Three different guanylyl cyclase cell receptors are known, but others will likely be discovered within the next few years. The general function of these receptors appear to relate to the regulation of fluid volume or fluid movement. New receptors, or possibly the currently known receptors, therefore, may be discovered in areas of the body where fluid volume regulation is important. Such fluids whose volume or composition might be regulated by guanylyl cyclase receptors include synovial fluid, uterine/oviductal luminal fluid, follicular fluid, aqueous humor, cerebral spinal fluid, seminiferous tubule luminal fluid, epididymal luminal fluid, seminal plasma, and airway luminal fluid. The function of the heterodimeric forms of guanylyl cyclase appear to relate to a primary regulation of nitric oxide (or similar molecules) concentrations, which are in turn regulated by a Ca2+/calmodulin-sensitive nitric oxide synthase.
S K Wong, D L Garbers
Sandhoff disease is caused by mutations affecting the beta subunit of lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase (EC 126.96.36.199) and displays a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes. We report a 57-year-old patient with a very mild phenotype, although residual hexosaminidase A activity in his cultured fibroblasts was less than 3% of normal activity, a level observed in juvenile onset patients. Northern and Western blot analyses confirmed a similar low level of beta subunit-mRNA and mature beta-protein, respectively. Two mutations of the HEXB gene were identified in this patient, a partial 5' gene deletion (a null allele), and a C----T transition 8 nucleotides downstream from the intron 10/exon 11 junction affecting the splicing of the beta subunit-mRNA. In their homozygous forms, the 5' deletion has been previously shown to result in a severe infantile phenotype, and the C----T transition in a juvenile phenotype. The genotype and the low level of residual hexosaminidase A activity would be expected to produce a juvenile Sandhoff phenotype in this patient, as well as in four of his six clinically normal siblings. The biochemical basis of his mild phenotype is uncertain, but may result from genetic variations in the RNA splicing machinery.
B McInnes, M Potier, N Wakamatsu, S B Melancon, M H Klavins, S Tsuji, D J Mahuran
A congenital deficiency of the coagulation Factor XIII A subunit (F XIII A) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by a life-long bleeding tendency complicated by a difficulty in healing. Thus far, no molecular genetic analysis of this disorder has been reported. In this study, we demonstrate the molecular abnormalities in a family with this disorder. We performed Northern blot analysis of peripheral blood monocytes obtained from the propositus and found a 4-kb single band of F XIII A mRNA whose size was identical with that of normal subjects. Exons II-XV, which encode all the amino acids, were individually amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All PCR products from the propositus had lengths indistinguishable from those of the wild type on agarose gel, suggesting that this defect results from either a point mutation or a short deletion/insertion. The sequencing of F XIII A cDNA from the propositus revealed a deletion of the dinucleotide AG within the AGAG repeat at the position of 210 to 213. Concerning the genomic sequence, a deletion of dinucleotide AG was also demonstrated in the intron B-exon III boundary. This deletion appeared to cause a frameshift mutation making a new stop codon shortly thereafter, and leading to a deficiency of plasma F XIII A. The heterozygosity of the F XIII A deficiency in the patient's offspring was documented by the nucleotide sequences of their exon III.
T Kamura, T Okamura, M Murakawa, H Tsuda, T Teshima, T Shibuya, M Harada, Y Niho
Glucose toxicity of the pancreatic beta cell is considered to play a secondary role in the pathogenesis of type II diabetes mellitus. To gain insights into possible mechanisms of action of glucose toxicity, we designed studies to assess whether the loss of insulin secretion associated with serial passages of HIT-T15 cells might be caused by chronic exposure to high glucose levels since these cells are routinely cultured in media containing supramaximal stimulatory concentrations of glucose. We found that late passages of HIT cells serially cultured in media containing 11.1 mM glucose lost insulin responsivity and had greatly diminished levels of insulin content and insulin mRNA. In marked contrast, late passages of HIT cells cultured serially in media containing 0.8 mM glucose retained insulin mRNA, insulin content, and insulin responsivity to glucose in static incubations and during perifusion with glucose. No insulin gene mutation or alteration of levels of GLUT-2 were found in late passages of HIT cells cultured with media containing 11.1 mM glucose. These data uniquely indicate that loss of beta cell function in HIT cells passed serially under high glucose conditions is caused by loss of insulin mRNA, insulin content, and insulin secretion and is preventable by culturing HIT cells under low glucose conditions. This strongly suggests potential genetic mechanisms of action for glucose toxicity of beta cells.
R P Robertson, H J Zhang, K L Pyzdrowski, T F Walseth
RA is characterized by massive proliferation of synovial tissue, accompanying infiltration of the tissue with CD4+ T lymphocytes, and a genetic linkage to the MHC antigen HLA-DR4. Since T cells are restricted by class II MHC molecules such as DR4, this suggests a direct role for these CD4+ cells in pathogenesis. To investigate T cell receptor (TCR) usage in RA, we used oligonucleotide primers specific for each of the major alpha and beta TCR subfamilies to amplify cDNA derived from whole synovium or synovial tissue T cell lines in a family-specific manner. Detection of amplified DNA was facilitated by utilizing oligonucleotide probes derived from the constant regions of the TCRs. The TCR repertoire present in the synovial T cell lines was quite heterogeneous, with an average of 15 alpha chains and 15.8 beta chains detected. When synovial tissue was analyzed, the predominant TCR subfamilies detected tended to be more restricted, with an average of 4.6 alpha chains and 8.6 beta chains detected. This compared with an average of six alpha chains and 12 beta chains in nonrheumatoid synovial samples. The average percentage of synovia positive per TCR beta family was significantly lower for RA versus non-RA specimens (46.1 vs 65.6%, P = 0.034). These findings indicate that while a polyclonal population of T cells is present in RA synovium, the predominant patterns of TCR transcript expression may be somewhat more restricted, suggesting that TCR-based therapy of RA is possible.
W V Williams, Q Fang, D Demarco, J VonFeldt, R B Zurier, D B Weiner
In mice, the two distinct autosomal recessive genes lpr and gld can induce a syndrome characterized by autoantibody formation and the progressive accumulation of an unusual CD4-CD8- T cell population in peripheral lymphoid tissue. This phenotype does not precisely mirror any human disease. In this report we describe two patients with a progressive lymphoproliferative disorder associated with autoimmunity. The peripheral blood and lymph nodes of these patients contained large numbers of an unusual CD4-CD8- T cell population. These CD4-CD8- T cells express surface markers characteristic of mature peripheral blood T cells (CD3, CD2, CD5), express the alpha/beta form of the T cell receptor, and do not express surface markers characteristic of immature thymocytes (CD1) or NK cells (CD16, CD56). Functionally, these cells exhibited deficient proliferation and lymphokine production upon stimulation with mitogenic antibodies to CD3 or CD2. Both proliferation and lymphokine production could be augmented by co-stimulation with an antibody directed at the CD28 determinant. The clinical and immunological features of this syndrome resemble the lymphoproliferative/autoimmune disease seen in lpr and gld mice.
M C Sneller, S E Straus, E S Jaffe, J S Jaffe, T A Fleisher, M Stetler-Stevenson, W Strober
Gaucher disease, a lysosomal glycolipid storage disorder, results from the genetic deficiency of an acidic glucosidase, glucocerebrosidase (GC). The beneficial effects of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for Gaucher disease suggest that GC gene transduction and the transplantation of autologous hematopoietic stem cells (gene therapy) may similarly alleviate symptoms. We have constructed a retroviral vector, L-GC, produced by a clone of the amphotropic packaging cell line PA317, which transduces the normal human GC cDNA with high efficiency. Whole-marrow mononuclear cells and CD34-enriched cells from a 4-yr-old female with type 3 Gaucher disease were transduced by the L-GC vector and studied in long-term bone marrow culture (LTBMC). Prestimulation of marrow with IL-3 and IL-6, followed by co-cultivation with vector-producing fibroblasts, produced gene transfer into 40-45% of the hematopoietic progenitor cells. The levels of GC expression in progeny cells (primarily mature myelomonocytic) produced by the LTBMC were quantitatively analyzed by Northern blot, Western blot, and glucocerebrosidase enzyme assay. Normal levels of GC RNA, immunoreactive protein, and enzymatic activity were detected throughout the duration of culture. These studies demonstrate that retroviral vectors can efficiently transfer the GC gene into long-lived hematopoietic progenitor cells from the bone marrow of patients with Gaucher disease and express physiologically relevant levels of GC enzyme activity.
