl- resulted in a small depolarization of VB in the UNX group. Addition of Ba2+ to the bath in the UNX group caused the VB to hyperpolarize in parallel with decreases in GT and fRA whereas in the control group it had no effect on VB. Addition of ouabain to the bath resulted in a large depolarization of VB in the UNX group. We conclude that (a) UNX stimulates conductances of Na+ and K+ in the apical membrane, active Na(+)-K+ pump activity, and K+ conductance in the basolateral membrane, independently of plasma aldosterone; (b) The basolateral membrane in the tubules of UNX rabbits is more selective to K+; and (c) the hyperpolarization of VB upon UNX may increase passive K+ entry into the cell across the basolateral membrane.
S Ebata, S Muto, Y Asano
In myasthenia gravis (MG) an autoimmune response against muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) occurs. Embryonic muscle AChR contains a gamma subunit, substituted in adult muscle by a homologous epsilon subunit. Antibodies and CD4+ cells specific for embryonic AChR have been demonstrated in MG patients. We identified sequence segments of the human gamma subunit forming epitopes recognized by four embryonic AChR-specific CD4+ T cell lines, propagated from MG patients' blood by stimulation with synthetic peptides corresponding to the human gamma subunit sequence. Each line had an individual epitope repertoire, but two 20-residue sequence regions were recognized by three lines of different HLA haplotype. Most T epitope sequences were highly diverged between the gamma and the other AChR subunits, confirming the specificity of the T cells for embryonic AChR. These T cells may have been sensitized against AChR expressed by a tissue other than innervated skeletal muscle, possibly the thymus, which expresses an embryonic muscle AChR-like protein, containing a gamma subunit. Several sequence segments forming T epitopes are similar to regions of microbial and/or mammalian proteins unrelated to the AChR. These findings are consistent with the possibility that T cell cross-reactivity between unrelated proteins ("molecular mimicry"), proposed as a cause of autoimmune responses, is not a rare event.
M P Protti, A A Manfredi, X D Wu, L Moiola, M W Dalton, J F Howard Jr, B M Conti-Tronconi
The genetically obese Zucker rat (fa/fa) is characterized by a severe resistance to the action of insulin to stimulate skeletal muscle glucose transport. The goal of the present study was to identify whether the defect associated with this insulin resistance involves an alteration of transporter translocation and/or transporter activity. Various components of the muscle glucose transport system were investigated in plasma membranes isolated from basal or maximally insulin-treated skeletal muscle of lean and obese Zucker rats. Measurements of D- and L-glucose uptake by membrane vesicles under equilibrium exchange conditions indicated that insulin treatment resulted in a four-fold increase in the Vmax for carrier-mediated transport for lean animals [from 4.5 to 17.5 nmol/(mg.s)] but only a 2.5-fold increase for obese rats [from 3.6 to 9.1 nmol/(mg.s)]. In the lean animals, this increase in glucose transport function was associated with a 1.8-fold increase in the transporter number as indicated by cytochalasin B binding, a 1.4-fold increase in plasma membrane GLUT4 protein, and a doubling of the average carrier turnover number (intrinsic activity). In the obese animals, there was no change in plasma membrane transporter number measured by cytochalasin B binding, or in GLUT4 or GLUT1 protein. However, there was an increase in carrier turnover number similar to that seen in the lean litter mates. Measurements of GLUT4 mRNA in red gastrocnemius muscle showed no difference between lean and obese rats. We conclude that the insulin resistance of the obese rats involves the failure of translocation of transporters, while the action of insulin to increase the average carrier turnover number is normal.
P A King, E D Horton, M F Hirshman, E S Horton
Op18 (also termed prosolin/stathmin) is a highly conserved 18-kD cytosolic phosphoprotein expressed in low levels in mature resting G0 lymphocytes, but induced in late G1 and S phases after entry into the cell cycle. In addition to its induction in normal proliferating lymphocytes, Op18 has been found to occur at high levels in acute leukemias and in neuroendocrine tissue. The presence and rapid phosphorylation of Op18 after stimulation of proliferating cells correlates with subsequent functional responses of the cells, and, therefore, Op18 has been suggested to play a key role in signal transduction. The pattern of expression of Op18 during lymphoid development is of interest in view of its high levels of expression in acute leukemias, representing cells arrested at an immature stage, thus raising the possibility that Op18 may be regulated differently in mature and immature lymphoid cells. We report here that immature human thymocytes bearing the cortical double positive phenotype (CD4+CD8+) constitutively express high levels of Op18 protein. In contrast, in mature single positive thymocytes (CD3+CD4+ or CD3+CD8+), Op18 protein is expressed at a lower level, comparable to that seen in peripheral blood T cells. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that most of the cells in the double positive thymocyte population expressing high levels of Op18 were noncycling and arrested in G0. Furthermore, there was no correlation between Op18 levels and the proportion of cycling cells in double positive thymocyte populations isolated from different thymuses. Interestingly, although Op18 protein levels did not increase any further after mitogenic stimulation of double positive thymocytes, an increase in Op18 phosphorylation was observed, thus coupling of Op18 phosphorylation to cell activation remained intact. Our results show that during lymphoid maturation Op18 expression is uncoupled from cell proliferation. These data also suggest that the ordered expression of proliferation-associated genes seen in mature T cells may be disrupted during T cell maturation.
