M S Cohen, P F Sparling
Events leading to cAMP accumulation after partial hepatectomy (PH) and effects of cAMP on hormonal induction of DNA synthesis in hepatocytes were characterized. Hepatic cAMP peaked biphasically post-PH and paralleled changes in adenylyl cyclase activity. Fluctuations in cyclase activity were not explained by variations in glucagon receptor kinetics, but reflected altered G-protein expression. Membrane levels of the stimulatory G-protein, Gs alpha, increased early after PH and were sustained. Levels of the inhibitory G-protein, Gi2 alpha, increased more slowly, peaked later, and quickly fell. Levels of both G-proteins correlated poorly with levels of their mRNAs, suggesting posttranscriptional factors modify their membrane concentrations. When growth factor-induced DNA synthesis was compared in hepatocyte cultures grown with or without agents that increase intracellular cAMP, DNA synthesis was inhibited by sustained high levels of cAMP but was enhanced when high cAMP levels fell. In both regenerating liver and hepatocyte cultures, the expression of a "differentiated" hepatocyte gene, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, correlated with elevated cAMP levels. These data suggest that the differential expression of G-proteins integrates signals initiated by several growth factors so that the accumulation of cAMP is tightly regulated post-PH. The ensuing variations in cAMP levels modulate both growth and differentiated functions during liver regeneration.
A M Diehl, S Q Yang, D Wolfgang, G Wand
Human piebald trait is an autosomal dominant defect in melanocyte development characterized by patches of hypopigmented skin and hair. Although the molecular basis of piebaldism has been unclear, a phenotypically similar "dominant spotting" of mice is caused by mutations in the murine c-kit protooncogene. In this regard, one piebald case with a point mutation and another with a deletion of c-kit have been reported, although a polymorphism or the involvement of a closely linked gene could not be excluded. To confirm the hypothesis that piebaldism results from mutations in the human gene, c-kit exons were amplified by polymerase chain reaction from the DNA of 10 affected subjects and screened for nucleotide changes by single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis. In one subject with a variant single-stranded conformation polymorphism pattern for the first exon encoding the kinase domain, DNA sequencing demonstrated a missense mutation (Glu583----Lys). This mutation is identical to the mouse W37 mutation which abolishes autophosphorylation of the protein product and causes more extensive depigmentation than "null" mutations. In accord with this "dominant negative" effect, the identical mutation in this human kindred is associated with unusually extensive depigmentation. Thus, the finding of a piebald subject with a mutation that impairs receptor activity strongly implicates the c-kit gene in the molecular pathogenesis of this human developmental defect.
R A Fleischman
The 90-kD lung endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (Lu-ECAM-1) selectively promotes Ca(2+)-dependent adhesion of lung-metastatic B16 melanoma cells. Corresponding with their metastatic performance, high lung-metastatic B16-F10 melanoma cells bind in significantly higher numbers to Lu-ECAM-1 than their intermediate and low lung-metastatic counterparts B16-L8-F10 and B16-F0, respectively. Maximum attachment is observed at a density of approximately 2.4 x 10(2) Lu-ECAM-1 sites/microns2 of plastic surface. B16 melanoma cell binding to Lu-ECAM-1 is blocked by mAb 6D3 and is competitively inhibited by soluble Lu-ECAM-1. C57B1/6 mice passively immunized with anti-Lu-ECAM-1 mAb 6D3 or actively immunized with purified Lu-ECAM-1 exhibit an anti-Lu-ECAM-1 antibody titer-dependent reduction in the number of B16 experimental metastases. Lu-ECAM-1 promotes neither binding nor metastasis of other lung-metastatic tumor cells (e.g., KLN205). Our data indicate that an "antiadhesion" therapy directed at interfering with the adherence of blood-borne tumor cells to organ-specific vascular endothelium is efficient in the control of metastasis formation in selective organ sites.
D Zhu, C F Cheng, B U Pauli
The patterns of transmission of Giardia lamblia and the potential contribution of strain differences to pathogenicity of infection is poorly understood. We used pulsed field gradient gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to separate chromosome-sized DNA molecules of 22 stocks of G. lamblia isolated from 13 individuals (6 symptomatic, 7 asymptomatic) living in Jerusalem. PGFE gels run under a variety of conditions revealed up to nine ethidium bromide-stained bands per isolate ranging in size from 0.7 to greater than 3 megabasepairs. Relative staining intensities indicated that some bands contained multiple chromosomes. Major differences in the number, size, and intensity of bands allowed a clear differentiation of the karyotypes of isolates from each of the different individuals. This is in contrast to previous studies where the karyotype of different isolates have been strikingly homogeneous. Hybridization of Southern blots with surface antigen, beta-tubulin, and ribosomal RNA genes revealed that these gene families were distributed to different sized chromosomes amongst the different isolates. PFGE thus revealed major differences in the karyotypes of different G. lamblia isolates that were obtained over a short period of time from a relatively confined geographic area. In contrast, karyotypes of isolates established either by direct cultivation of duodenal trophozoites or by excystation of stool cysts from the same individuals were almost identical. Also, isolates from the same individuals obtained over a prolonged period of time revealed only minor differences in their karyotype, suggesting that recurrent infection can be caused by genetically similar organisms. We conclude that chronic giardiasis can result from recurrence of occult infection or reinfection from a common source.
S H Korman, S M Le Blancq, R J Deckelbaum, L H Van der Ploeg
Skin blisters induced by suction on the forearm of normal volunteers provide a convenient model to study the inflammatory response in vivo in man. In our study, after removal of the roof of the blister, i.e., the epidermis, the exposed floor of the blister (dermal-epidermal interface) was bathed with 70% autologous serum using a multiwell skin chamber. Migration of leukocytes (90-95% neutrophils) into the chamber fluid was detectable within 3 h, and appeared to plateau at 16-24 h. Sampling of the dermal-epidermal interface revealed primarily mononuclear cells during the first 8 h of the inflammatory response; however, their prevalence at 24 h was greatly diminished due to neutrophil infiltration. Accompanying the cellular immune response was the accumulation of inflammatory mediators in the bathing medium. The accumulation of IFN-gamma reached a plateau within 3 h; significant accumulations of the complement fragment, C5a, and of leukotriene B4 were also detected at 3 h. The accumulation of C5a did not peak until 5 h, whereas leukotriene B4 continued to accumulate through 24 h. IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations were minimal at 3-8 h but dramatic by 24 h while IL-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor were undetectable within 3-8 h, but markedly elevated by 24 h. There was little accumulation of IL-4 and no accumulation of IL-1 alpha or IL-2 during the 24-h period. The sequential appearance of mediators at an inflammatory focus suggests that a carefully regulated dynamic system is responsible for controlling the evolution of the inflammatory response.
D B Kuhns, E DeCarlo, D M Hawk, J I Gallin
Rotavirus requires specific proteolytic activation by trypsin for efficient replication in tissue culture. To observe the nature of intestinal proteolytic activation of rotavirus in vivo, metabolically labeled rhesus rotavirus (RRV) grown in the presence of trypsin inhibitors was administered to adult and 10-d-old suckling mice by gavage. In the adult stomach, vp4 was cleaved in a manner distinct from in vitro trypsin cleavage. In the suckling stomach, RRV vp4 remains largely uncleaved. The alternative cleavage in the adult stomach was associated with a profound decrease in viral infectivity. vp4 from RRV recovered from the suckling small intestinal lumen was cleaved in a pattern similar or identical to in vitro trypsin-activated virus with bands comigrating with vp5* and vp8*. In contrast, vp4 was not observed in any recognizable form in RRV recovered from adult intestines. Comparison of infectivity of virus recovered from suckling and adult intestines revealed a 10,000-fold decrease in titer in the virus recovered from the adult intestine. In vitro digestions of RRV revealed that pepsin digestion can cleave RRV vp4 and markedly enhance acid-induced loss of rotavirus infectivity. Subsequent digestion with chymotrypsin removes most of the pepsin cleavage products of vp4. Virus injected directly into jejunal loops of adult mice and virus administered orally to adult mice pretreated with antiacid drugs retained infectivity. These studies indicate the development of gastric acid and pepsin secretion may be an important host defense factor in rotavirus gastroenteritis.