J A Nolta, X J Yu, I Bahner, D B Kohn
Recent studies have suggested a selective effect of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in regulating NaCl reabsorption in juxtamedullary nephrons. We examined (a) functional differences between medullary thick ascending limbs from long and short loops of Henle (lMAL and sMAL, respectively) and (b) the interaction of ANP and arginine vasopressin (AVP) on Cl- transport (JCl) in these two segments. AVP-, glucagon-, and calcitonin-stimulated cAMP accumulation was higher in lMAL than in sMAL. 10(-10) M AVP increased JCl in lMAL but not in sMAL. ANP-stimulated cGMP production was higher in lMAL than in sMAL. 10(-10) and 10(-8) M ANP inhibited AVP-stimulated JCl in lMAL by 26-30% (from 70.3 +/- 11.4 to 51.7 +/- 13.6 pmol/mm per min and from 88.1 +/- 10.1 to 61.8 +/- 11.7 pmol/mm per min, respectively), and this effect was mimicked by 10(-5) to 10(-4) M cGMP. This effect of ANP in lMAL could account for a large part of the ANP-induced natriuresis and diuresis in vivo, in that the rate of NaCl reabsorption in MAL is the largest among distal nephron segments, providing the chemical potential energy for the renal countercurrent multiplication system.
H Nonoguchi, K Tomita, F Marumo
Hematopoietic stem cell interaction with elements of the underlying stroma is essential for sustained normal hematopoiesis. Here we have determined that adhesion receptors in the integrin family play a role in promoting adhesion of human hematopoietic stem cells to cultured human marrow stromal cells. Enriched CD34hi progenitor cells expressed VLA-4, VLA-5, and at least one or more beta 2 integrins. Homogeneous marrow stromal cell monolayers capable of supporting proliferation of cocultivated CD34hi cells expressed VCAM-1 and fibronectin (ligands for VLA-4 and VLA-5) as well as ICAM-1 (ligand for LFA-1 and Mac-1). Adhesion-blocking experiments indicated that VLA-4/VCAM-1, VLA-5/fibronectin, and beta 2-integrin/ICAM-1 pathways all are important for CD34hi cell attachment to stromal cells. Consistent with this suggestion, IL-1 stimulation of stromal cells caused both increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression and increased attachment by CD34hi bone marrow cells. In addition, CD34hi cells utilized VLA-4 to adhere to purified VCAM-1 and employed VLA-5 (and to a lesser extent VLA-4) to adhere to purified fibronectin. Together these results suggest that CD34hi stem cells may utilize multiple integrin-mediated adhesion pathways to localize within specialized microenvironmental niches created by marrow stromal cells.
J Teixidó, M E Hemler, J S Greenberger, P Anklesaria
A number of basic and clinical studies suggest that elevation of external sodium concentrations, [Na]o, may reverse the cardiotoxic effect of local anesthetic-class drugs. The mechanisms of reversal are uncertain. The blocking action of lidocaine and disopyramide were studied over a range of [Na]o. Both whole-cell voltage clamp and single-channel recordings were performed on isolated rabbit myocytes at 17 and 22 degrees C, respectively. In the presence of lidocaine, an inactivated channel blocker, the level of steady-state block in response to pulse train stimulation was not affected by variations in [Na]o from 20 to 150 mM. Estimates of the rate of dissociation of drug from the channel also were unaffected. In contrast, steady-state block by disopyramide, a drug that blocks open channels, was decreased as [Na]o was increased. Single-channel measurements suggest that the influence of [Na]o on channel current amplitude was small, 12% for a 25 mM increase in [Na]o. This increase in single-channel current amplitude would affect drug-free channels only, in that our studies suggest that drug-associated channels do not conduct. The association rate constant of disopyramide with open single sodium channels was decreased from 10 x 10(6) to 5 x 10(6)/M per s by an increase in [Na]o from 120 to 180 mM. Elevation of [Na]o may reverse the blocking action of local anesthetic-class drugs by an increase in single-channel current amplitude or by a decrease in drug association rate with the sodium channel. The occurrence of the latter action depends on the mode of block of the specific agent.
M J Barber, D J Wendt, C F Starmer, A O Grant
To study the interaction of lymphocytes and macrophages in the control of extracellular matrix turnover, we determined the effects of several soluble T cell products on mononuclear phagocyte production of metalloproteinases. Cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), GM-CSF, and IFN-gamma were each tested for capacity to modulate macrophage metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) expression. The addition of IL-4 to cells cultured under basal conditions caused a dose-dependent suppression in the release of 92-kD type IV collagenase without affecting TIMP production. 92-kD enzyme secretion was inhibited by 50% with 1-2 ng/ml of IL-4 and by 90% with 10 ng/ml of IL-4. When cells were first exposed to killed Staphylococcus aureus to induce metalloproteinase production, IL-4 potently blocked the stimulated release of both interstitial collagenase and 92-kD type IV collagenase, again without effect upon TIMP. Metabolic labeling experiments and Northern hybridizations demonstrated that IL-4 exerted its action at a pretranslational level. Furthermore, IL-4 possessed the capacity to inhibit metalloproteinase expression even in the relatively immature peripheral blood monocyte. As reported previously (Shapiro, S. D., E. J. Campbell, D. K. Kobayashi, and H. G. Welgus. 1990. J. Clin. Invest. 86:1204), IFN-gamma suppressed constitutive macrophage production of 92-kD type IV collagenase. Despite the frequent antagonism observed between IL-4 and IFN-gamma in other systems, the combination of these two agents lowered metalloproteinase biosynthesis dramatically, whereas IL-4 opposed the IFN-gamma-stimulated production of cytokines (IL-1 and TNF alpha). IL-6 had only minimal effect upon metalloproteinase production, but appeared to specifically augment TIMP release. In summary, cytokines released by activated T cells may profoundly reduce the capacity of the macrophage to mediate extracellular matrix degradation.
S Lacraz, L Nicod, B Galve-de Rochemonteix, C Baumberger, J M Dayer, H G Welgus
We used a load-insensitive index of systolic left ventricular (LV) function and an analysis of diastolic pressure-dimension relationships to test the hypothesis that recombinant human (rh) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) impairs LV function in dogs. Animals were studied 7-10 d after aseptic implantation of instrumentation to monitor cardiac output, external anterior-posterior LV diameter, and LV and pleural pressures. Data were analyzed from seven dogs that received active rhTNF alpha (100 micrograms/kg over 60 min) and from five dogs that received heat-inactivated rhTNF alpha. At 24 h after infusion of active rhTNF alpha, the slope of the LV end-diastolic dimension-stroke work relationship decreased significantly, indicating a decrement in LV systolic contractility. Simultaneously, LV unstressed dimension increased significantly, suggesting diastolic myocardial creep. The end-diastolic relationship between LV transmural pressure and normalized LV dimension (strain) was markedly displaced to the left, suggesting increased diastolic elastic stiffness. Despite these changes in LV performance, cardiac index was maintained by tachycardia. The abnormalities in LV function were resolved by 72 h. We conclude that rhTNF alpha reversibly impairs LV systolic and diastolic function in unanesthetized dogs. Because dysfunction occurs greater than 6 h after the infusion of rhTNF alpha and persists for 24-48 h, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon may involve secondary mediators or a change in myocardial gene expression.
F D Pagani, L S Baker, C Hsi, M Knox, M P Fink, M S Visner
Chronic relapsing-remitting experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in cynomolgus monkeys by a single immunization with a homogenate of human brain white matter (BH) in adjuvant. Proliferative T lymphocyte responses to BH, to myelin basic protein (MBP), but not to proteolipid protein, were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of all animals and persisted until their death or, in surviving animals, for greater than 10 mo postimmunization. Responses of higher magnitude tended to be associated with fatal, compared with nonfatal, episodes of clinical EAE. The frequency of MBP-reactive T cells in PBMC of animals with acute EAE was quantitated with a soft agar colony system; the ratio of T cells that proliferated specifically to MBP was estimated at between 5 and 20 per 10(6) PBMC. A similar frequency of peptide-specific T cells was estimated from PBMC of monkeys immunized with a synthetic 14-mer peptide corresponding to a region near the carboxy terminus of MBP. Thus, autoantigen-reactive T cells can be detected in the circulation throughout the course of chronic EAE, are predictive of disease severity, and occur at a frequency similar to that estimated to be present in humans with multiple sclerosis.
