BACKGROUND. Primary polydipsia, characterized by excessive fluid intake, carries the risk of water intoxication and hyponatremia, but treatment options are scarce. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) reduces appetite and food intake. In experimental models, they also play a role in thirst and drinking behavior. The aim of this trial was to investigate whether GLP-1 receptor agonists reduce fluid intake in patients with primary polydipsia. METHODS. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-week crossover-trial, 34 patients with primary polydipsia received weekly dulaglutide (Trulicity®) 1.5mg and placebo (0.9% sodium chloride). During the last treatment week, patients attended an 8-hour evaluation visit with free water access. The primary endpoint was total fluid intake during the evaluation visits. Treatment effects were estimated using linear mixed-effects models. In a subset of 15 patients and additional 15 matched controls, thirst perception and neuronal activity in response to beverage pictures were assessed by functional MRI. FINDINGS. Patients on dulaglutide reduced fluid intake by 490ml [95%-CI -780, -199], p=0.002, from 2950ml [95% CI 2435, 3465] on placebo to 2460ml [95% CI 1946, 2475] on dulaglutide (model estimates), corresponding to a relative reduction of 17%. 24-hour urinary output was reduced by -943ml [95%-CI -1473, -413], p=0.001. Thirst perception in response to beverage pictures was higher in patients with primary polydipsia versus controls and lower on dulaglutide versus placebo, but functional activity was similar between groups and treatments. INTERPRETATION. GLP-1 receptor agonists reduce fluid intake and thirst perception in patients with primary polydipsia and could therefore be a treatment option for these patients.
Bettina Winzeler, Clara Odilia Sailer, David Coynel, Davide Zanchi, Deborah R. Vogt, Sandrine Andrea Urwyler, Julie Refardt, Mirjam Christ-Crain
BACKGROUND. Passive immunotherapy with convalescent plasma (CP) is a potential treatment for COVID-19 for which evidence from controlled clinical trials is inconclusive. METHODS. We conducted a randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trial at 27 hospitals in Spain. Patients had to be admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia within 7 days from symptom onset and not on mechanical ventilation or high flow oxygen devices. Patients were randomized 1:1 to treatment with CP in addition to standard of care (SOC) or to the control arm receiving only SOC. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients in categories 5 (non-invasive ventilation or high-flow oxygen), 6 (invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation [ECMO]), or 7(death) at 14 days, and primary analysis was performed in the intention-to-treat population. RESULTS. Between April 4, 2020 and February 5, 2021, 350 patients were randomly assigned to either CP (n=179) or SOC (n=171). At 14 days, proportion of patients on categories 5, 6 or 7 was 11.7% in CP group versus 16.4% in control group (p=0.205). The difference was greater at 28 days, with 8.4% of patients in categories 5-7 in CP group versus 17.0% in control group (p=0.021). The difference in overall survival did not reach statistical significance (HR 0.46, 95%CI 0.19-1.14, log-rank p=0.087). CONCLUSION. CP showed a significant benefit in preventing progression to non-invasive ventilation or high-flow oxygen, invasive mechanical ventilation or ECMO, or death at 28 days. The effect on the predefined primary endpoint at 14 days and the effect on overall survival were not statistically significant. TRIAL REGISTRATION. clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04345523 FUNDING. Government of Spain, Instituto de Salud Carlos III.