D M Bass, M Baylor, R Broome, H B Greenberg
To delineate the scope of the human intraovarian IL-1 system we used a solution hybridization/RNase protection assay to test for expression of the genes encoding IL-1, its type I receptor (IL-1R), and its receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). IL-1 transcripts were not detected in whole ovarian material from days 4 or 12 of an unstimulated menstrual cycle but transcripts (IL-1 beta much greater than IL-11 alpha) were detected in preovulatory follicular aspirates from gonadotropin-stimulated cycles. Concurrently obtained peripheral monocytes did not contain IL-1 beta transcripts but macrophage-depleted follicular aspirates did, thus implicating the granulosa cells as the site of IL-1 expression. IL-1R transcripts were detected in RNA from whole ovaries and follicular aspirates but not in RNA from peripheral monocytes. IL-1RA transcripts were detected in whole ovarian material as well as in macrophage-free follicular aspirates. Cultured human granulosa and theca cells did not contain mRNA for IL-1 beta or IL-1RA but did contain mRNA for IL-1R. Treatment of cell cultures with forskolin (25 microM) induced IL-1 beta transcripts in granulosa but not theca cells. Forskolin also increased the basal levels of IL-1R transcripts in both granulosa and theca cells but did not induce IL-RA transcripts in either cell type. Taken together, these findings reveal the existence of a complete, highly compartmentalized, hormonally dependent intraovarian IL-1 system replete with ligands, receptor, and receptor antagonist.
A Hurwitz, J Loukides, E Ricciarelli, L Botero, E Katz, J M McAllister, J E Garcia, R Rohan, E Y Adashi, E R Hernandez
A novel feedback regulatory mechanism operating on transcription of the albumin gene is described in the rat. In 1946, it was proposed that circulating colloids, including serum albumin, may affect the synthesis and/or secretion of albumin in the liver. The molecular basis for this proposed regulation has now been investigated by adding oncotically active macromolecules to the circulation of normal or genetically albumin-deficient Nagase analbuminemic rats (NAR) and analyzing the hepatic expression of genes, including albumin after 24 h. The transcription rate of the albumin gene was higher in NAR than in normal rats and was dramatically reduced by raising serum albumin to 1.6 g/dl. Intravenous infusion of albumin into normal rats also decreased transcriptional activity of the albumin gene by 50-60%, and this decrease correlated with changes in serum colloid osmotic pressure after albumin infusion. Inhibition of albumin gene transcription was also observed upon intravenous infusion of other protein or nonprotein macromolecules, such as gamma-globulin and dextran. This down-regulation appears to control the steady-state level of albumin mRNA in the liver. Aside from a concomitant decrease in apo E gene transcription after albumin or macromolecule infusion, there was no change in the transcription rate of other genes, including those exhibiting liver-preferred or -specific expression (e.g., tyrosine amino-transferase, cytochrome P-450, alpha 1-antitrypsin, apolipoproteins A-I and B, and transferrin) or general cellular expression (e.g., alpha-tubulin, pro alpha 2 collagen, and beta-actin). Feedback regulation of albumin gene expression by serum colloids may serve as a specific homeostatic mechanism to maintain the steady-state level of total protein in the circulation.
A Pietrangelo, A Panduro, J R Chowdhury, D A Shafritz
To assess the metabolic consequences of hemipancreatectomy in humans, we determined pancreatic beta and alpha cell function in healthy donors. Donors examined cross-sectionally were found to have significantly decreased glucose-induced phasic insulin secretion and arginine-induced insulin and glucagon secretion as compared to age, sex, and body index-matched controls. However, their fasting glucose and insulin values were not different from controls. Similar observations were found in the prospective evaluation of eight donors before and 15 +/- 2 mo after hemipancreatectomy. Beta cell reserve, as measured by glucose potentiation of arginine-induced insulin secretion, was significantly decreased in donors (maximal acute insulin response [AIRmax]: donors = 666 +/- 84 pM vs controls = 1,772 +/- 234 pM) while the PG50 (the glucose value at which the half-maximal response was observed) was the same in the two groups. Donors and controls responded to 60-min continuous intravenous infusions of glucose by reaching identical serum glucose values, despite significantly lower insulin secretory responses in donors. We conclude that hemipancreatectomy in human donors is associated with decreased pancreatic alpha and beta cell function. Since donors generally maintain normoglycemia after hemipancreatectomy despite diminished insulin secretion, our data suggest that healthy humans may compensate for hemipancreatectomy by increasing glucose disposal.
E R Seaquist, R P Robertson
Positron emission tomography permits noninvasive measurement of regional glucose uptake in vivo in humans. We employed this technique to determine the effect of FFA on glucose uptake in leg, arm, and heart muscles. Six normal men were studied twice under euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (serum insulin approximately 500 pmol/liter) conditions, once during elevation of serum FFA by infusions of heparin and Intralipid (serum FFA 2.0 +/- 0.4 mmol/liter), and once during infusion of saline (serum FFA 0.1 +/- 0.01 mmol/liter). Regional glucose uptake rates were measured using positron emission tomography-derived 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose kinetics and the three-compartment model described by Sokoloff (Sokoloff, L., M. Reivich, C. Kennedy, M. C. Des Rosiers, C. S. Patlak, K. D. Pettigrew, O. Sakurada, and M. Shinohara. 1977. J. Neurochem. 28: 897-916). Elevation of plasma FFA decreased whole body glucose uptake by 31 +/- 2% (1,960 +/- 130 vs. 2,860 +/- 250 mumol/min, P less than 0.01, FFA vs. saline study). This decrease was due to inhibition of glucose uptake in the heart by 30 +/- 8% (150 +/- 33 vs. 200 +/- 28 mumol/min, P less than 0.02), and in skeletal muscles; both when measured in femoral (1,594 +/- 261 vs. 2,272 +/- 328 mumol/min, 25 +/- 13%) and arm muscles (1,617 +/- 411 to 2,305 +/- 517 mumol/min, P less than 0.02, 31 +/- 6%). Whole body glucose uptake correlated with glucose uptake in femoral (r = 0.75, P less than 0.005), and arm muscles (r = 0.69, P less than 0.05) but not with glucose uptake in the heart (r = 0.04, NS). These data demonstrate that the glucose-FFA cycle operates in vivo in both heart and skeletal muscles in humans.
P Nuutila, V A Koivisto, J Knuuti, U Ruotsalainen, M Teräs, M Haaparanta, J Bergman, O Solin, L M Voipio-Pulkki, U Wegelius
Recently, a previously unrecognized autoantibody mediated blistering disease, paraneoplastic pemphigus has been described. Paraneoplastic pemphigus is associated with lymphoid malignancies, thymomas, and poorly differentiated sarcomas. Serum of affected patients contain pathogenic autoantibodies that immunoprecipitate from normal keratinocytes a characteristic complex of four polypeptides with M(r) of 250, 230, 210, and 190 kD. As our preliminary studies indicated that the 250-kD and the 210-kD antigens comigrated with desmoplakins I and II, we investigated the possibility that autoantibodies against the desmoplakins were a component of this autoimmune syndrome. 11 sera from affected patients were tested by indirect immunofluorescence against desmosome containing tissues, immunoprecipitation of metabolically labeled keratinocytes, and Western immunoblotting of desmoplakins I and II that had been purified to homogeneity from pig tongue epithelium. By indirect immunofluorescence, 9 of 11 sera showed strong binding to epithelial and nonepithelial desmosomes, and 2 were weakly reactive. All 11 immunoprecipitated 250- and 210-kD bands of variable intensity that comigrated with bands identified by a murine monoclonal antidesmoplakin antibody, and immunoblotting confirmed binding of the serum autoantibodies to purified desmoplakins. This demonstrates that paraneoplastic pemphigus is the first human autoimmune syndrome in which autoantibodies against the desmoplakins are a prominent component of the humoral autoimmune response.
J R Oursler, R S Labib, L Ariss-Abdo, T Burke, E J O'Keefe, G J Anhalt
Psoriasis is a hyperproliferative cutaneous disease of unknown etiology and etiopathogenesis. Alteration of keratinocyte adhesiveness to basal lamina has been proposed as the initial disturbance leading to poorly controlled proliferation. Keratinocyte adhesion to basal lamina and lateral interactions among basal epidermal cells are mediated, besides other molecules, by integrin receptors that are segregated to discrete membrane domains. In this paper, the expression and function of integrins in psoriatic keratinocytes were examined, both in vivo and in vitro. We found that: (a) in psoriatic keratinocytes the integrin heterodimers alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 3 beta 1, and alpha 6 beta 4 have lost their polarized distribution on the plasma membrane; (b) the role of these integrins in mediating keratinocyte adhesion in vitro is altered; (c) psoriatic keratinocytes form focal contacts containing both beta 1 and beta 4 integrins. In normal adult keratinocytes the alpha 5 beta 1 fibronectin receptor is poorly expressed and diffusely distributed on the basal keratinocyte plasma membrane and is not organized in defined adhesive structures. In contrast, psoriatic keratinocytes show a clear fibronectin receptor staining in vivo, and organize alpha 5 beta 1 in typical focal contacts in vitro without any obvious increase of its expression and synthesis. These multiple alterations of integrins are also present in uninvolved keratinocytes from psoriatic patients, suggesting a key role for altered integrin-mediated adhesion in the pathogenesis of this disease.
