J Uitto, A M Christiano
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a protein hormone implicated in the development of septic shock and other pathologic states. However, complexities inherent in detecting TNF synthesis by individual tissues have left the precise origins of this protein undefined. In addition, the possibility that localized TNF production may contribute to the pathogenesis of organ-specific diseases such as type I diabetes has not been explored in vivo. We have developed a transgenic mouse line bearing a reporter gene construct in which the TNF coding sequence and introns are replaced by a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) coding sequence. In normal transgenic animals, CAT activity is expressed only in the thymus. When endotoxin is administered to the animals, CAT activity is also evident in kidney, heart, islets of Langerhans, spleen, lung, fallopian tubes, and uterus, but not in other organs. The biosynthesis of CAT in vivo correlated with tissue capacity to secrete TNF in vitro. Thus, TNF was secreted by all the tissues that expressed CAT, including lung, spleen, thymus, uterus/fallopian tubes, pancreatic islets, renal glomeruli, and cultured cardiac cells after exposure to endotoxin.
B P Giroir, J H Johnson, T Brown, G L Allen, B Beutler
To determine if a relationship exists among the magnitude and rate of airway rewarming, and the severity of bronchial obstruction in thermally induced asthma, we had seven subjects perform three- to four-point stimulus response curves with isocapnic hyperventilation of frigid air with and without pretreatment with inhaled norepinephrine. The latter was employed to alter the heat supplied to the airway walls by producing vasoconstriction. 1-s forced expiratory volume (FEV1) was measured before and 5 min after the cessation of each bout of hyperpnea and before and after norepinephrine. On a separate day, the subjects repeated the above challenges while the temperatures of the airstream in the intrathoracic airways were measured. Prenorepinephrine, FEV1 progressively decreased in a stimulus response fashion as ventilation rose, while norepinephrine shifted this curve to the right. As the level of ventilation increased, the size of the temperature difference between the cooling of hyperpnea and the rewarming of recovery followed suit, and their magnitude was linearly related to the severity of bronchial narrowing. Reducing the mucosal blood supply of the airways with norepinephrine limited rewarming and attenuated the obstructive response. These data demonstrate that the airway narrowing that develops following hyperpnea and the magnitude of the thermal differences are related, and that alterations in blood supply directly affect bronchial heat flux and influence obstruction.
I A Gilbert, E R McFadden Jr
We have previously reported that a human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line (COR L103) that expresses the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene and secretes ACTH precursor peptides is relatively resistant to glucocorticoid regulation. Using this model, we have now examined alternative regulatory mechanisms of the POMC gene and found that both the mRNA and ACTH precursor peptides were stimulated four- and two-fold, respectively, after 48 h incubation with db-cAMP. Next, we examined the dopamine agonist, bromocriptine, which acts predominantly through D2 receptors linked to adenyl cyclase to cause a reduction in intracellular cAMP. Bromocriptine suppressed cAMP levels and inhibited precursor peptide secretion within 24 h in a dose-dependent manner (0.15-15 microM). At the highest dose, peptide secretion was inhibited from 95 to 53 pmol/mg protein, and POMC mRNA was reduced by 50%, while beta-actin mRNA remained unchanged. This effect could not be mimicked by incubation of cells with the alpha-adrenergic antagonist, phenoxybenzamine, suggesting that the alpha-adrenergic effects of bromocriptine were not responsible for this observation. These cells also secrete estradiol, but the secretory rate was unaffected by bromocriptine, suggesting, with the beta-actin data, that the POMC inhibition was not a cytotoxic effect. No recovery in precursor peptide secretion was seen in a 48-h period after the removal of bromocriptine. However, when the postchallenge incubation was extended to 8 d, there was a recovery in secretory potential between day 3 and day 8 and normal growth kinetics in the 4 d after removal of the drug. In contrast to these findings, the mouse corticotroph cell line, AtT20, showed no response to bromocriptine, in keeping with reports that this agonist has no effect on anterior lobe corticotrophs. We conclude that bromocriptine effectively inhibits POMC expression in SCLC cells, and that this phenomenon might be of useful clinical application.
W E Farrell, A J Clark, M F Stewart, S R Crosby, A White
Mannitol (M) and deferoxamine (DFO) can each protect against myohemoglobinuric acute renal failure (MH-ARF). This study assessed M-DFO interactions during MH-ARF to help discern mechanisms of renal injury, and to define whether M + DFO exerts additive or synergistic antioxidant/cytoprotective effects. Rats subjected to the glycerol model of MH-ARF were treated with (a) M; (b) DFO; (c) M + DFO; or (d) no protective agents. Relative degrees of protection (24-h plasma urea/creatinine concentrations) were M + DFO greater than M greater than DFO greater than or equal to no therapy. To assess whether catalytic Fe is generated during MH-ARF, the bleomycin assay was applied to plasma/urine samples obtained 0-2 h post-glycerol injection. Although striking plasma and urinary increments were noted, excess renal hydroxyl radical (.OH) production was not apparent (gauged by the salicylate trap method). M increased catalytic Fe excretion (four times), whereas DFO eliminated its urinary (but not plasma) activity. To determine direct M/DFO effects on proximal tubular cell oxidant injury, isolated rat proximal tubular segments (PTS) were incubated with toxic dosages of FeSO4 or H2O2. Despite inducing cell injury (lactic dehydrogenase release), Fe caused no .OH production. DFO conferred dose-dependent cytoprotection, correlating with increased, not decreased, .OH generation. Although M scavenged this .OH excess, it had no additive or independent, protective effect. H2O2 cytotoxicity correlated with increased catalytic Fe (but not .OH) generation. The fact that DFO (but not .OH scavengers [M and dimethylthiourea]) blocked H2O2 toxicity implied Fe-dependent, .OH-independent cell killing. In conclusion, (a) striking catalytic Fe generation occurs during MH-ARF, but augmented intrarenal .OH production may not develop; (b) DFO can block Fe toxicity despite a prooxidant effect; (c) H2O2 PTS toxicity is Fe, but possibly not .OH, dependent; and (d) M does not mitigate oxidant PTS injury, either in the presence or absence of DFO, suggesting that its additive benefit with DFO in vivo occurs via a diuretic, not antioxidant effect.
R A Zager
To characterize the nature of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) autoantibodies present in the sera of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease, we cloned three IgG1/kappa Fab fragments which bind 125I-TPO. This was accomplished by the molecular cloning and expression in bacteria of IgG gene fragments from B cells infiltrating the thyroid of a patient with Graves' disease. The three Fab fragments (SP2, SP4, and SP5) are coded for by a common heavy chain (VH1, D, JH3) and three related, but different, light chains (VK1, JK2). The SP Fab fragments bind specifically to TPO with high affinities (6 x 10(-11)-2 x 10(-10) M) comparable to those of serum TPO autoantibodies. TPO autoantibodies represented by the SP Fab fragments are present in all 11 patients studied, constitute a high proportion (36-72%) of serum TPO autoantibodies in individual patients and interact with a conformational epitope on TPO.
S Portolano, G D Chazenbalk, P Seto, J S Hutchison, B Rapoport, S M McLachlan
Hyperglycemia has been shown to diminish Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity in rabbit aorta. To examine the basis for this effect, aortic rings were incubated for 3 h in Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 5.5 or 44 mM glucose, and Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity was then quantified on the basis of ouabain-sensitive (OS) 86Rb-uptake. Incubation with 44 mM glucose medium caused a 60% decrease in Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity in rings with intact endothelium (from 0.22 +/- 0.01 to 0.091 +/- 0.006 nmol/min per mg dry wt; P less than 0.01). Similar decreases (45%; P less than 0.01) in Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity were seen when rings incubated with 5.5 mM glucose were exposed to NG-monomethyl L-arginine (300 microM), an inhibitor of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO) synthesis or when the endothelium was removed (43% decrease). The decrease in Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity induced by hyperglycemia was totally reversed upon adding to the medium either L-arginine, a precursor of EDNO biosynthesis or sodium nitroprusside, which bypasses endothelium and directly activates the soluble guanylate cyclase in vascular smooth muscle. A decrease in Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity (42%; P less than 0.05), only seen in the presence of endothelium, was also observed in aortas taken directly from alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. These studies suggest that the decrease in vascular Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity induced by hyperglycemia is related, at least in part, to a decrease in the basal release of EDNO. They also suggest that alterations in basal EDNO release and possibly Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity contribute to the impairment in vascular relaxation caused by hyperglycemia and diabetes.
S Gupta, I Sussman, C S McArthur, K Tornheim, R A Cohen, N B Ruderman
Studies were performed to assess whether ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels on rabbit preglomerular vessels can influence afferent arteriolar (AA) tone. K+ channels with a slope conductance of 258 +/- 13 (n = 7) pS and pronounced voltage dependence were demonstrated in excised patches from vascular smooth muscle cells of microdissected preglomerular segments. Channel activity was markedly reduced by 1 mM ATP and in a dose-dependent fashion by glibenclamide (10(-9) M to 10(-6) M), a specific antagonist of KATP channels. 10(-5) M diazoxide, a K+ channel opener, activated these channels in the presence of ATP, and this effect was also blocked by glibenclamide. To determine the role of these KATP channels in the control of vascular tone, diazoxide was tested on isolated perfused AA. After preconstriction from a control diameter of 13.1 +/- 1.1 to 3.5 +/- 2.1 microns with phenylephrine (PE), addition of 10(-5) M diazoxide dilated vessels to 11.2 +/- 0.7 microns, which was not different from control. Further addition of 10(-5) M glibenclamide reconstricted the vessels to 5.8 +/- 1.5 microns (n = 5; P less than 0.03). In support of its specificity for KATP channels, glibenclamide did not reverse verapamil induced dilation in a separate series of experiments. To determine whether intracellular ATP levels can effect AA tone, studies were conducted to test the effect of the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose. After preconstriction from 13.4 +/- 3.2 to 7.7 +/- 1.3 microns with PE, bath glucose was replaced with 6 mM 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Within 10 min, the arteriole dilated to a mean value of 11.8 +/- 1.4 microns (n = 6; NS compared to control). Subsequent addition of 10(-5) M glibenclamide significantly reconstricted the vessels to a diameter of 8.6 +/- 0.5 micron (P less than 0.04). These data demonstrate that KATP channels are present on the preglomerular vasculature and that changes in intracellular ATP can directly influence afferent arteriolar tone via these channels.
J N Lorenz, J Schnermann, F C Brosius, J P Briggs, P B Furspan
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of dendritic cell (DC) transfers on the incidence of diabetes in female nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Groups of 4-wk-old NOD female mice were given a single foot pad of DCs (70-90% purity) isolated from the draining lymph nodes (LN) of the pancreas (PLN), the cervical LNs, or the axillary/inguinal LNs. In addition, other groups of NOD mice received purified spleen DCs, purified PLN T cells (the major contaminating population in DC preparations), or the injection vehicle PBS. All groups were monitored for diabetes for one year. Significant protection from diabetes was observed in NOD mice receiving greater than 1 x 10(4) PLN DCs in comparison to mice receiving other DCs populations, PLN T cells, or PBS (P less than 0.05). The pancreata of NOD mice that received PLN DCs demonstrated significantly lower levels of lymphocytic infiltration in the islets that age-sex matched nondiabetic female NOD control mice (P less than 0.05). LN cells from nondiabetic NOD mice that received PLN DC protected irradiated female recipients from the adoptive transfer of diabetes to a greater degree than LN cells from age and sex matched nondiabetic female NOD mice that did not receive PLN DC transfers at 36 d (P = 0.014) and at 1 yr (P = 0.0015) after transfer. These data suggest that the PLN DC transfers are able to modulate autoimmunity and limit diabetes expression in the NOD mouse. PLN DCs transfers may regulate autoimmunity by the induction of regulatory cells.
