Proliferation of CD4+ T cells harboring HIV-1 proviruses is a major contributor to viral persistence in people on antiretroviral therapy (ART). To determine whether differential rates of clonal proliferation or HIV-1-specific CTL pressure shape the provirus landscape, we performed the intact proviral DNA assay (IPDA) and obtained 661 near-full length provirus sequences from eight individuals with suppressed viral loads on ART at time points seven years apart. We observed slow decay of intact proviruses but no changes in the proportions of various types of defective proviruses. The proportion of intact proviruses in expanded clones was similar to that of defective proviruses in clones. Intact proviruses observed in clones did not have more escaped CTL epitopes than intact proviruses observed as singlets. Concordantly, total proviruses at later timepoints or observed in clones were not enriched in escaped or unrecognized epitopes. Three individuals with natural control of HIV-1 infection (controllers) on ART, included because controllers have strong HIV-1-specific CTL responses, had a smaller proportion of intact proviruses but a similar distribution of defective provirus types and escaped or unrecognized epitopes as the other individuals. This work suggests that CTL selection does not significantly check clonal proliferation of infected cells or greatly alter the provirus landscape in people on ART.
Annukka A. R. Antar, Katharine M. Jenike, Sunyoung Jang, Danielle N. Rigau, Daniel B. Reeves, Rebecca Hoh, Melissa R. Krone, Jeanne C. Keruly, Richard D. Moore, Joshua T. Schiffer, Bareng A.S. Nonyane, Frederick M. Hecht, Steven G. Deeks, Janet D. Siliciano, Ya-Chi Ho, Robert F. Siliciano
Infusion of the broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 has been evaluated in HIV-1 chronically infected individuals. Here we studied how VRC01 infusions impacted viral rebound after cessation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 18 acutely-treated and durably-suppressed individuals. Viral rebound occurred in all individuals, yet VRC01 infusions modestly delayed rebound and participants who showed a faster decay of VRC01 in serum rebounded more rapidly (Rho=0.60, p=0.03). Participants with strains most sensitive to VRC01 or with VRC01 epitope motifs similar to known VRC01-susceptible strains rebounded later (Rho=-0.70, p<0.03). Upon rebound, HIV-1 sequences were indistinguishable from those sampled at diagnosis. Across the cohort, participant derived Env showed different sensitivity to VRC01 neutralization (including two resistant viruses), yet neutralization sensitivity was similar at diagnosis and post-rebound, indicating the lack of selection for VRC01-resistance during treatment interruption.Our results showed that viremia rebounded despite the absence of HIV-1 adaptation to VRC01 and an average VRC01 trough of 221µg/mL. While VRC01 levels were insufficient to prevent a resurgent infection, knowledge that they did not mediate Env mutations in acute-like viruses is relevant for antibody-based strategies in acute infection.
Evan M. Cale, Hongjun Bai, Meera Bose, Michael A. Messina, Donn Colby, Eric Sanders-Buell, Bethany L. Dearlove, Yifan Li, Emily Engeman, Daniel Silas, Anne Marie O’Sullivan, Brendan Mann, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, Jintana Intasan, Khunthalee Benjapornpong, Carlo Sacdalan, Eugene Kroon, Nittaya Phanuphak, Robert Gramzinski, Sandhya Vasan, Merlin L. Robb, Nelson L. Michael, Rebecca M. Lynch, Robert Bailer, Amélie Pagliuzza, Nicolas Chomont, Amarendra Pegu, Nicole A. Doria-Rose, Lydie Trautmann, Trevor A. Crowell, John Mascola, Jintanat Ananworanich, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Morgane Rolland
The precise mechanism leading to profound immunodeficiency of HIV-infected patients is still only partially understood. Here, we show that more than 80% of CD4 T cells from HIV-infected patients have morphological abnormalities. Their membranes exhibited numerous large abnormal membrane microdomains (aMMDs), which trap and inactivate physiological receptors, such as that for IL-7. In patient plasma, we identified phospholipase A2 group IB (PLA2G1B) as the key molecule responsible for the formation of aMMDs. At physiological concentrations, PLA2G1B synergized with the HIV gp41 envelope protein, which appears to be a driver that targets PLA2G1B to the CD4 T-cell surface. The PLA2G1B/gp41 pair induced CD4 T cell unresponsiveness (anergy). At high concentrations in vitro, PLA2G1B acted alone, independently of gp41, and inhibited the IL-2, IL-4, and IL-7 responses, as well as TCR-mediated activation and proliferation, of CD4 T cells. PLA2G1B also decreased CD4 T-cell survival in vitro, likely playing a role in CD4 lymphopenia in conjunction with its induced IL-7 receptor defects. The effects on CD4 T-cell anergy could be blocked by a PLA2G1B-specific neutralizing mAb in vitro and in vivo. The PLA2G1B/gp41 pair constitutes a new mechanism of immune dysfunction and a compelling target for boosting immune responses in HIV-infected patients.
