W A Border, E Ruoslahti
Adherent cells from HIV-infected subjects as well as in vitro HIV-infected normal adherent cells produce spontaneously a 29-kD (p29) factor that inhibits mitogen-induced proliferation of normal T cells. p29 mediates a partial dose-dependent inhibition of total protein synthesis in both nonstimulated and PHA-activated cells that is associated with impaired PHA-induced expression of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R)alpha chain, HLA-class II molecules, and production of IL-2 by these cells; conversely, p29 does not modify the expression of IL-2R beta chain, 4F2, CD9, or transferrin receptor, or the production of IL-1 and TNF alpha by the cells. 1 h preincubation of the cells with p29 is sufficient to detect its biologic activity and added rIL-2 abrogates p29-induced inhibition of IL-2R alpha chain expression; however, p29 does not display any biologic effect on already expressed IL-2R alpha chains. The impaired expression of IL-2R alpha chain mediated by p29 is not due to a decreased accumulation of the corresponding mRNA transcripts, but is associated with a two-fold increase of intracellular cAMP. Binding experiments with 125I-rIL-2 reveals that p29 induces a 50% decrease in the number of both high and low affinity IL-2R per cell. p29 also inhibits alloantigen-induced proliferation of PBMC, whereas it does not modify IL-2-dependent proliferation of 48-h PHA-blasts that already express high affinity IL-2R. These findings indicate that p29 mediates its biologic activity during early stages of T cell activation affecting the expression of high affinity IL-2R and production of IL-2, through a nontranscriptional mechanism involving an increase of intracellular cAMP.
A Ammar, Y Sahraoui, A Tsapis, A M Bertoli, C Jasmin, V Georgoulias
The modulation of enterocyte sheet migration was studied using Caco-2 cells, a well-differentiated human colonic cell line. Although Caco-2 cells attached and spread equivalently over collagen types I, III, IV, and V and laminin, migration over laminin was significantly slower than migration over the collagen types. Fibronectin was a poor substrate for attachment, spreading, and migration. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulated migration over laminin but did not alter Caco-2 migration over collagen or fibronectin. This effect was independent of cell proliferation, which was stimulated equivalently on both laminin and collagen I. Expression and organization of cell surface receptors for matrix (integrins) were studied using antibodies specific for beta and alpha integrin subunits. Integrin surface expression was assessed by immunoprecipitation of surface 125iodinated control and EGF-treated cells. Beta 1 surface pools did not change substantially in any condition studied. Alpha 1 subunit pools were decreased after EGF treatment on collagen I but alpha 1 pools increased after EGF treatment on laminin. Surface pools of alpha 2 subunits were increased following EGF treatment whether cells were cultured on laminin or collagen I. However, traditional immunofluorescent and laser confocal imaging demonstrated substantial differences in the character of alpha 2 subunit organization between collagen and laminin in the migrating cell front. Furthermore, a functional antibody to the alpha 2 subunit inhibited EGF stimulation of migration over laminin without substantial effects on basal migration over laminin or collagen I. Thus, EGF appears to exert a matrix-specific effect on enterocyte migration by modulation of integrin expression and organization.
M D Basson, I M Modlin, J A Madri
The reason why hyperinsulinemia is associated with essential hypertension is not known. To test the hypothesis of a pathophysiologic link mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, we measured the changes in forearm norepinephrine release, by using the forearm perfusion technique in conjunction with the infusion of tritiated NE, in patients with essential hypertension and in normal subjects receiving insulin intravenously (1 mU/kg per min) while maintaining euglycemia. Hyperinsulinemia (50-60 microU/ml in the deep forearm vein) evoked a significant increase in forearm NE release in both groups of subjects. However, the response of hypertensives was threefold greater compared to that of normotensives (2.28 +/- 45 ng.liter-1.min-1 in hypertensives and 0.80 +/- 0.27 ng.liter-1 in normals; P less than 0.01). Forearm glucose uptake rose to 5.1 +/- .7 mg.liter-1.min-1 in response to insulin in hypertensives and to 7.9 +/- 1.3 mg.liter-1.min-1 in normotensives (P less than 0.05). To clarify whether insulin action was due to a direct effect on muscle NE metabolism, in another set of experiments insulin was infused locally into the brachial artery to expose only the forearm tissues to the same insulin levels as in the systemic studies. During local hyperinsulinemia, forearm NE release remained virtually unchanged both in hypertensive and in normal subjects. Furthermore, forearm glucose disposal was activated to a similar extent in both groups (5.0 +/- 0.6 and 5.2 +/- 1.1 mg.liter-1.min-1 in hypertensives and in normals, respectively). These data demonstrate that: (a) insulin evokes an abnormal muscle sympathetic overactivity in essential hypertension which is mediated by mechanisms involving the central nervous system; and (b) insulin resistance associated with hypertension is demonstrable in the skeletal muscle tissue only with systemic insulin administration which produces muscle sympathetic overactivity. The data fit the hypothesis that the sympathetic system mediates the pathophysiologic link between hyperinsulinemia and essential hypertension.
G Lembo, R Napoli, B Capaldo, V Rendina, G Iaccarino, M Volpe, B Trimarco, L Saccà
Molecular sieving of albumin by ascending vasa recta. Evidence exists to support the presence of an extravascular pool of albumin in the renal medullary interstitium. This study used microperfusion in vivo to measure the transport of 125I-labeled albumin from descending (DVR) and ascending vasa recta (AVR) to the papillary interstitium. Perfusions were performed during furosemide diuresis with a buffer containing FITC-labeled dextran (FITC-Dx) 2 x 10(6) mol wt and 125I-albumin. Perfusate albumin and collection pressure were adjusted to induce either zero transcapillary volume flux (Jv) or high volume flux. When Jv was zero, the collectate-to-perfusate ratios of FITC-Dx (RDX) and 125I-albumin (Ralb) in the DVR and AVR were identical implying that diffusive efflux of albumin was immeasurably small. In contrast, when Jv was increased, paired comparison of Ralb and RDX in the same AVR revealed a difference, 1.58 +/- 0.06 vs 1.72 +/- 0.08, respectively (P less than 0.01). AVR perfusions in hydropenic animals showed similar results, Ralb = 1.70 +/- 0.07 and RDX = 2.00 +/- 0.07 (P less than 0.01). These data suggest that albumin transport across vasa recta in vivo is likely to be governed by solvent drag. The reflection coefficient of the AVR wall to 125I-albumin is estimated to be 0.78.
