The alternative sigma factor RpoS in Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the Lyme disease pathogen, is responsible for programmatic positive and negative gene regulation essential for the spirochete’s dual-host enzootic cycle. RpoS is expressed during tick-to-mammal transmission and throughout mammalian infection. Although the mammalian-phase RpoS regulon is well described, its counterpart during the transmission blood meal is unknown. Here, we used Bb-specific transcript enrichment by TBDCapSeq to compare the transcriptomes of wild-type and ΔrpoS Bb in engorged nymphs and following mammalian host-adaptation within dialysis membrane chambers. TBDCapSeq revealed dramatic changes in the contours of the RpoS regulon within ticks and mammals and further confirmed that RpoS-mediated repression is specific to the mammalian-phase of Bb’s enzootic cycle. We also provide evidence that RpoS-dependent gene regulation, including repression of tick-phase genes, is required for persistence in mice. Comparative transcriptomics of engineered Bb strains revealed that BosR, a non-canonical Fur family regulator, and the c-di-GMP effector PlzA reciprocally regulate RpoS function. BosR is required for RpoS-mediated transcription activation and repression in addition to its well-defined role promoting RpoN-dependent transcription of rpoS. During transmission, liganded-PlzA antagonizes RpoS-mediated repression, presumably acting through BosR.
André A. Grassmann, Rafal Tokarz, Caroline Golino, Melissa A. McLain, Ashley M. Groshong, Justin D. Radolf, Melissa J. Caimano
BACKGROUND. To date, only limited data is available on the mechanisms of protection against colonization with Bordetella pertussis in humans. METHODS. In this study, the cellular responses to Bordetella pertussis challenge were monitored longitudinally using high-dimensional EuroFlow-based flow cytometry, allowing quantitative detection of >250 different immune cell subsets in the blood of 15 healthy donors. RESULTS. Participants who were protected against colonization showed different early cellular responses compared to colonized participants. Especially prominent for colonization-protected participants were the early expansion of (CD36-) non classical monocytes at day 1 (d1), Natural Killer cells (d3), follicular T helper cells (d1-d3) and plasma cells (d3). Plasma cell expansion at d3 correlated negatively with the CFU load at d7 and d9 post-challenge. Increased plasma cell maturation at d11-14 was found in participants with seroconversion. CONCLUSION. These early cellular immune responses following experimental infection can now be further characterized and potentially linked to an efficient mucosal immune response, preventing colonization. Ultimately, their presence may be used to evaluate whether new Bordetella pertussis vaccine candidates are protective against Bordetella pertussis colonization, e.g., by bacterial challenge post-vaccination. TRIAL REGISTRATION. NCT03751514. FUNDING. This study is part of the PERISCOPE Project, which has received funding from the Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking under grant agreement No 115910. The flow cytometric studies were supported by the EuroFlow Consortium.
Annieck M. Diks, Hans de Graaf, Cristina Teodosio, Rick J. Groenland, Bas de Mooij, Muktar Ibrahim, Alison R. Hill, Robert C. Read, Jacques J.M. van Dongen, Magdalena A. Berkowska
Control of intracellular parasites responsible for malaria requires host IFN-γ+T-bet+CD4+ T cells (Th1 cells) with IL-10 produced by Th1 cells to mitigate the pathology induced by this inflammatory response. However, these IL-10–producing Th1 (induced type I regulatory [Tr1]) cells can also promote parasite persistence or impair immunity to reinfection or vaccination. Here, we identified molecular and phenotypic signatures that distinguished IL-10–Th1 cells from IL-10+Tr1 cells in Plasmodium falciparum–infected people who participated in controlled human malaria infection studies, as well as C57BL/6 mice with experimental malaria caused by P. berghei ANKA. We also identified a conserved Tr1 cell molecular signature shared between patients with malaria, dengue, and graft-versus-host disease. Genetic manipulation of primary human CD4+ T cells showed that the transcription factor cMAF played an important role in the induction of IL-10, while BLIMP-1 promoted the development of human CD4+ T cells expressing multiple coinhibitory receptors. We also describe heterogeneity of Tr1 cell coinhibitory receptor expression that has implications for targeting these molecules for clinical advantage during infection. Overall, this work provides insights into CD4+ T cell development during malaria that offer opportunities for creation of strategies to modulate CD4+ T cell functions and improve antiparasitic immunity.