G Pellegrini, M De Luca, G Orecchia, F Balzac, O Cremona, P Savoia, R Cancedda, P C Marchisio
We investigated a common polymorphism in the human apolipoprotein A-I gene promoter at a position 76 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. 54 human subjects, whose apoAI production rates had been determined by apoAI turnover studies, were genotyped at this polymorphic position by a novel technique using polymerase chain reaction followed by primer extension. 35 subjects were homozygous for a guanosine (G) at this locus and 19 were heterozygous with a guanosine and adenosine (A). The apoAI production rates were significantly lower (by 11%) in the G/A heterozygotes than in the G homozygotes (P = 0.025). In spite of the apparent effect of this apoAI gene promoter polymorphism on the apoAI production rate, there was no effect on HDL cholesterol or apoAI levels. To investigate whether the observed difference in apoAI production rates was related to differential gene expression of the two alleles, promoters containing either allele were linked to the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, and relative promoter efficiencies were determined after transfection into the human HepG2 hepatoma cell line. The A allele expressed only 68% +/- 5% as well as the G allele, a result consistent with the in vivo apoAI production rate data.
J D Smith, E A Brinton, J L Breslow
Ethanol metabolism by gastric alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is thought to be an important determinant of peripheral ethanol time-concentration curves (AUCs) in rats and humans. We quantitated this metabolism in rats by measuring the gastric absorption of oral ethanol (0.25 g/kg) and the gastric venous-arterial (V-A) difference of ethanol versus ethanol metabolites (acetate, acetaldehyde, and bicarbonate). Over 1 h, approximately 20% of the ethanol was absorbed from the stomach and 70% was emptied into the duodenum. The gastric V-A difference of ethanol metabolites was less than 4% of that of ethanol. Thus, gastric metabolism accounted for less than 1% (less than 4% of 20% absorbed) of the dose. This negligible metabolism was predictable from the low affinity of gastric ADH for ethanol. In contrast, gastric ADH has a high affinity for octanol, and 66% of this compound was metabolized during gastric absorption. Evidence supporting gastric metabolism of ethanol largely derives from the lower AUCs observed after oral than after intravenous administration; however, we observed increasingly higher AUCs with increasingly rapid portal vein infusions of identical ethanol doses. We conclude that gastric metabolism of ethanol is negligible in the rat, and differences in AUCs ascribed to gastric metabolism may reflect differences in ethanol absorption.
T Smith, E G DeMaster, J K Furne, J Springfield, M D Levitt
The CD4 molecule plays an essential role in antigen-induced activation of T helper (Th) cells, but its contribution to signal transduction events resulting in physiologic T cell function is ill defined. By utilizing anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize distinct epitopes of CD4, we have investigated the role of CD4 molecule in antigen-induced interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) alpha chain expression in class II major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen-specific human Th clones. Pretreatment of the Th clones with Leu3a resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of antigen-induced proliferative responses, inositol phosphate accumulation, increase in free cytoplasmic calcium ions ([Ca2+]i), IL-2 mRNA accumulation, IL-2 secretion, and membrane IL-2R expression. IL-2R mRNA accumulation, however, was unaffected even at highest Leu3a concentrations. Leu3a treatment did not affect bypass activation of T cells with PMA plus ionomycin or activation via CD2 molecule. The MAb OKT4, which binds another domain of CD4, was not inhibitory. These results suggest that after T cell antigen receptor-CD3 activation, IL-2 gene induction, IL-2 secretion, and membrane IL-2R expression are absolutely dependent upon participation of CD4 molecules, phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis, and increase in [Ca2+]i. The requirement for IL-2R gene induction, however, occurs independently of CD4 molecule participation and PI hydrolysis.
N Oyaizu, N Chirmule, S Pahwa
Clinical uses of gene transfer to bone marrow transplants require the establishment of a reproducible method for infecting large numbers of very primitive hematopoietic cells at high efficiency using cell-free retrovirus-containing media. In this study we report the results of experiments with preparations of a high-titer (2-5 x 10(7)/ml) helper-free recombinant neo(r) retrovirus that indicate this goal can now be achieved based on measurements of gene transfer efficiencies to cells referred to as long-term culture initiating cells (LTC-IC) because they give rise to clonogenic cells after greater than or equal to 5 wk in long-term culture (LTC). Intermittent, repeated exposure of normal human marrow mononuclear cells to virus-containing supernatant over a 3-d period of cell maintenance on an IL-3/granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) producing stromal layer resulted in gene transfer efficiencies to LTC-IC of 41%; a level previously obtainable only using co-cultivation infection techniques. Marrow cells enriched greater than or equal to 500-fold for LTC-IC (1-2% pure) by flow cytometry showed gene transfer efficiencies of 27% when infected in a similar fashion over a shorter period (24 h), but in the presence of added soluble IL-3 and G-CSF without stromal feeders, and this increased to 61% when Steel factor was also present during the infection period. By using a less highly enriched population of LTC-IC obtained by a bulk immunoselection technique applicable to large-scale clinical marrow harvests, gene transfer efficiencies to LTC-IC of 40% were achieved and this was increased to 60% by short-term preselection in G418. Southern analysis of DNA from the nonadherent cells produced by these LTC over a 6-wk period provided evidence of clonal evolution of LTC-IC in vitro. Leukemic chronic myelogenous leukemia LTC-IC were also infected at high efficiency using the same supernatant infection strategy with growth factor supplementation. These data demonstrate the feasibility of using cell-free virus preparations for infecting clinical marrow samples suitable for transplantation, as well as for further analysis of human marrow stem cell dynamics in vitro.
P F Hughes, J D Thacker, D Hogge, H J Sutherland, T E Thomas, P M Lansdorp, C J Eaves, R K Humphries
We investigated in conscious dogs (a) the effects of heart failure induced by chronic rapid ventricular pacing on the sequence of development of left ventricular (LV) diastolic versus systolic dysfunction and (b) whether the changes were load dependent or secondary to alterations in structure. LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction were evident within 24 h after initiation of pacing and occurred in parallel over 3 wk. LV systolic function was reduced at 3 wk, i.e., peak LV dP/dt fell by -1,327 +/- 105 mmHg/s and ejection fraction by -22 +/- 2%. LV diastolic dysfunction also progressed over 3 wk of pacing, i.e., tau increased by +14.0 +/- 2.8 ms and the myocardial stiffness constant by +6.5 +/- 1.4, whereas LV chamber stiffness did not change. These alterations were associated with increases in LV end-systolic (+28.6 +/- 5.7 g/cm2) and LV end-diastolic stresses (+40.4 +/- 5.3 g/cm2). When stresses and heart rate were matched at the same levels in the control and failure states, the increases in tau and myocardial stiffness were no longer observed, whereas LV systolic function remained depressed. There were no increases in connective tissue content in heart failure. Thus, pacing-induced heart failure in conscious dogs is characterized by major alterations in diastolic function which are reversible with normalization of increased loading condition.
K Komamura, R P Shannon, A Pasipoularides, T Ihara, A S Lader, T A Patrick, S P Bishop, S F Vatner
Previous studies have shown that the gold compounds, gold sodium thiomalate (GST) and auranofin (AUR), which are effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inhibit functional activities of a variety of cells, but the biochemical basis of their effect is unknown. In the current studies, human T cell proliferation and interleukin 2 production by Jurkat cells were inhibited by GST or AUR at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. Because it has been documented that protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in T cell activation, the capacity of gold compounds to inhibit PKC partially purified from Jurkat cells was assayed in vitro. GST was found to inhibit PKC in a dose-dependent manner, but AUR caused no significant inhibition of PKC at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The inhibitory effect of GST on PKC was abolished by 2-mercaptoethanol. To investigate the effect of GST on the regulation of PKC in vivo, the levels of PKC activity in Jurkat cells were examined. Cytosolic PKC activity decreased slowly in a concentration- and time-dependent manner as a result of incubation of Jurkat cells with GST. To ascertain whether GST inhibited PKC translocation and down-regulation, PKC activities associated with the membrane and cystosolic fractions were evaluated after phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation of GST incubated Jurkat cells. Translocation of PKC was markedly inhibited by pretreatment of Jurkat cells with GST for 3 d, but the capacity of PMA to down-regulate PKC activity in Jurkat cells was not altered by GST preincubation. The functional impact of GST-mediated downregulation of PKC in Jurkat cells was examined by analyzing PMA-stimulated phosphorylation of CD3. Although GST preincubated Jurkat cells exhibited an increased density of CD3, PMA-stimulated phosphorylation of the gamma chain of CD3 was markedly inhibited. Specificity for the inhibitory effect of GST on PKC was suggested by the finding that GST did not alter the mitogen-induced increases in inositol trisphosphate levels in Jurkat cells. Finally, the mechanism of the GST-induced inhibition of PKC was examined in detail, using purified PKC subspecies from rat brain. GST inhibited type II PKC more effectively than type III PKC, and also inhibited the enzymatic activity of the isolated catalytic fragment of PKC. The inhibitory effect of GST on PKC activity could not be explained by competition with phospholipid or nonspecific interference with the substrate. These data suggest that the immunomodulatory effects of GST may result from its capacity to inhibit PKC activity.
