Nakamizo et al. report that the pentose phosphate pathway is activated in sarcoidosis granuloma macrophages and is a potential therapeutic target for sarcoidosis. The cover image shows a cutaneous sarcoidosis, highlighting subcutaneous distribution of FBP1+ (yellow) granulomas. HLA-DR+ (red-purple) antigen-presenting cells are present in the surrounding area.
About 25% of people within the general population are insulin resistant, increasing the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic disease. Transcriptomic analysis of iPS cells differentiated into myoblasts (iMyos) from insulin resistant (I-Res) versus insulin sensitive (I-Sen) non-diabetic individuals reveals 306 genes increased and 271 genes decreased in expression in iMyos from insulin resistant donors with differences of 2-folds or more. Over 30 of the genes changed in I-Res iMyos are associated with T2D by SNP polymorphisms and functionally linked to insulin action and control of metabolism. Interestingly, we also identified >1500 differences in gene expression that were dependent on sex of the cell donor, some of which modified the insulin resistance effects. Many of these sex-differences were associated with increased DNA methylation in cells from females and reversed by 5-azacytidine. By contrast, the insulin sensitivity differences were not reversed and thus appear to reflect genetic or methylation-independent epigenetic effects.
Nida Haider, C. Ronald Kahn
Pancreatic beta-cells are specialized for coupling glucose metabolism to insulin peptide production and secretion. Acute glucose exposure robustly and coordinately increases translation of proinsulin and proteins required for secretion of mature insulin peptide. By contrast, chronically elevated glucose levels that occur during diabetes impair beta-cell insulin secretion and have been shown experimentally to suppress insulin translation. Whether translation of other genes critical for insulin secretion are similarly downregulated by chronic high glucose is unknown. Here, we used high-throughput ribosome profiling and nascent proteomics in MIN6 insulinoma cells to elucidate the genome-wide impact of sustained high glucose on beta-cell mRNA translation. Prior to induction of ER stress or suppression of global translation, sustained high glucose suppressed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and downregulated translation of not only insulin, but also of mRNAs related to insulin secretory granule formation, exocytosis, and metabolism-coupled insulin secretion. Translation of these mRNAs was also downregulated in primary rat and human islets following ex-vivo incubation with sustained high glucose and in an in vivo model of chronic mild hyperglycemia. Furthermore, translational downregulation decreased cellular abundance of these proteins. Our study uncovered a translational regulatory circuit during beta-cell glucose toxicity that impairs expression of proteins with critical roles in beta-cell function.
Abigael Cheruiyot, Jennifer Hollister-Lock, Brooke A. Sullivan, Hui Pan, Jonathan M. Dreyfuss, Susan Bonner-Weir, Jean E. Schaffer
The study investigates a mechanistic link if bacterial biofilm mediated host-pathogen interaction leads to immunological complications associated with breast implant illness (BII). Over 10 million women worldwide have breast implants. In recent years, women have described a constellation of immunological symptoms believed to be related to their breast implants. The study included 178 subjects divided in three cohorts. Eighty-six patients reported symptoms consistent with BII. Control group I (non-BII, N=55) included patients with breast implants without BII symptoms but went through explantation of the breast implant. Control group II (normal tissue, N=37) was comprised of women without an implant, whose breast tissue was removed as an unrelated clinically indicated surgical procedures. We report that periprosthetic breast tissue of BII had increased abundance of biofilm and biofilm-derived oxylipin, 10-HOME. S. epidermidis biofilm was observed to be higher in the BII group (73.33%) compared to non-BII group (16.67%, p=0.018) and the normal group (10%, p=0.036). The oxylipin was found to be immunogenic capable of polarizing naïve CD4+ T cells with a resulting Th1 subtype in vitro and in vivo. Consistently, an abundance of CD4+Th1 subtype was observed in the periprosthetic breast tissue and blood of BII subjects. Mice injected with 10-HOME also had increased Th1 subtype in blood akin to BII patients and demonstrated fatigue-like symptoms. The identification of an oxylipin-mediated mechanism of immune activation induced by local bacterial biofilm associated with BII provides insight into the possible pathogenesis of implant-associated immune symptoms of BII.