Chelsea L. Edwards, Susanna S. Ng, Fabian de Labastida Rivera, Dillon Corvino, Jessica A. Engel, Marcela Montes de Oca, Luzia Bukali, Teija C.M. Frame, Patrick T. Bunn, Shashi Bhushan Chauhan, Siddharth Sankar Singh, Yulin Wang, Jinrui Na, Fiona H. Amante, Jessica R. Loughland, Megan S.F. Soon, Nicola Waddell, Pamela Mukhopadhay, Lambros T. Koufariotis, Rebecca L. Johnston, Jason S. Lee, Rachel Kuns, Ping Zhang, Michelle J. Boyle, Geoffrey R. Hill, James S. McCarthy, Rajiv Kumar, Christian R. Engwerda
Accumulation of activated immune cells results in nonspecific hepatocyte killing in chronic hepatitis B (CHB), leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. This study aims to understand the underlying mechanisms in humans and to define whether these are driven by widespread activation or a subpopulation of immune cells. We enrolled CHB patients with active liver damage to receive antiviral therapy and performed longitudinal liver sampling using fine-needle aspiration to investigate mechanisms of CHB pathogenesis in the human liver. Single-cell sequencing of total liver cells revealed a distinct liver-resident, polyclonal CD8+ T cell population that was enriched at baseline and displayed a highly activated immune signature during liver damage. Cytokine combinations, identified by in silico prediction of ligand-receptor interaction, induced the activated phenotype in healthy liver CD8+ T cells, resulting in nonspecific Fas ligand–mediated killing of target cells. These results define a CD8+ T cell population in the human liver that can drive pathogenesis and a key pathway involved in their function in CHB patients.
Shirin Nkongolo, Deeqa Mahamed, Adrian Kuipery, Juan D. Sanchez Vasquez, Samuel C. Kim, Aman Mehrotra, Anjali Patel, Christine Hu, Ian McGilvray, Jordan J. Feld, Scott Fung, Diana Chen, Jeffrey J. Wallin, Anuj Gaggar, Harry L.A. Janssen, Adam J. Gehring
There is an unmet need for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for prevention or as adjunctive treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) disease. Most vaccine and mAb efforts focus on neutralizing antibodies, but for HSV this strategy has proven ineffective. Preclinical studies with a candidate HSV vaccine strain, ΔgD-2, demonstrated that non-neutralizing antibodies that activate Fc-gamma receptors (FcɣRs) to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) provide active and passive protection against HSV-1 and HSV-2. We hypothesized that this vaccine provides a tool to identify and characterize protective mAbs. We isolated HSV-specific mAbs from germinal center and memory B cells and bone marrow plasmacytes of ΔgD-2 vaccinated mice and evaluated these mAbs for binding, neutralizing and FcɣR-activating activity and for protective efficacy in mice. The most potent protective mAb, BMPC-23, was not neutralizing but activated murine FcɣRIV, a biomarker of ADCC. The cryo-EM structure of the Fab-glycoprotein B (gB) assembly identified domain IV of gB as the epitope. A single dose of BMPC-23 administered 24 hours before or after viral challenge provided significant protection when configured as mouse IgG2c and protected mice expressing human FcɣRIII when engineered as a human IgG1. These results highlight the importance of FcɣR-activating antibodies in protecting against HSV.
Masayuki Kuraoka, Clare Burn Aschner, Ian W. Windsor, Aakash Mahant Mahant, Scott J. Garforth, Susan Luozheng Kong, Jacqueline M. Achkar, Steven C. Almo, Garnett Kelsoe, Betsy C. Herold
The emergence of the novel henipavirus, Langya virus, received global attention earlier this month after the virus sickened over three dozen people in China. There is heightened concern henipaviruses as respiratory pathogens could spark another pandemic, most notably the deadly Nipah virus (NiV). NiV causes near annual outbreaks in Bangladesh and India and induces a highly fatal respiratory disease and encephalitis in humans. No licensed countermeasures against this pathogen exist. An ideal NiV vaccine would confer both fast-acting and long-lived protection. Recently, we reported the generation of a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)-based vaccine expressing the NiV glycoprotein (rVSV-ΔG-NiVBG) that protected 100% of nonhuman primates from NiV-associated lethality within a week. Here, to evaluate the durability of rVSV-ΔG-NiVBG, we vaccinated African green monkeys (AGMs) one year prior to challenge with a uniformly lethal dose of NiV. The rVSV-ΔG-NiVBG vaccine induced stable and robust humoral responses, whereas cellular responses were modest. All immunized AGMs (whether receiving a single dose or prime-boosted) survived with no detectable clinical signs or NiV replication. Transcriptomic analyses indicated adaptive immune signatures correlated with vaccine-mediated protection. While vaccines for certain respiratory infections (e.g., COVID-19) have yet to provide durable protection, our results suggest rVSV-ΔG-NiVBG elicits long-lasting immunity.