M J Clare-Salzler, J Brooks, A Chai, K Van Herle, C Anderson
PTH stimulates transcellular Ca2+ absorption in renal distal convoluted tubules. The effect of PTH on membrane voltage, the ionic basis of the change in voltage, and the relations between voltage and calcium entry were determined on immortalized mouse distal convoluted tubule cells. PTH (10(-8) M) significantly increased 45Ca2+ uptake from basal levels of 2.81 +/- 0.16 to 3.88 +/- 0.19 nmol min-1 mg protein-1. PTH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake was abolished by the dihydropyridine antagonist, nifedipine (10(-5) M). PTH did not affect 22Na+ uptake. Intracellular calcium activity ([Ca2+]i) was measured in cells loaded with fura-2. Control [Ca2+]i averaged 112 +/- 21 nM. PTH increased [Ca2+]i over the range of 10(-11) to 10(-7) M. Maximal stimulation to 326 +/- 31 nM was achieved at 10(-8) M PTH. Resting membrane voltage measured with the potential sensitive dye DiO6(3) averaged -71 +/- 2 mV. PTH hyperpolarized cells by 19 +/- 4 mV. The chloride-channel blocker NPPB prevented PTH-induced hyperpolarization. PTH decreased and NPPB increased intracellular chloride, measured with the fluorescent dye SPQ. Chloride permeability was estimated by measuring the rate of 125I- efflux. PTH increased 125I- efflux and this effect was blocked by NPPB. Clamping voltage with K+/valinomycin; depolarizing membrane voltage by reducing extracellular chloride; or addition of NPPB prevented PTH-induced calcium uptake. In conclusion, PTH increases chloride conductance in distal convoluted tubule cells leading to decreased intracellular chloride activity, membrane hyperpolarization, and increased calcium entry through dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels.
F A Gesek, P A Friedman
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) stimulates human B cells, resulting in elevation of intracellular calcium and the release of inositol phosphates. This signaling pathway is inhibited in the presence of pertussis (PT) or cholera toxin (CT). Preincubation of human B cells with either toxin, but not their inactive subunits, for 3 h blocked these PAF-induced responses in two B-lymphoblastoid cell lines. This effect was time dependent, with some inhibition noted at 30 min, but only after preincubation for 2-3 h was maximum inhibition achieved. This inhibitory activity was also dose dependent. The toxins blocked both PAF-induced transmembrane uptake of Ca2+ as well as release of Ca2+ from internal stores, and were selective in that activation events after cross-linking of surface IgM were not affected. Further, the toxins did not appear to act through elevation of intracellular levels of cAMP. These data, coupled with previous observations on the absence of heterologous desensitization between PAF and sIgM receptors, may delineate distinct signaling pathways in human B cells. This may reflect different roles for GTP-binding proteins in the activation of human B cells.
B D Mazer, H Sawami, A Tordai, E W Gelfand
The effects of angiotensin II (AII) blockade were compared with the effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in rats with reduced nephron number. Rats were subjected to five-sixths renal ablation and divided into four groups with similar values for blood pressure and serum creatinine after 2 wk. Group 1 then served as untreated controls, while group 2 received the AII receptor antagonist MK954 (which has previously been designated DuP753), group 3 received the converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril, and group 4 received a combination of reserpine, hydralazine, and hydrochlorothiazide. Micropuncture and morphologic studies were performed 10 wk later. Converting enzyme inhibition, AII receptor blockade, and the combination regimen were equally effective in reversing systemic hypertension (time-averaged systolic blood pressure: group 1, 185 +/- 5 mmHg; group 2, 125 +/- 2 mmHg; group 3, 127 +/- 2 mmHg; group 4, 117 +/- 4 mmHg). Micropuncture studies showed that glomerular transcapillary pressure was reduced significantly by converting enzyme inhibition and by AII blockade but not by the combination regimen (delta P: group 1, 49 +/- 1 mmHg; group 2, 42 +/- 1 mmHg; group 3, 40 +/- 2 mmHg, group 4, 47 +/- 1 mmHg). Reduction of systemic blood pressure was associated with the development of markedly less proteinuria and segmental glomerular sclerosis in rats receiving enalapril and MK954 but not in rats receiving the combination regimen (prevalence of glomerular sclerotic lesions: group 1, 41 +/- 4%; group 2, 9 +/- 1%; group 3, 9 +/- 1%; group 4, 33 +/- 6%). These results indicate that the effects of converting enzyme inhibition on remnant glomerular function and structure depend on reduction in AII activity and are not attributable simply to normalization of systemic blood pressure.
R A Lafayette, G Mayer, S K Park, T W Meyer
Cells within the synovial tissue may recruit mononuclear phagocytes into the synovial fluid and tissues of arthritic patients. We investigated the production of the chemotactic cytokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) using sera, synovial fluid, synovial tissue, as well as macrophages and fibroblasts isolated from synovial tissues from 80 arthritic patients. MCP-1 levels were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) in synovial fluid from RA patients (mean 25.5 +/- 8.1 ng/ml [SE]) compared to synovial fluid from osteoarthritis (OA) patients (0.92 +/- 0.08), or from patients with other arthritides (2.9 +/- 1.5). MCP-1 levels in RA sera (8.44 +/- 2.33) were significantly greater than MCP-1 in normal sera (0.16 +/- 0.06). The quantities of RA synovial fluid IL-8, which is chemotactic for neutrophils and lymphocytes, and MCP-1 were strongly positively correlated (P less than 0.05). To examine the cellular source of MCP-1, RA synovial tissue macrophages and fibroblasts were isolated. Synovial tissue fibroblasts did not express MCP-1 mRNA, but could be induced to produce MCP-1 by stimulation with either IL-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), or LPS. In contrast, unlike normal peripheral blood monocytes or alveolar macrophages, RA synovial tissue macrophages constitutively expressed MCP-1 mRNA and antigen. Immunohistochemical analysis of synovial tissue showed that a significantly greater percentage of RA macrophages (50 +/- 8%) as compared to either OA macrophages (5 +/- 2) or normal macrophages (1 +/- 0.3) reacted with anti-MCP-1 antibodies. In addition, the synovial lining layer reacted with MCP-1 in both RA and OA synovial tissues. In contrast, only a minority of synovial fibroblasts (18 +/- 8%) from RA synovium were positive for immunolocalization of MCP-1. These results suggest that synovial production of MCP-1 may play an important role in the recruitment of mononuclear phagocytes during inflammation associated with RA and that synovial tissue macrophages are the dominant source of this cytokine.
A E Koch, S L Kunkel, L A Harlow, B Johnson, H L Evanoff, G K Haines, M D Burdick, R M Pope, R M Strieter
Since females have a greater prevalence of obesity compared with males, the question arises whether females have lower metabolic rate than males after adjusting for differences in body weight and composition. 24-h energy expenditure (24EE), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) were measured in a respiratory chamber in 235 healthy, nondiabetic Caucasian subjects (114 males, 121 females). Body composition was determined by hydrodensitometry. 24EE was 124 +/- 38 kcal/d (P less than 0.002) higher in males than females after adjusting for differences in fat-free mass, fat mass, and age. Spontaneous physical activity was not significantly different between males and females. Since adjusted 24EE was 106 +/- 39 kcal/d (P less than 0.01) higher in females during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle compared with females during the follicular phase, energy expenditure was analyzed in a subset (greater than 50 yr) to minimize the confounding effect of menstrual status. 24EE (160 +/- 66 kcal/d; P less than 0.03), BMR (116 +/- 45; P less than 0.02), and SMR (208 +/- 68 kcal/d; P less than 0.005) were higher in males compared with females of the older subset after adjusting for differences in body composition, age, and activity. In summary, sedentary 24EE is approximately 5-10% lower in females compared with males after adjusting for differences in body composition, age, and activity.
R Ferraro, S Lillioja, A M Fontvieille, R Rising, C Bogardus, E Ravussin
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive hereditary disorder, requiring both parental cystic fibrosis conductance transmembrane regulator (CFTR) genes to carry mutations for clinical disease to manifest, i.e., only 50% of normal CFTR gene expression is required to maintain a normal phenotype. To help define the minimum amount of normal CFTR gene expression necessary to maintain normalcy, we have capitalized on our prior observation (Chu, C.-S., B. C. Trapnell, J. J. Murtagh, Jr., J. Moss, W. Dalemans, S. Jallat, A. Mercenier, A. Pavirani, J.-P. Lecocq, G. R. Cutting, et al. 1991. EMBO [Eur. Mol. Biol. Organ] J. 10:1355-1363) that normal individuals can have up to 66% of bronchial CFTR mRNA transcripts that are missing exon 9, a region representing 21% of the sequence coding for the critical nucleotide (ATP)-binding fold 1 (NBF1) of the predicted CFTR protein. The study population included 78 individuals with no prior diagnosis of CF. Evaluation of bronchial epithelial cells (obtained by bronchoscopy) revealed that exon 9 was variably deleted in all individuals. Remarkably, there were four individuals, all greater than or equal to 35 yr, in whom bronchial epithelial cells exhibited 73, 89, 90, and 92% CFTR transcripts with inframe deletion of exon 9, respectively, despite normal sweat Cl- and no clinical manifestation of CF. In the context that only 8% or less of bronchial CFTR transcripts need exon 9 to maintain normal airway function, these observations strongly suggest that either exon 9 is not necessary for CFTR structure and/or function or that only a very small fraction of bronchial epithelial cells need to express normal CFTR mRNA transcripts with exon 9 to perform the function of CFTR sufficient to maintain a normal phenotype in vivo.
