The identification of loss-of-function mutations in MKRN3 in patients with central precocious puberty (CPP) in association with the decrease in MKRN3 expression in the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) of mice prior to the initiation of reproductive maturation suggest that MKRN3 is acting as a ‘brake’ on GnRH secretion during childhood. In the current study, we investigated the mechanism by which MKRN3 prevents premature manifestation of the pubertal process. We showed that, as in mice, MKRN3 expression is high in the hypothalamus of rats and nonhuman primates early in life, declining as puberty approaches, and is independent of sex steroid hormones. We demonstrated that Mkrn3 is expressed in Kiss1 neurons of the mouse hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and that MKRN3 repressed promoter activity of human KISS1 and TAC3, two key stimulators of GnRH secretion. We further showed that MKRN3 has ubiquitinase activity, that this activity is reduced by MKRN3 mutations affecting the RING finger domain, and that these mutations compromised the ability of MKRN3 to repress KISS1 and TAC3 promoter activity. These results indicate that MKRN3 acts to prevent puberty initiation, at least in part, by repressing KISS1 and TAC3 transcription and that this action may involve a MKRN3-directed ubiquitination-mediated mechanism.
Ana Paula Abreu, Carlos A. Toro, Yong Bhum Song, Victor M Navarro, Martha A. Bosch, Aysegul Eren, Joy N. Liang, Rona S. Carroll, Ana Claudia Latronico, Oline K. Ronnekleiv, Carlos F Aylwin, Alejandro Lomniczi, Sergio R. Ojeda, Ursula B Kaiser
Diabetes, obesity and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are associated with vascular complications and impaired nitric oxide (NO) production. Furthermore, increased β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), APP and β-amyloid (Aβ) are linked with vascular disease development and raised BACE1 and Aβ accompany hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. However, the causal relationship between obesity and diabetes, raised Aβ and vascular dysfunction is unclear. We report that diet-induced obesity (DIO) in mice raised plasma and vascular Aβ42 that correlated with decreased NO bioavailability, endothelial dysfunction and raised blood pressure. Genetic or pharmacological reduction of BACE1 activity and Aβ42 prevented and reversed, respectively, these outcomes. In contrast, expression of human mutant APP in mice or Aβ42 infusion into control diet-fed mice to mimic obese levels impaired NO production, vascular relaxation and raised blood pressure. In humans, raised plasma Aβ42 correlated with diabetes and endothelial dysfunction. Mechanistically, higher Aβ42 reduced endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), cyclic GMP and protein kinase G (PKG) activity independently of diet whereas endothelin-1 was increased by diet and Aβ42. Lowering Aβ42 reversed the DIO deficit in the eNOS-cGMP-PKG pathway and decreased endothelin-1. Our findings suggest that BACE1 inhibitors may have therapeutic value in the treatment of vascular disease associated with diabetes.
Paul J. Meakin, Bethany M. Coull, Zofia Tuharska, Christopher McCaffery, Ioannis Akoumianakis, Charalambos Antoniades, Jane Brown, Kathryn J. Griffin, Fiona Platt, Claire H. Ozber, Nadira Y. Yuldasheva, Natallia Makava, Anna Skromna, Alan Russell Prescott, Alison D. McNeilly, Moneeza K. Siddiqui, Colin Neil Alexander Palmer, Faisel Khan, Michael LJ Ashford
Background. Insulin is a key regulator of metabolic function. The effects of excess adiposity, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis on the complex integration of insulin secretion and hepatic and extrahepatic tissue extraction are not clear. Methods. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test were used to evaluate insulin sensitivity and insulin kinetics after glucose ingestion in three groups: i) lean with normal intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) and glucose tolerance (Lean-NL; n=14); ii) obese with normal IHTG and glucose tolerance (Obese-NL; n=24); and iii) obese with hepatic steatosis and prediabetes (Obese-NAFLD; n=22). Results. Insulin sensitivity progressively decreased and insulin secretion progressively increased from Lean-NL to Obese-NL to Obese-NAFLD. Fractional hepatic insulin extraction progressively decreased from Lean-NL to Obese-NL to Obese-NAFLD, whereas total hepatic insulin extraction (molar amount removed) was greater in Obese-NL and Obese-NAFLD than Lean-NL. Insulin appearance in the systemic circulation and extrahepatic insulin extraction progressively increased from Lean-NL to Obese-NL to Obese-NAFLD. Total hepatic insulin extraction plateaued at high rates of insulin delivery, whereas the relationship between systemic insulin appearance and total extrahepatic extraction was linear. Conclusion. Hyperinsulinemia after glucose ingestion in Obese-NL and Obese-NAFLD is due to an increase in insulin secretion, without a decrease in total hepatic or extrahepatic insulin extraction. However, the liver’s maximum capacity to remove insulin is limited because of a saturable extraction process. The increase in insulin delivery to the liver and extrahepatic tissues in Obese-NAFLD is unable to compensate for the increase in insulin resistance, resulting in impaired glucose homeostasis.