K Hashimoto, C E Whitehurst, T Matsubara, K Hirohata, P E Lipsky
Infection by herpesviruses can result in profound immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory effects. However, no significant information is available on the effect of such infections on the production of immunoregulatory cytokines. We studied the kinetics of production of two monocyte-derived cytokines, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), induced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures and in fractionated cell populations. We observed that, when compared to HSV-1, EBV is a stronger inducer of IL-6. In EBV-infected cultures, IL-6 protein was detected at day 1 postinfection and gradually increased with time. In contrast, lower amounts of IL-6 were detected 5 d postinfection in HSV-1-infected cultures. HSV-1-infected cultures secreted significant amounts of TNF alpha protein after 5 d of culture and reached a maximal level of production at day 7, whereas EBV inhibited TNF alpha production. In fractionated cell populations, monocytic cells were found to be the main source of IL-6 synthesis after EBV or HSV-1 infection. However, TNF alpha synthesis in HSV-1-infected cultures was from both B and monocytic cells. By using the polymerase chain reaction technique we show that, after infection by these two herpesviruses, differences in cytokine gene products are also observed at the transcriptional level. These observations demonstrate that EBV and HSV-1 exert differential effects on IL-6 and TNF alpha gene transcription and on the resulting protein secretion in human mononuclear blood cells.
J Gosselin, L Flamand, M D'Addario, J Hiscott, J Menezes
Because endogenous thromboxane A2 (TXA2) potentiates the tubuloglomerular feedback response (TGF), we studied the mechanism of action of TXA2 by using a stable TXA2/prostaglandin (PG) H2 mimetic, U-46,619. Intravenous infusion of U-46,619 at 100 ng.kg-1.min-1 reduced the GFR and the single-nephron (SN)GFR measured from the distal tubule (macula densa function intact), whereas the SNGFR measured from the proximal tubule (macula densa function interrupted) was not changed consistently. 10-100-fold higher rates of infusion of U-46,619 were required to raise blood pressure or femoral vascular resistance. The regulation of glomerular capillary pressure (PGC) by TGF was assessed in anesthetized rats from changes in proximal stop flow pressure (PSF) and/or SNGFR during perfusion of the loop of Henle (LH) with artificial tubular fluid (ATF). Orthograde loop perfusion and retrograde perfusion of U-46,619 into the macula densa segment reduced PSF. Responses to luminal U-46,619 were blunted by a TXA2-PGH2 receptor antagonist. Orthograde loop perfusions with luminal U-46,619 increased net Cl absorption, whereas coperfusion with furosemide (10(-4) M) blunted the response to U-46,619 by 68%. These data indicated that the luminal U-46,619 might increase the signal for TGF activation by increasing Cl reabsorption in macula densa cells. However, since 80 +/- 4% of [3H]U-46,619 perfused via the LH was reabsorbed peritubular capillaries (PTC) were perfused with U-46,619 to test additional extra-luminal actions. PTC perfusion with U-46,619 again increased TGF by reducing PSF selectively only while macula densa function was intact during perfusion of the LH with ATF. Conclusions: (a) TGF is potentiated by U-46,619 given systematically, via the lumen of the LH by orthograde or retrograde perfusions or via the PTC; (b) at the lower doses tested, reduction of PGC and SNGFR by U-46,619 depends on tubular fluid delivery and reabsorption by the macula densa; (c) potentiation of TGF by U-46,619 entails preglomerular vasoconstriction which may be elicited in part by an increased signal due to increased net chloride reabsorption in the LH and presumably macula densa cells and by an increased sensitivity of the arteriole to macula densa-derived signals; (d) activation of TGF may contribute to the selective vasoconstriction of the renal vascular bed by low doses of U-46,619.
W J Welch, C S Wilcox
The pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) is a complex process attributed to specific characteristics of both the host and the infecting organism. In this study, the properties of the PAO1 neuraminidase were examined to determine its potential role in facilitating Pseudomonas colonization of the respiratory epithelium. The PAO1 neuraminidase was 1000-fold more active than the Clostridium perfringens enzyme in releasing sialic acid from respiratory epithelial cells. This effect correlated with increased adherence of PAO1 to epithelial cells after exposure to PAO1 neuraminidase and was consistent with in vitro studies demonstrating Pseudomonas adherence to asialoganglioside receptors. The regulation of the neuraminidase gene nanA was examined in Pseudomonas and as cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. In hyperosmolar conditions neuraminidase expression was increased by 50% (P less than 0.0004), an effect which was OmpR dependent in E. coli. In Pseudomonas the osmotic regulation of neuraminidase production was dependent upon algR1 and algR2, genes involved in the transcriptional activation of algD, which is responsible for the mucoid phenotype of Pseudomonas and pathognomonic for chronic infection in CF. Under the hyperosmolar conditions postulated to exist in the CF lung, nanA is likely to be expressed to facilitate the initial adherence of Pseudomonas to the respiratory tract.
G Cacalano, M Kays, L Saiman, A Prince
We examined the effects of exercise conditioning on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during handgrip and posthandgrip circulatory arrest (PHG-CA). Two conditioning stimuli were studied: forearm dominance and bodybuilding. Static handgrip at 30% maximal voluntary contraction followed by PHG-CA led to a rise in MSNA smaller in dominant than in nondominant forearms (99% vs. 222%; P less than 0.02) and in body builders than in normal volunteers (28% vs. 244%; P less than 0.01). Separate 31P NMR experiments showed no effect of dominance on forearm pH but a pH in bodybuilders higher (6.88) than in normal volunteers (6.79; P less than 0.02) during PHG-CA. Our second goal was to determine if factors besides attenuated [H+] contribute to this conditioning effect. If differences in MSNA during exercise were noted at the same pH, then other mechanisms must contribute to the training effect. We measured MSNA during ischemic fatiguing handgrip. No dominance or bodybuilding effect on pH was noted. However, we noted increases in MSNA smaller in dominant than nondominant forearms (212% vs. 322%; P less than 0.02) and in bodybuilders than in normal volunteers (161% vs. 334%; P less than 0.01). In summary, MSNA responses were less during exercise of conditioned limbs. Factors aside from a lessening of muscle acidosis contribute to this effect.
L I Sinoway, R F Rea, T J Mosher, M B Smith, A L Mark
The oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) may play an important role in atherosclerosis. We found that the antioxidant N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPD) inhibits in vitro LDL oxidation at concentrations much lower than other reported antioxidants. To test whether DPPD could prevent atherosclerosis, New Zealand White rabbits were fed either a diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 10% corn oil (control group) or the same diet also containing 1% DPPD (DPPD-fed group) for 10 wk. Plasma total cholesterol levels were not different between the two groups, but DPPD feeding increased the levels of triglyceride (73%, P = 0.007) and HDL cholesterol (26%, P = 0.045). Lipoproteins from DPPD-fed rabbits contained DPPD and were much more resistant to oxidation than control lipoproteins. After 10 wk, the DPPD-fed animals had less severe atherosclerosis than did the control animals: thoracic aorta lesion area was decreased by 71% (P = 0.0007), and aortic cholesterol content was decreased by 51% (P = 0.007). Although DPPD cannot be given to humans because it is a mutagen, our results indicate that orally active antioxidants can have antiatherosclerotic activity. This strongly supports the theory that oxidized LDL plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
C P Sparrow, T W Doebber, J Olszewski, M S Wu, J Ventre, K A Stevens, Y S Chao
We have examined integrin expression during the remodeling of the epidermis that takes place during wound healing, using a suction blister model in which the epidermis is detached from the dermis, leaving the basement membrane intact. By immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that the same integrin subunits were expressed during wound healing as in normal epidermis with very little change in the relative intensity or distribution of staining at the leading edge of the migrating epidermis. However, at the time of wound closure, when the epidermis is still hyperproliferative, alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 6, and beta 1 were no longer confined to the basal layer, as in normal epidermis, but were also found in all the living suprabasal cell layers, coexpressed with the terminal differentiation markers involucrin, keratin 10, and keratin 16. Strong suprabasal staining for alpha v was also found in one specimen. beta 4, which normally forms a heterodimer with alpha 6, and alpha 5 remained predominantly basal. Three of the integrin ligands, fibronectin, type IV collagen, and laminin, remained largely confined to the basement membrane zone and dermis. By 14 d after wounding, the integrins were once more restricted to the basal layer. Suprabasal integrin expression was also observed in involved psoriatic lesions. Thus, in two situations in which the epidermis is hyperproliferative, there is a failure to downregulate integrin expression on initiation of terminal differentiation. The functional consequences of this aberrant integrin expression remain to be explored.