C S Chu, B C Trapnell, S M Curristin, G R Cutting, R G Crystal
Ischemia-reperfusion and hyperoxia-induced pulmonary injury are associated with the presence of activated neutrophils (PMN) and cellular injury. Although the signals orchestrating the directed migration of these PMN during the pathogenesis of these disease states remain to be fully elucidated, it appears they may be dependent upon the production of certain neutrophil activating/chemotactic factors such as C5a, leukotriene B4, platelet-activating factor, and IL-8. The production of the latter chemotaxin by mononuclear phagocytes is especially intriguing as these cells can mediate inflammatory cell migration by either directly generating IL-8, or by inducing its production from surrounding nonimmune cells. In light of these observations, we propose that ischemia-reperfusion and oxidant stress, in vivo, may be simulated by anoxia-hyperoxia induced stress in vitro, and that this stress may act as a stimulus for the production of IL-8. We now show that isolated human blood monocytes respond to such an oxygen stress with augmented production of IL-8. In initial studies, monocytes demonstrated an increase in the production of IL-8 under anoxic preconditioning. Subsequently, monocytes were cultured under one of the following conditions for 24 h: (a) room air/5% CO2; (b) 95% N2/5% CO2 for 6 h, followed by room air/5% CO2 for 18 h; (c) 95% N2/5% CO2 for 6 h, followed by 95% O2/5% CO2 for 18 h; (d) room air/5% CO2 for 6 h, followed by 95% O2/5% CO2 for 18 h; or (e) 95% O2/5% CO2. Supernatants were isolated and analyzed for IL-8 antigen by specific IL-8 ELISA, demonstrating the production of monocyte-derived IL-8: 5.9 +/- 0.9, 11.4 +/- 1.7, 21.1 +/- 2.3, 14.6 +/- 2.4, and 26.3 +/- 4.7, ng/ml by designated conditions a, b, c, d, and e listed above, respectively. This variance in IL-8 production reflects altered rates of transcription as shown by Northern blot analysis and nuclear run-off assay. Furthermore, when monocytes were concomitantly treated with LPS (100 ng/ml) under in vitro hyperoxic conditions, both IL-8 steady-state mRNA and antigenic activity were two- to threefold greater than under room air conditions. The association of anoxic preconditioning and oxygen stress with augmented production of monocyte-derived IL-8 support the potential role for ischemia-reperfusion and hyperoxia-induced IL-8 production in vivo, providing a possible mechanism for PMN migration/activation in disease states characterized by altered tissue oxygenation.
A P Metinko, S L Kunkel, T J Standiford, R M Strieter
Two isozymes of steroid 5 alpha-reductase encoded by separate loci catalyze the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Inherited defects in the type 2 isozyme lead to male pseudohermaphroditism in which affected males have a normal internal urogenital tract but external genitalia resembling those of a female. The 5 alpha-reductase type 2 gene (gene symbol SRD5A2) was cloned and shown to contain five exons and four introns. The gene was localized to chromosome 2 band p23 by somatic cell hybrid mapping and chromosomal in situ hybridization. Molecular analysis of the SRD5A2 gene resulted in the identification of 18 mutations in 11 homozygotes, 6 compound heterozygotes, and 4 inferred compound heterozygotes from 23 families with 5 alpha-reductase deficiency. 6 apparent recurrent mutations were detected in 19 different ethnic backgrounds. In two patients, the catalytic efficiency of the mutant enzymes correlated with the severity of the disease. The high proportion of compound heterozygotes suggests that the carrier frequency of mutations in the 5 alpha-reductase type 2 gene may be higher than previously thought.
A E Thigpen, D L Davis, A Milatovich, B B Mendonca, J Imperato-McGinley, J E Griffin, U Francke, J D Wilson, D W Russell
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a key penile neurotransmitter, induces erection after local injection in man. To augment the therapeutic potential of VIP for impotence treatment and circumvent difficulties of direct penile injections, a strategy was designed to increase peptide hydrophobicity. This was accomplished by the synthesis of a conjugate of VIP and stearic acid (stearyl-VIP). Upon penile topical application, stearyl-VIP, in contrast to native VIP, significantly increased sexual function as measured by copulatory activity and penile reflexes (erections) in testosterone-treated, castrated rats. In addition, stearyl-VIP penetrated the body in amounts severalfold greater than VIP. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated 10-fold higher penile concentrations of stearyl-VIP, as compared with that measured in the blood 15 min after application, with a gradual decrease thereafter. The peak of incorporation into peripheral tissues that was observed 30 min after administration was 1,000-fold less than that found in the penile tissue. Tissue extraction and chromatographic analysis revealed that stearyl-VIP remained essentially intact for greater than or equal to 15 min and was cleared after 1 h. Thus, topically administered stearyl-VIP had increased bioavailability in comparison with VIP without apparent toxicity, suggesting significant therapeutic potential.
I Gozes, M Fridkin
The results presented in this report demonstrate increased pp60c-src kinase activity associated with moderate to well differentiated colon tumors, corroborating previous observations by other groups. Extension of this analysis to include a small number of poorly differentiated colon carcinomas revealed src kinase activity comparable to that observed in normal colonic mucosa, considerably less than that observed in moderate/well differentiated lesions. Correlations of src kinase activity with differentiation was confirmed within a panel of colon cell lines where increased activity, associated with moderate/well differentiated lines, was accompanied by increased expression of pp60c-src protein. Use of an antiphosphotyrosine antibody in immunoprecipitation revealed the presence of novel phosphotyrosyl cellular substrates in human colon cell lines displaying elevated pp60c-src kinase activity. These observations suggest a role for the src protooncogene in colonic differentiation pathways.
T K Weber, G Steele, I C Summerhayes
Human infants are relatively resistant to Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis compared to adults. In that toxin A is the major cause of intestinal damage with this organism, we compared toxin A receptor binding and biological effects in newborn vs adult rabbit ileum. Purified toxin A (M(r) 308 kD) was labeled with tritium or biotin with full retention of biologic activity. Appearance of specific toxin A brush border (BB) binding was strongly age dependent with minimal [3H]toxin A specific binding at 2 and 5 d of life, followed by gradual increase in binding to reach adult levels at 90 d. Absence of toxin A binding sites in newborn and presence in adult rabbits was confirmed by immunohistochemical studies using biotinylated toxin A. Toxin A (50 ng to 20 micrograms/ml) inhibited protein synthesis in 90-d-old rabbit ileal loops in a dose-dependent fashion. In contrast, inhibition of protein synthesis in 5-d-old rabbit ileum occurred only at the highest toxin A doses (5 and 20 micrograms/ml) and at all doses tested was significantly less than the adult rabbit ileum. In addition, toxin A (5 micrograms/ml) caused severe mucosal damage in adult rabbit ileal explants but had no discernable morphologic effect on 5-d-old rabbit intestine. Our data indicate that newborn rabbit intestine lacks BB receptors for toxin A. The absence of the high-affinity BB receptor for toxin A in the newborn period may explain lack of biologic responsiveness to purified toxin, and the absence of disease in human infants infected with this pathogen.
R Eglow, C Pothoulakis, S Itzkowitz, E J Israel, C J O'Keane, D Gong, N Gao, Y L Xu, W A Walker, J T LaMont
To study the mediation of Ca2+ influx by second messengers in myeloid cells, we have combined the whole-cell patch clamp technique with microfluorimetric measurements of [Ca2+]i. Me2SO-differentiated HL-60 cells were loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator Indo-1, allowed to adhere to glass slides, and patch-clamped. Receptor agonists and Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitors were applied by superfusion and inositol phosphates by microperfusion through the patch pipette. In voltage-clamped cells, [Ca2+]i elevations with a sustained phase could be induced by (a) the chemoattractant receptor agonist FMLP, (b) the Ca(2+)-releasing second messenger myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3], as well as its nonmetabolizable analogues, and (c) the Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid, which depletes intracellular Ca2+ stores. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, responses to all stimuli were short-lasting, monophasic transients; however, subsequent addition of Ca2+ to the extracellular medium led to an immediate [Ca2+]i increase. In all cases, the sustained phase of the [Ca2+]i elevations could be inhibited by millimolar concentrations of extracellular Ni2+, and its amplitude could be decreased by depolarization of the plasma membrane. Thus, the sustained phase of the Ca2+ elevations was due to Ca2+ influx through a pathway sensitive to the electrical driving force and to Ni2+. No Ca2+ influx could be observed after (a) plasma membrane depolarization in resting cells, (b) an imposed [Ca2+]i transient independent of receptor activation, or (c) microperfusion of myo-inositol(1,3,4,5)tetrahisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4). Also, Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 did not have additive effects when co-perfused with a submaximal concentration of Ins(1,4,5)P3. Our results suggest that, in myeloid cells, activation of chemoattractant receptors induces an electrogenic, Ni(2+)-sensitive Ca2+ influx via generation of Ins(1,4,5)P3. Ins(1,4,5)P3 might activate Ca2+ influx directly, or by depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores, but not via [Ca2+]i increase or Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 generation.
N Demaurex, W Schlegel, P Varnai, G Mayr, D P Lew, K H Krause
KB cells express a folate-binding protein that is anchored to the plasma membrane by a glycosylated phosphatidylinositol (GPI) tail and these cells can grow in medium containing a very low folate concentration (1 nM). In contrast, mouse 3T3 cells do not express a membrane-associated folate-binding protein and cannot grow under similar low folate conditions. In these studies, 3T3 cells were transfected with a vector containing the cDNA that codes for the KB cell folate-binding protein. In contrast to the wild-type 3T3 cells, the transfected 3T3 cells express a level of folate-binding protein similar to KB cells, 1 and 1.4 ng/micrograms protein, respectively. The capacity for binding [3H] folate to the surface of transfected 3T3 cells cultured in folate-deficient medium is 7.7 pmol/10(6) cells, and this is approximately 50% of the surface binding capacity of KG cells under similar culture conditions. Moreover, after treatment of the transfected 3T3 cells with phospholipase C specific for phosphatidylinositol, the binding of [3H] folate to the surface of these cells is reduced by 90%, indicating that, like the KB cells, the folate-binding protein is anchored to the plasma membrane by a GPI tail. Although the doubling time of wild-type 3T3 cells markedly increases after 13 d of culture in folate-deficient medium, the doubling time of both the transfected 3T3 cells and KB cells do not change. The results of these experiments indicate that the GPI-anchored folate-binding protein provides a mechanism to maintain a level of folate that permits the folate-dependent metabolic functions necessary for cell survival under low folate conditions.
C A Luhrs, C A Raskin, R Durbin, B Wu, E Sadasivan, W McAllister, S P Rothenberg
The mechanism of phosphaturia induced by cAMP infusion and the physiological role of extracellular cAMP in modulation of renal phosphate transport were examined. In cultured opossum kidney cells, extracellular cAMP (10-1,000 microM) inhibited Na-dependent phosphate uptake in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The effect of cAMP was reproduced by ATP, AMP, and adenosine, and was blunted by phosphodiesterase inhibitors or by dipyridamole which inhibits adenosine uptake. [3H]cAMP was degraded extracellularly into AMP and adenosine, and radioactivity accumulated in the cells as labeled adenosine and, subsequently, as adenine nucleotides including cAMP. Radioactivity accumulation was decreased by dipyridamole and by inhibitors of phosphodiesterases and ecto-5'-nucleotidase, assessing the existence of stepwise hydrolysis of extracellular cAMP and intracellular processing of taken up adenosine. In vivo, dipyridamole abolished the phosphaturia induced by exogenous cAMP infusion in acutely parathyroidectomized (APTX) rats, decreased phosphate excretion in intact rats, and blunted phosphaturia induced by PTH infusion in APTX rats. These results indicate that luminal degradation of cAMP into adenosine, followed by cellular uptake of the nucleoside by tubular cells, is a key event which accounts for the phosphaturic effect of exogenous cAMP and for the part of the phosphaturic effect of PTH which is mediated by cAMP added to the tubular lumen under the influence of the hormone.