Cristina Avendaño-Solá, Antonio Ramos-Martínez, Elena Muñez-Rubio, Belen Ruiz-Antorán, Rosa Malo de Molina, Ferran Torres, Ana Fernández-Cruz, Jorge Calderon-Parra, Concepcion Payares-Herrera, Alberto Díaz de Santiago, Irene Romera Martínez, Ilduara Pintos, Jaime Lora-Tamayo, Mikel Mancheño-Losa, Maria Liz Paciello Coronel, AL Martinez-Gonzalez, Julia Vidán-Estévez, Maria José Nuñez-Orantos, Maria Isabel Saez-Serrano, Maria Lourdes Porras-Leal, Maria del Castillo Jarilla-Fernández, Paula Villares, Jaime Perez de Oteyza, Ascensión Ramos-Garrido, Lydia Blanco, Maria Elena Madrigal-Sánchez, Martín Rubio-Batllés, Ana Velasco-Iglesias, José Ramón Paño-Pardo, JA Moreno-Chulilla, Eduardo Muñiz-Diaz, Inmaculada Casas-Flecha, Mayte Pérez-Olmeda, Javier García-Pérez, Jose Alcami, José Luis Bueno, Rafael F. Duarte
BACKGROUND. Evidence supporting convalescent plasma (CP), one of the first investigational treatments for COVID-19, has been inconclusive, leading to conflicting recommendations. The primary objective was to perform a comparative effectiveness study of CP for all-cause, in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS. The multicenter, electronic health records-based, retrospective study included 44,770 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in one of 176 HCA Healthcare-affiliated community hospitals. Coarsened exact matching (1:k) was employed, resulting in a sample of 3,774 CP and 10,687 comparison patients. RESULTS. Examination of mortality using a shared frailty model, controlling for concomitant medications, date of admission, and days from admission to transfusion, demonstrated a significant association of CP with lower mortality risk relative to the comparison group (aHR=0.71, 95%CI 0.59-0.86, p<0.001). Examination of patient risk trajectories, represented by 400 clinico-demographic features from our Real-Time Risk Model (RTRM), indicated that patients who received CP recovered quicker. The stratification of days to transfusion revealed that CP within 3 days after admission, but not 4-7 days, was associated with a significantly lower mortality risk (aHR=0.53, 95%CI 0.47-0.60, p<0.001). CP serology level was inversely associated with mortality when controlling for its interaction with days to transfusion (HR=0.998, 95%CI 0.997-0.999, p=0.013) yet not reaching univariable significance. CONCLUSIONS. This large, diverse, multicenter cohort study demonstrated that CP, compared to matched controls, is significantly associated with reduced risk of in-hospital mortality. These observations highlight the utility of real-world evidence and suggest the need for further evaluation prior to abandoning CP as a viable therapy for COVID-19. FUNDING. This research was supported, in whole, by HCA Healthcare and/or an HCA Healthcare affiliated entity including Sarah Cannon and Genospace.
Shanna A. Arnold Egloff, Angela Junglen, Joseph S.A. Restivo, Marjorie Wongskhaluang, Casey Martin, Pratik Doshi, Daniel Schlauch, Gregg Fromell, Lindsay E. Sears, Mick Correll, Howard A. Burris, Charles F. LeMaistre
BACKGROUND. COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) has been considered a treatment option in COVID-19. This trial assessed the efficacy of neutralizing antibody containing high-dose CCP in hospitalized adults with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support or intensive care treatment. METHODS. Patients (n=105) were randomized 1:1 to either receive standard treatment and 3 units of CCP or standard treatment alone. Control group patients with progress on day 14 could cross over to the CCP group. Primary outcome was a dichotomous composite outcome of survival and no longer fulfilling criteria for severe COVID-19 on day 21. RESULTS. The primary outcome occurred in 43.4% of patients in the CCP and 32.7% in the control group (p=0.32). The median time to clinical improvement was 26 days in the CCP group and 66 days in the control group (p=0.27). Median time to discharge from hospital was 31 days in the CCP and 51 days in the control group (p=0.24). In the subgroup that received a higher cumulative amount of neutralizing antibodies the primary outcome occurred in 56.0% (versus 32.1%), with significantly shorter intervals to clinical improvement (20 versus 66 days)(p<0.05), and to hospital discharge (21 versus 51 days, p=0.03) and better survival (day-60 probability of survival 91.6% versus 68.1%; p=0.02) compared to the control group. CONCLUSION. CCP added to standard treatment was not associated with significant improvement in the primary and secondary outcomes. A pre-defined subgroup analysis showed a significant benefit for CCP among those who received a larger amount of neutralizing antibodies. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04433910 FUNDING. German Federal Ministry of Health