L Massacesi, N Joshi, D Lee-Parritz, A Rombos, N L Letvin, S L Hauser
Two immunotoxins were constructed by chemically coupling the monoclonal antibody C242 to Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) or a modified form, NlysPE40, that lacks the cell binding domain of PE. Monoclonal antibody C242 recognizes a specific sialylated carbohydrate epitope on a high molecular weight membrane glycoprotein present on cells of human colon, pancreatic, and cervical cancers. C242-PE and C242-NlysPE40 were very cytotoxic for cells expressing this antigen with 50% inhibition of protein synthesis occurring on Colo205 cells at 0.2 ng/ml (0.9 pM) for C242-PE and 6.0 ng/ml (31 pM) for C242-NlysPE40. The two immunotoxins also exhibited a strong antitumor effect on a human colon cancer xenograft grown in nude mice. The specificity and potency of these two C242 immunotoxins warrant their further development for the treatment of cancer.
W Debinski, B Karlsson, L Lindholm, C B Siegall, M C Willingham, D FitzGerald, I Pastan
Candidate vector vaccine strain CVD 906 (aroC- and aroD- derivative of virulent Salmonella typhi strain ISP1820) was evaluated in phase 1 clinical trials. The first nine volunteers ingested a single dose of 5 x 10(7) CVD 906 bacilli. At this dose CVD 906 stimulates remarkable systemic and mucosal immune responses, inasmuch as 89% of volunteers developed marked serum antibody levels to S. typhi antigens and high numbers of antigen-specific gut-derived antibody-secreting cells. Four (44%) volunteers developed asymptomatic vaccinemia 4-10 d after immunization and all volunteers excreted CVD 906 on at least one occasion. However, two volunteers developed febrile adverse reactions, one on the day of vaccination and the other on day 4. Of 11 volunteers who ingested a single dose of 5 x 10(3) CVD 906 bacilli, none displayed side effects but 27% developed significant serum responses to S. typhi LPS. In vitro, CVD 906 replicates for only nine generations in pooled human serum, indicating that CVD 906 growth is limited in this physiologically relevant medium. In phorbol myristate acetate-induced U937 human macrophage-like cells, CVD 906 replicates intracellularly to a lesser extent than parent strain ISP1820. Although, strain CVD 906 is attenuated and highly immunogenic, the occasional febrile reactions at high doses indicate that further attenuation of this strain is necessary.
D M Hone, C O Tacket, A M Harris, B Kay, G Losonsky, M M Levine
The effects of inhaling nitric oxide (NO) on airway mechanics were studied in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated guinea pigs. In animals without induced bronchoconstriction, breathing 300 ppm NO decreased baseline pulmonary resistance (RL) from 0.138 +/- 0.004 (mean +/- SE) to 0.125 +/- 0.002 cmH2O/ml.s (P less than 0.05). When an intravenous infusion of methacholine (3.5-12 micrograms/kg.min) was used to increase RL from 0.143 +/- 0.008 to 0.474 +/- 0.041 cmH2O/ml.s (P less than 0.05), inhalation of 5-300 ppm NO-containing gas mixtures produced a dose-related, rapid, consistent, and reversible reduction of RL and an increase of dynamic lung compliance. The onset of bronchodilation was rapid, beginning within 30 s after commencing inhalation. An inhaled NO concentration of 15.0 +/- 2.1 ppm was required to reduce RL by 50% of the induced bronchoconstriction. Inhalation of 100 ppm NO for 1 h did not produce tolerance to its bronchodilator effect nor did it induce substantial methemoglobinemia (less than 2%). The bronchodilating effects of NO were additive with the effects of inhaled terbutaline, irrespective of the sequence of NO and terbutaline administration. Inhaling aerosol generated from S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine also induced a rapid and profound decrease of RL from 0.453 +/- 0.022 to 0.287 +/- 0.022 cmH2O/ml.s, which lasted for over 15 min in guinea pigs broncho-constricted with methacholine. Our results indicate that low levels of inhaled gaseous NO, or an aerosolized NO-releasing compound are potent bronchodilators in guinea pigs.
P M Dupuy, S A Shore, J M Drazen, C Frostell, W A Hill, W M Zapol
Thiazide diuretics inhibit Na+ and stimulate Ca2+ absorption in renal distal convoluted tubules. Experiments were performed on immortalized mouse distal convoluted tubule (MDCT) cells to determine the mechanism underlying the dissociation of sodium from calcium transport and the stimulation of calcium absorption induced by thiazide diuretics. Control rates of 22Na+ uptake averaged 272 +/- 35 nmol min-1 mg protein-1 and were inhibited 40% by chlorothiazide (CTZ, 10(-4) M). Control rates of 36Cl- uptake averaged 340 +/- 50 nmol min-1 mg protein-1 and were inhibited 50% by CTZ. CTZ stimulated 45Ca2+ uptake by 45% from resting levels of 2.86 +/- 0.26 nmol min-1 mg protein-1. Bumetanide (10(-4) M) had no effect on 22Na+, 36Cl-, or 45Ca2+ uptake. Control levels of intracellular calcium activity ([Ca2+]i) averaged 91 +/- 12 nM. CTZ elicited concentration-dependent increases of [Ca2+]i to a maximum of 654 +/- 31 nM at 10(-4) M. CTZ reduced intracellular chloride activity ([Cl-]i), as determined with the chloride-sensitive fluorescent dye 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl)quinolinium. The chloride channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB, 10(-5) M) abolished the effect of CTZ on [Cl-]i. NPPB also blocked CTZ-induced increases of 45Ca2+. Resting membrane voltage, measured in cells loaded with the potential-sensitive dye 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide [DiOC6(3)], averaged -72 +/- 2 mV. CTZ hyperpolarized cells in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner. At 10(-4) M, CTZ hyperpolarized MDCT cells by 20.4 +/- 7.2 mV. Reduction of extracellular Cl- or addition of NPPB abolished CTZ-induced hyperpolarization. Direct membrane hyperpolarization increased 45Ca2+ uptake whereas depolarization inhibited 45Ca2+ uptake. CTZ-stimulated 45Ca2+ uptake was inhibited by the Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine (10(-5) M). We conclude that thiazide diuretics block cellular chloride entry mediated by apical membrane NaCl cotransport. Intracellular chloride, which under control conditions is above its equilibrium value, exits the cell through NPPB-sensitive chloride channels. This decrease of intracellular chloride hyperpolarizes MDCT cells and stimulates Ca2+ entry by apical membrane, dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca2+ channels.
F A Gesek, P A Friedman
Normal tissue homeostasis requires a finely balanced interaction between phagocytic scavenger cells (such as monocytes and macrophages) that degrade senescent material and mesenchymal cells (such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells), which proliferate and lay down new extracellular matrix. Macrophages and monocytes express specific surface receptors for advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs), which are covalently attached adducts resulting from a series of spontaneous nonenzymatic reactions of glucose with tissue proteins. Receptor-mediated uptake of AGE-modified proteins induces human monocytes to synthesize and release cytokines (TNF and IL-1), which are thought to contribute to normal tissue remodeling by mechanisms not entirely understood. We now report that AGEs also induce human monocytes to generate the potent progression growth factor insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), known to stimulate proliferation of mesenchymal cells. After in vitro stimulation with AGE-modified proteins, normal human blood monocytes express IGF-IA mRNA leading to the secretion of IGF-IA prohormone. The signal for IGF-IA mRNA induction seems to be initiated via the monocyte AGE-receptor, and to be propagated in an autocrine fashion via either IL-1 beta or PDGF. These data introduce a novel regulatory system for IGF-I, with broad in vivo relevance, and provide an essential link to the chain of events leading from the spontaneously formed tissue AGEs, hypothesized to act as markers of protein senescence, to their replacement and to tissue remodeling by the locally controlled induction of growth factors.
M Kirstein, C Aston, R Hintz, H Vlassara
A peptide (C13) corresponding to the last 13 amino acids of the carboxyl terminus of human platelet factor IV was found to be antibacterial. Amino acid substitutions predicted to disrupt either the amphipathic or alpha-helical nature of C13 rendered the peptide inactive. Antibacterial activity was demonstrated in normal human serum on bacteria which had been previously exposed to low levels of cefepime, a beta-lactam antibiotic. Peptide analogues were examined for more potent antibacterial activity in an antibacterial assay that employed normal human serum and low levels of cefepime. A peptide analogue (C18G) with 80-fold more antibacterial activity than C13 was identified. Studies in C8-deficient sera confirmed an essential role of human serum complement for optimal antibacterial activity. Additional studies showed low levels of cefepime, although not essential, enhanced the antibacterial activity of C18G. Animal protection experiments demonstrated that either peptide C18G or an analogue with all D amino acids (C18X) significantly increased the survival of neutropenic mice when coadministered with a low level of cefepime. This work has resulted in the identification of a new group of antibacterial peptides.