M D Hertle, M D Kubler, I M Leigh, F M Watt
We have identified a 65-yr-old nonobese Japanese man with diabetes mellitus, fasting hyperinsulinemia (150-300 pM), and a reduced fasting C-peptide/insulin molar ratio of 2.5-3.0. Fasting hyperinsulinemia was also found in his son and daughter. Analysis of insulin isolated from the serum of the proband and his son by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography revealed a minor peak coeluting with human insulin and a major peak of proinsulin-like materials. The insulin gene of the patient was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and the products were sequenced. A novel point mutation was identified in which guanine was replaced by thymine. The substitution gives rise to a new HindIII recognition site and results in the amino acid replacement of leucine for arginine at position 65. These results indicate that the amino-acid replacement prevents recognition of the C-peptide-A chain dibasic protease and results in an elevation of proinsulin-like materials in the circulation. Furthermore, in this family the proinsulin-like materials is due to a biosynthetic defect, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Rapid detection of this mutation can be accomplished by HindIII restriction enzyme mapping of polymerase chain reaction-generated DNA, which enables us to facilitate the diagnosis and screening.
H Yano, N Kitano, M Morimoto, K S Polonsky, H Imura, Y Seino
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin interact with related receptors to lower plasma glucose and to exert mitogenic effects. Recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) was recently shown to decrease serum levels of insulin and C-peptide in fasted normal subjects without affecting plasma glucose levels. In this study we have investigated in six healthy volunteers the responses of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels to intravenous rhIGF-I infusions (7 and 14 micrograms/kg.h) during standard oral glucose tolerance tests (oGTT) and meal tolerance tests (MTT), respectively. Glucose tolerance remained unchanged during the rhIGF-I infusions in the face of lowered insulin and C-peptide levels. The decreased insulin/glucose-ratio presumably is caused by an enhanced tissue sensitivity to insulin. The lowered area under the insulin curve during oGTT and MTT as a result of the administration of rhIGF-I were related to the fasting insulin levels during saline infusion (oGTT: r = 0.825, P less than 0.05; MTT: r = 0.895, P less than 0.02). RhIGF-I, however, did not alter the ratio between C-peptide and insulin, suggesting that the metabolic clearance of endogenous insulin remained unchanged. In conclusion, rhIGF-I increased glucose disposal and directly suppressed insulin secretion. RhIGF-I probably increased insulin sensitivity as a result of decreased insulin levels and suppressed growth hormone secretion. RhIGF-I, therefore, may be therapeutically useful in insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and hyperlipidemia.
P D Zenobi, S Graf, H Ursprung, E R Froesch
We have proposed that significant subsets of individuals with IgA deficiency (IgA-D) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) may represent polar ends of a clinical spectrum reflecting a single underlying genetic defect. This proposal was supported by our finding that individuals with these immunodeficiencies have in common a high incidence of C4A gene deletions and C2 rare gene alleles. Here we present our analysis of the MHC haplotypes of 12 IgA-D and 19 CVID individuals from 21 families and of 79 of their immediate relatives. MHC haplotypes were defined by analyzing polymorphic markers for 11 genes or their products between the HLA-DQB1 and the HLA-A genes. Five of the families investigated contained more than one immunodeficient individual and all of these included both IgA-D and CVID members. Analysis of the data indicated that a small number of MHC haplotypes were shared by the majority of immunodeficient individuals. At least one of two of these haplotypes was present in 24 of the 31 (77%) immunodeficient individuals. No differences in the distribution of these haplotypes were observed between IgA-D and CVID individuals. Detailed analysis of these haplotypes suggests that a susceptibility gene or genes for both immunodeficiencies are located within the class III region of the MHC, possibly between the C4B and C2 genes.
J E Volanakis, Z B Zhu, F M Schaffer, K J Macon, J Palermos, B O Barger, R Go, R D Campbell, H W Schroeder Jr, M D Cooper
The observation that approximately 70% of HIV-infected pregnant women do not transmit infection vertically suggests that antibody therapy may be effective in the prevention of transmission of HIV infection from mother to child. Currently, there is an incomplete understanding of the processes involved in vertical transmission of HIV infection. The elucidation of the serological basis of maternal immunity as it relates to protection from vertical transmission is the goal of this study. We have screened 20 maternal sera from HIV+ individuals of known vertical transmission status for reactivity with 31 peptides spanning the entire envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1. Of interest was reactivity to regions outside of the V3 loop of gp120. The findings have been examined in relationship to transmission status, as well as to in vitro anti-HIV-1 biological activity. Our results indicate that lack of vertical transmission is correlated with high viral neutralization activity, but not with antisyncytial activity nor with binding to the V3 peptides examined in this study. Also, the transmission group bound to fewer gp41 peptides when compared with the nontransmission group, suggesting that immune responses to gp41 may be important in preventing transmission. These findings may provide insights into the design of passive immunotherapies.
K E Ugen, J J Goedert, J Boyer, Y Refaeli, I Frank, W V Williams, A Willoughby, S Landesman, H Mendez, A Rubinstein
We have reported previously on two truncations of apolipoprotein B (apo B-40 and apo B-89) in a kindred with hypobetalipoproteinemia. Premature stop codons were found to be responsible for both apo B-40 and apo B-89, but the physiologic mechanisms accounting for the reduced plasma concentrations of these proteins have not been determined in vivo. This study investigates the metabolism of apo B-89 in two subjects heterozygous for apo B-89/apo B-100 and in one apo B-40/apo B-89 compound heterozygote. In both heterozygotes total apo B concentration is approximately 30% of normal and apo B-89 is present in lower concentrations in plasma than apo B-100. After the administration of [1-13C]leucine as a primed constant infusion over 8 h, 13C enrichments of plasma leucine as well as enrichments of VLDL-, IDL-, and LDL-apo B-89 leucine and VLDL-, IDL-, and LDL-apo B-100 leucine were measured over 110 h. Enrichment values were subsequently converted to tracer/tracee ratios and a multicompartmental model was used to estimate metabolic parameters. In both apo B-89/apo B-100 heterozygotes apo B-89 and apo B-100 were produced at similar rates. Respective transport rates of apo B-89 and apo B-100 for subject 1 were 2.13 +/- 0.18 and 2.56 +/- 0.13 mg.kg-1.d-1, and for subject 2, 6.59 +/- 0.18 and 8.23 +/- 0.39 mg.kg-1.d-1. However, fractional catabolic rates of VLDL, IDL, and LDL particles containing apo B-89 were 1.4-3 times higher than the rates for corresponding apo B-100-containing particles. Metabolic parameters of apo B-89 in the apo B-40/apo B-89 compound heterozygote compared favorably with those established for apo B-89 in apo B-89/apo B-100 heterozygotes. Thus, the enhanced catabolism of VLDL, IDL, and LDL particles containing the truncated apolipoprotein is responsible for the relatively low levels of apo B-89 seen in these subjects.
K G Parhofer, P H Barrett, D M Bier, G Schonfeld
A secreted product of activated neutrophils, NDS (neutrophil-derived secretagogue), elicits a short circuit current (Isc) in epithelial monolayers derived from the human intestinal cell line T84 (J. Clin. Invest. 1991. 87:1474-1477). Here, we identify and characterize the source of this Isc and examine associated signaling pathways. 125I efflux studies suggested that NDS activates an anion conductive channel. Bidirectional 22Na 36Cl flux studies showed that electrogenic Cl- secretion fully accounts for the NDS-induced Isc response. NDS behaved in many respects as a cAMP-mediated secretagogue: NDS did not further increase maximal cAMP-induced Cl- secretion; NDS potentiated Ca(2+)-mediated Cl secretion; and NDS elicited measurable 125I but not 86Rb effluxes. However, NDS did not elicit a detectable rise in intracellular cAMP. Such data suggest that NDS may elicit Cl- secretion by effecting distal events in the cAMP-mediated pathway. Data derived from cell volume assays of isolated guinea pig intestinal crypt cells indicated that NDS also directly elicits Cl- secretion from natural intestinal epithelia. Additionally, since NDS activity is released from PMN by stimuli normally present in the colonic lumen, since NDS is active when applied apically to this model intestinal epithelium, and since the NDS-elicited Isc response is indicative of electrogenic chloride secretion, we speculate NDS may contribute to the secretory diarrhea encountered in many patients with inflammatory intestinal disease.
