Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are pacemaker cells in the intestine, and their function can be compromised due to loss of C-KIT expression. Macrophage activation has been identified in intestine affected by Hirschsprung disease associated enterocolitis (HAEC). In this study, we examined proinflammatory macrophage activation and explored the mechanisms by which this down-regulates C-KIT expression in ICCs in colon affected by HAEC. We found that macrophage activation and TNF-α production were dramatically increased in the proximal dilated colon of HAEC patients and 3-week old Ednrb-/- mice. Moreover, ICCs lost their C-KIT+ phenotype in the dilated colon, resulting in damaged pacemaker function and intestinal dysmotility. However, macrophage depletion or TNF-α neutralization led to recovery of ICC phenotype and restored their pacemaker function. In isolated ICCs, TNF-α-mediated phosphorylated-P65 induced over-expression of miR221, resulting in suppression of C-KIT expression and pacemaker currents. We also identified a TNF-α-NF-κB-miR221 pathway which downregulated C-KIT expression in ICCs in the colon affected by HAEC. These findings suggest the important roles of proinflammatory macrophage activation in a phenotypic switch of ICCs, representing a promising therapeutic target for HAEC.
Xuyong Chen, Xinyao Meng, Hongyi Zhang, Chenzhao Feng, Bin Wang, Ning Li, Khalid Mohamoud Abdullahi, Xiaojuan Wu, Jixin Yang, Zhi Li, Chunlei Jiao, Jia Wei, Xiaofeng Xiong, Kang Fu, Lei Yu, Gail Besner, Jiexiong Feng
Arginase 1 (Arg1), which converts L-arginine into ornithine and urea, exerts pleiotropic immunoregulatory effects. However, the function of Arg1 in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains poorly characterized. Here, we found that Arg1 expression correlated with the degree of inflammation in intestinal tissues from IBD patients. In mice, Arg1 was upregulated in an IL-4-/IL-13- and intestinal microbiota-dependent manner. Tie2-Cre+/-Arg1fl/fl mice lacking Arg1 in hematopoietic and endothelial cells recovered faster from experimental colitis than Arg1-expressing littermates. This correlated with decreased vessel density, compositional changes in intestinal microbiota, diminished infiltration by myeloid cells and an accumulation of intraluminal polyamines that promote epithelial healing. The pro-resolving effect of Arg1-deletion was reduced by an L-arginine-free diet, but rescued by simultaneous deletion of other L-arginine-metabolizing enzymes such as Arg2 or Nos2, demonstrating that protection from colitis requires L-arginine. Fecal microbiota transfers from Tie2-Cre+/-Arg1fl/fl mice into wild-type recipients ameliorated intestinal inflammation while transfers from wild-type littermates into Arg1-deficient mice prevented an advanced recovery from colitis. Thus, an increased availability of L-arginine as well as altered intestinal microbiota and metabolic products account for the accelerated resolution from colitis in the absence of Arg1. Consequently, the metabolism of L-arginine may serve as target for clinical intervention in IBD patients.
Julia Baier, Maximilian Gänsbauer, Claudia Giessler, Harald Arnold, Mercedes Muske, Ulrike Schleicher, Soeren Lukassen, Arif B. Ekici, Manfred Rauh, Christoph Daniel, Arndt Hartmann, Benjamin Schmid, Philipp Tripal, Katja Dettmer, Peter J. Oefner, Raja Atreya, Stefan Wirtz, Christian Bogdan, Jochen Mattner
Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has revolutionized cancer therapeutics. Desmoplastic malignancies such as cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have an abundant tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). However, to date ICB monotherapy in such malignancies has been ineffective. Herein, we identify that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the primary source of PD-L1 in human and murine CCA. In a murine model of CCA, recruited PD-L1+ TAMs facilitate CCA progression. However, TAM blockade failed to decrease tumor progression due to a compensatory emergence of granulocytic-myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs) that mediated immune escape by impairing T-cell response. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of murine tumor G-MDSCs highlighted a novel ApoE G-MDSC subset enriched with TAM blockade; further analysis of a human scRNA-seq dataset demonstrated the presence of a similar G-MDSC subset in human CCA. Finally, dual inhibition of TAMs and G-MDSCs potentiated ICB. In summary, our findings highlight the therapeutic potential of coupling ICB with immunotherapies targeting immunosuppressive myeloid cells in CCA.