R P Darveau, J Blake, C L Seachord, W L Cosand, M D Cunningham, L Cassiano-Clough, G Maloney
Recent observations in our laboratory suggest that angiotensin II (Ang II) is a bifunctional vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth modulator capable of inducing hypertrophy or inhibiting mitogen-stimulated DNA synthesis. Because transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF beta 1) has similar bifunctional effects on VSMC growth, we hypothesized that autocrine production of TGF beta 1 may mediate the growth modulatory effects of Ang II. Indeed, this study demonstrates that Ang II induces a severalfold increase in TGF beta 1 mRNA levels within 4 h that is dependent on de novo protein synthesis and appears to be mediated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Ang II not only stimulates the synthesis of latent TGF beta 1, but also promotes its conversion to the biologically active form as measured by bioassay. The coincubation of VSMCs with Ang II and control IgG has no significant mitogenic effect. However, the co-administration of Ang II and the anti-TGF beta 1 antibody stimulates significantly DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. We conclude that: (a) Ang II induces increased TGF beta 1 gene expression via a PKC dependent pathway involving de novo protein synthesis; (b) Ang II promotes the conversion of latent TGF beta 1 to its biologically active form; (c) Ang II modulates VSMC growth by activating both proliferative and antiproliferative pathways; and (d) Autocrine active TGF beta 1 appears to be an important determinant of VSMC growth by hypertrophy or hyperplasia.
G H Gibbons, R E Pratt, V J Dzau
Stimulation of neutrophils (PMN) with chemoattractants markedly increases surface expression of several membrane proteins, including the complement receptors, CR1 and CR3, by translocation from intracellular storage compartments to the cell surface. When we stimulated freshly-isolated PMN with FMLP, we observed little net change in surface Fc gamma receptor (R) III expression. However, if elastase was first used to cleave most (85-90%) of the Fc gamma R III from the PMN surface, subsequent treatment with FMLP induced a rapid renewal of surface Fc gamma R III, achieving levels of approximately 70% of that originally present on the cell surface after 15 min, suggesting translocation of intracellular receptors. This was confirmed by demonstrating concomitant depletion of greater than 80% of the intracellular Fc gamma R III. Studies of density gradient fractions of N2-cavitated PMN indicated at least two distinct intracellular membrane fractions that contain Fc gamma R III. Shedding of Fc gamma R III induced by FMLP was about half-maximal by 15 min and nearly complete by 60 min. Stoichiometric assessment of FMLP-induced changes in PMN surface and intracellular Fc gamma R III showed a marked depletion in intracellular Fc gamma R III, little net change in surface Fc gamma R III, and a large overall loss of total cell Fc gamma R III that could be attributed to shedding. We conclude that stimulation by chemoattractants causes a rapid translocation of intracellular Fc gamma R III to the PMN surface that is roughly balanced by the concomitant FMLP-induced shedding of this receptor.
M F Tosi, H Zakem
After obtaining data indicating the presence of a neutrophil attractant protein-1 (NAP-1)-IgG complex in normal human serum, we developed sandwich ELISAs that could quantify NAP-1 and NAP-1-IgG in mixtures of the two moieties. The ELISA for free NAP-1 used a monoclonal capture antibody that did not bind NAP-1-IgG. The ELISA for NAP-1-IgG was based on omission of the anti-NAP-1 detection antibody (required for the free NAP-1 ELISA) and on interaction of phosphatase-conjugated anti-human IgG with the human NAP-1-IgG complex. Gel filtration of immunoaffinity-purified NAP-1-IgG showed that the bulk of the complex comprised a single IgG. Binding between NAP-1 and antibody is strong, since 8 M urea at neutral or alkaline pH did not release NAP-1. However, at pH 2.0 in 9 M urea approximately 15% of the total NAP-1 could be dissociated from the complex. NAP-1-IgG was detected in 18 of 26 sera from normal humans. The mean serum concentration was 58 ng of IgG-bound NAP-1/ml, with an SEM of 16 and a range from undetectable to 247 ng/ml. NAP-1-IgG concentrations in paired sera drawn at a 1-mo interval were remarkably constant. Using an ELISA for free NAP-1 with a detection limit of 200 pg/ml, we found no free NAP-1 in the 26 sera. Free anti-NAP-1-IgG autoantibody was found in 9 of 26 sera by direct ELISA. IgG anti-NAP-1 of all nine sera was polyclonal, comprising both kappa and lambda isotypes; predominant subclasses were IgG2 and IgG3. NAP-1-IgG did not compete with 125I-NAP-1 for binding to neutrophils, which suggests that IgG anti-NAP-1 is a molecular trap that prevents binding of NAP-1 to neutrophils after it diffuses from production sites into the circulation.
I Sylvester, T Yoshimura, M Sticherling, J M Schröder, M Ceska, P Peichl, E J Leonard
The disruption of the cutaneous permeability barrier results in metabolic events that ultimately restore barrier function. These include increased epidermal sterol, fatty acid, and sphingolipid synthesis, as well as increased epidermal DNA synthesis. Because tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and other cytokines are known products of keratinocytes and have been shown to modulate lipid and DNA synthesis in other systems, their levels were examined in two acute models and one chronic model of barrier perturbation in hairless mice. Acute barrier disruption with acetone results in a 72% increase in epidermal TNF 2.5 h after treatment, as determined by Western blotting. Furthermore, epidermal TNF mRNA was elevated ninefold over controls 2.5 h after acetone treatment. This elevation in TNF mRNA was maximal at 1 h after acetone, and decreased to control levels by 8 h. After tape stripping, a second acute model of barrier disruption that avoids application of potentially toxic chemicals, TNF mRNA was elevated fivefold over controls at 2.5 h. Moreover, the mRNA levels for epidermal IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) also were elevated several-fold over controls, after either acetone treatment or tape stripping, but their kinetics differed. GM-CSF mRNA reached a maximal level at 1 h after acetone, while IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta were maximal at 4 h after treatment. In contrast, mRNAs encoding IL-6 and IFN gamma were not detected either in control murine epidermis or in samples obtained at various times after tape stripping or acetone treatment. The relationship of the cytokine response to barrier function is further strengthened by results obtained in essential fatty acid deficient mice. In this chronic model of barrier perturbation mRNA levels for epidermal TNF, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and GM-CSF were each elevated several-fold over controls. These results suggest that epidermal cytokine production is increased after barrier disruption and may play a role in restoring the cutaneous permeability barrier.
L C Wood, S M Jackson, P M Elias, C Grunfeld, K R Feingold
Monocyte influx and activation in synovial joints are important in the pathogenesis of both degenerative and inflammatory arthropathies. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of articular cartilage to directly modulate these events. IL-1-stimulated human articular chondrocytes transcribed 0.7-kb monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA. In situ hybridization of cartilage organ cultures revealed MCP-1 transcripts in chondrocytes in the superficial tangential zone within 2 h of stimulation with IL-1. Chondrocytes in deeper layers responded by 4 h and reached maximum MCP-1 mRNA levels by 8-12 h. IL-1-stimulated cartilage organ and chondrocyte monolayer cultures released functional monocyte chemotactic activity. This was neutralized by a monoclonal antibody specific for MCP-1, and was associated with the synthesis and secretion of immunoreactive 13-kD and 15-kD isoforms of MCP-1. Regulators and signal transduction pathways involved with the expression of the MCP-1 gene in chondrocytes were analyzed. Steady-state mRNA levels were increased by the known chondrocyte activators IL-1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, LPS, platelet-derived growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta. In addition, leukemia inhibitory factor induced MCP-1 gene expression and protein synthesis, identifying this cytokine as a new regulator of chondrocyte function. Dexamethasone blunted the induction of MCP-1 gene expression by IL-1 and by activators of protein kinase A as well as protein kinase C signal transduction pathways. In contrast, retinoic acid strongly increased phorbol myristate acetate-induced MCP-1 expression and potentiated the effects of IL-1 and LPS. In conclusion, chondrocytes express MCP-1 in response to factors that are present in cartilage or synovium. This provides a mechanism by which cartilage can play an active role in the initiation and progression of arthritis.