Gordon I. Smith, David C. Polidori, Mihoko Yoshino, Monica L. Kearney, Bruce W. Patterson, Bettina Mittendorfer, Samuel Klein
Background. Post-receptor insulin resistance (IR) is associated with hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis. However, receptor-level IR (e.g. insulin receptor pathogenic variants, INSR) causes hyperglycemia without steatosis. We examined four pathologic conditions of IR in humans to examine pathways controlling lipid metabolism and gluconeogenesis. Methods. Cross-sectional study of severe, receptor IR (INSR, n=7), versus post-receptor IR that was severe (lipodystrophy, n=14), moderate (type 2 diabetes [T2D], n=9) or mild (obesity, n=8). Lipolysis (glycerol turnover), hepatic glucose production (HGP), gluconeogenesis (deuterium incorporation from body water into glucose), hepatic triglyceride (magnetic resonance spectroscopy), and hepatic fat oxidation (plasma β-hydroxybutyrate) were measured. Results. Lipolysis was 2-3-fold higher in INSR versus all other groups, and HGP 2-fold higher in INSR and lipodystrophy versus T2D and obesity (p<0.001) suggesting severe adipose and hepatic IR. INSR subjects had a higher contribution of gluconeogenesis to HGP, ~77%, versus 52-59% in other groups (p=0.0001). Despite high lipolysis, INSR subjects had low hepatic triglycerides (0.5 [0.1-0.5]), in contrast to lipodystrophy (10.6 [2.8-17.1], p<0.0001). β-hydroxybutyrate was 2-7-fold higher in INSR versus all other groups (p<0.0001) consistent with higher hepatic fat oxidation. Conclusion. These data support a key pathogenic role of adipose tissue IR to increase glycerol and FFA availability to the liver in both receptor and post-receptor IR. However, the fate of FFA diverges in these populations. In receptor-level IR, FFA oxidation drives gluconeogenesis rather than being reesterified to triglyceride. In contrast, in post-receptor IR, FFA contributes to both gluconeogenesis and hepatic steatosis. Trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01778556; NCT00001987; NCT02457897 Funding. NIDDK, USDA ARS 58-3092-5-001
Hilal Sekizkardes, Stephanie T. Chung, Shaji Chacko, Morey Haymond, Megan Startzell, Mary Walter, Peter J. Walter, Marissa Lightbourne, Rebecca J. Brown
Meal ingestion increases body temperature in multiple species, an effect that is blunted by obesity. However, the mechanisms responsible for these phenomena remain incompletely understood. Here we show that refeeding increases plasma leptin concentrations approximately 8-fold in 48-hour-fasted lean rats, and this normalization of plasma leptin concentrations stimulates adrenomedullary catecholamine secretion. Increased adrenal medulla–derived plasma catecholamines were necessary and sufficient to increase body temperature postprandially, a process that required both fatty acids generated from adipose tissue lipolysis and β-adrenergic activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT). Diet-induced obese rats, which remained relatively hyperleptinemic while fasting, did not exhibit fasting-induced reductions in temperature. To examine the impact of feeding-induced increases in body temperature on energy balance, we compared rats fed chronically by either 2 carbohydrate-rich boluses daily or a continuous isocaloric intragastric infusion. Bolus feeding increased body temperature and reduced weight gain compared with continuous feeding, an effect abrogated by treatment with atenolol. In summary, these data demonstrate that leptin stimulates a hypothalamus–adrenal medulla–BAT axis, which is necessary and sufficient to induce lipolysis and, as a result, increase body temperature after refeeding.