Imran Khan, Robert E. Minto, Christine Kelley-Patteson, Kanhaiya Singh, Lava Timsina, Lily J. Suh, Ethan Rinne, Bruce W. Van Natta, Colby R. Neumann, Ganesh Mohan, Mary Lester, R. Jason VonDerHaar, Rana German, Natascia Marino, Aladdin H. Hassanein, Gayle M. Gordillo, Mark H. Kaplan, Chandan K. Sen, Marshall E. Kadin, Mithun Sinha
Current treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and neural injuries face major challenges, primarily due to the diminished regenerative capacity of neurons in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) as they mature. Here, we investigated the role of Ezh2, a histone methyltransferase, in regulating mammalian axon regeneration. We found that Ezh2 declined in the mouse nervous system during maturation but was upregulated in adult dorsal root ganglion neurons following peripheral nerve injury to facilitate spontaneous axon regeneration. In addition, overexpression of Ezh2 in retinal ganglion cells in the CNS promoted optic nerve regeneration via both histone methylation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Further investigation revealed that Ezh2 fostered axon regeneration by orchestrating the transcriptional silencing of genes governing synaptic function and those inhibiting axon regeneration, while concurrently activating various factors that support axon regeneration. Notably, we demonstrated that GABA transporter 2 encoded by Slc6a13 acted downstream of Ezh2 to control axon regeneration. Overall, our study underscores the potential of modulating chromatin accessibility as a promising strategy for promoting CNS axon regeneration.
Xue-Wei Wang, Shu-Guang Yang, Ming-Wen Hu, Rui-Ying Wang, Chi Zhang, Anish R. Kosanam, Arinze J. Ochuba, Jing-Jing Jiang, Ximei Luo, Yun Guan, Jiang Qian, Chang-Mei Liu, Feng-Quan Zhou
Blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption is a serious pathological consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), for which there are limited therapeutic strategies. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP2), a molecule with dual functions of inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and displaying cytokine-like activity through receptor binding, has been reported to inhibit VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability. Here, we investigate the ability of TIMP2 to ameliorate BBB disruption in TBI and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Both TIMP2 and AlaTIMP2, a TIMP2 mutant without MMP-inhibiting activity, attenuated neurological deficits and BBB leakage in TBI mice, as well as inhibited junctional protein degradation and translocation to reduce paracellular permeability in HBMECs exposed to hypoxic plus inflammatory insult. Mechanistic studies revealed that TIMP2 interacted with integrin α3β1 on endothelial cells (ECs), inhibiting Src activation-dependent VE-Cadherin phosphorylation, VE-Cadherin/catenin complex destabilization and subsequent VE-Cadherin internalization. Notably, localization of VE-Cadherin on the membrane was critical for TIMP2-mediated EC barrier integrity. Furthermore, TIMP2-mediated increased membrane localization of VE-Cadherin enhanced the level of active Rac1, thereby inhibiting stress fiber formation. Together, our studies have identified an MMP-independent mechanism by which TIMP2 regulates EC barrier integrity after TBI. TIMP2 may be a therapeutic agent for TBI and other neurological disorders involving BBB breakdown.
Jingshu Tang, Yuying Kang, Yujun Zhou, Nianying Shang, Xinnan Li, Hongyue Wang, Jiaqi Lan, Shuai Wang, Lei Wu, Ying Peng
JCI This Month is a digest of the research, reviews, and other features published each month.
The lungs are regularly exposed to airborne irritants, pathogens, and other sources of inflammation that cause injury to the lung epithelium and its underlying structure. Repair and regeneration are essential for healthy lung function throughout life, yet these processes can also influence development and progression of acute and chronic conditions. Series editor Suzanne Herold developed this review series on lung inflammatory injury and tissue repair to reveal the many cell populations involved in normal and aberrant reparative responses. Ranging from discussion of lung stroma and vasculature to adaptive and innate immune systems, the reviews in this series describe the many complex mechanisms that influence pathogen-, inflammation-, and aging-driven injury to the lung and can contribute to aberrant healing, resolution of inflammation, and fibrosis. Reviews also discuss a wide range of potential therapies targeting injury and repair processes that represent promising progress toward better clinical options for patients with acute and chronic lung conditions.