Dysregulated immune profiles have been described in symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Whether the reported immune alterations are specific to SARS-CoV-2 infection or also triggered by other acute illnesses remains unclear. We performed flow cytometry analysis on fresh peripheral blood from a consecutive cohort of i) patients hospitalized with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection; ii) patients of comparable age/sex hospitalized for other acute disease (SARS-CoV-2 negative); and iii) healthy controls. Using both data-driven and hypothesis-driven analyses, we found several dysregulations in immune cell subsets (e.g., decreased proportion of T cells) that are similarly associated with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and non-COVID-19 related acute illnesses. In contrast, we identified specific differences in myeloid and lymphocyte subsets that are associated with SARS-CoV-2 status (e.g., elevated proportion of ICAM-1+ mature/activated neutrophils, ALCAM+ monocytes, and CD38+CD8+ T cells). A subset of SARS-CoV-2-specific immune alterations correlated with disease severity, disease outcome at 30 days and mortality. Our data provide an understanding of the immune dysregulation that are specifically associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among acute care hospitalized patients. Our study lays the foundation for the development of specific biomarkers to stratify SARS-CoV-2+ patients at risk of unfavorable outcome and uncover candidate molecules to investigate from a therapeutic perspective.
Rose-Marie Rébillard, Marc Charabati, Camille Grasmuck, Abdelali Filali-Mouhim, Olivier Tastet, Nathalie Brassard, Audrey Daigneault, Lyne Bourbonnière, Sai Priya Anand, Renaud Balthazard, Guillaume Beaudoin-Bussières, Romain Gasser, Mehdi Benlarbi, Ana Carmena Moratalla, Yves Carpentier Solorio, Marianne Boutin, Negar Farzam-kia, Jade Descôteaux-Dinelle, Antoine Philippe Fournier, Elizabeth M. Gowing, Annemarie Laumaea, Hélène Jamann, Boaz Lahav, Guillaume Goyette, Florent Lemaître, Victoria Hannah Mamane, Jérémie Prévost, Jonathan Richard, Karine Thai, Jean-François Cailhier, Nicolas Chomont, Andrés Finzi, Michaël Chassé, Madeleine Durand, Nathalie Arbour, Daniel E. Kaufmann, Alexandre Prat, Catherine Larochelle
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapidly progressed to a global pandemic. Although patients totally recover from COVID-19 pneumonia, long-term effects on the brain still need to be explored. Here, two subtypes (mild type-MG and severe type-SG) with no specific neurological manifestations at the acute stage and no obvious lesions on the conventional MRI three months after discharge were recruited. Changes in gray matter morphometry, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and white matter (WM) microstructure were investigated using MRI. The relationship between brain imaging measurements and inflammation markers were further analyzed. Compared with healthy controls, the decrease in cortical thickness/CBF, and the changes in WM microstructure were observed to be more severe in the SG than MG, especially in the frontal and limbic systems. Furthermore, changes in brain microstructure, CBF and tracts parameters were significantly correlated with inflammatory markers. The indirect injury related to inflammatory storm may damage the brain, that led to these interesting observations. There are also other likely potential causes, such as hypoxemia and dysfunction of vascular endothelium, et al. The abnormalities in these brain areas need to be monitored in the process of complete recovery, which could help clinicians to understand the potential neurological sequelae of COVID-19.
Yuanyuan Qin, Jinfeng Wu, Tao Chen, Jia Li, Guiling Zhang, Di Wu, Yiran Zhou, Ning Zheng, Aoling Cai, Qin Ning, Anne Manyande, Fuqiang Xu, Jie Wang, Wenzhen Zhu
Background: Circulating SARS-CoV-2 RNA may represent a more reliable indicator of infection than nasal RNA, but RT-qPCR lacks diagnostic sensitivity for blood samples. Methods: A CRISPR-augmented RT-PCR assay that sensitively detects SARS-CoV-2 RNA was employed to analyze viral RNA kinetics in longitudinal plasma samples from nonhuman primates (NHP) after virus exposure; to evaluate the utility of blood SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection for COVID-19 diagnosis in adults cases confirmed by nasal/nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR results; and to identify suspected COVID-19 cases in pediatric and at-risk adult populations with negative nasal swab RT-qPCR results. All blood samples were analyzed by RT-qPCR to allow direct comparisons. Results: CRISPR-augmented RT-PCR consistently detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the plasma of experimentally infected NHPs from 1 to 28 days post-infection, and these increases preceded and correlated with rectal swab viral RNA increases. In a patient cohort (n=159), this blood-based assay demonstrated 91.2% diagnostic sensitivity and 99.2% diagnostic specificity versus a comparator RT-qPCR nasal/nasopharyngeal test, while RT-qPCR exhibited 44.1% diagnostic sensitivity and 100% specificity for the same blood samples. This CRISPR-augmented RT-PCR assay also accurately identified COVID-19 patients with one or more negative nasal swab RT-qPCR result. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in blood by CRISPR-augmented RT-PCR permits accurate COVID-19 diagnosis, and can detect COVID-19 cases with transient or negative nasal swab RT-qPCR results, suggesting that this approach could improve COVID-19 diagnosis and the evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 infection clearance, and predict the severity of infection.