Rachel J. Perry, Kun Lyu, Aviva Rabin-Court, Jianying Dong, Xiruo Li, Yunfan Yang, Hua Qing, Andrew Wang, Xiaoyong Yang, Gerald I. Shulman
To identify neurons that specifically increase blood glucose from among the diversely-functioning cell types in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN), we studied the cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor-B (CCKBR)-expressing VMN targets of glucose-elevating parabrachial nucleus neurons. Activating these VMNCCKBR neurons increased blood glucose. Furthermore, while silencing the broader VMN decreased energy expenditure and promoted weight gain without altering blood glucose, silencing VMNCCKBR neurons decreased hepatic glucose production (HGP), insulin-independently decreasing blood glucose without altering energy balance. Silencing VMNCCKBR neurons also impaired the counter-regulatory response (CRR) to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and glucoprivation and replicated hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF). Hence, VMNCCKBR cells represent a specialized subset of VMN cells that function to elevate glucose. These cells not only mediate the allostatic response to hypoglycemia, but also insulin-independently modulate the homeostatic setpoint for blood glucose, consistent with a role for the brain in the insulin-independent control of glucose homeostasis.
Jonathan N. Flak, Paulette Goforth, James Dell'Orco, Paul V. Sabatini, Chien Li, Nadejda Bozadjieva, Matthew J. Sorensen, Alec C. Valenta, Alan C. Rupp, Alison H. Affinati, Corentin Cras-Méneur, Ahsan Ansari, Jamie Sacksner, Nandan Kodur, Darleen A. Sandoval, Robert t. Kennedy, David Olson, Martin G. Myers Jr.
BACKGROUND. Mirabegron is a β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) agonist approved only for the treatment of overactive bladder. Encouraging preclinical results suggest that β3-AR agonists could also improve obesity-related metabolic disease by increasing brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, white adipose tissue (WAT) lipolysis, and insulin sensitivity. METHODS. We treated 14 healthy women of diverse ethnicity, 27.5 ± 1.1 y, BMI 25.4 ± 1.2 kg/m2, with 100 mg mirabegron (Myrbetriq extended-release tablet, Astellas Pharma) for four weeks, open-label. The primary endpoint was the change in BAT metabolic activity as measured by [18F]-2-fluoro-D-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Secondary endpoints included resting energy expenditure (REE), plasma metabolites, and glucose and insulin metabolism as assessed by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. RESULTS. Chronic mirabegron therapy increased BAT metabolic activity. Whole-body REE was higher, without changes in body weight or composition. Additionally, there were elevations in plasma levels of the beneficial lipoprotein biomarkers high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and ApoA1, as well as total bile acids. Adiponectin, a WAT-derived hormone that has anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory capabilities, increased with acute treatment and was 35% higher at study completion. Finally, an intravenous glucose tolerance test demonstrated higher insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, and insulin secretion. CONCLUSION. These findings indicate that human BAT metabolic activity can be increased after chronic pharmacological stimulation with mirabegron and support the investigation of β3-AR agonists as a treatment for metabolic disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03049462. FUNDING. This work was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), DK075112, DK075116, DK071013, and DK071014.
Alana E. O'Mara, James W. Johnson, Joyce D. Linderman, Robert J. Brychta, Suzanne McGehee, Laura A. Fletcher, Yael A. Fink, Devika Kapuria, Thomas M. Cassimatis, Nathan Kelsey, Cheryl Cero, Zahraa Abdul-Sater, Francesca Piccinini, Alison S. Baskin, Brooks P. Leitner, Hongyi Cai, Corina M. Millo, William Dieckmann, Mary Walter, Norman B. Javitt, Yaron Rotman, Peter J. Walter, Marilyn Ader, Richard N. Bergman, Peter Herscovitch, Kong Y. Chen, Aaron M. Cypess
BACKGROUND. Residual C-peptide is detected in many people for years following the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes; however, the physiologic significance of low levels of detectable C-peptide is not known. METHODS. We studied sixty-three adults with type 1 diabetes classified by peak mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) C-peptide as negative (<0.007; n =15), low (0.017–0.200; n =16), intermediate (>0.200–0.400; n =15), or high (>0.400 pmol/mL; n =17). We compared the groups’ glycemia from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), β-cell secretory responses from a glucose-potentiated arginine (GPA) test, insulin sensitivity from a hyperinsulinemia euglycemic (EU) clamp, and glucose counterregulatory responses from a subsequent hypoglycemic (HYPO) clamp. RESULTS. Low and intermediate MMTT C-peptide groups did not exhibit β-cell secretory responses to hyperglycemia, whereas the high C-peptide group showed increases in both C-peptide and proinsulin (P ≤0.01). All groups with detectable MMTT C-peptide demonstrated acute C-peptide and proinsulin responses to arginine that were positively correlated with peak MMTT C-peptide (P <0.0001 for both analytes). During the EU-HYPO clamp, C-peptide levels were proportionately suppressed in the low, intermediate, and high C-peptide compared to the negative group (P ≤0.0001), whereas glucagon increased from EU to HYPO only in the high C-peptide group compared to negative (P =0.01). CGM demonstrated lower mean glucose and more time-in-range for the high C-peptide group. CONCLUSION. These results indicate that in adults with type 1 diabetes, β-cell responsiveness to hyperglycemia and α-cell responsiveness to hypoglycemia are only observed at high levels of residual C-peptide that likely contribute to glycemic control.