Julien Pothlichet, Thierry Rose, Florence Bugault, Louise Jeammet, Annalisa Meola, Ahmed Haouz, Frederick Saul, David Geny, José Alcami, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos Carmona, Luc Teyton, Gérard Lambeau, Jacques Thèze
Curing HIV infection will require the elimination of a reservoir of infected CD4+ T-cells that persists despite HIV-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses. While viral latency is a critical factor in this persistence, recent evidence also suggests a role for intrinsic resistance of reservoir-harboring cells to CTL killing. This resistance may have contributed to negative outcomes of clinical trials, where pharmacologic latency reversal has thus far failed to drive reductions in HIV reservoirs. Through transcriptional profiling, we herein identified over-expression of the pro-survival factor BCL-2 as a distinguishing feature of CD4+ T-cells that survived CTL killing. We show that the inducible HIV reservoir was disproportionately present in BCL-2hi subsets, in ex vivo CD4+ T-cells. Treatment with the BCL-2 antagonist ‘ABT-199’ alone was not sufficient to drive reductions in ex vivo viral reservoirs, when tested either alone or with a latency reversing agent (LRA). However, the triple combination of strong LRAs, HIV-specific T-cells, and a BCL-2 antagonist uniquely enabled the depletion of ex vivo viral reservoirs. Our results provide rationale for novel therapeutic approaches targeting HIV cure and, more generally, suggest consideration of BCL-2 antagonism as a means of enhancing CTL immunotherapy in other settings, such as cancer.
Yanqin Ren, Szu-Han Huang, Shabnum Patel, Winiffer D. Conce Alberto, Dean Magat, Dughan J. Ahimovic, Amanda B. Macedo, Ryan Durga, Dora Chan, Elizabeth Zale, Talia M. Mota, Ronald Truong, Thomas Rohwetter, Chase D. McCann, Colin M. Kovacs, Erika Benko, Avery Wimpelberg, Christopher M. Cannon, W. David Hardy, Alberto Bosque, Catherine M. Bollard, R. Brad Jones
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are robust producers of interferon α (IFNα) and one of the first immune cells to respond to simian immunodeficiency virus infection. To elucidate responses to early HIV-1 replication, we studied blood pDCs in 29 HIV-infected participants who initiated antiretroviral therapy during acute infection and underwent analytic treatment interruption (ATI). An increased frequency of partially activated pDCs was observed in the blood prior to detection of HIV RNA. Concurrent with peak pDC frequency, there was a transient decline in the ability of pDCs to produce IFNα in vitro, which correlated with decreased interferon regulatory factory 7 (IRF7) and NF-kB phosphorylation. Levels of phosphorylated IRF7 and NF-kB inversely correlated with plasma IFNα2 levels, implying that pDCs were refractory to in vitro stimulation after IFNα production in vivo. After ATI, decreased expression of IFN genes in pDCs inversely correlated with time to viral detection, suggesting that pDC IFN loss is part of an effective early immune response. These data, from a limited cohort, provide a critical first step in understanding the earliest immune response to HIV-1 and suggest that changes in blood pDC frequency and function can be used as an indicator of viral replication before detectable plasma viremia.