Emilien Loeuillard, Jingchun Yang, EeeLN Buckarma, Juan Wang, Yuanhang Liu, Caitlin B. Conboy, Kevin D. Pavelko, Ying Li, Daniel O'Brien, Chen Wang, Rondell P. Graham, Rory L. Smoot, Haidong Dong, Sumera Rizvi
Gasdermin D (GSDMD) induces pyroptosis via the pore-forming activity of its N-terminal domain, cleaved by activated caspases associated with the release of IL-1β. Here, we report a nonpyroptotic role of full-length GSDMD in guiding the release of IL-1β–containing small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) from intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). In response to caspase-8 inflammasome activation, GSDMD, chaperoned by Cdc37/Hsp90, recruits the E3 ligase, NEDD4, to catalyze polyubiquitination of pro–IL-1β, serving as a signal for cargo loading into secretory vesicles. GSDMD and IL-1β colocalize with the exosome markers CD63 and ALIX intracellularly, and GSDMD and NEDD4 are required for release of CD63+ sEVs containing IL-1β, GSDMD, NEDD4, and caspase-8. Importantly, increased expression of epithelial-derived GSDMD is observed both in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and those with experimental colitis. While GSDMD-dependent release of IL-1β–containing sEVs is detected in cultured colonic explants from colitic mice, GSDMD deficiency substantially attenuates disease severity, implicating GSDMD-mediated release of IL-1β sEVs in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation, such as that observed in IBD.
Katarzyna Bulek, Junjie Zhao, Yun Liao, Nitish Rana, Daniele Corridoni, Agne Antanaviciute, Xing Chen, Han Wang, Wen Qian, William A. Miller-Little, Shadi Swaidani, Fangqiang Tang, Belinda B. Willard, Keith McCrae, Zizhen Kang, George R. Dubyak, Fabio Cominelli, Alison Simmons, Theresa T. Pizarro, Xiaoxia Li
Chronic infections can lead to carcinogenesis through inflammation-related mechanisms. Chronic infection of the human gastric mucosa with Helicobacter pylori is a well-known risk factor for gastric cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying H. pylori–induced gastric carcinogenesis are incompletely defined. We aimed to screen and clarify the functions of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are differentially expressed in H. pylori–related gastric cancer. We found that lncRNA SNHG17 was upregulated by H. pylori infection and markedly increased the levels of double-strand breaks (DSBs). SNHG17 overexpression correlated with poor overall survival in patients with gastric cancer. The recruitment of NONO by overabundant nuclear SNHG17, along with the role of cytoplasmic SNHG17 as a decoy for miR-3909, which regulates Rad51 expression, shifted the DSB repair balance from homologous recombination toward nonhomologous end joining. Notably, during chronic H. pylori infection, SNHG17 knockdown inhibited chromosomal aberrations. Our findings suggest that spatially independent deregulation of the SNHG17/NONO and SNHG17/miR-3909/RING1/Rad51 pathways upon H. pylori infection promotes tumorigenesis in gastric cancer by altering the DNA repair system, which is critical for the maintenance of genomic stability. Upregulation of SNHG17 by H. pylori infection might be an undefined link between cancer and inflammation.
Taotao Han, Xiaohui Jing, Jiayu Bao, Lianmei Zhao, Aidong Zhang, Renling Miao, Hui Guo, Baoguo Zhou, Shang Zhang, Jiazeng Sun, Juan Shi
The tight junction protein claudin-2 is upregulated in disease. Although many studies have linked intestinal barrier loss to local and systemic disease, these have relied on macromolecular probes. In vitro analyses show however that these probes cannot be accommodated by size- and charge-selective claudin-2 channels. We sought to define the impact of claudin-2 channels on disease. Transgenic claudin-2 overexpression or IL-13-induced claudin-2 upregulation increased intestinal small cation permeability in vivo. IL-13 did not however affect permeability in claudin-2-knockout mice. Claudin-2 is therefore necessary and sufficient to effect size- and charge-selective permeability increases in vivo. In chronic disease, T-cell transfer colitis severity was augmented or diminished in claudin-2 transgenic or knockout mice, respectively. We translated in vitro data suggesting that casein kinase-2 (CK2) inhibition blocks claudin-2 channel function and found that CK2 inhibition prevented IL-13-induced, claudin-2-mediated permeability increases in vivo. In chronic immune-mediated colitis, CK2 inhibition attenuated progression in claudin-2-sufficient, but not claudin-2-knockout, mice, i.e., the effect was claudin-2-dependent. Paracellular flux mediated by claudin-2 channels can therefore promote immune-mediated colitis progression. Although the mechanisms by which claudin-2 channels intensify disease remain to be defined, these data suggest that claudin-2 may be an accessible target in immune-mediated disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease.