G Friedlander, S Couette, C Coureau, C Amiel
The aim of the study was to evaluate the metabolism of individual bile acids in patients with cholesterol gallstone disease. Therefore, we determined pool size and turnover of deoxycholic (DCA), cholic (CA), and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) in 23 female gallstone patients classified according to their gallbladder function and in 15 healthy female controls. Gallstone patients had normal hepatic bile acid synthesis, but, depending on gallbladder function, differed with respect to turnover and size of the bile acid pools: Patients with well-emptying gallbladder (group A, n = 9) had enhanced turnover and reduced pools of CA (-46%; P less than 0.01 vs. controls) and CDCA (-24%; P less than 0.05), but normal input and size of the DCA pool. With reduced gallbladder emptying (less than 50% of volume; group B, n = 6), turnover and pools of CA, CDCA, and DCA were similar as in controls. Patients with loss of gallbladder reservoir (group C, n = 8) had increased input (+100%; P less than 0.01) and pool size of DCA (+45%; P = 0.07) caused by rapid conversion of CA to DCA, while the pools of CA (-71%; P less than 0.001 vs. controls) and CDCA (-36%; P less than 0.05) were reduced by enhanced turnover. Thus, in patients with cholesterol gallstones, the pools of primary bile acids are diminished, unless gallbladder emptying is reduced. Furthermore, in a subgroup of gallstone patients, who had completely lost gallbladder function, the CA pool is largely replaced by DCA owing to rapid transfer of CA to the DCA pool. This probably contributes to supersaturation of bile with cholesterol.
F Berr, E Pratschke, S Fischer, G Paumgartner
The renal medullary thick ascending limb (MTAL) of the rat absorbs bicarbonate through luminal H+ secretion and basolateral HCO3- transport into the peritubular space. To characterize HCO3- transport, intracellular pH (pHi) was monitored by use of the pH-sensitive fluorescent probe (2',7')-bis-(carboxyethyl)-(5,6)-carboxyfluorescein in fresh suspensions of rat MTAL tubules. When cells were preincubated in HCO3-/CO2-containing solutions and then abruptly diluted into HCO3-/CO2-free media, the pHi response was an initial alkalinization due to CO2 efflux, followed by an acidification (pHi recovery). The pHi recovery required intracellular HCO3-, was inhibited by 10(-4) M diisothiocyanostilbene-2-2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS), and was not dependent on Cl- or Na+. As assessed by use of the cell membrane potential-sensitive fluorescent probe 3,3'-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine, cell depolarization by abrupt Cl- removal from or addition of 2 mM barium into the external medium did not affect HCO3(-)-dependent pHi recovery, and the latter was not associated per se with any change in potential difference, which indicated that HCO3- transport was electroneutral. The HCO3(-)-dependent pHi recovery was inhibited by raising extracellular potassium concentration and by intracellular potassium depletion. Finally, as measured by use of a K(+)-selective extracellular electrode, a component of K+ efflux out of the cells was HCO3- dependent and DIDS sensitive. The results provide evidence for an electroneutral K+/HCO3- cotransport in rat MTAL cells.
F Leviel, P Borensztein, P Houillier, M Paillard, M Bichara
Given the pivotal role suggested for IFN-gamma in immune diseases of the vascular wall, we investigated the effects of IFN-gamma on nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). We have previously reported that TNF-alpha enhanced NO synthase activity in BAEC as assessed by quantifying release of bioactive NO with reporter monolayers and measuring conversion of L-[14C]arginine to L-[14C] citrulline. In murine macrophages IFN-gamma synergizes with TNF-alpha or lipopolysaccharide to induce robust increases in calcium-independent NO synthase activity. In this study we have found that IFN-gamma alone failed to have a significant effect on NO synthase activity in BAEC. In contrast to murine macrophages, IFN-gamma inhibited TNF-alpha-stimulated induction of endothelial NO synthase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. This observation suggests that there is major difference in the response of BAEC and murine macrophages to IFN-gamma. A second major aim of this study was to determine the effect of IFN-gamma on preproET-1 mRNA expression and ET-1 secretion rates in BAEC. IFN-gamma alone had little or no effect on ET-1 mRNA levels and basal ET release when measured for 8 h. However, cotreatment with IFN-gamma potentiated the stimulatory effect of TNF-alpha on BAEC ET-1 mRNA transcript levels and ET release. In contrast, pretreatment of cells with IFN-gamma for 16-24 h blunted the stimulatory effect of TNF-alpha. These findings suggest that endothelial cell expression of vasoactive mediators is modified by the temporal interplay of at least two immune mediators, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha.
S Lamas, T Michel, T Collins, B M Brenner, P A Marsden
This study reports on leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in human articular connective tissues. Biologically active LIF is present in synovial fluids from patients with osteoarthritis and at higher titers in samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Cultured human synoviocytes and articular chondrocytes produced biologically active LIF and synthesized and secreted LIF proteins that migrated in SDS PAGE at approximately 43 kD. This was increased after stimulation with IL-1 beta. Chondrocytes in serum-containing cultures expressed the 4.2-kb LIF mRNA. IL-1 beta, LPS, and to a lesser extent tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced LIF gene expression. LIF autoinduced its mRNA and this provides evidence for an effect of this cytokine on function of joint tissue cells. Among a series of growth factors tested, transforming growth factor (TGF beta), including the isoforms TGF-beta1, TGF-beta 2, and TGF-beta 3, platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor induced this cytokine gene but differed with respect to the duration of their effects. Cultured synoviocytes expressed the LIF gene in response to the same set of peptide regulatory factors. Analysis of signal transduction pathways showed that PMA increased LIF mRNA, whereas calcium ionophore and cAMP had no detectable effects. Cycloheximide was a potent LIF mRNA inducer and dexamethasone inhibited LIF induced by PMA or IL-1 beta. Cartilage organ cultures and synovial tissues stimulated with IL-1 expressed high levels of LIF mRNA as demonstrated by in situ hybridization. These results identify LIF as a new cytokine that is produced by joint tissue cells and is overexpressed in arthritis. The induction of this cytokine by factors that are present during joint inflammation and the effects of LIF on connective tissue cells suggest that LIF is a mediator that can contribute to the pathogenesis of arthritis.
M Lotz, T Moats, P M Villiger
Although Escherichia coli strains possessing the K1 capsule are predominant among isolates from neonatal E. coli meningitis and most of these K1 isolates are associated with a limited number of 0 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) types, the basis of this association of K1 and certain 0 antigens with neonatal E. coli meningitis is not clear. The present study examined in experimental E. coli bacteremia and meningitis in newborn and adult rats whether or not the K1 capsule and/or O-LPS antigen are critical determinants in the development of meningitis. Rats received subcutaneously at K1 E. coli strain (018+K1+) or mutants lacking either the K1 capsule (018+K1-) or 0 side-chain (018-K1+). 12-24 h later, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were obtained for quantitative cultures. The isolation of E. coli from CSF was observed in both newborn and adult rats infected with K1+ strains regardless of LPS phenotype (018+ or 18-) who also developed a high degree of bacteremia (e.g., greater than 10(4) CFU/ml of blood). In contrast, none of the newborn and adult rats infected with 018+K1- and developing bacteremia of greater than 10(4) were found to have positive CSF cultures. These findings indicate that the presence of the K1 capsule and a high degree of bacteremia are key determinants in the development of E. coli meningitis, suggesting that there may be specific binding sites present in the brain which have an affinity for the K1 capsule and thus may be responsible for the entry of K1-encapsulated E. coli into the meninges.
K S Kim, H Itabashi, P Gemski, J Sadoff, R L Warren, A S Cross
Lyme arthritis is one of the few forms of chronic arthritis in which the cause is known with certainty. Because cytokines are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic arthritis, we investigated the effect of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, on the gene expression and synthesis of IL-1 beta and the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Live B. burgdorferi induced fivefold more IL-1 beta than IL-1 alpha and sevenfold more IL-1 beta than IL-1ra; LPS or sonicated B. burgdorferi induced similar amounts of all three cytokines. This preferential induction of IL-1 beta was most dramatic in response to a low passage, virulent preparation of B. burgdorferi vs. three high passage avirulent strains. No difference in induction of IL-1ra was seen between these strains. The marked induction of IL-1 beta was partially diminished by heat-treatment and abrogated by sonication; IL-1ra was not affected. This suggested that a membrane component(s) accounted for the preferential induction of IL-1 beta. However, recombinant outer surface protein beta induced little IL-1 beta. By 4 h after stimulation, B. burgdorferi induced sixfold more IL-1 beta protein than LPS. In contrast to LPS-induced IL-1 beta mRNA which reached maximal accumulation after 3 h, B. burgdorferi-induced IL-1 beta mRNA showed biphasic elevations at 3 and 18 h. B. burgdorferi-induced IL-1ra mRNA peaked at 12 h, whereas LPS-induced IL-1ra mRNA peaked at 9 h. IL-1 beta synthesis increased in response to increasing numbers of spirochetes, whereas IL-1ra synthesis did not. The preferential induction by B. burgdorferi of IL-1 beta over IL-1ra is an example of excess agonist over antagonist synthesis induced by a microbial pathogen, and may contribute to the destructive lesion of Lyme arthritis.
L C Miller, S Isa, E Vannier, K Georgilis, A C Steere, C A Dinarello
Approximately 50% of Helicobacter pylori isolates produce a cytotoxin in vitro that induces vacuolation of eukaryotic cells. To determine the in vivo relevance of this phenomenon, we sought to detect cytotoxin-neutralizing antibodies in sera from H. pylori-infected persons. As a group, sera from 29 H. pylori-infected patients neutralized the activity of the purified cytotoxin to a significantly greater extent than sera from 24 uninfected persons (P = 0.007). The cytotoxin neutralizing activity in sera from H. pylori-infected persons was mediated predominantly by the purified IgG fraction. Sera from H. pylori-infected persons neutralized the cytotoxins produced by multiple H. pylori strains, but failed to neutralize trimethylamine-induced cell vacuolation. Neutralization of cytotoxin activity by human or immune rabbit sera was associated with immunoblot IgG recognition of an 87-kD H. pylori protein. Similarly, neutralization of the toxin by sera was associated with IgG recognition of the purified cytotoxin in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (P less than 0.0001). The presence of cytotoxin-neutralizing antibodies in sera from H. pylori-infected persons indicates that the cytotoxin is synthesized in vivo.
T L Cover, P Cao, U K Murthy, M S Sipple, M J Blaser
Complementary DNA cloning of the 130-kD pemphigus vulgaris (PV) autoantigen (PVA) has indicated that it is a member of the cadherin family of Ca(2+)-dependent cell adhesion molecules. By homology with typical cadherins, PVA has five extracellular domains (EC1 through EC5). To localize immunogenic domains and to determine whether antibodies against them might be pathogenic, we produced beta-galactosidase fusion proteins with cDNA encoding different portions of the extracellular domains of PVA (EC1-2, EC3-5, and each individual domain). Immunoblot analysis of these fusion proteins with 23 PV patients' sera demonstrated that major immunogenic regions of PVA are located on the EC1, EC2, and EC4 domains. IgG was affinity-purified from PV sera on fusion proteins representing the amino (EC1-2) and carboxy (EC3-5) terminus of the extracellular PVA, and injected into neonatal mice. PV IgG affinity-purified on the EC1-2 fusion protein caused suprabasilar acantholysis, the typical histological finding of PV, but IgG affinity-purified on the EC3-5 fusion protein or beta-galactosidase alone did not. These results indicate that at least one pathogenic epitope, which is sufficient to cause suprabasilar acantholysis in neonatal mice, is located on the amino-terminal region of PVA, an area thought to be important in cadherin homophilic adhesion.