Julie L. Mitchell, Hiroshi Takata, Roshell Muir, Donn J. Colby, Eugene Kroon, Trevor A. Crowell, Carlo Sacdalan, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, Suwanna Pattamaswin, Khunthalee Benjapornpong, Rapee Trichavaroj, Randall L. Tressler, Lawrence Fox, Victoria R. Polonis, Diane L. Bolton, Frank Maldarelli, Sharon R. Lewin, Elias K. Haddad, Praphan Phanuphak, Merlin L. Robb, Nelson L. Michael, Mark de Souza, Nittaya Phanuphak, Jintanat Ananworanich, Lydie Trautmann
Background. Understanding HIV dynamics across the human body is important for cure efforts. This goal has been hampered by technical difficulties and the challenge to obtain fresh tissues. Methods. This observational study evaluated 6 persons with HIV (4 virally suppressed with antiretroviral therapy and 2 with rebound viremia after stopping therapy) who provided blood serially before death and their bodies for rapid autopsy. HIV reservoirs were characterized by digital droplet PCR and single genome amplification and sequencing of full-length (FL) envelope HIV. Phylogeographic methods reconstructed HIV spread and generalized linear models tested for viral factors associated with dispersal. Results. Across participants, HIV DNA levels varied from ~0 to 659 copies/106 cells (IQR:22.9-126.5). A total of 605 intact FL env sequences were recovered in antemortem blood cells and across 28 tissues (IQR:5-9). Sequence analysis showed: 1) emergence of large, identical, intact HIV RNA populations in blood after stopping therapy, which repopulated tissues throughout the body, 2) multiple sites acted as hubs for HIV dissemination but blood and lymphoid tissues were the main source, and 3) viral exchanges occurred within brain areas and across the blood brain barrier, and 4) migration was associated with low HIV divergence between sites and higher diversity at the recipient site. Conclusion. HIV reservoirs persist in all deep tissues, and blood is the main source of dispersal. This may explain why eliminating HIV susceptibility in circulating T cells via bone marrow transplants allowed some people with HIV to have therapy free remission, even though deeper tissue reservoirs were not targeted. Trial registration. Not applicable. Funding. National Institute of Health Grants (P01 AI31385, P30 AI036214, AI131971-01, AI120009AI036214,HD094646, AI027763, AI134295, AI68636).
Antoine Chaillon, Sara Gianella, Simon Dellicour, Stephen A. Rawlings, Timothy E. Schlub, Michelli Faria De Oliveira, Caroline Ignacio, Magali Porrachia, Bram Vrancken, Davey M. Smith
Consuming a high-fat diet (HFD) is a risk factor for obesity and diabetes; both of these diseases are also associated with systemic inflammation, similar to HIV infection. A HFD induces intestinal dysbiosis and impairs liver function and coagulation, with a potential negative impact on HIV/SIV pathogenesis. We administered a HFD rich in saturated fats and cholesterol to nonpathogenic (African green monkeys) and pathogenic (pigtailed macaques) SIV hosts. The HFD had a negative impact on SIV disease progression in both species. Thus, increased cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA occurred in the HFD-receiving nonhuman primates, indicating a potential reservoir expansion. The HFD induced prominent immune cell infiltration in the adipose tissue, an important SIV reservoir, and heightened systemic immune activation and inflammation, altering the intestinal immune environment and triggering gut damage and microbial translocation. Furthermore, HFD altered lipid metabolism and HDL oxidation and also induced liver steatosis and fibrosis. These metabolic disturbances triggered incipient atherosclerosis and heightened cardiovascular risk in the SIV-infected HFD-receiving nonhuman primates. Our study demonstrates that dietary intake has a discernable impact on the natural history of HIV/SIV infections and suggests that dietary changes can be used as adjuvant approaches for HIV-infected subjects, to reduce inflammation and the risk of non-AIDS comorbidities and possibly other infectious diseases.
Tianyu He, Cuiling Xu, Noah Krampe, Stephanie M. Dillon, Paola Sette, Elizabeth Falwell, George S. Haret-Richter, Tiffany Butterfield, Tammy L. Dunsmore, William M. McFadden Jr., Kathryn J. Martin, Benjamin B. Policicchio, Kevin D. Raehtz, Ellen P. Penn, Russell P. Tracy, Ruy M. Ribeiro, Daniel N. Frank, Cara C. Wilson, Alan L. Landay, Cristian Apetrei, Ivona Pandrea
Interventions to prevent HIV-1 infection and alternative tools in HIV cure therapy remain pressing goals. Recently, numerous broadly neutralizing HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) have been developed which possess the characteristics necessary for potential prophylactic or therapeutic approaches. However, formulation complexities especially for multi-antibody deliveries, long infusion times, and production issues could limit the use of these bNAbs when deployed globally impacting their potential application. Here, we describe an approach utilizing synthetic DNA-encoded monoclonal antibodies (dMAbs) for direct in vivo production of prespecified neutralizing activity. We designed 16 different bNAbs as dMAbs cassettes and studied their activity in small and large animals. Sera from animals administered dMAbs neutralized multiple HIV-1 isolates with similar activity to their parental recombinant MAbs. Delivery of multiple dMAbs to a single animal led to increased neutralization breadth. Two dMAbs, PGDM1400 and PGT121, were advanced into non-human primates for study. High peak circulating levels (between 6-34µg/ml) of these dMAbs were measured and the sera of all animals displayed broad neutralizing activity. The dMAb approach provides an important local delivery platform for the in vivo generation of HIV-1 bNAbs and for other infectious disease antibodies.