P M Villiger, R Terkeltaub, M Lotz
The roles of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction in glucocorticoid-induced diabetes were determined in Wistar and Zucker (fa/fa) rats. All Wistar rats treated with 5 mg/kg per d of dexamethasone for 24 d exhibited increased beta-cell mass and basal and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion, indicating insulin resistance, but only 16% became diabetic. The insulin response to 20 mM glucose was normal in the perfused pancreas of all normoglycemic dexamethasone-treated rats but absent in every diabetic rat. Immunostainable high Km beta-cell transporter, GLUT-2, was present in approximately 100% of beta-cells of normoglycemic rats, but in only 25% of beta cells of diabetic rats. GLUT-2 mRNA was not reduced. All Zucker (fa/fa) rats treated with 0.2-0.4 mg/kg per d of dexamethasone for 24 d became diabetic and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was absent in all. High Km glucose transport in islets was 50% below nondiabetic controls. Only 25% of beta cells of diabetic rats were GLUT-2-positive compared with approximately 100% in controls. Total pancreatic GLUT-2 mRNA was increased twofold suggesting a posttranscriptional abnormality. We conclude that dexamethasone induces insulin resistance, whether or not it induces hyperglycemia. Whenever hyperglycemia is present, GLUT-2-positive beta cells are reduced, high Km glucose transport into beta cells is attenuated and the insulin response to glucose is absent.
A Ogawa, J H Johnson, M Ohneda, C T McAllister, L Inman, T Alam, R H Unger
We have previously described two transgenic mouse lines, one heterozygous for the human apo A-I gene and the other heterozygous for a human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) minigene driven by the mouse metallothionein-I gene promoter. In the current study, these two lines were crossed producing control, HuCETPTg, HuAITg, and HuAICETPTg mice to study the influence of CETP on HDL cholesterol levels, particle size distribution, and metabolism in animals with mouse and human-like HDL. In the HuCETPTg and HuAICETPTg animals, zinc induction approximately doubled plasma CETP activity, with no activity in plasma from the control and HuAITg animals. The only significant effect of CETP on lipoprotein subfraction cholesterol concentrations was for HDL-C. Compared to control animals, HuCETPTg animals had lower HDL-C, 20% before and 35% after Zn induction, and compared to HuAITg animals, HuAICETPTg animals had lower HDL-C, 35% before and 66% after Zn induction. Control and HuCETPTg HDL consist primarily of a single size population with a mean diameter of 10.00 +/- 0.10 nm and 9.71 +/- 0.05 nm, respectively. HuAITg HDL consists primarily of three distinct HDL size subpopulations with peak diameters of 10.35 +/- 0.08 nm, 8.80 +/- 0.06 nm, 7.40 +/- 0.10 nm, and HuAICETPTg HDL also consists primarily of three distinct HDL size subpopulations with peak diameters of 9.87 +/- 0.05 nm, 8.60 +/- 0.10 nm, 7.30 +/- 0.15 nm before, and 9.71 +/- 0.08 nm, 8.50 +/- 0.11 nm, 7.27 +/- 0.15 nm after zinc induction, respectively. Western blotting analysis of nondenaturing gradient gels of plasma with a monoclonal antibody to CETP indicated that in HuCETPTg and HuAICETPTg mice, 22 and 100%, respectively, of the CETP was HDL associated. Turnover studies with HDL doubly labeled with 125I apo A-I and 3H cholesteryl linoleate indicated that the CETP-induced fall in HDL-C was associated with increased HDL-cholesterol ester fractional catabolic rate in both the absence and presence of human apo A-I, suggesting CETP-mediated transfer of HDL-cholesterol ester to apo B-containing lipoproteins. In summary, these studies suggest that CETP has a much more profound effect on HDL cholesterol levels in transgenic animals expressing human apo A-I. This may be due to an enhanced interaction of CETP with human compared to mouse apo A-I or to the HDL particles they produce.
T Hayek, T Chajek-Shaul, A Walsh, L B Agellon, P Moulin, A R Tall, J L Breslow
Western blot analysis was used to compare the herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 antibody profiles of 40 infants less than 2 wk of age who had been exposed to maternal genital HSV-2 at birth. 4 mothers were HSV seronegative at delivery and seroconverted to HSV-2 ("primary infection"), 9 had HSV-1 antibodies and seroconverted to HSV-2 ("nonprimary first episode infection"), and 27 were HSV-2 seropositive ("recurrent infection"). Neonatal herpes infections developed in 1 of 4 infants of women with primary infection, in 3 of 9 infants of women with nonprimary first episode infection, and in none of the 27 infants of women with recurrent HSV-2. Antibodies to HSV-2 proteins gG-2, VP5, and ICP35 were detected in 83, 89, and 72% of the 36 uninfected infants, respectively. None of the four infected infants had detectable antibodies to gG-2 and only one (25%) had antibodies to VP5 or ICP35. The more limited profiles of the 13 infants born to mothers with first episodes of HSV-2 were then analyzed separately; these profiles were similar among infected and uninfected infants except for gG-2, which elicits antibodies that are type specific for HSV-2. None of the infected infants versus seven of nine (78%) uninfected infants were gG-2 seropositive. These comparisons suggest that maternal type-specific antibodies may play a role in preventing neonatal infection after exposure to HSV-2.
R L Ashley, J Dalessio, S Burchett, Z Brown, S Berry, K Mohan, L Corey
Serum cytokine profiles were evaluated in immunized and nonimmunized human volunteers after challenge with infectious Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. Three volunteers had been immunized with x-irradiated sporozoites and were fully protected from infection. Four nonimmune volunteers all developed symptomatic infection at which time they were treated. Sera from all volunteers were collected at approximately 20 time points during the 28-d challenge period; levels of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-2, IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-4, IL-6, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, and soluble CD4, CD8, and IL-2 receptor (sCD4, sCD8, and sIL-2R, respectively) were determined by ELISA. C-reactive protein (CRP) was assayed by radial immunodiffusion. Parasitemic subjects developed increases in CRP and IFN-gamma, with less marked increases in sIL-2R and sCD8; the other cytokines tested did not change. CRP increases were abrupt and occurred at the onset of fever (day 14 after challenge). IFN-gamma increases were also abrupt, preceding those of fever and CRP by one day. Increases in sIL-2R and sCD8 were more gradual. Increases in fever, CRP, IFN-gamma, and sCD8 were concordant in each volunteer. Early IL-6 increases were noted in the protected vaccinees. Thus, after challenge with virulent P. falciparum, unique systemic cytokine profiles were detectable both in immunized, nonparasitemic volunteers and in unvaccinated, parasitemic subjects. The contrasting cytokine profiles in the two groups may relate to mechanisms of protection and immunopathology in experimental human malaria.
R Harpaz, R Edelman, S S Wasserman, M M Levine, J R Davis, M B Sztein
We reported that glucagon and phenylephrine decrease hepatocyte GSH by inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis (Lu, S.C., J. Kuhlenkamp, C. Garcia-Ruiz, and N. Kaplowitz. 1991. J. Clin. Invest. 88:260-269). In contrast, we have found that insulin (In, 1 microgram/ml) and hydrocortisone (HC, 50 nM) increased GSH of cultured hepatocytes up to 50-70% (earliest significant change at 6 h) with either methionine or cystine alone as the sole sulfur amino acid in the medium. The effect of In occurred independent of glucose concentration in the medium. Changes in steady-state cellular cysteine levels, cell volume, GSH efflux, or expression of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were excluded as possible mechanisms. Both hormones are known to induce cystine/glutamate transport, but this was excluded as the predominant mechanism since the induction in cystine uptake required a lag period of greater than 6 h, and the increase in cell GSH still occurred when cystine uptake was blocked. Assay of GSH synthesis in extracts of detergent-treated cells revealed that In and HC increased the activity of GCS by 45-65% (earliest significant change at 4 h) but not GSH synthetase. In and HC treatment increased the Vmax of GCS by 31-43% with no change in Km. Both the hormone-mediated increase in cell GSH and GCS activity were blocked with either cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Finally, when studied in vivo, streptozotocin-treated diabetic and adrenalectomized rats exhibited lower hepatic GSH levels and GCS activities than respective controls. Both of these abnormalities were prevented with hormone replacement. Thus, both in vitro and in vivo, In and glucocorticoids are required for normal expression of GCS.
S C Lu, J L Ge, J Kuhlenkamp, N Kaplowitz
Serial plasma samples from human volunteers obtained after intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin were analyzed for the presence of circulating soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNFR). A four- to fivefold increase of type A (p75) and type B (p55) sTNFR was observed 3 h after endotoxin challenge. Pretreatment of the volunteers with ibuprofen before the injection of endotoxin resulted in a slight increase (3.87 +/- 0.2 vs. 3.27 +/- 0.3 ng/ml) and temporal shift of sTNFR-A release concurrent to a marked augmentation of TNF levels (603 +/- 118 vs. 338 +/- 56 pg/ml) as compared to the group without ibuprofen pretreatment. There was a significant correlation between peak sTNFR-A levels and peak TNF levels in the individual probands (r = 0.52, P = 0.04). On the contrary, release kinetics and plasma concentrations of sTNFR-B were identical in both groups (7.38 +/- 0.69 vs. 7.44 +/- 0.33 ng/ml) and no correlation with individual TNF levels was observed. The amount of sTNFR liberated upon endotoxin challenge was not sufficient to block TNF-mediated cytotoxic effects. Our data indicate that the release in vivo of type A and type B sTNFR upon a short exposure to endotoxin is regulated differently.