M Amagai, S Karpati, R Prussick, V Klaus-Kovtun, J R Stanley
Cytoplasmic free calcium ions (Ca2+) play a central role in excitation-contraction coupling of cardiac muscle. Abnormal Ca2+ handling has been implicated in systolic and diastolic dysfunction in patients with end-stage heart failure. The current study tests the hypothesis that expression of genes encoding proteins regulating myocardial Ca2+ homeostasis is altered in human heart failure. We analyzed RNA isolated from the left ventricular (LV) myocardium of 30 cardiac transplant recipients with end-stage heart failure (HF) and five organ donors (normal control), using cDNA probes specific for the cardiac dihydropyridine (DHP) receptor (the alpha 1 subunit of the DHP-sensitive Ca2+ channel) and cardiac calsequestrin of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In addition, abundance of DHP binding sites was assessed by ligand binding techniques (n = 6 each for the patients and normal controls). There was no difference in the level of cardiac calsequestrin mRNA between the HF patients and normal controls. In contrast, the level of mRNA encoding the DHP receptor was decreased by 47% (P less than 0.001) in the LV myocardium from the patients with HF compared to the normal controls. The number of DHP binding sites was decreased by 35-48%. As reported previously, expression of the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase mRNA was also diminished by 50% (P less than 0.001) in the HF group. These data suggest that expression of the genes encoding the cardiac DHP receptor and SR Ca(2+)-ATPase is reduced in the LV myocardium from patients with HF. Altered expression of these genes may be related to abnormal Ca2+ handling in the failing myocardium, contributing to LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction in patients with end-stage heart failure.
T Takahashi, P D Allen, R V Lacro, A R Marks, A R Dennis, F J Schoen, W Grossman, J D Marsh, S Izumo
The possibility of using an exclusively percutaneous strategy to deliver foreign DNA to normal and balloon-dilated atherosclerotic arteries was studied by analysis of transfection efficiency in a rabbit model. A total of 22 external iliac arteries from 22 rabbits (10 normal and 12 atherosclerotic) were transfected with a solution of luciferase expression vector plasmid and liposome, using a dual balloon-catheter system. Analysis of the transfected segments revealed luciferase activity in 10 of the 22 arteries (4/10 normal vs 6/12 balloon-injured atherosclerotic, P = NS); no activity could be detected in the contralateral limb arterial segments used as controls. Luciferase activity levels in successfully transfected segments measured 4.10 +/- 1.19 (m +/- SEM) Turner light units (TLU), with 3.03 +/- 1.16 TLU found in normals vs 4.81 +/- 1.87 TLU in balloon-injured atherosclerotic arteries (P = NS). In situ hybridization of successfully transfected atherosclerotic sections showed expression of the luciferase gene mRNA from rare cells (less than 1/1,000) limited to the neointimal lesion. Thus, expression of new genetic material may be achieved in both normal and balloon-dilated atherosclerotic arteries following an exclusively percutaneous approach. The low efficiency of the current delivery strategy, however, represents a potential limitation that must be improved if this strategy is to be applied as a therapeutic approach to human vascular disease.
G Leclerc, D Gal, S Takeshita, S Nikol, L Weir, J M Isner
Severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mice develop EBV (+)B cell tumors after infusion of EBV(+)B cells or of B cells and EBV. In this study, scid mice were infused with B cell lines derived from three patients who developed a B lymphocyte proliferative disorder after bone marrow or organ transplantation. Intraperitoneal injection of 5 x 10(6) B cells induced tumor growth in all mice, leading to death within 60 d. Human B cells were identified in spleen and bone marrow by means of immunofluorescence or EBV genome amplification, and human IgM was detected in serum. Infusion of murine monoclonal antibodies specific for human B cell membrane antigens CD21, CD24, and CD23 was effective in 80% of animals, against two of the three cell lines preventing tumor development or inducing remission according to the time of treatment. The effect was antibody dose dependent and was optimal with four intravenous infusions of at least 0.1 mg 4 d apart. Human IgM in serum and human B cells in spleen and bone marrow became undetectable when peritoneal tumors regressed completely. Infusions of IgG1 isotype-matched anti-CD4 antibody or anti-CD3 antibody had no effect. Tumors developed or recurred in 50% of these animals injected with one of the B cell line 3 mo after treatment was stopped. The same anti-CD21 and anti-CD24 antibodies had been used to treat the three patients, and shown similar degrees of effectiveness as in the scid mouse model. These results indicate that scid mice may be suitable for assessing therapeutic approaches to human B cell proliferation.
A Durandy, N Brousse, F Rozenberg, G De Saint Basile, A M Fischer, A Fischer
We find that pADEO16, a recombinant cosmid carrying the rck gene of the Salmonella typhimurium virulence plasmid, when cloned into either rough or smooth Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains, confers high level resistance to the bactericidal activity of pooled normal human serum. The rck gene encodes a 17-kD outer membrane protein that is homologous to a family of virulence-associated outer membrane proteins, including pagC and Ail. Complement depletion, C3 and C5 binding, and membrane-bound C3 cleavage products are similar in strains with and without rck. Although a large difference in C9 binding was not seen, trypsin cleaved 55.7% of bound 125I-C9 counts from rough S. typhimurium with pADEO16, whereas only 26.4% were released from S. typhimurium with K2011, containing a mutation in rck. The majority of C9 extracted from rck strain membranes sediments at a lower molecular weight than in strains without rck, suggesting less C9 polymerization. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE analysis of gradient peak fractions indicated that the slower sedimenting C9-containing complexes in rck strains did not contain polymerized C9 typical of the tubular membrane attack complex. These results indicate that complement resistance mediated by Rck is associated with a failure to form fully polymerized tubular membrane attack complexes.
E J Heffernan, S Reed, J Hackett, J Fierer, C Roudier, D Guiney
Women with a history of recurrent Escherichia coli urinary tract infections (UTIs) are two to three times more likely to be nonsecretors of histo-blood group antigens than are women without such a history. Further, uroepithelial cells from women who are nonsecretors show enhanced adherence of uropathogenic E. coli compared with cells from secretors. To investigate the hypothesis that nonsecretors express unique receptors for uropathogenic E. coli related to their genetic background, we extracted glycosphingolipids (GSLs) from vaginal epithelial cells collected from nonsecretors and secretors and used an assay in which radiolabeled uropathogenic E. coli were bound to these GSLs separated on TLC plates. An E. coli strain (R45) expressing both P and F adhesins, which was isolated from one of these patients' UTIs, was metabolically labeled with 35S for the TLC binding assay. The radiolabeled E. coli R45 bound to two extended globo-series GSLs, sialosyl gal-globoside (SGG) and disialosyl gal-globoside (DSGG), found in the GSL extracts from nonsecretors but not from secretors. The identity of SGG in the nonsecretor GSL extracts was confirmed in radioimmunoassays using an mAb to SGG and in immunofluorescence assays with this mAb and native vaginal epithelial cells. We show that SGG and DSGG are selectively expressed by epithelial cells of nonsecretors, presumably as a result of sialylation of the gal-globoside precursor glycolipid, which in secretors is fucosylated and processed to ABH antigens. The presence of SGG and DSGG may account for the increased binding of E. coli to uroepithelial cells from nonsecretors and for their increased susceptibility to recurrent UTI.
A Stapleton, E Nudelman, H Clausen, S Hakomori, W E Stamm
Previous studies in Caucasians with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) have suggested associations of antitopoisomerase I (antitopo I) autoantibodies with either serologically defined HLA-DR2 or DR5. To better define class II HLA associations with the antitopo I response, 161 PSS patients (132 Caucasians and 29 American blacks) were studied for antitopo I autoantibodies by immunodiffusion and immunoblotting, and their HLA-DRB1, DRB3, DQA1, and DQB1 alleles were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphic analysis and DNA oligotyping. Among Caucasians with antitopo I, HLA-DR5(DRB1*1101-*1104), DRB3*0202 and DQw3 (DQw7,8,9) were significantly increased in frequency. In American blacks, however, only HLA-DQB1*0301(DQw7) was significantly increased. The presence of HLA-DQB1*0301(DQw7) and other HLA-DQB1 alleles bearing the uncharged polar amino acid residue tyrosine at position 30 of the outermost domain was found in all antitopo I-positive Caucasian PSS patients compared with 66% of antitopo I-negative PSS patients (pc = 0.007) and 70% of normal controls (pc = 0.008), as well as all antitopo I-positive black patients. The association with HLA-DQB1 was independent of HLA-DR5(DRB1*1101-*1104) or any other HLA-DRB1, DRB3, or DQA1 alleles. Alternative or additional candidate epitopes for this autoimmune response include alanine at position 38 and threonine at position 77 of these same DQB1 alleles. These data suggest that genetic predisposition to the antitopo I response in PSS is associated most closely with the HLA-DQB1 locus.
J D Reveille, E Durban, M J MacLeod-St Clair, R Goldstein, R Moreda, R D Altman, F C Arnett
Kinins and substance P have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis by virtue of their abilities to induce vasodilation, edema, and pain. The relative biological potencies of these peptides in vivo would depend at least in part upon their rates of catabolism in the joint. We hypothesized that human synovial lining cells may regulate intraarticular levels of kinins and neuropeptides via degradation by cell surface-associated peptidases. We exposed intact human synovial fibroblasts to kinins and substance P, in the presence or absence of specific peptidase inhibitors, and measured the amount of intact substrate remaining and degradation product(s) generated over time. Aminopeptidase M (AmM; EC 126.96.36.199), neutral endopeptidase-24.11 (NEP-24.11; EC 188.8.131.52), and dipeptidyl(amino)peptidase IV (DAP IV; EC 184.108.40.206) were identified on the cell surface of synovial cells. Bradykinin degradation was due entirely to NEP-24.11 (1.39 +/- 0.29 nmol/min per well). Lysylbradykinin was also degraded by NEP-24.11 (0.80 +/- 0.19 nmol/min per well); however, in the presence of phosphoramidon, AmM-mediated conversion to bradykinin (3.74 +/- 0.46 nmol/min per well) could be demonstrated. The combined actions of NEP-24.11 (0.93 +/- 0.15 nmol/min per well) and DAP IV (0.84 +/- 0.18 nmol/min per well) were responsible for the degradation of substance P. AmM (2.44 +/- 0.33 nmol/min per well) and NEP-24.11 (1.30 +/- 0.45 nmol/min per well) were responsible for the degradation of the opioid peptide, [Leu5]enkephalin. The identity of each of the three peptidases was confirmed via synthetic substrate hydrolysis, inhibition profile, and immunological identification. The profiles of peptidase enzymes identified in cells derived from rheumatoid and osteoarthritic joints were identical. These data demonstrate the human synovial fibroblast to be a rich source of three specific peptidases and suggest that it may play a prominent role in regulating peptide levels in the joint.