T L Pallone
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) promotes deposition of extracellular matrix and is associated with fibrotic conditions both in experimental animals and in humans. Although a role for mast cells has been suspected in the pathogenesis of fibrosis, no potent mediator capable of stimulating fibroblast growth or extracellular matrix deposition has been identified in mast cell supernatants. We report here the constitutive production of TGF beta 1 by four dog mastocytoma cell lines. TGF beta 1 was identified by characteristic biologic activity, blockade of biologic effect by specific neutralizing antibody, and by recognition of a band with the appropriate migration by western blot. TGF beta 1 mRNA, but not TGF beta 2 or TGF beta 3 mRNA, was also produced constitutively by all four cell lines. Quantitation by bioassay revealed baseline TGF beta secretion of approximately 1 ng/10(6) cells over 48 h. Stimulation of mastocytoma cells with phorbol ester increased the rate of release of TGF beta 1, most markedly in the first 30 min after stimulation, without increasing TGF beta 1 mRNA. Dog mastocytoma cells produced TGF beta 1 primarily in a latent form, inactive until treated with acid. Both pure TGF beta 1 and TGF beta-containing mastocytoma cell-conditioned media inhibited mitogenesis and proliferation in dog mastocytoma cell lines, suggesting that mast cell tumor lines would not grow preferentially based on their ability to produce TGF beta. These studies may make possible further investigation of the mechanism by which mast cells contribute to the induction of fibrosis.
D W Pennington, A R Lopez, P S Thomas, C Peck, W M Gold
During wound healing, release of ATP from platelets potentially exposes the epidermis to concentrations of ATP known to alter cellular functions mediated via changes in inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and intracellular calcium (Cai) levels. Therefore, we determined whether keratinocytes respond to ATP with a rise in Cai and IP3 and whether such increases are accompanied by a change in their proliferation and differentiation. Changes in Cai were measured in Indo-1-loaded neonatal human foreskin keratinocytes after stimulation with extracellular ATP. Extracellular ATP evoked a transient and acute increase in Cai of keratinocytes both in the presence and in the absence of extracellular calcium. ATP also induced the phosphoinositide turnover of keratinocytes, consistent with its effect in releasing calcium from intracellular sources. ATP did not permeabilize keratinocytes, nor did it promote Ca influx into the cells. The half-maximal effect of ATP was at 10 microM, and saturation was observed at 30-100 microM. UTP, ITP, and ATP gamma S were as effective as ATP in releasing Cai from intracellular stores and competed with ATP for their response, whereas AMP and adenosine were ineffective, suggesting the specificity of P2 purinergic receptors in mediating the ATP response in keratinocytes. Single cell measurements revealed heterogeneity in the calcium response to ATP. This heterogeneity did not appear to be due to differences in the initial Cai response but to subsequent removal of increased Cai by these cells. ATP inhibited terminal differentiation of keratinocytes as measured by [35S]methionine incorporation into cornified envelopes and modestly stimulated incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA. Chelation of Cai by bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid reduced basal Cai, blocked the Cai response to ATP, inhibited the basal rate of DNA synthesis, and blocked the ATP-induced increase in DNA synthesis. We conclude that extracellular ATP may be an important physiological regulator of epidermal growth and differentiation acting via IP3 and Cai.
S Pillai, D D Bikle
Plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a low density lipoprotein particle with an attached apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], varies widely in concentration between individuals. These concentration differences are heritable and inversely related to the number of kringle 4 repeats in the apo(a) gene. To define the genetic determinants of plasma Lp(a) levels, plasma Lp(a) concentrations and apo(a) genotypes were examined in 48 nuclear Caucasian families. Apo(a) genotypes were determined using a newly developed pulsed-field gel electrophoresis method which distinguished 19 different genotypes at the apo(a) locus. The apo(a) gene itself was found to account for virtually all the genetic variability in plasma Lp(a) levels. This conclusion was reached by analyzing plasma Lp(a) levels in siblings who shared zero, one, or two apo(a) genes that were identical by descent (ibd). Siblings with both apo(a) alleles ibd (n = 72) have strikingly similar plasma Lp(a) levels (r = 0.95), whereas those who shared no apo(a) alleles (n = 52), had dissimilar concentrations (r = -0.23). The apo(a) gene was estimated to be responsible for 91% of the variance of plasma Lp(a) concentration. The number of kringle 4 repeats in the apo(a) gene accounted for 69% of the variation, and yet to be defined cis-acting sequences at the apo(a) locus accounted for the remaining 22% of the inter-individual variation in plasma Lp(a) levels. During the course of these studies we observed the de novo generation of a new apo(a) allele, an event that occurred once in 376 meioses.
E Boerwinkle, C C Leffert, J Lin, C Lackner, G Chiesa, H H Hobbs
Multiple deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have recently been reported in familial progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), in a case of progressive encephalomyopathy, and in inherited recurrent myoglobinuria. The inheritance of familial PEO has been autosomal dominant, which indicates that a mutation in an unknown nuclear gene results in several mtDNA deletions of different sizes in these patients. We report a patient with autosomal dominant PEO, whose major clinical symptom, however, was severe retarded depression. The morphological analyses of the tissue samples derived from autopsy showed various abnormalities in the mitochondria in all the tissues studied. The activities of the respiratory chain enzymes encoded by mtDNA were remarkably reduced in the skeletal muscle. The mtDNA analyses confirmed that besides myopathy, this patient had a multisystem disorder with widespread distribution of multiple deletions of mtDNA. The highest percentage of mutated mtDNA was found in the brain, skeletal muscle and the heart, the relative quantity of mutated mtDNA correlating to the severity of the clinical symptoms.
A Suomalainen, A Majander, M Haltia, H Somer, J Lönnqvist, M L Savontaus, L Peltonen
An A alpha-arginine-141 to serine substitution has been identified in a homozygous dysfibrinogen, fibrinogen Lima, associated with impaired fibrin polymerization. The point mutation created an asparagine-X-serine-type glycosylation sequence, and indeed, extra, mainly disialylated biantennary oligosaccharides have been isolated from A alpha asparagine-139 of the patient's fibrinogen. This type of glycosylation sequence is unique for human fibrinogen, because the sequences shown for normal and abnormal fibrinogens are all asparagine-X-threonine types. The terminal sialic acids of the extra oligosaccharides seem to have largely contributed to the impaired fibrin gel formation, as evidenced by its correction to a near normal level by desialylation. Nevertheless, the polymerizing fibrin facilitated tissue-type plasminogen activator-catalyzed plasmin formation in a normal fashion, indicating that the initial two-stranded fibrin protofibrils had been constructed normally. Thus the impaired fibrin gel formation could be attributed to the delay in their subsequent lateral association, most probably because of the repulsive forces generated by the negative electric charge of the extra sialic acids. The substitution of a basic residue arginine to a noncharged residue serine may also have contributed to the impaired function in a similar manner or by steric hindrance in association with bulky extra oligosaccharide chains.