Michael R. Rickels, Carmella Evans-Molina, Henry T. Bahnson, Alyssa Ylescupidez, Kristen J. Nadeau, Wei Hao, Mark A. Clements, Jennifer L. Sherr, Richard E. Pratley, Tamara S. Hannon, Viral N. Shah, Kellee M. Miller, Carla J. Greenbaum
Pituitary develops from oral ectoderm in contact with adjacent ventral hypothalamus. Impairment in this process results in congenital pituitary hypoplasia (CPH); however, there have been no human disease models for CPH thus far, prohibiting the elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we established a disease model of CPH using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and 3D organoid technique, in which oral ectoderm and hypothalamus develop simultaneously. Interestingly, patient iPSCs with a heterozygous mutation in the orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2) gene showed increased apoptosis in the pituitary progenitor cells, and the differentiation into pituitary hormone–producing cells was severely impaired. As an underlying mechanism, OTX2 in hypothalamus, not in oral ectoderm, was essential for progenitor cell maintenance by regulating LHX3 expression in oral ectoderm via FGF10 expression in the hypothalamus. Convincingly, the phenotype was reversed by the correction of the mutation, and the haploinsufficiency of OTX2 in control iPSCs revealed a similar phenotype, demonstrating that this mutation was responsible. Thus, we established an iPSC-based congenital pituitary disease model, which recapitulated interaction between hypothalamus and oral ectoderm and demonstrated the essential role of hypothalamic OTX2.
Ryusaku Matsumoto, Hidetaka Suga, Takashi Aoi, Hironori Bando, Hidenori Fukuoka, Genzo Iguchi, Satoshi Narumi, Tomonobu Hasegawa, Keiko Muguruma, Wataru Ogawa, Yutaka Takahashi
The mineralocorticoid aldosterone is produced in the adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG) under the control of the renin–angiotensin II (AngII) system. Primary aldosteronism (PA) results from renin-independent production of aldosterone and is a common cause of hypertension. PA is caused by dysregulated localization of the enzyme aldosterone synthase (Cyp11b2), which is normally restricted to the ZG. Cyp11b2 transcription and aldosterone production are predominantly regulated by AngII activation of the Gq signaling pathway. Here, we report the generation of transgenic mice with Gq-coupled designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) specifically in the adrenal cortex. We show that adrenal-wide ligand activation of Gq DREADD receptors triggered disorganization of adrenal functional zonation, with induction of Cyp11b2 in glucocorticoid-producing zona fasciculata cells. This result was consistent with increased renin-independent aldosterone production and hypertension. All parameters were reversible following termination of DREADD-mediated Gq signaling. These findings demonstrate that Gq signaling is sufficient for adrenocortical aldosterone production and implicate this pathway in the determination of zone-specific steroid production within the adrenal cortex. This transgenic mouse also provides an inducible and reversible model of hyperaldosteronism to investigate PA therapeutics and the mechanisms leading to the damaging effects of aldosterone on the cardiovascular system.
Matthew J. Taylor, Matthew R. Ullenbruch, Emily C. Frucci, Juilee Rege, Mark S. Ansorge, Celso E. Gomez-Sanchez, Salma Begum, Edward Laufer, David T. Breault, William E. Rainey