J M Bathon, D Proud, S Mizutani, P E Ward
A cDNA clone was isolated by screening of a lambda gt11 endothelial expression library with serum from a patient with myasthenia gravis (MG). Rabbit antisera raised against the recombinant protein and human MG sera reactive with the clone immunoblotted an M(r) integral of 250,000 polypeptide (gravin) present in endothelial cells and several adherent cells. Gravin was not detected in platelets, leukocytes, U937, or human erythroleukemic (HEL) cell lines, but was expressed in HEL cells after induction with phorbol myristate acetate. Northern blot analysis showed two transcripts of approximately 6.7 and 8.4 kb in endothelial cells but not U937 or HEL cells. Indirect immunofluorescence of permeabilized cells revealed a trabecular network of gravin staining with a distinct linear component. Antibodies to gravin, were present in sera from 22:72 (31%) of MG patients. In contrast 0:50 normal sera and 1:72 sera from patients with other autoimmune diseases contained antigravin antibodies. Gravin is not likely to be a nonerythroid spectrin, talin, myosin, or actin-binding protein based on the lack of reactivity of antigravin with these polypeptides in immunoblots. The nucleotide sequence of the immunoreactive clone indicated that it encodes a highly acidic polypeptide fragment that contains the carboxyl terminus of the protein. Neither amino acid nor nucleotide sequences were present in Genbank, EMBL, or Swissprot databases as of March, 1992. These data indicate that gravin is an inducible, cell type-specific cytoplasmic protein and that auto-antibodies to gravin may be highly specific for MG.
T Gordon, B Grove, J C Loftus, T O'Toole, R McMillan, J Lindstrom, M H Ginsberg
We studied the effects of oxidant stress on the catalase activity and hydrogen peroxide sensitivity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. N. gonorrhoeae is an obligate pathogen of man that evokes a remarkable but ineffective neutrophil response. Gonococci make no superoxide dismutase but express high catalase activity. Gonococcal catalase activity increased threefold when organisms were subjected to 1.0 mM hydrogen peroxide. This increase in catalase activity was marked by a parallel increase in protein concentration recognized by a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against the purified gonococcal enzyme. Catalase was primarily localized to the gonococcal cytoplasm in the presence or absence of stress; only a single isoenzyme of catalase could be identified. Exposure of gonococci to neutrophil-derived oxidants was accomplished by stimulating neutrophils with phorbol myristate acetate or by using gonococcal Opa variants that interacted with neutrophils with different degrees of efficiency. Gonococci exposed to neutrophils demonstrated a twofold increase in catalase activity in spite of some reduction in viability. Exposure of gonococci to 1.0 mM hydrogen peroxide made the organisms significantly more resistant to higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and to neutrophils than control organisms. These results suggest that catalase is an important defense for N. gonorrhoeae during attack by human neutrophils. The rapid response of this enzyme to hydrogen peroxide should be taken into consideration in studies designed to evaluate the interaction between neutrophils and gonococci.
H Y Zheng, D J Hassett, K Bean, M S Cohen
To examine the possible involvement of cytokines in reperfusion injury, we have studied production of IL-1 by human vascular cells, including smooth muscle and mononuclear phagocytes. Exposure of cells to hypoxia (pO2 approximately 14 torr) followed by reoxygenation led to significant release of IL-1 only from the mononuclear phagocytes. Elaboration of IL-1 was dependent on the oxygen tension and duration of hypoxia (optimal at lower pO2s, approximately 14-20 torr, and after 9 h), as well as the time in reoxygenation (maximal IL-1 release at 6-9 h). Although a period of hypoxia was necessary for subsequent IL-1 production during reoxygenation of either peripheral blood monocytes or cultured monocyte-derived macrophages, no IL-1 release occurred during the hypoxic exposure. IL-1 released during reoxygenation was newly synthesized, and its production was triggered by the generation of oxygen free radicals, as it could be blocked by the addition of either allopurinol or free radical scavengers to cultures and could be stimulated in part by low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide or xanthine/xanthine oxidase. The potential pathophysiological effects of IL-1-containing supernatants from reoxygenated macrophages was shown by their induction of endothelial tissue factor and enhancement of endothelial adhesiveness for neutrophils, both of which could be blocked by anti-IL-1 antibody. The relevance of IL-1 to hypoxia/reoxygenation in vivo was suggested by the presence of circulating nanogram amounts of this cytokine in the plasma of mice during the reoxygenation period following a hypoxia.
S Koga, S Ogawa, K Kuwabara, J Brett, J A Leavy, J Ryan, Y Koga, J Plocinski, W Benjamin, D K Burns
The Na+,K(+)-ATPase ion pump plays a critical role in fluid and electrolyte physiology of the small intestine. Here we show that, of the three known alpha isotypes (alpha 1, alpha 2, and alpha 3) of the sodium pump found in the rat, only alpha 1 is expressed in the small intestine. The expression of this isotype, considered at the level of mRNA, is under developmental control, with the adult intestine exhibiting approximately a threefold increase in alpha 1 message over the neonate. Cortisone treatment of the neonate results in near-adult levels of alpha 1 mRNA expression. An increase in the abundance of alpha 1 isotype parallels the changes in its mRNA expression. beta subunit mRNA is expressed coordinately with the alpha 1 subunit mRNA. A four- to five-fold rise in the Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is also developmentally induced.
B V Zemelman, W A Walker, S H Chu
To determine the organ distribution of production of the three endothelin (ET) isopeptides, we have developed three ribonuclease protection assays specific for the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of rat ETs 1, 2, and 3.12 organs from adult Sprague-Dawley rats were examined: heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, testis, muscle, salivary gland, and brain. The mRNA for ET1 was five times more abundant in the lung than in any other organ studied, moderate expression was seen in the large intestine, and lower levels of mRNA were detected in each of the other organs examined. ET2 was expressed at high level in both large and small intestine and at low level in stomach, muscle, and heart, but ET2 mRNA could not be detected elsewhere. ET3 mRNA was found in all organs, particularly in small intestine, lung, kidney, and large intestine. Because of reports suggesting that ETs might be involved in the hypoperfusion and hypofiltration observed in postischemic kidneys, we have also studied levels of mRNA in kidneys that had previously been subjected to 25 or 45 min of clamping of the renal pedicle. At 6 h after 45 min of ischemia, ET1 mRNA increased to a peak of 421 +/- 69% (mean +/- SEM, n = 3) of that in a standard renal RNA preparation. By contrast, ET3 mRNA decreased in the postischemic organ, falling to a value of 19 +/- 2% of standard at the same time point. The effects of ischemia on ET1 and ET3 mRNAs were long-lasting, with elevation of ET1 and depression of ET3 persisting for days. ET2 mRNA remained undetectable throughout. These findings (a) support a role for ET1 in postischemic renal vascular phenomena and (b) demonstrate a situation in which the expression of ET isoforms is clearly subject to differential regulation.
J D Firth, P J Ratcliffe
Generalized mutilating recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is characterized by extreme skin fragility owing to loss of dermal-epidermal adherence. Immunohistochemical studies have implicated type VII collagen, the major component of anchoring fibrils, in the etiology of RDEB. In this study, we demonstrate genetic linkage of the type VII collagen gene and the generalized mutilating RDEB phenotype. We first identified a Pvull polymorphic site by digestion of an amplified product of the type VII collagen gene, which was shown to reside within the coding region. Genetic linkage analysis between this marker and the RDEB phenotype in 19 affected families which were informative for this polymorphism showed no recombination events, and gave a maximum lod score of 3.97 at a recombination fraction (theta) of 0, demonstrating that this DNA region is involved in this form of RDEB. These data provide strong evidence that the type VII collagen gene, which has also been linked with the dominant form of the disease, harbors the mutation(s) causing the generalized mutilating form of RDEB in these families, thus underscoring the major functional importance of type VII collagen in basement membrane zone stability.
A Hovnanian, P Duquesnoy, C Blanchet-Bardon, R G Knowlton, S Amselem, M Lathrop, L Dubertret, J Uitto, M Goossens
The cytoskeleton is a complex network of proteins that maintain cell shape, mobility, and organelle function. Its components can be divided into three distinct classes: microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. Fimbrins are microfilament proteins, a family of cytoplasmic phosphoproteins. Expression of the L-fimbrin isoform is restricted to replicating blood cells and expression of the T-fimbrin isoform to replicating cells of solid tissues. Sera from normals and from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), juvenile arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, osteoarthritis, vasculitis, scleroderma, and mixed connective tissue disease were tested for the presence of antibodies to T- and L-fimbrin by ELISA, using purified recombinant fimbrin. The mean OD of sera from SLE patients was significantly higher than in normals (T-fimbrin, P less than 0.0001; L-fimbrin, P less than 0.001). 48 of 98 SLE sera had antibodies to T-fimbrin; 32 had antibodies to L-fimbrin; 20 had antibodies to both; 28 had only anti-T, and 12 had only anti-L-fimbrin. The mean OD for sera of the other rheumatic diseases was not significantly different from normals. The presence of either L- or T-fimbrin antibody was associated with pleuropericarditis (P = 0.015), photosensitivity (P = 0.011), and anti-Sm antibody (P = 0.010). Central nervous system SLE was associated with the presence of the L-fimbrin antibody alone (P = 0.016). There was a strong association between DR7 (but not other MHC alleles) and anti-L-fimbrin antibodies in SLE patients (chi square = 18; P less than 0.00002). No MHC association was observed with anti-T-fimbrin antibodies.
E C De Mendonca Neto, A Kumar, N A Shadick, A M Michon, P Matsudaira, R B Eaton, P Kumar, P H Schur
The kidney both produces and responds to endothelin. We examined the production and the expression of mRNA of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in tubule suspensions and microdissected nephron segments. ET-1 production was measured by RIA using an ET-1-specific antibody. We applied the reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to detect ET-1 mRNA along the nephron segments. Stimulation of ET-1 production was observed in the presence of FCS and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in inner medullary tubules but not in cortical or outer medullary tubule suspensions. Among dissected nephron segments, ET-1 production was observed in glomeruli and inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD), whereas it was negligible in proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) and medullary thick ascending limbs (MAL). In addition, the PCR product of ET-1 mRNA was also higher in glomeruli and IMCD, whereas it was undetectable in PCT and MAL. Furthermore, FCS and TGF-beta increased ET-1 mRNA in microdissected glomeruli and IMCD. These data clearly demonstrated that the production sites of ET-1 are glomeruli and IMCD among the nephron segments. ET-1 is an autocrine factor in these sites.
K Ujiie, Y Terada, H Nonoguchi, M Shinohara, K Tomita, F Marumo
Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) results from a genetic deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate (Gal-NAc6S) sulfatase. We have identified two different exonic mutations causing GalNAc6S sulfatase deficiency in two unrelated Japanese families, in one patient with classical Morquio disease, and in two brothers with a mild form of MPS IVA. The nucleotide sequence of the full-length cDNA derived from a patient with classical Morquio disease revealed a two-base deletion at nucleotide position 1343-1344 (1344-1345 or 1345-1346) that altered the reading frame (designated 1342delCA). This mutation, inherited from the proband's consanguineous parents, was revealed by TaqI restriction analysis of a cDNA fragment amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. In the proband with the mild form of the disease, a C to G transversion at nucleotide 667 predicted the substitution of Lys for Asn204 (N204K). Since a new AluI site was created by the N204K mutation, restriction analysis indicated that the affected brothers were homozygous for this mutation, as confirmed by the finding that both their parents had this lesion. Transient expression in GalNAc6S sulfatase deficient fibroblasts of these two mutant alleles showed completely deficient or markedly decreased enzyme activities, thereby indicating that these two mutations were responsible for the enzyme deficiency.