Courtney Woolsey, Viktoriya Borisevich, Alyssa C. Fears, Krystle N. Agans, Daniel J. Deer, Abhishek N. Prasad, Rachel O'Toole, Stephanie L. Foster, Natalie S. Dobias, Joan B. Geisbert, Karla A. Fenton, Robert W. Cross, Thomas Geisbert
Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis typically affects immunocompetent individuals following traumatic inoculation. Severe or disseminated infection can occur in CARD9 deficiency or after transplantation, but the mechanisms protecting against phaeohyphomycosis remain unclear. We evaluated a patient with progressive, refractory Corynespora cassiicola phaeohyphomycosis and found that he carried biallelic deleterious mutations in CLEC7A encoding the CARD9-coupled, β-glucan–binding receptor, Dectin-1. The patient’s PBMCs failed to produce TNF-α and IL-1β in response to β-glucan and/or C. cassiicola. To confirm the cellular and molecular requirements for immunity against C. cassiicola, we developed a mouse model of this infection. Mouse macrophages required Dectin-1 and CARD9 for IL-1β and TNF-α production, which enhanced fungal killing in an interdependent manner. Deficiency of either Dectin-1 or CARD9 was associated with more severe fungal disease, recapitulating the human observation. Because these data implicated impaired Dectin-1 responses in susceptibility to phaeohyphomycosis, we evaluated 17 additional unrelated patients with severe forms of the infection. We found that 12 out of 17 carried deleterious CLEC7A mutations associated with an altered Dectin-1 extracellular C-terminal domain and impaired Dectin-1–dependent cytokine production. Thus, we show that Dectin-1 and CARD9 promote protective TNF-α– and IL-1β–mediated macrophage defense against C. cassiicola. More broadly, we demonstrate that human Dectin-1 deficiency may contribute to susceptibility to severe phaeohyphomycosis by certain dematiaceous fungi.
Rebecca A. Drummond, Jigar V. Desai, Amy P. Hsu, Vasileios Oikonomou, Donald C. Vinh, Joshua A. Acklin, Michael S. Abers, Magdalena A. Walkiewicz, Sarah L. Anzick, Muthulekha Swamydas, Simon Vautier, Mukil Natarajan, Andrew J. Oler, Daisuke Yamanaka, Katrin D. Mayer-Barber, Yoichiro Iwakura, David Bianchi, Brian Driscoll, Ken Hauck, Ahnika Kline, Nicholas S.P. Viall, Christa S. Zerbe, Elise M.N. Ferré, Monica M. Schmitt, Tom DiMaggio, Stefania Pittaluga, John A. Butman, Adrian M. Zelazny, Yvonne R. Shea, Cesar A. Arias, Cameron Ashbaugh, Maryam Mahmood, Zelalem Temesgen, Alexander G. Theofiles, Masayuki Nigo, Varsha Moudgal, Karen C. Bloch, Sean G. Kelly, M. Suzanne Whitworth, Ganesh Rao, Cindy J. Whitener, Neema Mafi, Juan Gea-Banacloche, Lawrence C. Kenyon, William R. Miller, Katia Boggian, Andrea Gilbert, Matthew Sincock, Alexandra F. Freeman, John E. Bennett, Rodrigo Hasbun, Constantinos M. Mikelis, Kyung J. Kwon-Chung, Yasmine Belkaid, Gordon D. Brown, Jean K. Lim, Douglas B. Kuhns, Steven M. Holland, Michail S. Lionakis
T cell exhaustion is a state of T cell dysfunction associated with expression of programmed death 1 (PD-1). Exhausted CD8 T cells are maintained by self-renewing stem-like T (TSL) cells that provide differentiated TIM3+ cells, a part of which possesses effector-like properties. PD-1-targeted therapies enhance T cell response by promoting differentiation of TSL cells toward TIM3+ cells, but the role of mTOR during T cell exhaustion remains elusive. Here, we show that mTOR inhibition has distinct outcomes during the beginning of and after the establishment of chronic viral infection. Blocking mTOR during the T cell expansion phase enhanced the T cell response by accumulating TSL cells, leading to improved efficacy of PD-1 immunotherapy. Whereas, after exhaustion progressed, mTOR inhibition caused immunosuppression characterized by decreased TIM3+ cells and increased viral load with minimal changes in TSL cells. Mechanistically, a cell-intrinsic mTOR signal was vital for differentiation of TSL cells into the TIM3+ state in the early and late phases of chronic infection as well as during PD-1 immunotherapy. Thus, PD-1 blockade worked after cessation of mTOR inhibition but simultaneous treatment failed to induce functional TIM3+ cells, reducing efficacy of PD-1 immunotherapy. Our data demonstrate that mTOR regulates T cell exhaustion and have important implications for combination cancer therapies with PD-1 blockade