Sixten Körper, Manfred Weiss, Daniel Zickler, Thomas Wiesmann, Kai Zacharowski, Victor M. Corman, Beate Grüner, Lucas Ernst, Peter Spieth, Philipp M. Lepper, Martin Bentz, Sebastian Zinn, Gregor Paul, Johannes Kalbhenn, Matthias M. Dollinger, Peter Rosenberger, Thomas Kirschning, Thomas Thiele, Thomas Appl, Benjamin Mayer, Michael Schmidt, Christian Drosten, Hinnerk Wulf, Jan Matthias Kruse, Bettina Jungwirth, Erhard Seifried, Hubert Schrezenmeier
BACKGROUND. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare but potentially severe illness that follows exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Kawasaki Disease (KD) shares several clinical features with MIS-C, which prompted the use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a mainstay therapy for KD. Both diseases share a robust activation of the innate immune system, including the IL-1 signaling pathway, and IL-1 blockade has been used for the treatment of both MIS-C and KD. The mechanism of action of IVIG in these two diseases and the cellular source of IL-1b have not been defined. METHODS. The effects of IVIG on peripheral blood leukocyte populations from patients with MIS-C and KD were examined using flow cytometry, mass cytometry (CyTOF), and live cell imaging. RESULTS. Circulating neutrophils were highly activated in patients with KD and MIS-C, and were a major source of IL-1β. Following IVIG treatment, activated IL-1β+ neutrophils were reduced in the circulation. In vitro, IVIG was a potent activator of neutrophil cell death via PI3-K and NADPH oxidase but independently of caspase activation. CONCLUSIONS. Activated neutrophils expressing IL-1β can be targeted by IVIG, supporting its use in both KD and MIS-C to ameliorate inflammation.
Yanfang P. Zhu, Isaac Shamie, Jamie Casey Lee, Cameron J. Nowell, Weiqi Peng, Shiela Angulo, Linh N.N. Le, Yushan Liu, Huilai Miao, Hainan Xiong, Cathleen J. Pena, Elizabeth Moreno, Eric Griffis, Stephanie G. Labou, Alessandra Franco, Lori Broderick, Hal M. Hoffman, Chisato Shimizu, Nathan E. Lewis, John T. Kanegaye, Adriana H. Tremoulet, Jane C. Burns, Ben A. Croker
BACKGROUND. The loss of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) expression in senescent dermal fibroblasts during aging is associated with an increased risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). We tested how IGF-1 signaling can influence photocarcinogenesis during chronic UVB exposure to determine if fractionated laser resurfacing (FLR) of aged skin which upregulates dermal IGF-1 levels can prevent the occurrence of actinic keratosis (AK) and NMSC. METHODS. A human skin/immunodeficient mouse xenografting model was used to test the effects of a small molecule inhibitor of the IGF-1 receptor on chronic UVB radiation. Subsequently, the durability of FLR treatment was tested on a cohort of human subjects aged ≥65. Finally, 48 subjects aged 60 and older with considerable actinic damage were enrolled in a prospective randomized clinical trial in which they underwent a single unilateral FLR treatment of one lower arm. Numbers of AKs/NMSCs were recorded on both extremities for up to 36 months in blinded fashion. RESULTS. Xenografting studies revealed chronic UVB treatment with a topical IGF-1R inhibitor resulted in a pro-carcinogenic response. A single FLR treatment was durable in restoring appropriate UVB response in geriatric skin for at least two years. FLR resulted in sustained reduction in numbers of AKs and decreased numbers of NMSC in the treated (24) versus untreated (2) arms. INTERPRETATION. The elimination of senescent fibroblasts via FLR reduced the pro-carcinogenic UVB response of aged skin. Thus, wounding therapies are potentially effective prophylaxis for managing high-risk populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03906253. FUNDING. National Institutes of Health, Veterans Administration.