S Fukuda, S Tomatsu, M Masue, K Sukegawa, H Iwata, T Ogawa, Y Nakashima, T Hori, A Yamagishi, Y Hanyu
Sézary syndrome is a cutaneous T cell lymphoma characterized by infiltration of the skin by CD4+ cells. These cells generally respond poorly to mitogens and T cell activators. We have studied the action of IL1 to IL4, IL6, and IL7 on the proliferation of Sézary cells from 12 patients. With the exception of IL2 and IL7, the cytokines studied had no proliferative effect on these cells. Whereas IL2 had only a low proliferative capacity (two- to threefold increase) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, recombinant IL7 constantly induced a very significant (3-40-fold increase) proliferative response, and was used successfully to generate cell lines in three out of eight cases. Growth of Sézary cell lines was shown to be strictly dependent on IL7, and after 2-5 wk of culture presented a switch to a homogeneous phenotype CD3+4+8-7- (except for one line that remained CD7+), with a typical morphology of Sézary cells. Their tumoral origin was demonstrated by the expression of the same T cell receptor-beta gene rearrangement as the patients' T cells. Importantly, cultured normal epidermal keratinocyte supernatants could support the growth of our Sézary lines. Furthermore, the proliferative activity contained in these supernatants was completely blocked by a monoclonal anti-IL7 antibody. These results suggest that IL7 may, therefore, represent an important cytokine in the physiopathology of cutaneous T cell lymphoma.
A Dalloul, L Laroche, M Bagot, M D Mossalayi, C Fourcade, D J Thacker, D E Hogge, H Merle-Béral, P Debré, C Schmitt
RA33 is a nuclear autoantigen with an apparent molecular mass of 33 kD. Autoantibodies against RA33 are found in about 30% of sera from RA patients, but only occasionally in sera from patients with other connective tissue diseases. To characterize RA33, the antigen was purified from HeLa cell nuclear extracts to more than 90% homogeneity by affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose and by chromatofocusing. Sequence analysis of five tryptic peptides revealed that their sequences matched corresponding sequences of the A2 protein of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) complex. Furthermore, RA33 was shown to be present in the 40S hnRNP complex and to behave indistinguishably from A2 in binding to single stranded DNA. In summary, these data strongly indicate that RA33 and A2 are the same protein, and thus identify on a molecular level a new autoantigen.
G Steiner, K Hartmuth, K Skriner, I Maurer-Fogy, A Sinski, E Thalmann, W Hassfeld, A Barta, J S Smolen
Although sunlight is known to induce skin lesions in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to exacerbate systemic manifestations, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. We report experiments that show enhanced binding of IgG autoantibodies to the cell surface membrane of ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiated (200-1,600 J/m2) cultured SLE keratinocytes in 10 out of 12 such cell strains. The autoantibody probes showing increased binding were directed against the soluble intracellular antigens, Sm, RNP, SSA/Ro, SSB/La, whereas serum with anti-dsDNA activity did not demonstrate such binding. Control keratinocytes from several sources shared low level binding of autoantibodies after ultraviolet light exposure. In addition, 4/6 UVB-sensitive SLE strains showed increased autoantibody binding to the surface of SLE keratinocytes after UVA exposure (50-150 kJ/m2), but of lower magnitude. When UVB-sensitive nonirradiated SLE strains were exposed to autologous serum, 3/8 sera demonstrated a striking increase in IgG binding, which increased further after UVB exposure. Enhanced expression of saline-soluble intracellular antigens on the cell surface membrane of patient, but not control, keratinocytes may, in part, explain the photosensitivity of patients with SLE.
T D Golan, K B Elkon, A E Gharavi, J G Krueger
Patients with Lyme borreliosis (LB) usually develop a vigorous T cell response against the causative pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, but little is known about the antigens recognized in the cellular response. Therefore, T cell reactivities against whole bacteria, recombinant 31-kD (outer surface protein A, [OspA]), and 41-kD proteins (flagellin) from B. burgdorferi were studied in patients with LB, non-LB patients, and healthy donors. In parallel, specific antibodies were determined by Western blot analysis. Virtually all patients with LB exhibited marked cellular responses to whole B. burgdorferi, which were significantly elevated compared with the control groups in both early and late disease stages. However, analyses using the purified antigens OspA and flagellin revealed considerable heterogeneity in the cellular reactivities among individuals as well as variations during the course of infection. T cell responses to OspA were significantly increased in patients with early LB compared with both control groups whereas in late-stage disease responses only exceeded those of non-LB patients and were not different from normal donors. Cellular immune reactivities to flagellin were significantly higher only in early LB compared with both control groups. Reciprocally, several control subjects demonstrated marked cellular responses to OspA and flagellin, suggesting that reactions to these proteins may not always be related to LB. T cell reactivity did not correlate well with the presence of specific antibodies. Almost all seropositive patients in both early and late stage LB had serum antibodies against flagellin, but antibodies to OspA were detectable only in a subset of late LB sera. These data demonstrate the complexity of the humoral and the cellular immune responses to components of B. burgdorferi.
A Krause, G R Burmester, A Rensing, C Schoerner, U E Schaible, M M Simon, P Herzer, M D Kramer, R Wallich
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important pulmonary pathogen in cystic fibrosis, but the means by which it evades host defenses is understood poorly. Macrophages (M phi) are critical in protecting the lung and mucosal surfaces against infection and may need to perform their functions in the absence of opsonins before the evolution of an inflammatory response. The purpose of the present study was to define factors that regulate the capacity of macrophages to mediate nonopsonic phagocytosis. Phagocytosis of unopsonized P. aeruginosa by murine peritoneal and pulmonary alveolar M phi s was absolutely dependent upon the presence of glucose; only D-mannose could substitute. Glucose-dependent phagocytosis appears to be selective for P. aeruginosa by M phi s; ingestion of unopsonized zymosan, opsonized P. aeruginosa, EIgG, and E (IgM)C occurred in the presence or absence of glucose as did-ingestion of unopsonized P. aeruginosa by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. M phi binding and phagocytosis of unopsonized P. aeruginosa appeared to occur by a mechanism independent of complement receptor 3 and mannose receptors. Phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa killed by tobramycin or Formalin was glucose dependent, suggesting that the glucose exerted its effects on the M phi rather than the bacteria. The predilection of P. aeruginosa for lower airway disease in patients with cystic fibrosis might be explained in part by the unique dependency upon glucose for M phi phagocytosis.
D P Speert, S Gordon
Intratumor heterogeneity for susceptibility to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)-mediated lysis represents a major obstacle to cancer adoptive immunotherapy. To overcome the heterogeneity observed in terms of susceptibility of target cells to cell-mediated lysis, in this study we used two purified bispecific monoclonal antibodies (bsmAbs) that recognize molecules expressed by cytotoxic effector cells (CD3 and IgG Fc receptorial molecules), as well as one high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen (HMW-MAA). The ability of these reagents to enhance or induce a relevant in vitro cytotoxic activity by a CTL clone (CTL 49) isolated from PBL of a melanoma patient was tested on a large panel of autologous and allogeneic melanoma cell lines and clones. Functional studies revealed that the CTL 49 clone lysed all the HMW-MAA+ tumor lines in the presence of bsmAbs and that these reagents affected the target lysis in a cooperative fashion. The effectiveness of bsmAbs in overcoming the heterogeneous susceptibility of human melanoma cells to cell-mediated lysis may find practical implications in cancer adoptive immunotherapy.
P Nisticò, R Mortarini, L B De Monte, A Mazzocchi, M Mariani, F Malavasi, G Parmiani, P G Natali, A Anichini
It has been reported that antiphospholipid autoantibodies do not recognize phospholipid alone, but rather the plasma protein beta 2-glycoprotein I (beta 2GPI), or a beta 2GPI-phospholipid complex. In vitro beta 2GPI binds to anionic phospholipids and inhibits the prothrombinase activity of procoagulant membranes. In light of the fact that lupus anticoagulants, a type of antiphospholipid antibody, have similar anticoagulant properties, the relationship of beta 2GPI to lupus anticoagulant activity was investigated. IgG from patients with autoimmune diseases or syphilis were tested for anticardiolipin reactivity and lupus anticoagulant activity in the presence and absence of beta 2GPI. As expected, anti-cardiolipin reactivity associated with autoimmune disease was beta 2GPI dependent. In contrast, IgG from a patient with syphilis recognized cardiolipin alone and binding was inhibited by beta 2GPI. Autoimmune antiphospholipid antibodies prolonged the dilute Russell viper venom time of normal plasma, but had no effect on beta 2GPI-depleted plasma. Antiphospholipid antibodies associated with syphilis had no anticoagulant effect. RP-1, an anti-beta 2GPI mAb, had anticoagulant effects similar to those of autoimmune antiphospholipid antibodies. These data demonstrate that antiphospholipid autoantibodies exert lupus anticoagulant activity via an interaction with beta 2GPI. These antibodies and RP-1 appear to amplify the anticoagulant effect of beta 2GPI itself.
R A Roubey, C W Pratt, J P Buyon, J B Winfield
A subset of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus has autoantibodies to acidic phospholipids. Since lipids are poor immunogens, the mechanism responsible for the induction of these antibodies is unclear. Immunization of a normal rabbit and normal mice with purified human beta 2-glycoprotein I (apolipoprotein H) resulted in the production of high levels of two non-cross-reactive antibody populations, anti-apolipoprotein H, and antiphospholipid. The antiphospholipid antibodies had binding specificities indistinguishable from autoantibodies obtained from human and murine lupus. These findings suggest a novel mechanism for the induction of antiphospholipid autoantibodies.
A E Gharavi, L R Sammaritano, J Wen, K B Elkon
Advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGEs) accumulate on long-lived tissue proteins such as basement membrane collagen and have been implicated in many of the long-term complications of diabetes mellitus. These products originate from glucose-derived Schiff base and Amadori products but undergo a series of complex rearrangement reactions to form ultimately protein-bound, fluorescent heterocycles. AGEs can react with and chemically inactivate nitric oxide (NO), a potent endothelial cell-derived vasodilator and antiproliferative factor. Since mesenchymal cell proliferation is an early and characteristic lesion of diabetic vasculopathy and glomerulopathy, we investigated the possibility that collagen-bound AGEs functionally inactivate the antiproliferative effect of NO. In model cell culture systems, AGEs were found to block the cytostatic effect of NO on aortic smooth muscle and renal mesangial cells. The inactivation of endothelial cell-derived NO by basement membrane AGEs may represent a common pathway in the development of the accelerated vascular and renal disease that accompany long-term diabetes mellitus.