Satomi Ando, Charles Perkins, Yamato Sajiki, Chase Chastain, Rajesh M. Valanparambil, Andreas Wieland, William H. Hudson, Masao Hashimoto, Suresh S. Ramalingam, Gordon J. Freeman, Rafi Ahmed, Koichi Araki
An effective adaptive immune response depends on the organized architecture of secondary lymphoid organs, including the lymph nodes (LNs). While the cellular composition and microanatomy of LNs under steady state are well defined, the impact of chronic tissue inflammation on the structure and function of draining LNs is incompletely understood. Here we showed that Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection remodeled LN architecture by increasing the number and paracortical translocation of B cells. The formation of paracortical B lymphocyte and CD35+ follicular dendritic cell clusters dispersed CCL21-producing fibroblastic reticular cells and segregated pathogen-containing myeloid cells from antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. Depletion of B cells restored the chemokine and lymphoid structure and reduced bacterial burdens in LNs of the chronically infected mice. Importantly, this remodeling process impaired activation of naive CD4+ T cells in response to mycobacterial and unrelated antigens during chronic tuberculosis infection. Our studies reveal a mechanism in the regulation of LN microanatomy during inflammation and identify B cells as a critical element limiting the T cell response to persistent intracellular infection in LNs.
Lina Daniel, Nayan D. Bhattacharyya, Claudio Counoupas, Yi Cai, Xinchun Chen, James A. Triccas, Warwick J. Britton, Carl G. Feng
The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein is synthesized as large precursor protein and must be activated by proteolytic cleavage into S1 and S2. A recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing native, full-length S protein (MVA-SARS-2-S) is currently under investigation as candidate vaccine in phase I clinical studies. Initial results from immunogenicity monitoring revealed induction of S-specific antibodies binding to S2, but low-level antibody responses to the S1 domain. Follow-up investigations of native S antigen synthesis in MVA-SARS-2-S infected cells revealed limited levels of S1 protein on the cell surface. In contrast, we found superior S1 cell surface presentation upon infection with a recombinant MVA expressing a stabilized version of SARS-CoV-2 S protein with an inactivated S1/2 cleavage site and K986→P and V987→P mutations (MVA-SARS-2-ST). When comparing immunogenicity of MVA vector vaccines, mice vaccinated with MVA-SARS-2-ST mounted substantial levels of S broadly reactive antibodies that effectively neutralized different SARS-CoV-2 variants. Importantly, intramuscular MVA-SARS-2-ST immunization of hamsters and mice resulted in potent immune responses upon challenge infection and protected from disease and severe lung pathology. Our results suggest that MVA-SARS-2-ST represents an improved clinical candidate vaccine and that the presence of plasma membrane-bound S1 is highly beneficial to induce protective antibody levels.
Christian Meyer zu Natrup, Alina Tscherne, Christine Dahlke, Malgorzata Ciurkiewicz, Dai-Lun Shin, Anahita Fathi, Cornelius Rohde, Georgia Kalodimou, Sandro Halwe, Leonard Limpinsel, Jan H. Schwarz, Martha Klug, Meral Esen, Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra, Alex Dulovic, Alexandra Kupke, Katrin Brosinski, Sabrina Clever, Lisa-Marie Schünemann, Georg Beythien, Federico Armando, Leonie Mayer, Leonie M. Weskamm, Sylvia Jany, Astrid Freudenstein, Tamara Tuchel, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Peter Kremsner, Rolf Fendel, Marylyn M. Addo, Stephan Becker, Gerd Sutter, Asisa Volz
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