Preeti Raju, Nitesh Shashikanth, Pei-Yun Tsai, Pawin Pongkorpsakol, Sandra Chanez-Parades, Peter R. Steinhagen, Wei-Ting Kuo, Gurminder Singh, Sachiko Tsukita, Jerrold R. Turner
Enteric neuronal degeneration, as seen in inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and diabetes, can lead to gastrointestinal dysmotility. Pyroptosis is a novel form of programmed cell death but little is known about its role in enteric neuronal degeneration. We observed higher levels of cleaved caspase-1, a marker of pyroptosis, in myenteric ganglia of overweight and obese human subjects compared with normal-weight subjects. Western diet–fed (WD-fed) mice exhibited increased myenteric neuronal pyroptosis, delayed colonic transit, and impaired electric field stimulation–induced colonic relaxation responses. WD increased TLR4 expression and cleaved caspase-1 in myenteric nitrergic neurons. Overactivation of nitrergic neuronal NF-κB signaling resulted in increased pyroptosis and delayed colonic motility. In caspase-11–deficient mice, WD did not induce nitrergic myenteric neuronal pyroptosis and colonic dysmotility. To understand the contributions of saturated fatty acids and bacterial products to the steps leading to enteric neurodegeneration, we performed in vitro experiments using mouse enteric neurons. Palmitate and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased nitrergic, but not cholinergic, enteric neuronal pyroptosis. LPS gained entry to the cytosol in the presence of palmitate, activating caspase-11 and gasdermin D, leading to pyroptosis. These results support a role of the caspase-11–mediated pyroptotic pathway in WD-induced myenteric nitrergic neuronal degeneration and colonic dysmotility, providing important therapeutic targets for enteric neuropathy.
Lan Ye, Ge Li, Anna Goebel, Abhinav V. Raju, Feng Kong, Yanfei Lv, Kailin Li, Yuanjun Zhu, Shreya Raja, Peijian He, Fang Li, Simon Musyoka Mwangi, Wenhui Hu, Shanthi Srinivasan
Background: Bariatric surgeries are the most effective treatments for successful and sustained weight loss but individuals vary in treatment response. Understanding the neurobiological and behavioral mechanisms accounting for this variation could lead to the development of personalized therapeutic approaches and improve treatment outcomes. The primary objectives were to investigate changes in taste preferences and taste-induced brain responses after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and to identify potential taste-related predictors of weight loss. Methods: Women, ages 18 to 55, with a body mass index ≥ 35 kg/m2 and approved for bariatric surgery at the Johns Hopkins Center for Bariatric Surgery were recruited for participation. Demographics, anthropometrics, liking ratings, and neural responses to varying concentrations of sucrose+fat mixtures were assessed pre- and post-surgery via visual analogue scales and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Bariatric surgery produced decreases in liking for sucrose-sweetened mixtures. Greater preference for sucrose-sweetened mixtures prior to surgery was associated with greater weight loss in RYGB but not VSG. In the RYGB group only, individuals who showed lower taste-induced activation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) prior to surgery and greater changes in taste-induced VTA activation two weeks following surgery experienced better weight loss. Conclusions: The anatomical and/or metabolic changes associated with RYGB may more effectively “reset” the neural processing of reward stimuli, thereby rescuing the blunted activation in the mesolimbic pathway found in patients with obesity. Further, these findings suggest that RYGB may be particularly effective in patients with a preference for sweet foods. Trial Registration: Not Applicable.Funding: K23DK100559 and The Dalio Philanthropies. Funding: K23DK100559 and The Dalio Philanthropies.