H Maekawa, K Yamazumi, S Muramatsu, M Kaneko, H Hirata, N Takahashi, C L Arocha-Piñango, S Rodriguez, H Nagy, J L Perez-Requejo
Glucose-induced insulin secretion by beta cells of diabetic db/db mice was studied by a pancreas perfusion technique, and the levels of GLUT2 protein in pancreatic islets were assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy and protein blot analysis. Beta cells from diabetic mice had a high basal rate of insulin secretion; they did not respond to glucose stimulation but displayed a normal secretory response to arginine. At the same time, GLUT2 expression by db/db islets was lost whereas beta cells from nondiabetic db/+ mice expressed high levels of this transporter. GLUT2 levels in liver or kidney of diabetic mice were, however, mostly unaltered. Transplanting islets from db/db mice under the kidney capsule of db/+ mice restored normal GLUT2 levels. Conversely, transplantation of db/+ islets into db/db mice induced the disappearance of GLUT2 expression. When islets from db/+ mice were transplanted under the kidney capsule of streptozocin-diabetic mice, the immunodetection of GLUT2 also disappeared. We conclude that: (a) GLUT2 expression is decreased in glucose-unresponsive beta cells from db/db mice; (b) the decreased expression of GLUT2 is reversible; (c) the loss of GLUT2 expression is induced by the diabetic environment of db/db and streptozocin-induced diabetic mice. These observations together with previously published data suggest that a factor different from glucose or insulin regulates the beta cell expression of GLUT2.
B Thorens, Y J Wu, J L Leahy, G C Weir
In search for matrix proteins released from secretory vesicles of human neutrophils, a prominent 67-kD protein was identified in the extracellular medium of neutrophils stimulated by the chemotactic peptide, FMLP. The protein was purified to apparent homogeneity and partially sequenced. The sequence of the first 32 NH2-terminal amino acids was identical to the sequence of albumin. mRNA for human albumin could not be detected in bone marrow cells, nor could biosynthetic labeling of albumin be demonstrated in bone marrow cells during incubation with [14C]leucine. Immunofluorescence studies on single cells demonstrated the presence of intracellular albumin in fixed permeabilized neutrophils. Light microscopy of immunogold-silver-stained cryosections visualized albumin in cytoplasmic "granules." The morphology of these was determined by immunoelectron microscopy as vesicles of varying form and size. Subcellular fractionation studies on unstimulated neutrophils demonstrated the presence of albumin in the low density pre-gamma and gamma-regions that contain secretory vesicles, but are devoid of specific granules and azurophil granules. Albumin was readily released from these structures during activation of neutrophils with inflammatory mediators. Immunoblotting demonstrated the presence of immunoglobulin and transferrin along with albumin in exocytosed material from stimulated neutrophils. This indicates that secretory vesicles are unique endocytic vesicles that can be triggered to exocytose by inflammatory stimuli.
N Borregaard, L Kjeldsen, K Rygaard, L Bastholm, M H Nielsen, H Sengeløv, O W Bjerrum, A H Johnsen
Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a collagenous glycoprotein that is secreted into the pulmonary airspaces by alveolar type II and nonciliated bronchiolar cells. SP-D exhibits Ca(++)-dependent carbohydrate binding in vitro and is structurally related to the collagenous C-type lectins, including serum conglutinin, serum mannose-binding proteins, and surfactant protein A. Preliminary studies showed calcium- and saccharide-dependent binding of fluorescein-conjugated or radioiodinated SP-D to a variety of microorganisms, including Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. A laboratory strain of Escherichia coli (Y1088) was chosen to further examine the mechanism(s) of binding. Binding of SP-D to Y1088 was time dependent, saturable, and inhibited by cold SP-D or competing saccharides; Scatchard analysis gave a Kd of 2 x 10(-11) M. At higher concentrations, SP-D also caused Ca(++)-dependent agglutination of Y1088 that was inhibited by alpha-glucosyl-containing saccharides, antisera to the carbohydrate-binding domain of SP-D, or Y1088 LPS. Lectin blots showed specific binding of 125I-SP-D to Y1088 LPS, as well as LPS from other several strains of enteric Gram-negative bacteria. Immunogold studies demonstrated strong and uniform surface labeling of the bacteria. Rat and human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) caused Ca(++)-dependent agglutination of E. coli that was dose dependent and inhibited by competing saccharides or anti-SP-D. SP-D was selectively and efficiently adsorbed from rat BAL by incubation with E. coli, and incubation of E. coli with radiolabeled rat type II cell medium revealed that SP-D is the major E. coli-binding protein secreted by freshly isolated cells in culture. We suggest that SP-D plays important roles in the lung's defense against Gram-negative bacteria.
S F Kuan, K Rust, E Crouch
Recent studies have revealed that endothelins (ETs) have at least two types of receptors. One receptor has high affinity to ET-1 and ET-2 and low affinity to ET-3 (A type). The other receptor binds almost equally to ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3 (B type). In this study, microlocalization of mRNA coding for the A-type and B-type ET receptors was carried out in the rat kidney using a reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction assay of individual microdissected renal tubule segments along the nephron, glomeruli, vasa recta bundle, and arcuate arteries. Large signals for the B-type receptor polymerase chain reaction product were detected in the initial and terminal inner medullary collecting duct and the glomerulus, while small signals were found in the cortical collecting duct and outer medullary collecting duct, vasa recta bundle, and arcuate artery. In contrast, A-type receptor mRNA was detected only in the glomerulus, vasa recta bundle, and arcuate artery. Thus, the two ET receptor subtypes are distributed differently along the nephron. This suggests that the two types of receptors and ET families may affect kidney functioning in different ways.
Y Terada, K Tomita, H Nonoguchi, F Marumo
Both thyroid hormone and hypothalamic growth hormone (GH)-releasing factor (GRF) facilitate pituitary somatotroph function. However, the pathophysiological role of thyroid hormone in GRF secretion is less well understood. Thyrotoxicosis, induced by administration of thyroxine (T4) in rats, inhibited both pituitary GH levels and immunoreactive GRF secretion from incubated hypothalamus. At the highest dose of T4 given for 12 d, GRF secretion and pituitary GH decreased by 50 and 39%, respectively. Hypothyroidism induced by thyroidectomy (Tx) enhanced GRF secretion approximately twofold while depleting pituitary GH by greater than 99%. Both of these hypothalamic and pituitary effects were reversed by replacement of T4 but not human GH for 7 or 14 d. Human GH was as potent as T4 in restoring decreased body weight gains or serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in Tx rats. These results indicate that at both physiological and pathological concentrations in serum, thyroid hormone acts as an inhibitory modulator of GRF secretion, probably not involving a feedback mechanism through GH. A biphasic effect of thyroid hormone on pituitary GH levels appears to derive from the difference in primary target tissues of hyper- and hypothyroidism, the hypothalamus and the pituitary, respectively.