Dan F. Spandau, Roy Chen, Jeffrey J. Wargo, Craig A. Rohan, David Southern, Angela Zhang, Mathew Loesch, Jonathan Weyerbacher, Sunil S. Tholpady, Davina Anne Lewis, Matthew Kuhar, Kenneth Y. Tsai, Amber J. Castellanos, Michael G. Kemp, Michael Markey, Elizabeth Cates, Amy R. Williams, Christina Knisely, Sabina Bashir, Ryan Gabbard, Robert Hoopes, Jeffrey B. Travers
BACKGROUND. Clinical data to support the use of bamlanivimab for the treatment of outpatients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is needed. METHODS. 2,335 patients who received single-dose bamlanivimab infusion between November 12, 2020 to February 17, 2021 were compared with a propensity-matched control of 2,335 untreated patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 at Mayo Clinic facilities across 4 states. The primary outcome was the rate of hospitalization at days 14, 21 and 28. RESULTS. The median age of the population was 63; 47.3% of the bamlanivimab-treated cohort were ≥65 years; 49.3% were female. High-risk characteristics included hypertension (54.2%), body mass index ≥35 (32.4%), diabetes mellitus (26.5%), chronic lung disease (25.1%), malignancy (16.6%), and renal disease (14.5%). Patients who received bamlanivimab had lower all-cause hospitalization rates at days 14 (1.5% vs 3.5%; Odds Ratio [OR], 0.38), 21 (1.9% vs 3.9%; OR, 0.46), and 28 (2.5% vs 3.9%; OR, 0.61). Secondary exploratory outcomes included lower intensive care unit admission rates at days 14 (0.14% vs 1%; OR, 0.12), 21 (0.25% vs 1%; OR: 0.24) and 28 (0.56% vs 1.1%; OR: 0.52), and lower all-cause mortality at days 14 (0% vs 0.33%), 21 (0.05% vs 0.4%; OR,0.08) and 28 (0.11% vs 0.44%; OR, 0.01). Adverse events were uncommon with bamlanivimab, occurring in 19/2355, most commonly fever (n=6), nausea (n=5), and lightheadedness (n=3). CONCLUSIONS. Among high-risk patients with mild to moderate COVID-19, treatment with bamlanivimab was associated with a statistically significant lower rate of hospitalization compared with usual care. FUNDING. Mayo Clinic.
Ravindra Ganesh, Colin F. Pawlowski, John C. O'Horo, Lori L. Arndt, Richard F. Arndt, Sarah Bell, Dennis M. Bierle, Molly Destro Borgen, Sara Hanson, Alexander Heyliger, Jennifer L. Larsen, Patrick J. Lenehan, Robert Orenstein, Arjun Puranik, Leigh L. Speicher, Sidna M. Tulledge-Scheitel, AJ Venkatakrishnan, Caroline G. Wilker, Andrew D. Badley, Raymund R. Razonable
BACKGROUND. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) D allele is more prevalent among African Americans (AA) compared to other races/ethnicities and has previously been associated with severe COVID-19 pathogenesis through excessive ACE1 activity. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB) may counteract this mechanism, but their association with COVID-19 outcomes has not been specifically tested in the AA population. METHODS. We identified 6,218 patients who were admitted into Mount Sinai hospitals with COVID-19 between February 24 and May 31, 2020 in the New York City. We evaluated whether the outpatient and in-hospital use of ACE-I/ARB is associated with COVID-19 in-hospital mortality in AA compared with non-AA population. RESULTS. Of the 6,218 COVID-19 patients, 1,138 (18.3%) were ACE-I/ARB users. In a multivariate logistic regression model, ACE-I/ARB use was independently associated with reduced risk of in-hospital mortality in the entire population (OR, 0.655; 95% CI, 0.505-0.850; P=0.001), AA population (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.249-0.779; P=0.005), and non-AA population (OR, 0.748, 95% CI, 0.553-1.012, P=0.06). In the AA population, in-hospital use of ACE-I/ARB was associated with improved mortality (OR, 0.378; 95% CI, 0.188-0.766; P=0.006) while outpatient use was not (OR, 0.889; 95% CI, 0.375-2.158; P=0.812). When analyzing each medication class separately, ARB in-hospital use was significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality in the AA population (OR, 0.196; 95% CI, 0.074-0.516; P=0.001), while ACE-I use was not associated with impact on mortality in any population. CONCLUSION. In-hospital use of ARB was associated with a significant reduction in in-hospital mortality among COVID-19-positive AA patients. FUNDING. None.