Zhen Huang, Bo Ning, He S. Yang, Brady M. Youngquist, Alex Niu, Christopher J. Lyon, Brandon J. Beddingfield, Alyssa C. Fears, Chandler H. Monk, Amelie E. Murrell, Samantha J. Bilton, Joshua P. Linhuber, Elizabeth B. Norton, Monika L. Dietrich, Jim K. Yee, Weihua Lai, John W. Scott, Xiao-Ming Yin, Jay Rappaport, James E. Robinson, Nakhle S. Saba, Chad J. Roy, Kevin J. Zwezdaryk, Zhen Zhao, Tony Y. Hu
BACKGROUND Despite a rapidly growing body of literature on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), our understanding of the immune correlates of disease severity, course, and outcome remains poor.METHODS Using mass cytometry, we assessed the immune landscape in longitudinal whole-blood specimens from 59 patients presenting with acute COVID-19 and classified based on maximal disease severity. Hospitalized patients negative for SARS-CoV-2 were used as controls.RESULTS We found that the immune landscape in COVID-19 formed 3 dominant clusters, which correlated with disease severity. Longitudinal analysis identified a pattern of productive innate and adaptive immune responses in individuals who had a moderate disease course, whereas those with severe disease had features suggestive of a protracted and dysregulated immune response. Further, we identified coordinate immune alterations accompanying clinical improvement and decline that were also seen in patients who received IL-6 pathway blockade.CONCLUSION The hospitalized COVID-19 negative cohort allowed us to identify immune alterations that were shared between severe COVID-19 and other critically ill patients. Collectively, our findings indicate that selection of immune interventions should be based in part on disease presentation and early disease trajectory due to the profound differences in the immune response in those with mild to moderate disease and those with the most severe disease.FUNDING Benaroya Family Foundation, the Leonard and Norma Klorfine Foundation, Glenn and Mary Lynn Mounger, and the National Institutes of Health.
Hamid Bolouri, Cate Speake, David Skibinski, S. Alice Long, Anne M. Hocking, Daniel J. Campbell, Jessica A. Hamerman, Uma Malhotra, Jane H. Buckner, the Benaroya Research Institute COVID-19 Research Team
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has recently been described in children (MIS-C), partially overlapping with Kawasaki disease (KD). We hypothesized that: 1) MIS-C and pre-pandemic KD cytokine profiles may be unique and justify the clinical differences observed; 2) SARS-CoV-2-specific immune complexes (IC) may explain the immunopathology of MIS-C. Seventy-four children were included: 14 MIS-C; 9 patients with positive SARS-CoV-2-PCR without MIS-C (COVID); 14 pre-pandemic KD and 37 healthy controls (HC). Thirty-four circulating cytokines were quantified in pre-treatment serum or plasma samples and the presence of circulating SARS-CoV-2 IC was evaluated in MIS-C patients. Compared to HC, MIS-C and KD groups showed most cytokines to be significantly elevated, with IFN-γ-induced response markers (including IFN-γ, IL-18, IP-10) and inflammatory monocytes activation markers (including MCP-1, IL-1α, IL-1RA) being the main triggers of inflammation. With linear discriminant analysis, MIS-C and KD profiles overlapped; however, a subgroup of MIS-C patients (MIS-Cplus) differentiated from the remaining MIS-C patients in IFN-γ, IL-18, GM-CSF, RANTES, IP-10, IL-1α and SDF-1 and incipient signs of macrophagic activation syndrome. Circulating SARS-CoV-2-IC were not detected in MIS-C patients. Our findings suggest a major role of IFN-γ in the pathogenesis of MIS-C, which may be relevant for therapeutic management.