N Miki, M Ono, N Hizuka, T Aoki, H Demura
The nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B transcription factor system is composed of at least four inducible nucleoprotein adducts termed p50, p55 (NF-kappa B p50), p75 (NF-kappa B p65), and p85 (c-Rel). These proteins are expressed in the nuclei of activated T cells in a distinctly biphasic fashion, with p55 and p75 induction occurring within minutes whereas the induction of p50 and p85 occurs after several hours. In contrast, p50 and p55 are constitutively expressed in the nuclei of U937 and THP-1 monocytic cells. However, cellular activation is required for the nuclear expression of p75 in these cells. Additionally, activation of monocytic cells does not result in a significant induction of p85. Tumor necrosis factor alpha induces the nuclear expression of p55 and p75 in these monocytic cells within 20 min, presumably reflecting the liberation of these proteins from I kappa B. In contrast, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) induces the expression of these proteins with delayed kinetics, raising the possibility that PMA is incapable of mediating the efficient release of p55 and p75 from I kappa B in these cells. These findings highlight important differences in the regulation of these proteins in monocytic cells versus T cells and suggest that the induced expression of NF-kappa B p65 in monocytes may play a central role in the activation of HIV-1 gene expression.
P A Kaufman, J B Weinberg, W C Greene
We analyzed mutant alleles of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency in Japanese patients. Among 141 defective APRT alleles from 72 different families, 96 (68%), 30 (21%), and 10 (7%) had an ATG to ACG missense mutation at codon 136 (APRT*J allele), TGG to TGA nonsense mutation at codon 98, and duplication of a 4-bp sequence in exon 3, respectively. The disease-causing mutations of only four (3%) of all the alleles among Japanese remain to be elucidated. Thus, a diagnosis can be made for most of the Japanese APRT-deficient patients by identifying only three disease-causing mutations. All of the different alleles with the same mutation had the same haplotype, except for APRT*J alleles, thereby suggesting that alleles with the same mutation in different families were derived from the same ancestral gene. Evidence for a crossover or gene conversion event within the APRT gene was observed in an APRT*J mutant allele. Distribution of mutant alleles encoding APRT deficiency among the Japanese was similar to that seen in cystic fibrosis genes among Caucasians and Tay-Sachs genes among the Ashkenazi Jews.
N Kamatani, M Hakoda, S Otsuka, H Yoshikawa, S Kashiwazaki
8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha (8-epi-PGF2 alpha) and related compounds are novel prostanoid produced by a noncyclooxygenase mechanism involving lipid peroxidation. Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury increased urinary excretion of these compounds by 300% over baseline level. Intrarenal arterial infusion at 0.5, 1, and 2 micrograms/kg per min induced dose-dependent reductions in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow, with renal function ceasing at the highest dose. Micropuncture measurements (0.5 microgram/kg per min) revealed a predominant increase in afferent resistance, resulting in a decrease in transcapillary hydraulic pressure difference, and leading to reductions in single nephron GFR and plasma flow. These changes were completely abolished or reversed by a TxA2 receptor antagonist, SQ 29,548. Competitive radioligand binding studies demonstrated that 8-epi-PGF2 alpha is a potent competitor for [3H]SQ 29,548 binding to rat renal arterial smooth muscle cells (RASM) in culture. Furthermore, addition of 8-epi-PGF2 alpha to RASM or isolated glomeruli was not associated with stimulation of arachidonate cyclooxygenase products. Therefore, 8-epi-PGF2 alpha is a potent preglomerular vasoconstrictor acting principally through TxA2 receptor activation. These findings may explain, in part, the beneficial effects of antioxidant therapy and TxA2 antagonism observed in numerous models of renal injury induced by lipid peroxidation.
K Takahashi, T M Nammour, M Fukunaga, J Ebert, J D Morrow, L J Roberts 2nd, R L Hoover, K F Badr
Recent experimental data have revealed that activins and inhibins exert pivotal effects on development. As part of our studies on growth and differentiation of the human fetal adrenal gland, we examined the subunit localization, as well as the mitogenic and steroidogenic actions of activin and inhibin in human fetal and adult adrenals. All three activin and inhibin subunit proteins (alpha, beta A, and beta B) were detected in the fetal and adult adrenal cortex. Immunoreactive activin-A dimer was demonstrated in midgestation fetal and neonatal adrenals. ACTH1-24-stimulated fetal adrenal cell expression of alpha and beta A subunit messenger RNA. In addition, ACTH elicited a rise in levels of immunoreactive alpha subunit secreted by fetal and adult adrenal cells. Human recombinant activin-A inhibited mitogenesis and enhanced ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion by cultured fetal zone cells, but not definitive zone or adult adrenal cells. Recombinant inhibin-A had no apparent mitogenic or steroidogenic effects. Thus, activin selectively suppressed fetal zone proliferation and enhanced the ACTH-induced shift in the cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate ratio of fetal zone steroid production. These data indicate that activin-A may be an autocrine or paracrine factor regulated by ACTH, involved in modulating growth and differentiated function of the human fetal adrenal gland.
S J Spencer, J Rabinovici, S Mesiano, P C Goldsmith, R B Jaffe
Patients with Crigler-Najjar syndrome (CN) type I inherit an autosomal recessive trait for hyperbilirubinemia, which is characterized by the total absence of bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (transferase) activity. The recent identification of two bilirubin transferase isoforms with identical carboxyl termini (Ritter, J. K., J. M. Crawford, and I. S. Owens. 1991. J. Biol. Chem. 266:1043-1047) led to the discovery of a unique locus, UGT1, which encodes a family of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isozymes, including the two bilirubin forms (Ritter, J. K., F. Chen, Y. Y. Sheen, H. M. Tran, S. Kimura, M. T. Yeatman, and I. S. Owens. 1992. J. Biol. Chem. 267:3257-3261). The UGT1 locus features a complex of six overlapping transcriptional units encoding transferases, each of which shares the four most 3' exons (2, 3, 4, and 5) specifying the 3' half of the transferase coding regions (condons 289-533) and the entire 3' untranslated region of each mRNA. This gene model predicts that a single critical mutation in any of these four "common" exons may inactivate the entire family of encoded transferases. In agreement with this prediction, we show here that in the first CN type I individual analyzed (patient F.B.), a 13-bp deletion has occurred in exon 2. Analysis of product generated by the polymerase chain reaction and genomic DNA demonstrated that F.B. is homozygous for the defective allele (UGT1*FB), and that the consanguineous parents are both heterozygotic at this locus. The mutation is predicted to result in the synthesis of severely truncated bilirubin transferase isozymes that are lacking a highly conserved sequence in the carboxyl-terminus and the characteristic membrane (endoplasmic reticulum)-anchoring segment of the protein molecule.