G A Spinas, U Keller, M Brockhaus
The mechanism and cofactor requirements of exocytotic membrane fusion in neutrophils are unknown. Cytosolic proteins have been implicated in membrane fusion events. We assessed neutrophil cytosol for the presence of fusogenic proteins using a liposome fusion assay (lipid mixing). A fusogenic 36-kD protein containing amino acid sequence homology with human annexin I was purified from the cytosol of human neutrophils. This protein also shared functional characteristics with annexin I: it associated with and promoted lipid mixing of liposomes in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner at micromolar Ca2+ concentrations. The 36-kD protein required diacylglycerol to promote true fusion (contents mixing) at the same Ca2+ concentrations used for lipid mixing. The 36-kD protein exhibited a biphasic dose-response curve, by both promoting and inhibiting Ca(2+)-dependent lipid-mixing between liposomes and a plasma membrane fraction. The 36-kD protein also promoted Ca(2+)-dependent increases in aggregation of a specific granule fraction, as measured by a turbidity increase. Antiannexin I antibodies depleted the 36-kD protein from the cytosol by greater than 70% and diminished its ability to promote lipid mixing. Antiannexin I antibodies also decreased by greater than 75% the ability of neutrophil cytosol to promote Ca(2+)-dependent aggregation of the specific granules. These data suggest that annexin I may be involved in aggregation and fusion events in neutrophils.
J W Francis, K J Balazovich, J E Smolen, D I Margolis, L A Boxer
Low-frequency ultradian and high-frequency insulin secretion pulses were studied in normal subjects and in metabolically stable pancreas transplant recipients. Insulin secretion pulsatility was evaluated after deconvoluting the pulsatile plasma C peptide concentrations with its kinetic coefficients. In normal subjects, ultradian insulin secretion pulses with periodicities of 75-115 min were consistently observed during the 24-h secretory cycle. Pulse period and relative amplitude during the overnight rest (95 +/- 4 min and 27.6 +/- 2.4%) were similar to those during the steady state of continuous enteral feeding (93 +/- 5 min and 32.6 +/- 3.3%). Sampling at 2-min intervals revealed the presence of high-frequency insulin secretion pulses with periodicities of 14-20 min and an average amplitude of 46.6 +/- 5.4%. Pancreas transplant recipients had normal fasting and fed insulin secretion rates. Both low- and high-frequency insulin secretion pulses were present. The high-frequency pulse characteristics were identical to normal. Low-frequency ultradian pulse periodicity was normal but pulse amplitude was increased. Thus, ultradian insulin secretory pulsatility is a consistent feature in normal subjects. The low- and high-frequency secretion pulsatilities are generated independent of extrinsic innervation. Autonomic innervation might modulate low-frequency ultradian pulse amplitude exerting a dampening effect.
G E Sonnenberg, R G Hoffmann, C P Johnson, A H Kissebah
The mammalian brain is considered to be poorly responsive to thyroid hormone after the so called "critical periods" of brain development, which occur in the rat before postnatal days 15-20. In a previous work (Muñoz, A., A. Rodriguez-Peña, A. Perez-Castillo, B. Ferreiro, J.G. Sutcliffe, and J. Bernal. 1991. Mol. Endocrinol. 5:273-280) we have identified one neuronal gene, RC3, whose expression is influenced by early neonatal hypothyroidism and thyroid hormone treatment. In the present work we show that adult-onset hypothyroidism leads to a reversible decrease of RC3 mRNA. Rats thyroidectomized on postnatal day 40 and killed three months later showed a decreased RC3 mRNA concentration in the cerebral cortex and striatum. The same effect was observed in animals made hypothyroid on postnatal day 32 and killed on postnatal day 52. RC3 expression was normal when hypothyroid animals were treated with T4 five days before being killed. In contrast, the mRNA encoding myelin proteolipid protein showed no changes in either experimental situation. RC3 mRNA levels were not affected by food restriction demonstrating that the effect of hypothyroidism was not related to the lack of weight gain. The control of RC3 mRNA is so far the only molecular event known to be regulated by thyroid hormone once the critical periods of brain development are over and could represent a molecular correlate for the age-independent, reversible alterations induced by hypothyroidism in the adult brain.
M A Iñiguez, A Rodriguez-Peña, N Ibarrola, G Morreale de Escobar, J Bernal
Anti-PM-Scl antibodies are associated with polymyositis-scleroderma overlap or either disease alone. Among sera from 39 patients with anti-PM-Scl, 23 recognized the 100-kD band in immunoblot against HeLa cell extract, 16 of which also stained the 70-kD band. A human thymocyte lambda gt11 cDNA expression library was screened with anti-PM-Scl serum, and two clones were identified whose products reacted with 33 and 37 of 39 anti-PM-Scl sera, respectively, but none of 26 negative control sera. Affinity-purified antibody reacting specifically with plaques of the clone stained the 100-kD band on immunoblot, reacted with nucleoli of HEp-2 cells, and immunoprecipitated the PM-Scl protein complex. Partial sequences of both inserts were identical. One insert was fully sequenced, and additional 5' and 3' sequence was obtained using a gene-specific primer to form a cDNA with HeLa cell RNA as template followed by PCR. The complete nucleotide sequence included 2,739-bp coding for a predicted full-length protein of 98,088 D. There was no homology with the PM-Scl 75-kD protein and no significant homology with other proteins. A mixed-charge cluster was identified, with 22 charged amino acids of 37. In conclusion, the full-length cDNA sequence was determined coding for the PM-Scl 100-kD protein, the most commonly antigenic protein of the PM-Scl complex.
Q Ge, M B Frank, C O'Brien, I N Targoff
The objective of these studies was to characterize the IL-1 inhibitory activity present in normal and psoriatic epidermis from clinically stable lesions. Fractionation of normal epidermal cytosol on a molecular sizing column failed to reveal the presence of IL-1 inhibitory bioactivity. However, specific ELISAs indicated that both the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and IL-1 alpha were present in overlapping peaks. Further fractionation of the normal epidermal cytosol by anion exchange chromatography separated these two molecules, revealing the IL-1 inhibitory bioactivity of the IL-1ra molecule. Similar studies on psoriatic epidermal cytosol indicated the presence of IL-1 inhibitory bioactivity and IL-1ra protein. The IL-1 inhibitory bioactivity of both normal and psoriatic cytosol was neutralized by a mAb specific for IL-1ra. The ratio of IL-1ra to IL-1 alpha proteins was significantly increased in involved psoriatic skin compared with normal skin. By Western blot analysis this IL-1ra was approximately 20 kD, slightly larger than monocyte-derived IL-1ra and equivalent to an intracellular variant of IL-1ra expressed by keratinocytes. Polymerase chain reaction indicated the presence of mRNA for both forms of IL-1ra in normal epidermis, with both forms increased in psoriatic-involved skin. Immunofluorescence studies revealed the IL-1ra protein to be concentrated in the stratum granulosum of normal skin and in the basal-midbasal layers of psoriatic epidermis. These results suggest that the balance between intracellular IL-1ra and IL-1 alpha may be an important influence on keratinocyte growth and/or differentiation, as well as on the inflammatory potential of IL-1 in injured skin.
C Hammerberg, W P Arend, G J Fisher, L S Chan, A E Berger, J S Haskill, J J Voorhees, K D Cooper
Genotyping for 10 mutations in the CYP21 gene was performed in 88 families with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Southern blot analysis was used to detect CYP21 deletions or large gene conversions, and allele-specific hybridizations were performed with DNA amplified by the polymerase chain reaction to detect smaller mutations. Mutations were detected on 95% of chromosomes examined. The most common mutations were an A----G change in the second intron affecting pre-mRNA splicing (26%), large deletions (21%), Ile-172----Asn (16%), and Val-281----Leu (11%). Patients were classified into three mutation groups based on degree of predicted enzymatic compromise. Mutation groups were correlated with clinical diagnosis and specific measures of in vivo 21-hydroxylase activity, such as 17-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, and sodium balance. Mutation group A (no enzymatic activity) consisted principally of salt-wasting (severely affected) patients, group B (2% activity) of simple virilizing patients, and group C (10-20% activity) of nonclassic (mildly affected) patients, but each group contained patients with phenotypes either more or less severe than predicted. These data suggest that most but not all of the phenotypic variability in 21-hydroxylase deficiency results from allelic variation in CYP21. Accurate prenatal diagnosis should be possible in most cases using the described strategy.