J Gratiot-Deans, D Keim, J R Strahler, L A Turka, S Hanash
Human atheromata obtained in vivo were used to test the hypothesis that transforming growth factor-beta 1 plays a role in the development of vascular restenosis. We analyzed 28 specimens from patients with primary atherosclerotic or restenotic lesions; 26 of these were obtained by directional atherectomy and 2 at the time of coronary bypass surgery. Seven control tissues included operatively excised segments of human internal mammary artery, myocardium, and unused portions of vein graft obtained intraoperatively. From these 35 specimens, 210 sections were examined using in situ hybridization. Measurement of silver grains/nucleus disclosed that expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 mRNA was highest in restenotic tissues (P < 0.001 vs. primary atherosclerotic tissues) and lowest in nonatherosclerotic (control) tissues. In cultures of human vascular smooth muscle cells grown from explants of internal mammary artery, expression of mRNA for transforming growth factor-beta 1 was significantly greater in subconfluent than in confluent smooth muscle cells (P = 0.05). Transforming growth factor type-beta III receptor was expressed in cell cultures and undetectable in the tissue specimens. Sections taken adjacent to those studied by in situ hybridization were examined by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against transforming growth factor-beta 1 and alpha-actin (as a marker for smooth muscle cells) and disclosed transforming growth factor-beta 1 in smooth muscle cells present in these sections. These findings are consistent with the concept that transforming growth factor-beta 1 plays an important role in modulating repair of vascular injury, including restenosis, after balloon angioplasty.
S Nikol, J M Isner, J G Pickering, M Kearney, G Leclerc, L Weir
An increasing body of information now suggests that insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (BPs) may serve as antigonadotropins at the level of the ovary. It is the objective of the present communication to evaluate the functional role of endogenous (granulosa cell-derived) IGFBPs by exploiting the unique properties of des(1-3)IGF-I, a naturally occurring IGF-I analogue characterized as a weak ligand of IGFBPs but not of type I IGF receptors. Given IGFBP-replete circumstances, des(1-3)IGF-I proved more potent (10-fold) than its intact counterpart in promoting the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-stimulated accumulation of progesterone by cultured rat granulosa cells. In contrast, des(1-3)IGF-I proved virtually equipotent to the unmodified principle under IGFBP-deplete circumstances. Taken together, these findings are in keeping with the notion and that the apparently enhanced potency of des(1-3)IGF-I (under IGFBP-replete conditions) is due to its diminished affinity for endogenously generated IGFBPs and that rat granulosa cell-derived IGFBPs are inhibitory to IGF (and thus inevitably to gonadotropin) hormonal action. Accordingly, the reported ability of gonadotropins to attenuate IGFBP release by granulosa cells may be designed to enhance the bioavailability of endogenously generated IGFs in the best interest of ovarian steroidogenesis.
E Y Adashi, C E Resnick, E Ricciarelli, A Hurwitz, E Kokia, C Tedeschi, L Botero, E R Hernandez, R G Rosenfeld, C Carlsson-Skwirut
Rapid translocation of P-selectin (GMP-140) from cytoplasmic granules to the cell membrane of endothelial cells promotes adhesive interactions with neutrophils which, when activated, damage the endothelium. The role of P-selectin in lung vascular endothelial injury in rats after systemic activation of complement by intravenous infusion of cobra venom factor has been assessed. Within 5-10 min after cobra venom factor infusion, the pulmonary vasculature demonstrated immunohistochemical expression of an epitope that reacts with anti-human P-selectin. Monoclonal antibody to human P-selectin blocked in vitro adherence of rat or human platelets (activated with thrombin) to neutrophils and was demonstrated to react with thrombin-activated rat platelets. The antibody did not react with rat neutrophils. In vivo, the antibody had strongly protective effects against cobra venom factor-induced pulmonary vascular injury as determined by permeability changes and hemorrhage. In parallel, lung myeloperoxidase content was greatly reduced and, by transmission electron microscopy, there was markedly diminished adherence of neutrophils to the pulmonary vascular endothelium and much diminished injury of endothelial cells, as defined by hemorrhage. These data indicate that anti-human P-selectin reacts with a pulmonary vascular antigen in rats and that this antigen is essential for the full expression of lung injury.