M Hogan, A Cerami, R Bucala
Nitric oxide provokes vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation. We examined the effect of nitric oxide on superoxide anion production by three sources: activated intact neutrophils, xanthine oxidase/hypoxanthine, and the NADPH oxidase. Nitric oxide significantly inhibited the generation of superoxide anion by neutrophils exposed to either FMLP (10(-7)M) or PMA (150 ng/ml) (IC50 = 30 microM). To determine whether the effect of nitric oxide on the respiratory burst was due to simple scavenging of O2+, kinetic studies that compared effects on neutrophils and the cell-free xanthine oxidase system were performed. Nitric oxide inhibited O2+ produced by xanthine oxidase only when added simultaneously with substrate, consistent with the short half-life of NO in oxygenated solution. In contrast, the addition of nitric oxide to neutrophils 20 min before FMLP resulted in the inhibition of O2+ production, which suggests formation of a stable intermediate. The effect of nitric oxide on the cell-free NADPH oxidase superoxide-generating system was also examined: The addition of NO before arachidonate activation (t = -6 min) significantly inhibited superoxide anion production. Nitric oxide did not inhibit O2+ when added at NADPH initiation (t = 0). Treatment of the membrane but not cytosolic component of the oxidase was sufficient to inhibit O2+ generation. The data suggest that nitric oxide inhibits neutrophil O2+ production via direct effects on membrane components of the NADPH oxidase. This action must occur before the assembly of the activated complex.
R M Clancy, J Leszczynska-Piziak, S B Abramson
The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) of neutrophils and BPI fragments neutralize the effects of isolated Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides both in vitro and in vivo. Since endotoxin most commonly enters the host as constituents of invading Gram-negative bacteria, we raised the question: Can BPI and its bioactive fragments also protect against whole bacteria? To determine whether the bactericidal and endotoxin-neutralizing activities of BPI/fragments are expressed when Gram-negative bacteria are introduced to the complex environment of whole blood we examined the effects of added BPI and proteolytically prepared and recombinant NH2-terminal fragments on: (a) the fate of serum-resistant encapsulated Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that survive the antibacterial actions of whole blood and (b) the ability of these bacteria to trigger cytokine release. Added BPI in nanomolar concentrations killed each of three encapsulated strains of E. coli and in closely parallel fashion inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF) release. Holo-BPI and its NH2-terminal fragment were equipotent toward a rough LPS chemotype K1-encapsulated strain, but the fragment was substantially more potent than holo-BPI toward two encapsulated smooth LPS chemotype strains. TNF release induced by K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa was also inhibited by both holo-BPI and fragment but, at the protein concentrations tested, P. aeruginosa was killed only by the fragment and K. pneumoniae was not killed by either protein. The bactericidal action of BPI/fragment toward E. coli is inhibited by C7-depleted serum, but accelerated by normal serum, indicating that BPI, acting in synergy with late complement components, enhances extracellular killing of serum-resistant bacteria. Thus, BPI and an even more potent NH2-terminal fragment may protect against Gram-negative bacteria in the host by blocking bacterial proliferation as well as endotoxin-mediated effects, not only as components of the intracellular antibacterial arsenal of the neutrophil, but also as potentially therapeutic extracellular agents.
J Weiss, P Elsbach, C Shu, J Castillo, L Grinna, A Horwitz, G Theofan
The human complement system is an important early host defense against infection. Entamoeba histolytica activates the complement system but is resistant to killing by complement C5b-9 complexes deposited on the membrane surface. Our aim was to identify components of the amebic plasma membrane that mediate resistance to human complement C5b-9 by screening for neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. A monoclonal antibody was identified that abrogated amebic resistance to C5b-9, and the mAb was shown to recognize the parasite's galactose-specific adhesin. The purified adhesin bound to C8 and C9 and conferred C5b-9 resistance to sensitive ameba upon reconstitution; these activities of the adhesin were inhibited by the antiadhesin mAb. The E. histolytica adhesin shared sequence similarities and antigenic cross-reactivity with CD59, a membrane inhibitor of C5b-9 in human blood cells, suggesting both molecular mimicry and shared complement-inhibitory functions.
L L Braga, H Ninomiya, J J McCoy, S Eacker, T Wiedmer, C Pham, S Wood, P J Sims, W A Petri Jr
Accumulation of monocyte-derived foam cells in focal areas of the arterial intima is one of the key events in early atherogenesis. We have examined the effect of lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC; lysolecithin), a major phospholipid component of atherogenic lipoproteins, on the expression of adhesion molecules for monocytes, such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), in cultured human and rabbit arterial endothelial cells. Cultured rabbit aortic endothelial cells treated with lyso-PC showed increased mRNA and cell surface expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, which was associated with increased adhesion of monocytes and monocyte-like cells (THP-1, U937). In cultured human iliac artery endothelial cells, lyso-PC similarly induced both VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, whereas in umbilical vein endothelial cells only ICAM-1 was up-regulated. In all endothelial cells examined, the effect of lyso-PC on E-selectin (endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1) expression was negligible, thus differentiating this stimulus from other endothelial activators, such as interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor, or lipopolysaccharide. We conclude that lyso-PC can selectively induce VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in arterial endothelial cells and that this action, in addition to its monocyte chemoattractant activity, may play an important role in monocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic lesions.
N Kume, M I Cybulsky, M A Gimbrone Jr
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), the third member of the natriuretic peptide family, is thus far known to be distributed mainly in the central nervous system and is considered to act as a neuropeptide, in contrast to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), which act as cardiac hormones. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that the ANP-B receptor, which is selectively activated by CNP, is localized not only in the central nervous system but in peripheral tissues, including blood vessels. This finding has made us speculate regarding the peripheral production of CNP. In the present study, cultured endothelial cells were examined for CNP production by RIA and Northern blot analysis. CNP-like immunoreactivity was detected in the conditioned media of endothelial cells. Northern blot analysis detected CNPmRNA with a size of 1.2 kb. In addition, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, one of the key growth factors for vascular remodeling, markedly stimulated the expression of CNPmRNA and induced a tremendous increase in CNP secretion. We could also detect CNP transcript in the bovine thoracic aorta using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. The present study demonstrates the endothelial production of CNP and suggests that a member of the natriuretic peptide family may act as a local regulator in vascular walls. Since evidence for the pathophysiological importance of the vascular renin-angiotensin system has been accumulating and the natriuretic peptide system is known to be antagonistic to the renin-angiotensin system, the possible existence of "vascular natriuretic peptide system" may prove to be of physiological and clinical relevance.
S Suga, K Nakao, H Itoh, Y Komatsu, Y Ogawa, N Hama, H Imura
The serpin-enzyme complex (SEC) receptor mediates catabolism of alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT)-elastase complexes and increases in synthesis of alpha 1-AT in cell culture. The SEC receptor recognizes a pentapeptide domain on alpha 1-AT-elastase complexes (alpha 1-AT 370-374), and the same domain in several other serpins, amyloid-beta peptide, substance P, and other tachykinins. Thus, it has also been implicated in the biological properties of these ligands, including the neurotoxic effect of amyloid-beta peptide. In this study, we examined the possibility that the SEC receptor mediates the previously described neutrophil chemotactic activity of alpha 1-AT-elastase complexes, and whether the other ligands for the SEC receptor have neutrophil chemotactic activity. The results show that 125I-peptide 105Y (based on alpha 1-AT 359-374) binds specifically and saturably to human neutrophils, and the characteristics of this binding are almost identical to that of monocytes and hepatoma-derived hepatocytes. Peptide 105Y and amyloid-beta peptide mediate chemotaxis for neutrophils with maximal stimulation at 1-10 nM. Mutant or deleted forms of peptide 105Y, which do not bind to the SEC receptor, have no effect. The neutrophil chemotactic effect of alpha 1-AT-elastase complexes is blocked by antiserum to peptide 105Y and by antiserum to the SEC receptor, but not by control antiserum. Preincubation of neutrophils with peptide 105Y or substance P completely blocks the chemotactic activity of amyloid-beta peptide, but not that of FMLP. These results, therefore, indicate that the SEC receptor can be modulated by homologous desensitization and raise the possibility that pharmacological manipulation of this receptor will modify the local tissue response to inflammation/injury and the neuropathologic reaction of Alzheimer's disease.
G Joslin, G L Griffin, A M August, S Adams, R J Fallon, R M Senior, D H Perlmutter
Precipitation of cholesterol in gallbladder bile is believed to produce platelike cholesterol monohydrate crystals directly. We report complementary time-lapse microscopic studies of cholesterol crystallization from model bile that reveal initial assembly of filamentous cholesterol crystals covered by a monomolecular layer of lecithin. Over a few days, the filaments evolved through needle, helical, and tubular microstructures to form classical platelike cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Similar crystallization phenomena were observed in human gallbladder biles from cholesterol but not pigment stone patients. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction of the earliest filaments suggested a cholesterol monohydrate polymorph or admixture with an anhydrous cholesterol precursor. However, density gradient centrifugation of filamentous crystals revealed that their density was 1.032 g/ml, consistent with anhydrous cholesterol. Conventional x-ray diffraction of transitional crystalline forms was consistent with pure cholesterol monohydrate crystals, as were the equilibrium platelike crystals. These novel findings suggest that crystalline cholesterol in bile may not be completely mature or hydrated initially, but undergoes a series of transformations to become thermodynamically stable monohydrate plates. These observations have important implications for understanding the control of cholesterol crystallization in bile, as well as explaining putative crystal cytotoxicity during gallstone formation.
F M Konikoff, D S Chung, J M Donovan, D M Small, M C Carey
Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) is thought to participate in the normal and pathologic processes of numerous tissues, including the gastric mucosa. To explore its role in vivo, transgenic mice were generated overexpressing TGF alpha in the stomach. TGF alpha induced dramatic structural and functional lesions of the glandular stomach that were similar to Ménétrier's disease in humans. Transgenic mice developed severe adenomatous hyperplasia that resulted in a striking nodular thickening or hypertrophy of the gastric mucosa. Secretions obtained from affected stomachs contained no detectable gastric acid, suggesting that parietal cell function had been greatly impaired. These findings demonstrate that overproduction of TGF alpha can stimulate cellular proliferation, suppress acid secretion, and perturb organogenesis of the stomach of transgenic mice. Moreover, TGF alpha may contribute to the pathogenesis of related human hypertrophic gastropathies, such as Ménétrier's disease.
H Takagi, C Jhappan, R Sharp, G Merlino
The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic administration of L-arginine, the precursor of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), normalizes endothelium-dependent relaxation and decreases atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic animals. Male rabbits were fed (a) normal rabbit chow; (b) 1% cholesterol diet; or (c) 1% cholesterol diet supplemented by 2.25% L-arginine HCl in drinking water. Arginine supplementation doubled plasma arginine levels without affecting serum cholesterol values. After 10 wk, the thoracic aorta was harvested for studies of vascular reactivity and histomorphometry. Endothelium-dependent relaxations (to acetylcholine and calcium ionophore A23187) were significantly impaired in thoracic aortae from animals fed a 1% cholesterol diet. By contrast, vessels from hypercholesterolemic animals receiving L-arginine supplementation exhibited significantly improved endothelium-dependent relaxations. Responses to norepinephrine or nitroglycerin were not affected by either dietary intervention. Histomorphometric analysis revealed a reduction in lesion surface area and intimal thickness in thoracic aortae from arginine-supplemented animals compared to those from untreated hypercholesterolemic rabbits. This is the first study to demonstrate that supplementation of dietary L-arginine, the EDRF precursor, improves endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. More importantly, we have shown that this improvement in EDRF activity is associated with a reduction in atherogenesis.
J P Cooke, A H Singer, P Tsao, P Zera, R A Rowan, M E Billingham