P W Speiser, J Dupont, D Zhu, J Serrat, M Buegeleisen, M T Tusie-Luna, M Lesser, M I New, P C White
To investigate the impact that physiological variation in serum cortisol has on IgE-mediated events, 10 atopic subjects underwent cutaneous antigen challenge with measurement of the early phase wheal (EPW) at 20 min and the late phase reaction (LPR) at 6 h. All subjects were challenged during control conditions between 8:00 and 9:00 a.m. Repeat challenges were performed in five subjects at 6:00 p.m. and in eight subjects after ingestion of metyrapone, a specific inhibitor of cortisol synthesis. Compared with control values, mean serum cortisol was suppressed in the evening and after metyrapone (P less than 0.05 all time points). No effect was seen on the EPW, but mean LPR diameters at three antigen dilutions were significantly increased by cortisol suppression (P less than 0.05). Replacement doses of hydrocortisone given in the evening and with metyrapone abrogated these increases. Blinded analysis of LPR biopsies from cortisol-suppressed subjects revealed increases in leukocytoclasis (P less than or equal to 0.0001), interstitial leukocytes (P less than or equal to 0.01), and eosinophils (P less than or equal to 0.04). These results indicate that physiological levels of serum cortisol can regulate IgE-dependent cutaneous inflammation by affecting the expression of cellular events at late phase sites.
R F Herrscher, C Kasper, T J Sullivan
The hypothesis that renal alpha 2 adrenoceptors influence nephron filtration rate (SNGFR) via interaction with angiotensin II (AII) was tested by renal micropuncture. The physical determinants of SNGFR were assessed in adult male Munich Wistar rats 5-7 d after ipsilateral surgical renal denervation (DNX). DNX was performed to isolate inhibitory central and presynaptic alpha 2 adrenoceptors from end-organ receptors within the kidney. Two experimental protocols were employed: one to test whether prior AII receptor blockade with saralasin would alter the glomerular hemodynamic response to alpha 2 adrenoceptor stimulation with the selective agonist B-HT 933 under euvolemic conditions, and the other to test whether B-HT 933 would alter the response to exogenous AII under conditions of plasma volume expansion. In euvolemic rats, B-HT 933 caused SNGFR to decline as the result of a decrease in glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient (LpA), an effect that was blocked by saralasin. After plasma volume expansion, B-HT 933 showed no primary effect on LpA but heightened the response of arterial blood pressure, glomerular transcapillary pressure gradient, and LpA to AII. The parallel results of these converse experiments suggest a complementary interaction between renal alpha 2-adrenergic and AII systems in the control of LpA.
S C Thomson, F B Gabbai, B J Tucker, R C Blantz
Although well-characterized in the lung, the role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in inflammation in the central nervous system is undefined. Using rabbit models of meningitis and pneumonia, PAF was found to induce significant blood-brain barrier permeability and brain edema at doses five times lower than those required to generate leukocyte recruitment to the subarachnoid space. Both leukocytosis and increased vascular permeability occurred in response to PAF in the lung. Antibody to the CD-18 family of leukocyte adhesion molecules inhibited leukocyte recruitment in response to PAF in the brain (greater than 80%); a similar level of inhibition in the lung required treatment with a combination of a PAF receptor antagonist (L-659,989) and anti-CD18 antibody. Treatment with L-659,989 decreased abnormal cerebrospinal fluid cytochemical values induced by intracisternal challenge with pneumococci but not Haemophilus influenzae, indicating a special role for PAF in pneumococcal disease. Antibodies directed at phosphorylcholine, a unique, shared determinant of bioactivity of PAF and pneumococcal cell wall, obviated the inflammatory potential of both agents. However, no evidence for a direct PAF-like activity of pneumococcal cell wall components was detected in vitro by bioassay using platelets or neutrophils. It is concluded that PAF can induce inflammation in the subarachnoid space. In brain, PAF effects appear to be mediated through CD-18-dependent events, while in lung, PAF effects independent of CD-18 are also evident. At both sites, PAF is of particular clinical importance during inflammation induced by pneumococci apparently due to a unique proinflammatory relationship between the pneumococcal cell wall teichoic acid and PAF.
C Cabellos, D E MacIntyre, M Forrest, M Burroughs, S Prasad, E Tuomanen
The fetal pulmonary epithelium secretes fluid. Cl transport is presumed to provide the driving force for net fluid secretion, although the cellular mechanisms have not been well identified in the fetus. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP- and nucleoside triphosphate-regulated Cl channel; mutations in CFTR cause cystic fibrosis. We hypothesized that if CFTR is involved in fetal lung fluid transport, the fetal pulmonary epithelium should express CFTR mRNA. We used the technique of in situ hybridization with 3H-anti-sense and, as a control, 3H-sense CFTR cRNA probes to localize CFTR mRNA in human fetal lung tissue and cultured lung explants and determine when in gestation it is expressed. Epithelial cells of both first and second trimester lung tissues expressed CFTR mRNA. A decreasing gradient of CFTR mRNA expression was present from the proximal to the distal pulmonary epithelium. Cultured second trimester lung tissue explants expressed more CFTR mRNA than the uncultured starting tissue, suggesting CFTR gene expression increased during the five days in culture. Furthermore, alveolar type II cells in cultured explants expressed CFTR mRNA, suggesting that these cells are Cl-secretory and may be involved in lung fluid transport. These data confirm that CFTR mRNA is expressed in the human fetal pulmonary epithelium, consistent with the Cl-secretory properties of the fetal lung.
P B McCray Jr, C L Wohlford-Lenane, J M Snyder
Successful treatment of muscular disorders awaits an adapted gene delivery protocol. The clinically applicable technique used for hematopoietic cells which is centered around implantation of retrovirally modified cells may not prove sufficient for a reversal of phenotype when muscle diseases are concerned. We report here efficient, long-term in vivo gene transfer throughout mouse skeletal and cardiac muscles after intravenous administration of a recombinant adenovirus. This simple, direct procedure raises the possibility that muscular degenerative diseases might one day be treatable by gene therapy.
L D Stratford-Perricaudet, I Makeh, M Perricaudet, P Briand
In anucleate, granule-poor, motile fragments from human blood neutrophils (cytokineplasts; CKP), the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N omega-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA) produced a modest decrease in uptake of staphylococci from supernatants (P less than 0.02, n = 7), and a marked decrease in the killing of cytoplast-associated bacteria (P less than 0.001, n = 7). After 60 min of incubation with bacteria, NMMA-treated cytoplasts had a mean of over 3.5 times as many live, CKP-associated staphylococci as did controls (51% of the inocula versus 14%), despite having taken up fewer. Effects on both uptake and killing were reversible by L-arginine but not by D-arginine. Results were the same with other granule-poor cytoplasts (U-cytoplasts, U-CYT), which, unlike CKP, retain activatable oxidase activity. Killing by intact PMN, including those from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease, was not inhibited by NMMA. Thus, the ability to discern effects of NMMA correlated with the paucity of granules, without regard to the presence or absence of activatable oxidase. We propose that the generation of reactive nitrogen intermediates serves as an additional microbial killing pathway in PMN, and that cytoplasts can be used to help delineate the spectrum of susceptible targets.
S E Malawista, R R Montgomery, G van Blaricom
Interleukin 2 (IL-2) mediates the regression of metastatic cancer but clinical use has been limited due to associated toxicities. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is an important mediator of IL-2 toxicity and may have a limited role in IL-2 antitumor efficacy. Because pentoxifylline (PTXF) inhibits TNF production, we hypothesized that PTXF would ameliorate IL-2 toxicity without compromising antitumor efficacy. Four groups of female C57BL/6 mice with pulmonary metastases from a 3-methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma (MCA-105) and four groups of nontumored mice were treated every 6 h for 4 d by intraperitoneal injections of either IL-2 alone, IL-2 and PTXF, PTXF alone, or equal volumes of saline. Upon completion of therapy, we found that PTXF suppressed many of the IL-2-induced effects including TNF production, lymphocytic infiltration of multiple organs, multiple organ edema, hepatic dysfunction, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Tumor response was determined 21 d after cessation of therapy by quantitating the number and surface area of pulmonary metastases. PTXF preserved antitumor efficacy while reducing the morbidity and mortality caused by IL-2 treatment. These data strongly support the use of PTXF in extending the therapeutic index of IL-2 in the treatment of cancer.