J L Madara, C Parkos, S Colgan, R J MacLeod, S Nash, J Matthews, C Delp, W Lencer
We have cloned and sequenced a 46-kD Ro/SS-A autoantigen gene that is the human homologue of the calcium-binding protein, calreticulin. The sequence of this 46-kD Ro/SS-A protein (calreticulin) has significant homology to lambda Ral-1, a recombinant cDNA clone corresponding to a major antigen of the nematode, Onchocerca volvulus, the infectious agent of onchocerciasis. We therefore sought to determine whether antibodies produced by onchocerciasis patients might crossreact with the human 46-kD Ro/SS-A autoantigen (calreticulin). 20 of 22 sera from Liberian onchocerciasis patients who had no known evidence of autoimmune disease were found to contain antibodies that reacted with the 46-kD Ro/SS-A (calreticulin) by immunoblot analysis. Characteristic of sera reactive with Ro/SS-A antigens, some onchocerciasis sera also immunoprecipitated the Ro/SS-A-associated hY RNAs. In addition, a monoclonal antibody raised against O. volvulus organisms reacted to purified human WiL-2 cell 46 kD Ro/SS-A antigen (calreticulin) by ELISA. These results strongly suggest that onchocerciasis patients produce antibodies that crossreact with the 46-kD human Ro/SS-A autoantigen (calreticulin) and raise the possibility that infectious organisms such as O. volvulus might play a triggering or exacerbating role in the human Ro/SS-A autoimmune response.
F A Lux, D P McCauliffe, D W Büttner, R Lucius, J D Capra, R D Sontheimer, T S Lieu
There is increasing evidence that sera from HIV-1-infected individuals contain antibodies that enhance infection by HIV-1 in vitro. Previous work has demonstrated that complement receptors on T lymphoid cells and Fc receptors for IgG (Fc gamma R) on monocytic cells are required for enhanced infection by antibody-complexed HIV-1. Characterization of such infection-enhancing antibodies is essential because immunogenic epitopes which induce enhancing antibodies should be excluded from HIV-1 vaccines. This study was conducted to identify enhancing antibodies involved in Fc R-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infection employing IgG human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) reactive against gp120 of HIV-1, which were produced by B cell lines derived from an HIV-1-infected individual. A potent neutralizing HMAb N70-1.5e did not enhance infection by HIV-1 (IIIB and MN strains), whereas HMAb N70-2.3a mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infection, but had little neutralizing activity. A competition radio immunoassay demonstrated that the two antibodies bind to distinct epitopes. These results indicated that enhancing and neutralizing antibodies can be induced by different epitopes on gp120, suggesting the potential for development of safe vaccines against HIV-1 by exclusion of immunogenic epitopes for enhancing antibodies. We made attempts to identify the epitope on gp120 that is recognized by the enhancing antibody N70-2.3a by using recombinant HIV-1 proteins and found that the antibody binds to a conformational site of nonvariable sequences in the carboxyl half (aa 272-509) of gp120.
A Takeda, J E Robinson, D D Ho, C Debouck, N L Haigwood, F A Ennis
Tumor glucose use in patients with non-islet-cell tumors has been difficult to measure, particularly in hepatoma, because of hepatic involvement by neoplasm. We studied a patient with nonhepatic recurrence of hepatoma after successful liver transplantation. Tumor tissue contained messenger RNA for insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), and circulating high molecular weight components and E-peptide of IGF-II were increased. Glucose use measured by isotope dilution with [3-3H]glucose was 7.94 mg/kg fat-free mass per min, and splanchnic glucose production was 0.93 mg/kg fat-free mass per min. Glucose uptake and glucose model parameters were independently measured in tissues by positron emission tomography with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Glucose uptake by heart muscle, liver, skeletal muscle, and neoplasm accounted for 0.8, 14, 44, and 15% of total glucose use, respectively. Model parameters in liver and neoplasm were not significantly different, and glucose transport and phosphorylation were twofold and fourfold greater than in muscle. This suggests that circulating IGF-II-like proteins are partial insulin agonists, and that hypoglycemia in hepatoma with IGF-II production is predominantly due to glucose uptake by skeletal muscle and suppression of glucose production.
R C Eastman, R E Carson, D G Orloff, C S Cochran, J F Perdue, M M Rechler, F Lanau, C T Roberts Jr, J Shapiro, J Roth
We have studied the relationship between glucose uptake rate and Glut 1 and Glut 4 protein and mRNA levels per fat cell in lean (FA/FA) and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats at 5, 10, and 20 wk of age, and after induction of acute diabetes with streptozotocin. 5 wk obese rats exhibit insulin hyperresponsive glucose uptake, whereas 20 wk obese rats show insulin resistant glucose uptake. The relative abundance of Glut 1 and Glut 4 mRNA and protein per equal amount of total RNA and total membrane protein, respectively, is lower in adipocytes from obese rats. However, at all ages the enlargement of fat cells from obese rats is accompanied by a severalfold increase in total RNA and total membrane protein per cell. Thus, on a cellular basis, mRNA and protein levels of Glut 4 increases in young obese rats and gradually declines as a function of age. Basal glucose uptake is increased severalfold in fat cells from obese rats, and in parallel Glut 1 expression per cell in obese rats is two- to threefold increased over lean rats at all ages. Acute diabetes in 20 wk obese rats causes a profound downregulation of glucose uptake and a concomitant reduction of both Glut 1 and Glut 4 protein levels. Thus, changes in Glut 4 expression are a major cause of alteration in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake of adipocytes during evolution of obesity and diabetes in Zucker rats.
O Pedersen, C R Kahn, B B Kahn
To determine whether alkaline phosphatase (ALP) can cause the mineralization of collagenous matrices in vivo, bovine intestinal ALP was covalently bound to slices of guanidine-extracted demineralized bovine dentin (DDS). The preparations were implanted subcutaneously over the right half of the rat skull. Control slices not treated with the enzyme were implanted over the left half of the skull of the same animals. Specimens were harvested after periods varying from 1 to 4 wk. It was shown that ALP-coupled DDS rapidly accumulated hydroxyapatite crystals. 4 wk after implantation, the content of calcium and phosphate per microgram of hydroxyproline amounted up to 80 and 60%, respectively, of that found in normal bovine dentin. Our observations present direct evidence that ALP may play a crucial role in the induction of hydroxyapatite deposition in collagenous matrices in vivo.
W Beertsen, T van den Bos
The aim of this study was to define whether N-acetylglucosaminidation is a selective conjugation pathway of structurally related bile acids in humans. The following bile acids released enzymatically from N-acetylglucosaminides were identified: 3 alpha,7 beta-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholanoic (ursodeoxycholic), 3 beta, 7 beta-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholanoic (isoursodeoxycholic), 3 beta,7 beta-dihydroxy-5 alpha-cholanoic (alloisoursodeoxycholic), 3 beta,7 beta-dihydroxy-5-cholenoic, 3 alpha,7 beta,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanoic, and 3 alpha,6 alpha,7 beta-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanoic acids. The selectivity of conjugation was studied by administration of 0.5 g ursodeoxycholic (UDCA) or hyodeoxycholic (HDCA) acids, labeled with 13C, to patients with extrahepatic cholestasis, and of 0.5 g of 13C-labeled chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) to patients with extra- or intrahepatic cholestasis. After administration of [24-13C]-CDCA, labeled glucosides, and the glucuronide of CDCA were excreted in similar amounts. Labeled N-acetylglucosaminides of UDCA and isoUDCA were also formed. When [24-13C]-UDCA was given, 13C-label was detected in the N-acetylglucosaminide, the glucosides, and the glucuronide of UDCA, and in the N-acetylglucosaminide of isoUDCA. In the patient studied, 32% of the total UDCA excreted in urine was conjugated with N-acetylglucosamine. In contrast, 96% of the excreted amount of [24-13C]HDCA was glucuronidated, and 13C-labeled glucosides but no N-acetylglucosaminide were detected. The selectivity of N-acetylglucosaminidation towards bile acids containing a 7 beta-hydroxyl group was confirmed in vitro using human liver and kidney microsomes and uridine diphosphate glucose (UDP)-N-acetylglucosamine. These studies show that N-acetylglucosaminidation is a selective conjugation pathway for 7 beta-hydroxylated bile acids.
H U Marschall, H Matern, H Wietholtz, B Egestad, S Matern, J Sjövall
Elevations in extracellular [Mg2+] ([Mg2+]o) relax vascular smooth muscle. We tested the hypothesis that elevated [Mg2+]o induces relaxation through reductions in myoplasmic [Ca2+] and myosin light chain phosphorylation without changing intracellular [Mg2+] ([Mg2+]i). Histamine stimulation of endothelium-free swine carotid medial tissues was associated with increases in both Fura 2- and aequorin-estimated myoplasmic [Ca2+], myosin phosphorylation, and force. Elevated [Mg2+]o decreased myoplasmic [Ca2+] and force to near resting values. However, elevated [Mg2+]o only transiently decreased myosin phosphorylation values: sustained [Mg2+]o-induced decreases in myoplasmic [Ca2+] and force were associated with inappropriately high myosin phosphorylation values. The elevated myosin phosphorylation during [Mg2+]o-induced relaxation was entirely on serine 19, the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase substrate. Myoplasmic [Mg2+] (estimated with Mag-Fura 2) did not significantly increase with elevated [Mg2+]o. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that increased [Mg2+]o induces relaxation by decreasing myoplasmic [Ca2+] without changing [Mg2+]i. These data also demonstrate dissociation of myosin phosphorylation from myoplasmic [Ca2+] and force during Mg(2+)-induced relaxation. This finding suggests the presence of a phosphorylation-independent (yet potentially Ca(2+)-dependent) mechanism for regulation of force in vascular smooth muscle.