J K Ritter, M T Yeatman, P Ferreira, I S Owens
Enteroviruses have been considered to be a possible cause of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. We used a polymerase chain reaction methodology for the identification of enteroviral RNA in an attempt to provide evidence of a role for enteroviruses in the pathogenesis of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. The methodology was shown to identify a wide variety of enteroviruses with a sensitivity up to 0.1-1 plaque-forming units/gram of tissue. 5 of 11 cases (45%) of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, as well as 9 of 24 cases (38%) of a wide variety of other cardiac conditions (including normal heart), were positive for enteroviral nucleic acid sequences; all eight control cases of breast carcinoma tested were negative. These results suggest that both the normal and abnormal heart may represent a site of latent or low-grade persistent enteroviral infection, and that the mere presence of enteroviral nucleic acid sequences is not specifically associated with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.
L M Weiss, X F Liu, K L Chang, M E Billingham
Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by the defects in the glycine cleavage system (GCS; EC 18.104.22.168), a multienzyme system that consists of four individual components. NKH is a rare disorder in many countries, but with a very high incidence in northern Finland. To understand the genetic background of this high incidence, we examined the GCS in a typical case of NKH at the molecular level. The activity of P protein, a component of the GCS, was not detected in the lymphoblasts of the patient, while P protein mRNA of a normal size and level was present in the cells. Structural analysis of P protein mRNA from the patient revealed a single nucleotide substitution from G to T in the protein coding region, which resulted in an amino acid alteration from Ser564 to Ile564. No P protein activity was detected when the mutant P protein with this amino acid substitution was expressed in COS 7 cells. The patient was homozygous for this mutation. Furthermore, this mutation was present in 70% (14 of 20) of P protein gene alleles in Finnish patients with NKH, whereas it was not found in 20 alleles of non-Finnish patients. The results suggest that this mutation is responsible for the high incidence of NKH in Finland.
S Kure, M Takayanagi, K Narisawa, K Tada, J Leisti
IgG reactivity with the (H2A-H2B)-DNA complex, a subunit of the nucleosome, has been detected in many patients with lupus induced by procainamide and quinidine, but the similarity among the epitopes targeted by these antibodies in this heterogeneous patient group as well as the prevalence of this specificity in lupus induced by other drugs is unknown. Studies with histone-DNA complexes formed by sequential addition on a solid phase demonstrated that complexes containing single histones had negligible antigenicity, indicating that DNA stabilizes a protein epitope in the H2A-H2B dimer or that the complete epitope is generated by a surface feature involving H2A-H2B and DNA. F(ab')2 isolated from a patient with procainamide-induced lupus blocked greater than 90% of the anti-[(H2A-H2B)-DNA] reactivity in six of six sera from patients with lupus induced by procainamide, four of four quinidine-induced patients and in sera from patients with lupus induced by acebutolol, penicillamine, and isoniazid, but not methyldopa or auto-antibodies to the component macromolecules. Fab fragments purified from the IgG of two quinidine-induced lupus patients and patients with isoniazid- and procainamide-induced lupus retained 39% +/- 8% of their original IgG reactivity compared to 34 +/- 28% of the original anti-tetanus toxoid activity of Fab fragments in two of the same sera and two normal sera. These results indicate that anti-[(H2A-H2B)-DNA] does not require divalent antigen-antibody complexes for stability, and that the complete epitope is created by the monomeric, trimolecular histone-DNA complex. We conclude that despite their pharmacologic and chemical heterogeneity, many lupus-inducing drugs elicit near identical autoantibodies.
R L Rubin, S A Bell, R W Burlingame
The involvement of tyrosine phosphorylation in insulin action led us to hypothesize that increased activity of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) might contribute to insulin resistance in alloxan diabetes in the rat. Hepatic PTPase activity was measured using two artificial substrates phosphorylated on tyrosine: reduced, carboxyamidomethylated, and maleylated lysozyme (P-Tyr-RCML) and myelin basic protein (P-Tyr-MBP), as well as an autophosphorylated 48-kD insulin receptor tyrosine kinase domain (P-Tyr-IRKD). Rats that were made alloxan diabetic exhibited a significant increase in hepatic membrane (detergent-soluble) PTPase activity measured with P-Tyr-MBP, without a change in activity measured with P-Tyr-RCML or the P-Tyr-IRKD. The PTPase active with P-Tyr-MBP behaved as a high molecular weight peak during gel filtration chromatography. Characterization of this enzyme indicated it shared properties with CD45, the prototype for a class of transmembrane, receptor-like PTPases. Our results indicate that alloxan diabetes in the rat is associated with an increase in the activity of a large, membrane-associated PTPase which accounts for only a small proportion of insulin receptor tyrosine dephosphorylation. Nonetheless, increased activity of this PTPase may oppose tyrosine kinase-mediated insulin signal transmission, thus contributing to insulin resistance.
J M Boylan, D L Brautigan, J Madden, T Raven, L Ellis, P A Gruppuso
To examine the mechanism by which mineralocorticoids regulate HCO3- absorption in the rabbit inner stripe of the outer medullary collecting duct, we microfluorometrically measured intracellular pH (pHi) in in vitro perfused tubules using 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) assaying the apical and basolateral membrane H+/OH-/HCO3- transport processes in three groups of animals: those receiving chronic in vivo DOCA treatment (5 mg/kg per d x 2 wk); those with surgical adrenalectomy (ADX, [chronic x 2 wk]) on glucocorticoid replacement; and controls. Baseline pHi was not different in the three groups. Cellular volume (vol/mm) was increased 38% in DOCA tubules versus controls, but unchanged in ADX tubules versus controls. Buffer capacities (BT) were not different in the three groups. Apical membrane H+ pump activity, assayed as the Na(+)-independent pHi recovery from an acid load (NH3/NH4+ prepulse) and expressed as JH (dpHi/dt.vol/mm.BT) was increased 76% in DOCA tubules versus controls, and decreased 56% in ADX tubules versus controls. Basolateral membrane Cl-/HCO3- exchange activity assayed as the pHi response to basolateral Cl- addition was increased 73% in DOCA tubules versus controls, and decreased 44% in ADX tubules versus controls. When examined as a function of varying [Cl-], the Vmax of Cl-/HCO3- exchange activity was significantly increased in DOCA tubules (control, 72.7 +/- 15.7 pmol.mm-1.min-1 vs DOCA, 132.3 +/- 22.5 pmol.mm-1.min-1, P less than 0.02), while the K1/2 for Cl- was unchanged. Basolateral membrane Na+/H+ antiporter activity assayed as the Na(+)-dependent pHi recovery from an acid load was not changed in chronic DOCA tubules versus controls. In conclusion, the apical membrane H+ pump and basolateral membrane Cl-/HCO3- exchanger of the rabbit OMCDi are regulated in parallel without chronic alterations in pHi under the conditions of mineralocorticoid excess and deficiency. The parallel changes in these transporters accounts for the alterations in OMCDi HCO3- absorption seen under these conditions.