Megan C. Wise, Ziyang Xu, Edgar Tello-Ruiz, Charles Beck, Aspen Trautz, Ami Patel, Sarah T.C. Elliott, Neethu Chokkalingam, Sophie Kim, Melissa G. Kerkau, Kar Muthumani, Jingjing Jiang, Paul Fisher, Stephany J. Ramos, Trevor R.F. Smith, Janess Mendoza, Kate E. Broderick, David C. Montefiori, Guido Ferrari, Daniel W. Kulp, Laurent Humeau, David B. Weiner
CD8+ T cell responses are necessary for immune control of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). However, the key parameters that dictate antiviral potency remain elusive, conceivably because most studies to date have been restricted to analyses of circulating CD8+ T cells. We conducted a detailed clonotypic, functional, and phenotypic survey of SIV-specific CD8+ T cells across multiple anatomical sites in chronically infected rhesus macaques with high (> 10,000 copies/mL plasma) or low burdens of viral RNA (< 10,000 copies/mL plasma). No significant differences in response magnitude were identified across anatomical compartments. Rhesus macaques with low viral loads (VLs) harbored higher frequencies of polyfunctional CXCR5+ SIV-specific CD8+ T cells in various lymphoid tissues and higher proportions of unique Gag-specific CD8+ T cell clonotypes in the mesenteric lymph nodes relative to rhesus macaques with high VLs. In addition, public Gag-specific CD8+ T cell clonotypes were more commonly shared across distinct anatomical sites than the corresponding private clonotypes, which tended to form tissue-specific repertoires, especially in the peripheral blood and the gastrointestinal tract. Collectively, these data suggest that functionality and tissue localization are important determinants of CD8+ T cell-mediated efficacy against SIV.
Carly E. Starke, Carol L. Vinton, Kristin Ladell, James E. McLaren, Alexandra M. Ortiz, Joseph C. Mudd, Jacob K. Flynn, Stephen H. Lai, Fan Wu, Vanessa M. Hirsch, Samuel Darko, Daniel C. Douek, David A. Price, Jason M. Brenchley
HVTN 505 is a preventative vaccine efficacy trial testing DNA followed by recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) in circumcised, Ad5-seronegative men and transgendered persons who have sex with men in the United States. Identified immune correlates of lower HIV-1 risk and a virus sieve analysis revealed that, despite lacking overall efficacy, vaccine-elicited responses exerted pressure on infecting HIV-1 viruses. To interrogate the mechanism of the antibody correlate of HIV-1 risk, we examined antigen-specific antibody recruitment of Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and the role of anti-envelope (anti-Env) IgG3. In a prespecified immune correlates analysis, antibody-dependent monocyte phagocytosis and antibody binding to FcγRIIa correlated with decreased HIV-1 risk. Follow-up analyses revealed that anti-Env IgG3 breadth correlated with reduced HIV-1 risk, anti-Env IgA negatively modified infection risk by Fc effector functions, and that vaccine recipients with a specific FcγRIIa single-nucleotide polymorphism locus had a stronger correlation with decreased HIV-1 risk when ADCP, Env-FcγRIIa, and IgG3 binding were high. Additionally, FcγRIIa engagement correlated with decreased viral load setpoint in vaccine recipients who acquired HIV-1. These data support a role for vaccine-elicited anti–HIV-1 Env IgG3, antibody engagement of FcRs, and phagocytosis as potential mechanisms for HIV-1 prevention.
Scott D. Neidich, Youyi Fong, Shuying S. Li, Daniel E. Geraghty, Brian D. Williamson, William Chad Young, Derrick Goodman, Kelly E. Seaton, Xiaoying Shen, Sheetal Sawant, Lu Zhang, Allan C. deCamp, Bryan S. Blette, Mengshu Shao, Nicole L. Yates, Frederick Feely, Chul-Woo Pyo, Guido Ferrari, HVTN 505 Team, Ian Frank, Shelly T. Karuna, Edith M. Swann, John R. Mascola, Barney S. Graham, Scott M. Hammer, Magdalena E. Sobieszczyk, Lawrence Corey, Holly E. Janes, M. Juliana McElrath, Raphael Gottardo, Peter B. Gilbert, Georgia D. Tomaras