E K D'Angelo, H A Singer, C M Rembold
We describe a new variant of Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (variant Strasbourg I). The patient (M.S.) showed an absence of platelet aggregation to ADP, thrombin, and collagen, and a decreased clot retraction. Platelet fibrinogen was approximately 20% of normal levels. ADP-stimulated platelets bound markedly reduced amounts of soluble fibrinogen and platelet adhesion to surface-bound fibrinogen was defective. Normal to subnormal amounts of glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa (alpha IIb beta 3) complexes, the platelet fibrinogen receptor, were revealed by SDS-PAGE, crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and antibody binding. However, the complexes were unusually sensitive to dissociation with EDTA at room temperature. Furthermore, flow cytometry showed that the platelets failed to bind the activation-dependent monoclonal antibody, PAC-1, after stimulation. In contrast, an RGDS-containing peptide induced significant binding of the anti-ligand-induced binding site antibody, D3GP3, suggesting the presence of a functional RGD binding domain on the patient's GPIIb-IIIa complex. Sequence analysis was performed after polymerase chain reaction amplification of selected patient's GPIIIa exons, and of the patient's platelet GPIIb and GPIIIa mRNAs. A point mutation (C to T) was localized in exon D (iv) of GPIIIa that resulted in an 214Arg to 214Trp amino acid substitution. The defect has been inherited from the parents who are heterozygous for the same mutation. This substitution points to an essential amino acid in a region of GPIIIa involved in the binding of fibrinogen and influencing the Ca(2+)-dependent stability of the GPIIb-IIIa complex.
F Lanza, A Stierlé, D Fournier, M Morales, G André, A T Nurden, J P Cazenave
Three studies were performed on nine normal volunteers to assess whether catecholamine-mediated lipolysis contributes to counterregulation to hypoglycemia. In these three studies, insulin was intravenously infused for 8 h (0.30 mU.kg-1.min-1 from 0 to 180 min, and 0.40 mU.kg-1.min-1 until 480 min). In study I (control study), only insulin was infused; in study II (direct + indirect effects of catecholamines), propranolol and phentolamine were superimposed to insulin and exogenous glucose was infused to reproduce the same plasma glucose (PG) concentration of study I. Study III (indirect effect of catecholamines) was the same as study II, except heparin (0.2 U.kg-1.min-1 after 80 min), 10% Intralipid (1 ml.min-1 after 160 min) and variable glucose to match PG of study II, were also infused. Glucose production (HGO), glucose utilization (Rd) [3-3H]glucose, and glucose oxidation and lipid oxidation (LO) (indirect calorimetry) were determined. In all three studies, PG decreased from approximately 4.8 to approximately 2.9 mmol/liter (P = NS between studies), and plasma glycerol and FFA decreased to a nadir at 120 min. Afterwards, in study I plasma glycerol and FFA increased by approximately 75% at 480 min, but in study II they remained approximately 40% lower than in study I, whereas in study III they rebounded as in study I (P = NS). In study II, LO was lower than in study I (1.69 +/- 0.13 vs. 3.53 +/- 0.19 mumol.kg-1.min-1, P less than 0.05); HGO was also lower between 60 and 480 min (7.48 +/- 0.57 vs. 11.6 +/- 0.35 mumol.kg-1.min-1, P less than 0.05), whereas Rd was greater between 210 and 480 min (19 +/- 0.38 vs. 11.4 +/- 0.34 mumol.kg-1.min-1, respectively, P less than 0.05). In study III, LO increased to the values of study I; between 4 and 8 h, HGO increased by approximately 2.5 mumol.kg-1.min-1, and Rd decreased by approximately 7 mumol.kg-1.min-1 vs. study II. We conclude that, in a late phase of hypoglycemia, the indirect effects of catecholamines (lipolysis mediated) account for at least approximately 50% of the adrenergic contribution to increased HGO, and approximately 85% of suppressed Rd.
C G Fanelli, P De Feo, F Porcellati, G Perriello, E Torlone, F Santeusanio, P Brunetti, G B Bolli
Myeloperoxidase (MPO), H2O2, and chloride form an antimicrobial system in neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) effective against a variety of microorganisms. Normal human PMN, when stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or opsonized zymosan, are viricidal to HIV-1. The viricidal effect was lost when chloride was replaced by sulfate and was inhibited by the peroxidase inhibitor azide and by catalase, but not by heated catalase or superoxide dismutase, implicating H2O2. Stimulated PMN from patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) were not viricidal to HIV unless H2O2 or glucose oxidase (which generates H2O2) was added, and the viricidal activity of H2O2-supplemented CGD PMN was inhibited by azide, implicating endogenous MPO. Stimulated PMN from patients with hereditary MPO deficiency had decreased viricidal activity unless MPO was added, and the viricidal activity of MPO-supplemented, MPO-deficient PMN was inhibited by catalase, implicating endogenous H2O2. The data suggest that when PMN are stimulated, MPO released by degranulation reacts with H2O2 formed by the respiratory burst to oxidize chloride to a product (presumably hypochlorous acid) that is toxic to HIV-1. Our findings raise the possibility that this viricidal effect of stimulated PMN may influence the host defense against HIV-1.
S J Klebanoff, R W Coombs
Human melanoma originates in the skin and can lead to wide-spread metastatic disease. Analysis of melanoma biopsy material has shown that the vitronectin receptor, integrin alpha v beta 3, is a specific marker of the most malignant cells, i.e., vertically invasive primary lesions or distant metastases (Albelda, S. M., S. A. Mette, D. E. Elder, R. Stewart, L. Damjanovich, M. Herlyn, and C. A. Buck. 1990. Cancer Res. 50:6757-6764), suggesting a role for this adhesion receptor in the malignant growth of human melanoma tumors. A cell model was established to analyze the role of alpha v integrins on the tumorigenicity of human melanoma. From M21 human melanoma cells, stable variants were selected that lack alpha v gene expression and thus fail to express integrin alpha v beta 3 (M21-L cells). These cells not only lost the ability to attach to vitronectin but showed a dramatic reduction in tumorigenicity when transplanted into athymic nude mice, compared with M21 cells, even though both cell types showed identical beta 1 integrin expression and growth properties in vitro. M21-L cells were stably transfected with a cDNA-encoding alpha v. This resulted in the functional expression of integrin alpha v beta 3 on these cells and completely restored their tumorigenicity. Thus, integrin alpha v gene expression and the resulting adhesive phenotype are directly involved in the proliferation of human melanoma in vivo.
B Felding-Habermann, B M Mueller, C A Romerdahl, D A Cheresh
Capsids of the B19 parvovirus are composed of major (VP2; 58 kD) and minor (VP1; 83 kD) structural proteins. These proteins are identical except for a unique 226 amino acid region at the amino terminus of VP1. Previous immunization studies with recombinant empty capsids have demonstrated that the presence of VP1 was required to elicit virus-neutralizing antibody activity. However, to date, neutralizing epitopes have been identified only on VP2. Crystallographic studies of a related parvovirus (canine parvovirus) suggested the unique amino-terminal portion of VP1 assumed an internal position within the viral capsid. To determine the position of VP1 in both empty capsids and virions, we expressed a fusion protein containing the unique region of VP1. Antisera raised to this protein recognized recombinant empty capsids containing VP1 and VP2, but not those containing VP2 alone, in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The antisera immunoprecipitated both recombinant empty capsids and human plasma-derived virions, and agglutinated the latter as shown by immune electron microscopy. The sera contained potent neutralizing activity for virus infectivity in vitro. These data indicate that a portion of the amino terminus of VP1 is located on the virion surface, and that this region contains intrinsic neutralizing determinants. The external location of the VP1-specific tail may provide a site for engineered heterologous epitope presentation in novel recombinant vaccines.
