Increased sugar consumption is increasingly considered to be a contributor to the worldwide epidemics of obesity and diabetes and their associated cardiometabolic risks. As a result of its unique metabolic properties, the fructose component of sugar may be particularly harmful. Diets high in fructose can rapidly produce all of the key features of the metabolic syndrome. Here we review the biology of fructose metabolism as well as potential mechanisms by which excessive fructose consumption may contribute to cardiometabolic disease.
Sarah A. Hannou, Danielle E. Haslam, Nicola M. McKeown, Mark A. Herman
The fundamental pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is neuronal dysfunction leading to cognitive impairment. The amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), derived from amyloid precursor protein, is one driver of AD, but how it leads to neuronal dysfunction is not established. In this Review, I discuss the complexity of AD and possible cause-and-effect relationships between Aβ and the vascular and hemostatic systems. AD can be considered a multifactorial syndrome with various contributing pathological mechanisms. Therefore, as is routinely done with cancer, it will be important to classify patients with respect to their disease signature so that specific pathologies, including vascular pathways, can be therapeutically targeted.
The clinical spectrum of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) encompasses a common birth defect in humans that has significant impact on long-term patient survival. Overall, data indicate that approximately 20% of patients may have a genetic disorder that is usually not detected based on standard clinical evaluation, implicating many different mutational mechanisms and pathogenic pathways. In particular, 10% to 15% of CAKUT patients harbor an unsuspected genomic disorder that increases risk of neurocognitive impairment and whose early recognition can impact clinical care. The emergence of high-throughput genomic technologies is expected to provide insight into the common and rare genetic determinants of diseases and offer opportunities for early diagnosis with genetic testing.
Simone Sanna-Cherchi, Rik Westland, Gian Marco Ghiggeri, Ali G. Gharavi
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes severe loss of pancreatic β cells. Autoreactive T cells are key mediators of β cell destruction. Studies of organ donors with T1D that have examined T cells in pancreas, the diabetogenic insulitis lesion, and lymphoid tissues have revealed a broad repertoire of target antigens and T cell receptor (TCR) usage, with initial evidence of public TCR sequences that are shared by individuals with T1D. Neoepitopes derived from post-translational modifications of native antigens are emerging as novel targets that are more likely to evade self-tolerance. Further studies will determine whether T cell responses to neoepitopes are major disease drivers that could impact prediction, prevention, and therapy. This Review provides an overview of recent progress in our knowledge of autoreactive T cells that has emerged from experimental and clinical research as well as pathology investigations.
There are many causes of inflammatory osteolysis, but regardless of etiology and cellular contexts, the osteoclast is the bone-degrading cell. Thus, the impact of inflammatory cytokines on osteoclast formation and function was among the most important discoveries advancing the treatment of focal osteolysis, leading to development of therapeutic agents that either directly block the bone-resorptive cell or do so indirectly via cytokine arrest. Despite these advances, a substantial number of patients with inflammatory arthritis remain resistant to current therapies, and even effective anti-inflammatory drugs frequently do not repair damaged bone. Thus, insights into events such as those impacted by inflammasomes, which signal through cytokine-dependent and -independent mechanisms, are needed to optimize treatment of inflammatory osteolysis.
Gabriel Mbalaviele, Deborah V. Novack, Georg Schett, Steven L. Teitelbaum
Inflammasomes are high-molecular-weight cytosolic complexes that mediate the activation of caspases. There are many inflammasomes, and each is influenced by a unique pattern-recognition receptor response. Two signals are typically involved in the inflammasome pathways. Signal one involves recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as LPS or other colonizing/invading microbes, that interact with TLRs, which induce the downstream production of pro–IL-1β. This is followed by signal two, which involves recognition of PAMPs or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), such as uric acid or ATP, via NLRP3, which leads to caspase-1–dependent cleavage of pro–IL-1β to active IL-1β and pyroptosis. Ultimately, these two signals cause the release of multiple proinflammatory cytokines. Both PAMPs and DAMPs can be liberated by early insults to the allograft, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, infections, and rejection. The consequence of inflammasome activation and IL-1 expression is the upregulation of adhesion molecules and chemokines, which leads to allograft neutrophil sequestration, mononuclear phagocyte recruitment, and T cell activation, all of which are key steps in the continuum from allograft insult to chronic allograft dysfunction.
S. Samuel Weigt, Vyacheslav Palchevskiy, John A. Belperio
Despite the prevalence of viral infections in the American population, we still have a limited understanding of how they affect pregnancy and fetal development. Viruses can gain access to the decidua and placenta by ascending from the lower reproductive tract or via hematogenous transmission. Viral tropism for the decidua and placenta is then dependent on viral entry receptor expression in these tissues as well as on the maternal immune response to the virus. These factors vary by cell type and gestational age and can be affected by changes to the in utero environment and maternal immunity. Some viruses can directly infect the fetus at specific times during gestation, while some only infect the placenta. Both scenarios can result in severe birth defects or pregnancy loss. Systemic maternal viral infections can also affect the pregnancy, and these can be especially dangerous, because pregnant women suffer higher virus-associated morbidity and mortality than do nonpregnant counterparts. In this Review, we discuss the potential contributions of maternal, placental, and fetal viral infection to pregnancy outcome, fetal development, and maternal well-being.
Karen Racicot, Gil Mor
The cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) not only provides mechanical support, but also transduces essential molecular signals in health and disease. Following myocardial infarction, dynamic ECM changes drive inflammation and repair. Early generation of bioactive matrix fragments activates proinflammatory signaling. The formation of a highly plastic provisional matrix facilitates leukocyte infiltration and activates infarct myofibroblasts. Deposition of matricellular proteins modulates growth factor signaling and contributes to the spatial and temporal regulation of the reparative response. Mechanical stress due to pressure and volume overload and metabolic dysfunction also induce profound changes in ECM composition that contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. This manuscript reviews the role of the ECM in cardiac repair and remodeling and discusses matrix-based therapies that may attenuate remodeling while promoting repair and regeneration.
Nikolaos G. Frangogiannis
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a reemerging arbovirus, causes a crippling musculoskeletal inflammatory disease in humans characterized by fever, polyarthralgia, myalgia, rash, and headache. CHIKV is transmitted by
Laurie A. Silva, Terence S. Dermody
Many RNA species have been identified as important players in the development of chronic diseases, including cancer. Over the past decade, numerous studies have highlighted how regulatory RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial roles in the development of a disease state. It is clear that the aberrant expression of miRNAs promotes tumor initiation and progression, is linked with cardiac dysfunction, allows for the improper physiological response in maintaining glucose and insulin levels, and can prevent the appropriate integration of neuronal networks, resulting in neurodegenerative disorders. Because of this, there has been a major effort to therapeutically target these noncoding RNAs. In just the past 5 years, over 100 antisense oligonucleotide–based therapies have been tested in phase I clinical trials, a quarter of which have reached phase II/III. Most notable are fomivirsen and mipomersen, which have received FDA approval to treat cytomegalovirus retinitis and high blood cholesterol, respectively. The continued improvement of innovative RNA modifications and delivery entities, such as nanoparticles, will aid in the development of future RNA-based therapeutics for a broader range of chronic diseases. Here we summarize the latest promises and challenges of targeting noncoding RNAs in disease.
Brian D. Adams, Christine Parsons, Lisa Walker, Wen Cai Zhang, Frank J. Slack
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