M J Edwards, B T Heniford, E A Klar, K W Doak, F N Miller
Liver perisinusoidal fat-storing cells (FSC) show morphological and ultrastructural characteristics similar to pericytes regulating local blood flow in other organs. In the present study we have analyzed whether FSC respond to local vasoconstrictors such as thrombin, angiotensin-II, and endothelin-1 with an increase in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) coupled with effective cell contraction. All agonists tested induced a rapid and dose-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i followed by a sustained phase lasting several minutes in confluent monolayers of Fura-2-loaded human FSC. Pharmacological studies performed using different Ca2+ channel blockers indicated that, at least for thrombin and angiotensin-II, the sustained phase is due to the opening of voltage-sensitive membrane Ca2+ channels. To analyze the temporal and spatial dynamics of Ca2+ release in response to these agonists, we performed experiments on individual Fura-2-loaded human FSC using a dual wavelength, radiometric video imaging system. The rise in [Ca2+]i was exclusively localized to the cytoplasm, particularly in the branching processes. Increases in [Ca2+]i more than four-fold were associated with a simultaneous and transient reduction of cell area indicating reversible cell contraction. Our results indicate that the Ca(2+)-dependent contraction of human FSC in vitro may reflect a potential role in regulating sinusoidal blood flow in vivo.
M Pinzani, P Failli, C Ruocco, A Casini, S Milani, E Baldi, A Giotti, P Gentilini
Nitric oxide (NO) and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) cause vascular relaxation by generating cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) via activation of the soluble and particulate guanylate cyclases, respectively. The chronic effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an L-arginine antagonist and NO synthase inhibitor, on the blood pressure and plasma and aortic cGMP levels of rats were tested. Wistar rats (n = 10 per group) were given doses of L-NAME (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg/kg.d) by gavage twice a day for 4 wk. Chronic L-NAME induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in blood pressure. The total heart weight/body weight ratio did not change in any group, despite the hypertension. The plasma levels of cGMP did not change significantly in any group, and were correlated with the plasma ANF levels (r = 0.51, P less than 0.0001). Aortic cGMP decreased in negative correlation with increasing L-NAME from 0 to 10 mg/kg.d, culminating in a 10-fold drop arterial wall cGMP. The aortic cGMP content of rats in the four highest dose groups (from 10 to 100 mg/d) tended to increase slightly and was positively correlated with endogenous ANF (r = 0.48, P less than 0.002, n = 40). Intravenous L-arginine decreased arterial blood pressure and reversed the decline in aortic cGMP. Exogenous ANF and sodium nitroprusside both significantly increased aortic cGMP. Neither the arterial wall concentrations of cGMP-dependent kinase nor cAMP was changed by L-NAME. Thus, chronic blockade of NO synthase with L-NAME induces a dose-dependent increase in blood pressure and decrease in aortic cGMP. The in vivo basal aortic cGMP seems to be mainly dependent on NO synthase: soluble guanylate cyclase activity and to a minor extent on particulate guanylate cyclase activity.
J F Arnal, L Warin, J B Michel
Germline p53 mutations have been identified in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome but the role of such mutations in familial leukemia is not established. The p53 gene was examined by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of exons 4-8 in 10 families with multiple members affected with leukemia. The diagnoses included acute and chronic leukemias and Hodgkin's disease. Identified in two families were p53 mutations that were nonhereditary. These included a 2-bp deletion in exon 6 found in the lymphoblast DNA of one child whose sibling, cousin, and several adult relatives had acute leukemia. The other nonhereditary p53 mutation was a transition at codon 248 (CGG to CAG, arginine to glutamine) found in the lymphoblasts of a patient with a preleukemic syndrome and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) whose brother is a long-term survivor of ALL. Thus, p53 mutations were found to occur in two families but both were nonhereditary. Moreover, in the remaining eight families no p53 mutation was identified in the regions of p53 where most mutations have been found in other cancers. Although p53 mutations sometimes may be present, they do not appear to be a primary event responsible for hereditary susceptibility to familial leukemia. This study suggests involvement of other genes or mechanisms.
C A Felix, D D'Amico, T Mitsudomi, M M Nau, F P Li, J F Fraumeni Jr, D E Cole, J McCalla, G H Reaman, J Whang-Peng
Stimulation of the release of nitric oxide (NO) in the kidney has been shown to result in renal hemodynamic changes and natriuresis. NO is a potent stimulator of soluble guanylate cyclase, leading to an increase of cyclic GMP. The precise localization of NO synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase in the renal structure is not known. In this study, the microlocalization of mRNAs coding for constitutive NO synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase was carried out in the rat kidney, using an assay of reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction in individual microdissected renal tubule segments along the nephron, glomeruli, vasa recta bundle, and arcuate arteries. A large signal for constitutive NO synthase was detected in inner medullary collecting duct. Small signals were detected in inner medullary thin limb, cortical collecting duct, outer medullary collecting duct, glomerulus, vasa recta, and arcuate artery. Soluble guanylate cyclase mRNA is expressed largely in glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule, proximal straight tubule, and cortical collecting duct, and in small amounts in medullary thick ascending limb, inner medullary thin limb, outer medullary collecting duct, inner medullary collecting duct, and the vascular system. Our data demonstrate that NO can be produced locally in the kidney, and that soluble guanylate cyclase is widely distributed in glomerulus, renal tubules, and the vascular system.
Y Terada, K Tomita, H Nonoguchi, F Marumo
The carboxyl terminus of dystrophin is encoded by a highly conserved, alternatively spliced region of the gene. The few rare mutations reported in this region are of interest in unraveling the function of the dystrophin molecule. An unusual case of infantile onset Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) with an internal 3' genomic deletion, and a membrane localized non-functional dystrophin protein, was used to explore the functional activity of this region. The patient's cDNA sequence showed an intragenic 1824-bp deletion precisely excising the cysteine rich and alternatively spliced COOH-terminal domains of dystrophin. The unaltered final 2.7 kb of the patients transcript was defined as a single exon localized to two genomic fragments, with the 5.9 kb HindIII fragment containing the stop codon. To understand the significance of deletions in this important region of the dystrophin gene, we mapped the order and cDNA coordinates for the 3' genomic HindIII fragments encoding the cysteine rich and alternative splicing domains. This 3' gene map was used to compare the clinical phenotype of the other reported COOH-terminal deletions in the literature. Our analysis concludes that the cysteine-rich domain confers an important function for the dystrophin protein.
R D Bies, C T Caskey, R Fenwick
The opportunistic pathogen Pneumocystis carinii (Pc) is considered to be the leading cause of morbidity in patients with AIDS. It is important, therefore, to determine the immunological mechanisms of resistance to Pc. We have taken advantage of the lack of both T and B lymphocytes in severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mice to determine the critical factors in resistance to spontaneously acquired Pc pneumonia. Using adoptive transfer of unfractionated or fractionated lymphocyte subsets or hyperimmune serum from congenic normal donors, we have demonstrated that effective immunity to Pc results from the action of CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells (in the absence of antibody) or from humoral immunity (in the absence of T cells). However, responses of CD4+ T cells (but not antibody) to already well-established burdens of Pc are often accompanied by a fatal hyperinflammatory reaction. The activity of CD4+ T cells against Pc thus illustrates a broadly applicable principle that T cell immunity represents a critical balance between consequences beneficial and harmful to the host.
J B Roths, C L Sidman
The present study was designed to determine whether .N = O produced in vivo during the rejection of histoincompatible tissues might permit serum NO2-/NO3- levels to serve as markers of a rejection reaction. Rat syngeneic and allogeneic liver, heart, bone marrow/spleen cell, small bowel, skin, and sponge matrix grafts were performed and the stable end-products of .N = O, NO2-/NO3-, were serially assayed in the serum of the grafted animals. A significant rise of serum NO2-/NO3- levels in the allografted animals preceded the onset of clinical signs of rejection or graft-versus-host disease, with the exception of the skin and sponge matrix graft models, where elevated serum NO2-/NO3- levels were never observed. In all transplant models, normal serum NO2-/NO3- levels were observed at all times in animals that received syngeneic grafts. Furthermore, treatment of allograft recipients with the immunosuppressive agents FK 506 or cyclosporine A inhibited .N = O production. Determination of serum creatinine levels demonstrated that the elevated serum NO2-/NO3- levels were not caused by kidney dysfunction. Serum NO2-/NO3- levels might be useful early serum markers of the initiation of a rejection reaction or graft-versus-host disease when functional markers of graft dysfunction are not apparent.
J M Langrehr, N Murase, P M Markus, X Cai, P Neuhaus, W Schraut, R L Simmons, R A Hoffman