S R Hays
Integrins are a class of cell adhesion molecules that participate in cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions and are present on essentially all human cells. The distribution of nine different alpha and beta integrin subunits in human endometrial tissue at different stages of the menstrual cycle was determined using immunoperoxidase staining. Glandular epithelial cells expressed primarily alpha 2, alpha 3, and alpha 6 (collagen/laminin receptors), while stromal cells expressed predominantly alpha 5 (fibronectin receptor). The presence of alpha 1 on glandular epithelial cells was cycle specific, found only during the secretory phase. Expression of both subunits of the vitronectin receptor, alpha v beta 3, also underwent cycle specific changes on endometrial epithelial cells. Immunostaining for alpha v increased throughout the menstrual cycle, while the beta 3 subunit appeared abruptly on cycle day 20 on luminal as well as glandular epithelial cells. Discordant luteal phase biopsies (greater than or equal to 3 d "out of phase") from infertility patients exhibited delayed epithelial beta 3 immunostaining. These results demonstrate similarities, as well as specific differences, between endometrium and other epithelial tissues. Certain integrin moieties appear to be regulated within the cycling endometrium and disruption of integrin expression may be associated with decreased uterine receptivity and infertility.
B A Lessey, L Damjanovich, C Coutifaris, A Castelbaum, S M Albelda, C A Buck
Male NMRI or BALB/c mice developed severe liver injury as assessed by transaminase release within 8 h when an intravenous dose greater than 1.5 mg/kg concanavalin A (Con A) was given. Histopathologically, only the liver was affected. Electron micrographs revealed leukocyte sticking to endothelial cells and bleb formation of hepatocytes. The hepatotoxicity of the lectin correlated neither with its agglutination activity nor with its sugar specificity. Administration of 0.5 mg/kg dexamethasone or 50 mg/kg cyclosporine A or 50 mg/kg FK 506 (Fujimycin) resulted in protection of the animals whereas indomethacin pretreatment failed to protect. Con A hepatitis was accompanied by the release of IL-2 into the serum of the animals. Mice with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome lacking B as well as T lymphocytes were resistant against Con A. Athymic nude mice with immature T lymphocytes were also resistant. Pretreatment of mice with an antibody against T lymphocytes fully protected against Con A as did monoclonal anti-mouse CD4. Monoclonal anti-mouse CD8 failed to protect. Pretreatment of mice with silica particles, i.e., deletion of macrophages, prevented the induction of hepatitis. These findings provide evidence that Con A-induced liver injury depends on the activation of T lymphocytes by macrophages in the presence of Con A. The model might allow the study of the pathophysiology of immunologically mediated hepatic disorders such as autoimmune chronic active hepatitis.
G Tiegs, J Hentschel, A Wendel
Gamma delta T cell receptor-positive cells (gamma delta T cells) have recently been implicated to play a role in the protection against infectious pathogens. Serial studies on gamma delta T cells in 14 patients with salmonella infection have revealed that the proportions of gamma delta T cells (mean +/- SD: 17.9 +/- 13.2%) in salmonella infection were significantly increased (P less than 0.01) compared with 35 normal controls (5.0 +/- 2.6%) and 13 patients with other bacterial infections (4.0 +/- 1.4%). Expansion of gamma delta T cells was more prominent in the systemic form (28.9 +/- 10.8%) than in the gastroenteritis form (10.5 +/- 7.9%) of salmonella infection (P less than 0.01). Most in vivo-expanded gamma delta T cells expressed V gamma 9 gene product. Increased activated (HLA-DR+) T cells were observed in all the six patients with the systemic form and four of the seven with gastroenteritis form. Especially in the six with systemic form, gamma delta T cell activation was significantly higher than alpha beta T cell activation at the early stage of illness (P less than 0.01). When peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal individuals were cultured with live salmonella, gamma delta T cells were preferentially activated and expanded and most of them expressed V gamma 9. Purified gamma delta T cells also responded to live salmonella in vitro. The present study suggests that human gamma delta T cells play a role in the protection against salmonella infection in vivo.
T Hara, Y Mizuno, K Takaki, H Takada, H Akeda, T Aoki, M Nagata, K Ueda, G Matsuzaki, Y Yoshikai
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the kidney in mediating the signals involved in adaptive changes in luminal Na+/H+ exchange and basolateral Na+:HCO3- cotransport systems in metabolic acidosis. Proximal tubular suspensions were prepared from rabbit kidney cortex and incubated in acidic (A) or control (C) media (pH 6.9 vs 7.4, 5% CO2) for 2 h. Brush border membrane (BBM) and basolateral membrane (BLM) vesicles were isolated from the tubular suspensions and studied for the activity of Na+/H+ exchange and Na+:HCO3- cotransport. Influx of 1 mM 22Na at 10 s (pH6 7.5, pH(i) 6.0) into BBM vesicles was 68% higher in group A compared to group C. The increment in Na+ influx in the group A was amiloride sensitive, suggesting that Na+/H+ exchange was responsible for the observed differences. Kinetic analysis of Na+ influx showed a Km of 8.1 mM in C vs 9.2 in A and Vmax of 31 nmol/mg protein per min in group C vs 57 in A. Influx of 1 mM 22Na at 10 s (pH0 7.5, pH(i) 6.0, 20% CO2, 80% N2) into BLM vesicles was 83% higher in the group A compared to C. The HCO3-dependent increment in 22Na uptake in group A was 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulfonic acid sensitive, suggesting that Na+:HCO3- cotransport accounted for the observed differences. Kinetic analysis of Na+ influx showed a Km of 11.4 mM in C vs 13.6 in A and Vmax of 35 nmol/mg protein per min in C vs 64 in A. The presence of cyclohexamide during incubation in A medium had no effect on the increments in 22Na uptake in group A. We conclude that the adaptive increase in luminal Na+/H+ exchange and basolateral Na+:HCO3- cotransport systems in metabolic acidosis is acute and mediated via direct signal(s) at the level of renal tubule.
M Soleimani, G L Bizal, T D McKinney, Y J Hattabaugh
A mutation of the LDL receptor gene very common among Finnish patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) was identified. This mutation, designated as FH-North Karelia, deletes seven nucleotides from exon 6 of the LDL receptor gene, causes a translational frameshift, and is predicted to result in a truncated receptor protein. Only minute quantities of mRNA corresponding to the deleted gene were detected. Functional studies using cultured fibroblasts from the patients revealed that the FH-North Karelia gene is associated with a receptor-negative (or binding-defective) phenotype of FH. Carriers of the FH-North Karelia gene showed a typical xanthomatous form of FH, with mean serum total and LDL cholesterol levels of 12 and 10 mmol/liter, respectively. This mutation was found in 69 (34%) out of 201 nonrelated Finnish FH patients and was especially abundant (prevalence 79%) in patients from the eastern Finland. These results, combined with our earlier data on another LDL receptor gene deletion (FH-Helsinki), demonstrate that two "Finnish-type" mutant LDL receptor genes make up about two thirds of FH mutations in this country, reflecting a founder gene effect. This background provides good possibilities to examine whether genetic heterogeneity affects the clinical presentation or responsiveness to therapeutic interventions in FH.