Shilong Li, Rangaprasad Sarangarajan, Tomi Jun, Yu-Han Kao, Zichen Wang, Ke Hao, Emilio Schadt, Michael A. Kiebish, Elder Granger, Niven R. Narain, Rong Chen, Eric E. Schadt, Li Li
BACKGROUND. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells have emerged as a novel approach to treat malignant tumors. This strategy has also been proposed for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. We have developed a broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb)-derived CAR-T cell therapy which can exerted specific cytotoxic activity against HIV-1-infected cells. METHODS. We conducted an open-label trial of the safety, side-effect profile, pharmacokinetic properties, and antiviral activity of bNAb-derived CAR-T cell therapy in HIV-1-infected individuals who were undergoing analytical interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART). RESULTS. A total of 14 participants completed only a single administration of bNAb-derived CAR-T cells. CAR-T administration was safe and well tolerated. Six participants discontinued ART, and viremia rebound occurred in all of them, with a 5.3-week median time. Notably, the cell-associated viral RNA and intact proviruses decreased significantly after CAR-T treatment. Analyses of HIV-1 variants before or after CAR-T administration suggested that CAR-T cells exerted pressure on rebound viruses, resulting in a selection of viruses with less diversity and mutations against CAR-T-mediated cytotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS. No safety concerns were identified with adoptive transfer of bNAb-derived CAR-T cells. They reduced viral reservoir. All the rebounds were due to preexisting or emergence of viral escape mutations. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03240328. FUNDING. Ministry of Science and Technology of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Department of Science and Technology of Guangdong Province.
Bingfeng Liu, Wanying Zhang, Baijin Xia, Shuliang Jing, Yingying Du, Fan Zou, Rong Li, Lijuan Lu, Shaozhen Chen, Yonghong Li, Qifei Hu, Yingtong Lin, Yiwen Zhang, Zhangping He, Xu Zhang, Xiejie Chen, Tao Peng, Xiaoping Tang, Weiping Cai, Ting Pan, Linghua Li, Hui Zhang
BACKGROUND. Germline mutations in telomerase and other telomere maintenance genes manifest in the premature aging short telomere syndromes. Myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML) account for 75% of associated malignancies, but how these cancers overcome the inherited telomere defect is unknown. METHODS. We used ultra-deep targeted sequencing to detect somatic reversion mutations in 17 candidate telomere lengthening genes among controls and short telomere syndrome patients with and without MDS/AML and we tested the functional significance of these mutations. RESULTS. While no controls carried somatic mutations in telomere maintenance genes, 29% (16 of 56) of adults with germline telomere maintenance defects carried at least one (P<0.001) and 13% (7 of 56) had 2 or more. In addition to TERT promoter mutations which were present in 19%, we identified POT1 and TERF2IP mutations in 13%. POT1 mutations impaired telomere binding in vitro and some mutations were identical to ones seen in familial melanoma associated with longer telomere length. Exclusively in patients with germline defects in telomerase RNA (TR), we identified somatic mutations in nuclear RNA exosome genes, RBM7, SKIV2L2, and DIS3, where loss-of-function upregulates mature TR levels. Somatic reversion events in six telomere-related genes were more prevalent in patients who were MDS/AML-free (P = 0.02, RR 4.4, 95% CI 1.2-16.7), and no MDS/AML patient had more than one reversion mutation. CONCLUSIONS. Our data identify diverse adaptive somatic mechanisms in the short telomere syndrome; they raise the possibility that their presence alleviates the telomere crisis that promotes transformation to MDS/AML.
Kristen E. Schratz, Valeriya Gaysinskaya, Zoe L. Cosner, Emily A. DeBoy, Zhimin Xiang, Laura Kasch-Semenza, Liliana Florea, Pali D. Shah, Mary Armanios
No posts were found with this tag.