Ana Esteve-Sole, Jordi Anton, Rosa Maria Pino-Ramírez, Judith Sanchez-Manubens, Victoria Fumadó, Clàudia Fortuny, María Rios-Barnes, Joan Sanchez-de-Toledo, Mónica Girona-Alarcón, Juan M. Mosquera, Silvia Ricart, Cristian Launes, Mariona Fernández de Sevilla, Cristina Jou, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Eva González-Roca, Andrea Vergara, Jorge Carrillo, Manel Juan, Daniel Cuadras, Antoni Noguera-Julian, Iolanda Jordan, Laia Alsina
The effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the pathophysiology of the placenta and its impact on pregnancy outcome has not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we present a comprehensive clinical, morphological, and molecular analysis of placental tissues from pregnant women with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 could be detected in half of placental tissues from SARS-CoV-2-positive women. The presence of the virus was not associated with any distinctive pathological, maternal or neonatal outcome features. SARS-CoV-2 tissue load was low in all but one patient which exhibited severe placental damage leading to neonatal neurological manifestations. The placental transcriptional response induced by high viral load of SARS-CoV-2 showed an immunopathology phenotype similar to autopsy lung tissues from patients with severe COVID-19. This finding contrasted with the lack of inflammatory response in placental tissues from SARS-CoV-2-positive women with low viral tissue load and from SARS-CoV-2-negative women. Importantly, no evidence of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was found in any newborns, suggesting that the placenta may be an effective maternal-neonatal barrier against the virus even in the presence of severe infection. Our observations suggest that severe placental damage induced by the virus may be detrimental for the neonate independently of vertical transmission.
Fulvia Milena Cribiù, Roberta Erra, Lorenza Pugni, Carlota Rubio-Perez, Lidia Alonso, Sara Simonetti, Giorgio A. Croci, Garazi Serna, Andrea Ronchi, Carlo Pietrasanta, Giovanna Lunghi, Anna Maria Fagnani, Maria Piñana, Matthias S. Matter, Alexandar Tzankov, Luigi Terracciano, Andres Anton, Enrico Ferrazzi, Stefano Ferrero, Enrico Iurlaro, Joan Seoane, Paolo Nuciforo
The immunopathology of COVID-19 remains enigmatic, exhibiting immunodysregulation and T cell lymphopenia. Monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSC) are T cell suppressors that expand in inflammatory conditions, but their role in acute respiratory infections remains unclear. We studied blood and airways of COVID-19 patients across disease severity at multiple timepoints. M-MDSC frequencies were elevated in blood but not in nasopharyngeal or endotracheal aspirates of COVID-19 patients compared to controls. M-MDSCs isolated from COVID-19 patients suppressed T cell proliferation and IFNg production partly via an arginase-1 (Arg-1) dependent mechanism. Furthermore, patients showed increased Arg-1 and IL-6 plasma levels. COVID-19 patients had fewer T cells, and displayed downregulated expression of the CD3ζ chain. Ordinal regression showed that early M-MDSC frequency predicted subsequent disease severity. In conclusion, M-MDSCs expand in blood of COVID-19 patients, suppress T cells and strongly associate with disease severity, suggesting a role for M-MDSCs in the dysregulated COVID-19 immune response.
Sara Falck-Jones, Sindhu Vangeti, Meng Yu, Ryan Falck-Jones, Alberto Cagigi, Isabella Badolati, Björn Österberg, Maximilian Julius Lautenbach, Eric Ahlberg, Ang Lin, Rico Lepzien, Inga Szurgot, Klara Lenart, Fredrika Hellgren, Holden T. Maecker, Jörgen Sälde, Jan Albert, Niclas Johansson, Max Bell, Karin Lore, Anna Färnert, Anna Smed-Sörensen
Characterization of the T cell response in individuals who recover from SARS-CoV-2 infection is critical to understand its contribution to protective immunity. A multiplexed peptide-MHC tetramer approach was used to screen 408 SARS-CoV-2 candidate epitopes for CD8+ T cell recognition in a cross-sectional sample of 30 COVID-19 convalescent individuals. T cells were evaluated using a 28-marker phenotypic panel, and findings were modelled against time from diagnosis, humoral and inflammatory responses. There were 132 SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cell responses detected across six different HLAs, corresponding to 52 unique epitope reactivities. CD8+ T cell responses were detected in almost all convalescent individuals and were directed against several structural and non-structural target epitopes from the entire SARS-CoV-2 proteome. A unique phenotype for SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells was observed that was distinct from other common virus-specific T cells detected in the same cross-sectional sample and characterized by early differentiation kinetics. Modelling demonstrated a coordinated and dynamic immune response characterized by a decrease in inflammation, increase in neutralizing antibody titer, and differentiation of a specific CD8+ T cell response. Overall, T cells exhibited distinct differentiation into stem-cell and transitional memory states, subsets, which may be key to developing durable protection.