U M Koivisto, H Turtola, K Aalto-Setälä, B Top, R R Frants, P T Kovanen, A C Syvänen, K Kontula
T cells respond to peptide antigen in association with MHC products on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). A number of accessory or costimulatory molecules have been identified that also contribute to T cell activation. Several of the known accessory molecules are expressed by freshly isolated dendritic cells, a distinctive leukocyte that is the most potent APC for the initiation of primary T cell responses. These include ICAM-1 (CD54), LFA-3 (CD58), and class I and II MHC products. Dendritic cells also constitutively express the accessory ligand for CD28, B7/BB1, which has not been previously identified on circulating leukocytes freshly isolated from peripheral blood. Dendritic cell expression of both B7/BB1 and ICAM-1 (CD54) increases after binding to allogeneic T cells. Individual mAbs against several of the respective accessory T cell receptors, e.g., anti-CD2, anti-CD4, anti-CD11a, and anti-CD28, inhibit T cell proliferation in the dendritic cell-stimulated allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) by 40-70%. Combinations of these mAbs are synergistic in achieving near total inhibition. Other T cell-reactive mAbs, e.g., anti-CD5 and anti-CD45, are not inhibitory. Lymphokine secretion and blast transformation are similarly reduced when active accessory ligand-receptor interactions are blocked in the dendritic cell-stimulated allogeneic MLR. Dendritic cells are unusual in their comparably higher expression of accessory ligands, among which B7/BB1 can now be included. These are pertinent to the efficiency with which dendritic cells in small numbers elicit strong primary T cell proliferative and effector responses.
J W Young, L Koulova, S A Soergel, E A Clark, R M Steinman, B Dupont
In an abnormal fibrinogen (fibrinogen Naples) associated with congenital thrombophilia we have identified a single base substitution (G----A) in the B beta chain gene that results in an amino acid substitution of alanine by threonine at position 68 in the B beta chain of fibrinogen. The propositus and two siblings were found to be homozygous for the mutation, whereas the parents and another sibling were found to be heterozygous. Individuals homozygous for the defect had a severe history of both arterial and venous thrombosis; heterozygous individuals had no clinical symptoms. The three homozygotes had a prolonged thrombin clotting time in plasma, whereas the heterozygotes had a normal thrombin clotting time. Fibrinopeptide A and B (FpA and FpB) release from purified fibrinogen by human alpha-thrombin was delayed in both the homozygous propositus and a heterozygous family member. Release of FpA from the normal and abnormal amino-terminal disulfide knot (NDSK) corresponded to that found with the intact fibrinogens, indicating a decreased interaction of thrombin with the NDSK part of fibrinogen Naples. Binding studies showed that fibrin from homozygous abnormal fibrinogen bound less than 10% of active site inhibited alpha-thrombin as compared with normal fibrin, while fibrin formed from heterozygous abnormal fibrinogen bound approximately 50% of alpha-thrombin. These results suggest that the mutation of B beta Ala 68----Thr affects the binding of alpha-thrombin to fibrin, and that defective binding results in a decreased release of FpA and FpB in both homozygous and heterozygous abnormal fibrinogens.
J Koopman, F Haverkate, S T Lord, J Grimbergen, P M Mannucci
To study the role of the thymus in the cellular pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis (MG) we transplanted thymus tissue fragments from MG thymuses beneath the kidney capsule of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Immunocytochemical studies documented that the human thymus tissues are accepted as long-term grafts in the host SCID mice, with human lymphocytes, thymic stroma, and thymic myoid cells demonstrable in transplanted thymus for at least 15 weeks after transplantation. Human anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies became detectable 1 to 2 weeks after transplantation, and in most chimeras the titers increased over at least 11 weeks to reach levels typically found in severe human MG. Human Ig deposits were detected at skeletal muscle end-plates, demonstrating that the human (auto)antibodies bound to murine acetylcholine receptor. In contrast, transfers of dissociated thymus cells only lead to a transient increase of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies. Our data prove that myasthenia gravis thymus is able to induce and maintain autoantibody production in immunodeprived host animals, and that this tissue contains all cellular components required for autoantibody production. Transplantation of solid thymus tissue seems to transfer an autoimmune microenvironment, which will allow direct studies of the mechanism of autosensitization inside the thymus.
S Schönbeck, F Padberg, R Hohlfeld, H Wekerle
The hematopoietic microenvironment is a complex structure in which stem cells, progenitor cells, stromal cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules each interact to direct the coordinate regulation of blood cell development. While much is known concerning the individual components of this microenvironment, little is understood of the interactions among these various components or, in particular, the nature of those interactions responsible for the regional localization of specific developmental signals. We hypothesized that cytokines act together with ECM molecules to anchor stem cells within the microenvironment, thus modulating their function. In order to analyze matrix-cytokine-stem cell interactions, we developed an ECM model system in which purified stem cell populations and plastic-immobilized individual proteins are used to assess the role of various matrix molecules and/or cytokines in human hematopoietic cell development. Analysis of these interactions revealed that a single ECM protein, thrombospondin, in conjunction with a single cytokine (e.g., c-kit ligand), constitutes a developmental signal that synergistically modulates hematopoietic stem cell function.
M W Long, R Briddell, A W Walter, E Bruno, R Hoffman
The HepG2 cell line has been used extensively to study the synthesis and secretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B. In this study, we tested whether gene-targeting techniques can be used to inactivate one of the apo B alleles in HepG2 cells by homologous recombination using a transfected gene-targeting vector. Our vector contained exons 1-7 of the apo B gene, in which exon 2 was interrupted by a promoterless neomycin resistance (neo(r)) gene. The recombination of this vector with the cognate gene would inactivate an apo B allele and enable the apo B promoter to activate the transcription of the neo(r) gene. To detect the rare homologous recombinant clone, we developed a novel solid phase RIA that uses the apo B-specific monoclonal antibody MB19 to analyze the apo B secreted by G418-resistant (G418r) clones. Antibody MB19 detects a two-allele genetic polymorphism in apo B by binding to the apo B allotypes MB19(1) and MB19(2) with high and low affinity, respectively. HepG2 cells normally secrete both the apo B MB19 allotypes. Using the MB19 immunoassay, we identified a G418r HepG2 clone that had lost the ability to secrete the MB19(1) allotype. The inactivation of an apo B allele of this clone was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction amplification of an 865-bp fragment unique to the targeted apo B allele and by Southern blotting of genomic DNA. This study demonstrates that gene-targeting techniques can be used to modify the apo B gene in HepG2 cells and demonstrates the usefulness of a novel solid phase RIA system for detecting apo B gene targeting events in this cell line.