M S Mulligan, M J Polley, R J Bayer, M F Nunn, J C Paulson, P A Ward
cAMP-mediated stimulation of Cl- secretion in the human intestinal cell line T84 is accompanied by significant remodeling of F-actin, and both the secretory and cytoskeletal responses may be largely ablated by previous cell loading with phalloidin derivatives, reagents that prevent dynamic reordering of microfilaments (1991. J. Clin. Invest. 87:1903-1909). In this study, we examined the effect of phalloidin loading on the cAMP-elicited activity of the individual membrane-associated transport proteins involved in electrogenic Cl- secretion. Efflux of 125I and 86Rb was used to assay forskolin-stimulated Cl- and K+ conductances, respectively, and no inhibitory effect of phalloidin could be detected. Na+/K(+)-ATPase pump activity, assessed as bumetanide-insensitive 86Rb uptake and the ability of monolayers to generate a Na+ absorptive current in response to apical addition of a Na+ ionophore, was not different between control and phalloidin-loaded monolayers. Forskolin was found to stimulate Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransport (bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb uptake) in time-dependent fashion. In the absence of any agonist, cotransporter activity was markedly decreased in phalloidin-loaded monolayers. Furthermore, under phalloidin-loaded conditions, the forskolin-elicited increase in bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb uptake was markedly attenuated. These findings suggest that cAMP-induced activity of Cl- channels, K+ channels, and the Na+/K(+)-ATPase are not influenced by F-actin stabilization. However, cAMP-induced activation of the Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter appears to be microfilament-dependent, and ablation of this event is likely to account for the inhibition of cAMP-elicited Cl- secretion seen in the phalloidin-loaded state. Such findings suggest that Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter is functionally linked to the cytoskeleton and is a regulated site of cAMP-elicited electrogenic Cl- secretion.
J B Matthews, C S Awtrey, J L Madara
Thrombin is a multifunctional serine protease generated at sites of vascular injury. A host of thrombin actions on vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages has been defined in cell culture systems, but the in vivo significance of these activities is unknown. We have defined the expression of the recently identified receptor for thrombin in human arteries by both in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In normal-appearing arteries, thrombin receptor was expressed almost exclusively in the endothelial layer. By contrast, in human atheroma, the receptor was widely expressed, both in regions rich in macrophages and in regions rich in vascular smooth muscle cells and mesenchymal-appearing intimal cells of unknown origin. Thrombin receptor was expressed by human vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in culture and by macrophages obtained by bronchioalveolar lavage, thus demonstrating that all three cell types are indeed capable of expressing the thrombin receptor. These results establish thrombin receptor activation as a candidate for contributing to sclerotic and inflammatory processes in the human vasculature, such as those that occur in atherosclerosis and restenosis.
N A Nelken, S J Soifer, J O'Keefe, T K Vu, I F Charo, S R Coughlin
Targeted disruption of the c-src proto-oncogene in mice has shown that src expression is required for normal bone resorption, since the src-deficient mutants develop osteopetrosis. To evaluate the mechanisms by which src-deficiency affects osteoclast function, we treated src-deficient mice with the stimulants of bone resorption, IL-1, parathyroid hormone, and parathyroid hormone-related protein, and analyzed the effects by quantitative bone histomorphometry and electron microscopy. Increased numbers of multinucleated cells with the morphological characteristics of osteoclasts appeared on bone surfaces, but these cells did not form ruffled borders or normal resorption lacunae. To confirm these in vivo findings, we cultured src-mutant bone marrow cells on dentine slices in the presence of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. Increased numbers of multinucleated cells were formed, but unlike normal murine bone marrow cells, they did not form resorption pits. These results indicate that osteoclasts appear in the absence of pp60c-src, but that pp60c-src expression is required for mature osteoclasts to form ruffled borders and resorb bone.
B F Boyce, T Yoneda, C Lowe, P Soriano, G R Mundy
Epiligrin, the major component of human keratinocyte extracellular matrix, serves as the preferred integrin ligand for alpha 3 beta 1 in plasma membranes and focal adhesions, and colocalizes with alpha 6 beta 4 in hemidesmosomes. In human skin, epiligrin is found in the lamina lucida subregion of epidermal basement membrane, where it is thought to be associated with anchoring filaments. We have identified three patients with an acquired mucosal predominant subepidermal blistering disease who have IgG anti-basement membrane autoantibodies that bind the lamina lucida/lamina densa interface of epidermal basement membrane, stain cultured human keratinocyte extracellular matrix, and immunoprecipitate disulfide linked polypeptides of 170, 145, 125, and 95 kD in human keratinocyte culture media in a pattern identical to that of P1E1, a murine monoclonal antiepiligrin antibody. Comparative immunoprecipitation studies of patient sera, P1E1, and GB3 monoclonal antibody show that epiligrin is identical to the antigen (i.e., BM600 or GB3 antigen) previously reported to be absent from the skin of patients with lethal junctional epidermolysis bullosa, an inherited subepidermal blistering disease. Moreover, skin from a fetus with this disease shows no evidence of reactivity to patient antiepiligrin autoantibodies or P1E1. These studies show that antiepiligrin autoantibodies are a specific marker for a novel autoimmune blistering disease and that the epidermal basement membrane antigen absent in patients with lethal junctional epidermolysis bullosa is epiligrin.
N Domloge-Hultsch, W R Gammon, R A Briggaman, S G Gil, W G Carter, K B Yancey