Hassen Kared, Andrew D. Redd, Evan M. Bloch, Tania S. Bonny, Hermi R. Sumatoh, Faris Kairi, Daniel Carbajo, Brian Abel, Evan W. Newell, Maria Bettinotti, Sarah E. Benner, Eshan U. Patel, Kirsten Littlefield, Oliver Laeyendecker, Shmuel Shoham, David Sullivan, Arturo Casadevall, Andrew Pekosz, Alessandra Nardin, Michael Fehlings, Aaron AR Tobian, Thomas C. Quinn
BACKGROUND. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused over one million deaths worldwide, thus there is an urgent need to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies. The anti-tuberculosis vaccine Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) demonstrates non-specific protective innate immune-boosting effects. Here, we determined if history of BCG vaccination was associated with decreased SARS-CoV-2 infection and seroconversion in a retrospective observational study of a diverse cohort of health care workers (HCWs). METHODS. We assessed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and collected medical questionnaires, including BCG vaccination status and pre-existing demographic and clinical characteristics, from an observational cohort of HCWs in a multi-site Los Angeles healthcare organization. We used multi-variate analysis to estimate if history of BCG vaccination was associated with decreased rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and seroconversion. RESULTS. Of the 6,201 HCWs, 29.6% reported a history of BCG vaccination whereas 68.9% did not receive BCG vaccination. Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG as well as incidence of self-reported clinical symptoms associated with COVID-19 were significantly decreased among HCWs with a history of BCG vaccination compared to those without BCG vaccination. After adjusting for age and sex, we found that history of BCG vaccination, but not meningococcal, pneumococcal or influenza vaccination, was associated with decreased SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroconversion. CONCLUSIONS. History of BCG vaccination was associated with decreased seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and reduced reported COVID-19-related clinical symptoms in this cohort of HCWs. Therefore, large randomized prospective clinical trials of BCG vaccination are urgently needed to confirm if BCG vaccination can induced a protective effect against SARS-CoV2 infection. FUNDING. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute (U54 CA26059) and the Erika J. Glazer Family Foundation. Key words: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, BCG, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, healthcare workers, trained immunity.
Magali Noval Rivas, Joseph E. Ebinger, Min Wu, Nancy Sun, Jonathan Braun, Kimia Sobhani, Jennifer E. Van Eyk, Susan Cheng, Moshe Arditi
BACKGROUND Corticosteroids are widely used in patients with COVID 19, although their benefit-to-risk ratio remains controversial.METHODS Patients with severe COVID-19–related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were included from December 29, 2019 to March 16, 2020 in 5 tertiary Chinese hospitals. Cox proportional hazards and competing risks analyses were conducted to analyze the impact of corticosteroids on mortality and SARS–CoV-2 RNA clearance, respectively. We performed a propensity score (PS) matching analysis to control confounding factors.RESULTS Of 774 eligible patients, 409 patients received corticosteroids, with a median time from hospitalization to starting corticosteroids of 1.0 day (IQR 0.0–3.0 days) . As compared with usual care, treatment with corticosteroids was associated with increased rate of myocardial (15.6% vs. 10.4%, P = 0.041) and liver injury (18.3% vs. 9.9%, P = 0.001), of shock (22.0% vs. 12.6%, P < 0.001), of need for mechanical ventilation (38.1% vs. 19.5%, P < 0.001), and increased rate of 28-day all-cause mortality (44.3% vs. 31.0%, P < 0.001). After PS matching, corticosteroid therapy was associated with 28-day mortality (adjusted HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01–2.13, P = 0.045). High dose (>200 mg) and early initiation (≤3 days from hospitalization) of corticosteroid therapy were associated with a higher 28-day mortality rate. Corticosteroid use was also associated with a delay in SARS–CoV-2 coronavirus RNA clearance in the competing risk analysis (subhazard ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.17–2.15, P = 0.003).CONCLUSION Administration of corticosteroids in severe COVID-19–related ARDS is associated with increased 28-day mortality and delayed SARS–CoV-2 coronavirus RNA clearance after adjustment for time-varying confounders.FUNDING None.
Jiao Liu, Sheng Zhang, Xuan Dong, Zhongyi Li, Qianghong Xu, Huibin Feng, Jing Cai, Sisi Huang, Jun Guo, Lidi Zhang, Yizhu Chen, Wei Zhu, Hangxiang Du, Yongan Liu, Tao Wang, Limin Chen, Zhenliang Wen, Djillali Annane, Jieming Qu, Dechang Chen
No posts were found with this tag.