R V Farese Jr, L M Flynn, S G Young
Interleukin-12 is a recently discovered lymphokine displaying an array of in vitro activities suggesting a major role in protective immunity against infectious agents like viruses. This study provides evidence that IL-12 may also be implicated in the selection of the immunoglobulin isotypes. We show that picomolar concentrations of rIL-12 markedly inhibit the synthesis of IgE by IL-4-stimulated PBMC. The suppression of IgE is observed at the protein and at the mRNA levels, it is isotype specific, and it is abolished by neutralizing anti-IL-12 mAbs. IL-12 may suppress IgE synthesis by: (a) inducing the production of IFN-gamma, a known inhibitor of IgE synthesis and (b) by a novel mechanism which is IFN-gamma independent. The best evidence for this is from studies on IgE synthesis by IL-4-plus hydrocortisone-stimulated umbilical cord blood lymphocytes, which do not produce detectable amounts of IFN-gamma. In such cultures, rIL-12 inhibits IgE synthesis even in the presence of a large excess of neutralizing anti-IFN-gamma mAb.
M Kiniwa, M Gately, U Gubler, R Chizzonite, C Fargeas, G Delespesse
Heme proteins such as myoglobin or hemoglobin, when released into the extracellular space, can instigate tissue toxicity. Myoglobin is directly implicated in the pathogenesis of renal failure in rhabdomyolysis. In the glycerol model of this syndrome, we demonstrate that the kidney responds to such inordinate amounts of heme proteins by inducing the heme-degradative enzyme, heme oxygenase, as well as increasing the synthesis of ferritin, the major cellular repository for iron. Prior recruitment of this response with a single preinfusion of hemoglobin prevents kidney failure and drastically reduces mortality (from 100% to 14%). Conversely, ablating this response with a competitive inhibitor of heme oxygenase exacerbates kidney dysfunction. We provide the first in vivo evidence that induction of heme oxygenase coupled to ferritin synthesis is a rapid, protective antioxidant response. Our findings suggest a therapeutic strategy for populations at a high risk for rhabdomyolysis.
K A Nath, G Balla, G M Vercellotti, J Balla, H S Jacob, M D Levitt, M E Rosenberg
We have determined that a missense mutation in exon 13 of the beta-myosin heavy chain (beta MHC) gene is expressed in the messenger RNA (mRNA) isolated from a right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy obtained from the proband of a family with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The mutation is the result of a substitution of an adenine for a guanine residue in one allele of the beta MHC gene and creates a second recognition site for the restriction endonuclease Ddel in exon 13. The mutation is inherited in a Mendelian fashion and co-segregates with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in this family. Complementary DNAs synthesized from RNA isolated from the endomyocardial biopsy were cloned into a plasmid vector and sequenced to confirm the expression of both the normal and mutant allele in mRNA of myocardial tissue. This is the first report of the transcription of a mutant beta MHC gene allele into mRNA of the myocardium.
M B Perryman, Q T Yu, A J Marian, A Mares Jr, G Czernuszewicz, J Ifegwu, R Hill, R Roberts
Tonic basal release of nitric oxide (NO) by vascular endothelial cells controls blood pressure (BP) in the basal state. In these studies we investigated the effects of chronic inhibition of basal NO synthesis in the rat for a 2-mo period. Significant systemic hypertension developed in chronically NO-blocked rats compared to controls. Marked renal vasoconstriction was also observed with elevations in glomerular blood pressure (PGC) and reductions in the glomerular capillary ultrafiltration coefficient (Kf). Chronically NO-blocked rats also develop proteinuria and glomerular sclerotic injury compared to controls. These studies therefore describe a new model of systemic hypertension with glomerular capillary hypertension and renal disease due to chronic blockade of endogenous NO synthesis. These observations highlight the importance of the endogenous NO system in control of normal vascular tone and suggest that hypertensive states may result from relative NO deficiency.
C Baylis, B Mitruka, A Deng
Hepatic lipocytes play a central role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, both via production of extracellular matrix proteins and through secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In this study, we have characterized lipocyte expression and release of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), an important inhibitor of metalloproteinase activity, whose role in liver has not previously been examined. TIMP-1 was immunolocalized to human lipocytes, and secretion of TIMP-1 was confirmed by ELISA of culture media; (mean +/- SD) 159 +/- 79 ng of TIMP-1/10(6) cells per 24 h. Evidence for functional inhibitory activity of released TIMP-1 was obtained by (a) reverse zymography that demonstrated a single inhibitor band, M(r) 28 kD, that co-migrated with a TIMP-1-positive control sample; and (b) unmasking of inhibited gelatinase activity in lipocyte medium by separating it from TIMP-1 using gelatin sepharose chromatography; gelatinase activity in chromatographed medium increased more than 20-fold, compared with unfractionated medium, and could be reinhibited by adding back fractions that contained inhibitor. By Northern analysis, freshly isolated human lipocytes exhibited low levels of mRNA expression for TIMP-1, but this increased markedly relative to beta-actin expression with lipocyte activation during cell culture. We conclude that human hepatic lipocytes synthesize TIMP-1, a potent metalloproteinase inhibitor, and that TIMP-1 expression increases with lipocyte activation. These data indicate that hepatic lipocytes can regulate matrix degradation in the liver, and suggest that expression of TIMP-1 by activated lipocytes may contribute to the progression of liver fibrosis.
J P Iredale, G Murphy, R M Hembry, S L Friedman, M J Arthur
Adenine nucleotides speed structural and functional recovery when administered after experimental renal injury in the rat and stimulate proliferation of kidney epithelial cells. As cell migration is a component of renal regeneration after acute tubular necrosis, we have used an in vitro model of wound healing to study this process. High density, quiescent monkey kidney epithelial cultures were wounded by mechanically scraping away defined regions of the monolayer to simulate the effect of cell loss after tubular necrosis and the number of cells that migrated into the denuded area was counted. Migration was independent of cell proliferation. Provision of adenosine, adenine nucleotides, or cyclic AMP increased the number of migrating cells and accelerated repair of the wound. Other purine and pyrimidine nucleotides were not effective. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine peptide, which blocks the binding of extracellular fibronectin to its cell surface receptor, completely inhibited migration in the presence or absence of ADP. Very low concentrations of epidermal growth factor (K0.5 approximately 0.3 ng/ml) stimulated migration, whereas transforming growth factor-beta 2 was inhibitory (Ki approximately 0.2 ng/ml). Thus, adenosine and/or adenine nucleotides released from injured or dying renal cells, or administered exogenously, may stimulate surviving cells in the wounded nephron to migrate along the basement membrane, thereby rapidly restoring tubular structure and function.
S Kartha, F G Toback