Ischemia-reperfusion and hyperoxia-induced pulmonary injury are associated with the presence of activated neutrophils (PMN) and cellular injury. Although the signals orchestrating the directed migration of these PMN during the pathogenesis of these disease states remain to be fully elucidated, it appears they may be dependent upon the production of certain neutrophil activating/chemotactic factors such as C5a, leukotriene B4, platelet-activating factor, and IL-8. The production of the latter chemotaxin by mononuclear phagocytes is especially intriguing as these cells can mediate inflammatory cell migration by either directly generating IL-8, or by inducing its production from surrounding nonimmune cells. In light of these observations, we propose that ischemia-reperfusion and oxidant stress, in vivo, may be simulated by anoxia-hyperoxia induced stress in vitro, and that this stress may act as a stimulus for the production of IL-8. We now show that isolated human blood monocytes respond to such an oxygen stress with augmented production of IL-8. In initial studies, monocytes demonstrated an increase in the production of IL-8 under anoxic preconditioning. Subsequently, monocytes were cultured under one of the following conditions for 24 h: (a) room air/5% CO2; (b) 95% N2/5% CO2 for 6 h, followed by room air/5% CO2 for 18 h; (c) 95% N2/5% CO2 for 6 h, followed by 95% O2/5% CO2 for 18 h; (d) room air/5% CO2 for 6 h, followed by 95% O2/5% CO2 for 18 h; or (e) 95% O2/5% CO2. Supernatants were isolated and analyzed for IL-8 antigen by specific IL-8 ELISA, demonstrating the production of monocyte-derived IL-8: 5.9 +/- 0.9, 11.4 +/- 1.7, 21.1 +/- 2.3, 14.6 +/- 2.4, and 26.3 +/- 4.7, ng/ml by designated conditions a, b, c, d, and e listed above, respectively. This variance in IL-8 production reflects altered rates of transcription as shown by Northern blot analysis and nuclear run-off assay. Furthermore, when monocytes were concomitantly treated with LPS (100 ng/ml) under in vitro hyperoxic conditions, both IL-8 steady-state mRNA and antigenic activity were two- to threefold greater than under room air conditions. The association of anoxic preconditioning and oxygen stress with augmented production of monocyte-derived IL-8 support the potential role for ischemia-reperfusion and hyperoxia-induced IL-8 production in vivo, providing a possible mechanism for PMN migration/activation in disease states characterized by altered tissue oxygenation.
A P Metinko, S L Kunkel, T J Standiford, R M Strieter