Kimberly R. Smith, Afroditi Papantoni, Maria G. Veldhuizen, Vidyulata Kamath, Civonnia Harris, Timothy H. Moran, Susan Carnell, Kimberley E. Steele
Transcriptional reactivation of telomerase catalytic subunit (TERT) is a frequent hallmark of cancer, occurring in 90% of human malignancies. However, specific mechanisms driving TERT reactivation remain obscure for many tumor types and in particular gastric cancer (GC), a leading cause of global cancer mortality. Here, through comprehensive genomic and epigenomic analysis of primary GCs and GC cell lines, we identified the transcription factor early B cell factor 1 (EBF1) as a TERT transcriptional repressor and inactivation of EBF1 function as a major cause of TERT upregulation. Abolishment of EBF1 function occurs through 3 distinct (epi)genomic mechanisms. First, EBF1 is epigenetically silenced via DNA methyltransferase, polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2), and histone deacetylase activity in GCs. Second, recurrent, somatic, and heterozygous EBF1 DNA–binding domain mutations result in the production of dominant-negative EBF1 isoforms. Third, more rarely, genomic deletions and rearrangements proximal to the TERT promoter remobilize or abolish EBF1-binding sites, derepressing TERT and leading to high TERT expression. EBF1 is also functionally required for various malignant phenotypes in vitro and in vivo, highlighting its importance for GC development. These results indicate that multimodal genomic and epigenomic alterations underpin TERT reactivation in GC, converging on transcriptional repressors such as EBF1.
Manjie Xing, Wen Fong Ooi, Jing Tan, Aditi Qamra, Po-Hsien Lee, Zhimei Li, Chang Xu, Nisha Padmanabhan, Jing Quan Lim, Yu Amanda Guo, Xiaosai Yao, Mandoli Amit, Ley Moy Ng, Taotao Sheng, Jing Wang, Kie Kyon Huang, Chukwuemeka George Anene-Nzelu, Shamaine Wei Ting Ho, Mohana Ray, Lijia Ma, Gregorio Fazzi, Kevin Junliang Lim, Giovani Claresta Wijaya, Shenli Zhang, Tannistha Nandi, Tingdong Yan, Mei Mei Chang, Kakoli Das, Zul Fazreen Adam Isa, Jeanie Wu, Polly Suk Yean Poon, Yue Ning Lam, Joyce Suling Lin, Su Ting Tay, Ming Hui Lee, Angie Lay Keng Tan, Xuewen Ong, Kevin White, Steven George Rozen, Michael Beer, Roger Sik Yin Foo, Heike Irmgard Grabsch, Anders Jacobsen Skanderup, Shang Li, Bin Tean Teh, Patrick Tan
Approximately half of the world’s population is infected with the stomach pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Infection with H. pylori is the main risk factor for distal gastric cancer. Bacterial virulence factors, such as the oncoprotein CagA, augment cancer risk. Yet despite high infection rates, only a fraction of H. pylori–infected individuals develop gastric cancer. This raises the question of defining the specific host and bacterial factors responsible for gastric tumorigenesis. To investigate the tumorigenic determinants, we analyzed gastric tissues from human subjects and animals infected with H. pylori bacteria harboring different CagA status. For laboratory studies, well-defined H. pylori strain B128 and its cancerogenic derivative strain 7.13, as well as various bacterial isogenic mutants were employed. We found that H. pylori compromises key tumor suppressor mechanisms: the host stress and apoptotic responses. Our studies showed that CagA induces phosphorylation of XIAP E3 ubiquitin ligase, which enhances ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of the host proapoptotic factor Siva1. This process is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway. Inhibition of Siva1 by H. pylori increases survival of human cells with damaged DNA. It occurs in a strain-specific manner and is associated with the ability to induce gastric tumor.
Manikandan Palrasu, Elena Zaika, Wael El-Rifai, Monica Garcia-Buitrago, Maria Blanca Piazuelo, Keith T. Wilson, Richard M. Peek Jr., Alexander I. Zaika