S J Rosenfeld, K Yoshimoto, S Kajigaya, S Anderson, N S Young, A Field, P Warrener, G Bansal, M S Collett
Vascular permeability disorders have been described in experimental models, as well as in human hypertension. We recently described the fact that vascular permeability to albumin is heterogeneous in the normal rat. In the present study, we examine the contents of Evans blue dye (EB) bound to albumin in selected organs of unanesthetized Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at various stages of development of hypertension. EB was injected in the caudal vein of paired 4, 8, 12, and 16-wk-old WKY and SHR. Rats were killed 10 min after EB injection and extraction of the marker was measured in selected tissues. In additional 4 and 16-wk-old animals, bradykinin B1 and B2 receptor antagonists (BKA) were also injected with EB. Renal contents of EB bound to albumin were higher in the SHR than in the WKY: 196 +/- 9, 202 +/- 10, 182 +/- 7, and 196 +/- 9, compared with 158 +/- 8, 155 +/- 7, 138 +/- 7, and 118 +/- 6 micrograms/g dry tissue, in the 4, 8, 12, and 16-wk-old rats, respectively. In the 4-wk-old SHR and WKY, blood pressure values were normal and comparable, yet the alteration in EB permeability was already present in the SHR. Both BKA failed to alter the renal EB extravasation in the WKY, but the B2-BKA restored the renal permeability to control levels in the SHR. We conclude that a selective defect in the renal vascular permeability to EB developed in the SHR. Since this finding precedes hypertension and is corrected by a selective B2-BKA, it is suggested that bradykinin is involved at an early stage of the disease in the SHR.
G E Plante, M Bissonnette, M G Sirois, D Regoli, P Sirois
Seropositive rheumatoid arthritis is genetically linked to a group of HLA-DRB1 alleles sharing a sequence motif within the third hypervariable region. Controversy exists over the role of the distinct allelic variants in affecting not only the risk to develop disease, but also in modifying the expression of the disease. We have stratified 81 patients according to their patterns of disease manifestations and identified the HLA-DRB1 alleles by polymerase chain reaction amplification and subsequent oligonucleotide hybridization. To identify precisely the allelic combinations at the HLA-DRB1 locus, homozygosity was confirmed by locus-specific cDNA amplification and subsequent sequencing. Our study demonstrated a high correlation of allelic combinations of disease-associated HLA-DRB1 alleles with the clinical manifestations. Characteristic genotypes were identified for patients who had progressed toward nodular disease and patients who had developed major organ involvement. Rheumatoid nodules were highly associated with a heterozygosity for two disease associated HLA-DRB1 alleles. Homozygosity for the HLA-DRB1*0401 allele was a characteristic finding for RA patients with major organ involvement. Our data suggest a role of the disease-associated sequence motif in determining severity of the disease. The finding of a codominant function of HLA-DRB1 alleles suggests that the biological function of HLA-DR molecules in thymic selection might be important in the pathogenesis of RA.
C M Weyand, C Xie, J J Goronzy
Diagnostic testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection currently is based on the presence of anti-HCV antibodies or a positive HCV RNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. Although HCV RNA PCR is a sensitive and specific technique, widespread application is limited. Moreover, HCV RNA PCR is subject to false-positive reactions through contamination and is inherently difficult to standardize and quantitate. To overcome limitations of HCV RNA PCR, we produced both cDNA and riboprobes from a 241 nucleotide sequence of the 5' untranslated region of the HCV genome for slot hybridization. Hybridization was absent using normal human serum, horse serum, or hepatic cellular RNA from noninfected liver. Hybridization occurred predominantly with positive-stranded HCV RNA and was abolished by pretreatment with RNase A. Slot hybridization was performed on serum samples from 60 patients with chronic HCV infection and a positive HCV RNA PCR and 20 patients with liver diseases unrelated to HCV who had a negative HCV RNA PCR. Slot hybridization with cDNA and riboprobes showed concordance with HCV RNA PCR of 95 and 98.3%, respectively. There were no false-positive reactions in controls. The sensitivity of riboprobe hybridization was comparable to that of one stage HCV RNA PCR using 5' untranslated region primers. Riboprobe hybridization with the HCV H strain standard was positive in the dilution corresponding to 10(-6) chimpanzee infectious doses50/ml. The density of the hybridization signals correlated significantly with the mass of an RNA standard extracted from the liver of a patient with HCV infection. The relative quantities of HCV RNA in the sera of selected patients varied and were not correlated with the duration of disease or the histopathological stage. The highest relative quantities were associated with concurrent immunosuppression. We conclude that slot hybridization is a sensitive, specific alternative to HCV RNA PCR that can be directly quantitated using appropriate HCV RNA standards.
K Q Hu, C H Yu, J M Vierling
Immunoglobulin VDJ recombination is associated with transcriptional activation of the Ig variable region elements. We have previously described a novel Ig mu chain protein and mRNA produced by pre-B cell hybrids from normal and X-linked agammaglobulinemic bone marrow. We have now characterized the mRNA encoding this protein and find that it is composed of a 5' leader sequence spliced to C mu (LS-C mu), lacking the variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene sequences. The leader sequence is encoded by a novel exon 16 kb upstream of the JH locus. Transcription of the germ line heavy chain locus from this LS exon results in transcriptional activation of the JH locus, apparently the initial step in commitment to B lymphoid development. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of normal bone marrow shows that these germ line LS-C mu transcripts are a product of bone marrow pre-B cells. Production of LS-C mu commences a sequential process of transcriptional activation, with concordant translation of Ig rearrangement intermediates, in the process of creating a productive VDJ rearrangement.
J Schwaber, B Malone
X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) results from a failure of B lymphoid development. We have previously examined pre-B cell hybrids from three patients with XLA and found them to be limited to production of a novel germ line transcript of the Ig H chain locus composed of a leader sequence (LS) spliced to the constant region of mu chain (C mu) as mRNA and polypeptide. These transcripts result from transcriptional activation of the germ line heavy chain locus from an LS exon upstream of the embryonic JH locus. Germ line LS-C mu transcripts are produced by pre-B cells from normal bone marrow and fetal liver, indicating that they are products of normal pre-B cell development, as part of the process of transcriptional activation to provide access for the recombinase. Bone marrow from three patients with XLA has been examined directly by polymerase chain reaction amplification to determine whether the exclusive production of LS-C mu by XLA pre-B cell hybrids is representative of XLA pre-B cells. I report that LS-C mu is the predominant Ig molecule produced by XLA pre-B cells, with limited production of the D mu product of DJH intermediate stage of V(D)J recombination. Mature VHDJH recombinations were not detected with a variety of primers that amplify VH sequences. I conclude that XLA is associated with a limitation in V(D)J recombination that may cause the failure of pre-B cell development.
Ischemia-induced ventricular dysfunction has been shown to be associated with increased diastolic and systolic intracellular concentrations of free, ionized calcium ([Ca2+]i). The present study was designed to determine the effects of the Ca2+ antagonist nisoldipine on the relationship between [Ca2+]i and left ventricular contraction and relaxation during ischemia and reperfusion on a beat-to-beat basis. Nine isovolumic coronary-perfused ferret hearts were made globally ischemic for 3 min and reperfused for 10 min. Ischemia and reperfusion were repeated during perfusion with a buffer containing 10(-8) M nisoldipine. From left ventricular developed pressure, time to peak pressure and time to 50% pressure decline were obtained. [Ca2+]i was determined with the bioluminescent protein aequorin. Global ischemia caused a rapid decline in contractile function and a significant increase in diastolic [Ca2+]i, from 0.35 to 0.81 microM, and in systolic [Ca2+]i, from 0.61 to 0.96 microM. During reperfusion, [Ca2+]i returned to baseline while ventricular function was still impaired. Relaxation was more affected than systolic contractile function. Nisoldipine significantly reduced the ischemia-induced rise in diastolic [Ca2+]i to 0.62 microM, and in systolic [Ca2+]i to 0.77 microM, and lessened the decrease in contractile function. Nisoldipine significantly accelerated the decline in [Ca2+]i during reperfusion and improved recovery of contractility and relaxation. These effects were associated with a significant diminution in ischemic lactate production. Taken together, our results provide direct quantitative evidence on a beat-to-beat basis that the calcium antagonist nisoldipine can ameliorate ischemia-induced abnormalities in [Ca2+]i handling, an effect that was associated with improved myocardial function during early reperfusion.
I Amende, L A Bentivegna, A J Zeind, P Wenzlaff, W Grossman, J P Morgan
Two insulin receptor mRNA transcripts resulting from alternative splicing of exon 11 in the receptor gene are expressed in a highly regulated tissue-specific fashion. To date, there is no information about the relative abundance of the protein isoforms encoded by these mRNAs in tissues of normal or diabetic subjects. We employed an antibody raised against the peptide sequence encoded by exon 11 to develop a specific immunoprecipitation assay that is capable of determining the fraction of receptors that include this amino acid sequence. The assay is based on the relative ability of the exon 11 specific monoclonal antibody (alpha IR alpha) compared to a nonspecific anti-receptor antiserum (B-2) to immunoprecipitate solubilized receptors that are first labeled with 125I-insulin. The assay was validated using standard curves generated with samples composed of known ratios of the two receptor isoforms. Our results in general confirm observations regarding the relative abundance of the two mRNA species in human tissues, with marked predominance of the exon 11+ isoform in liver, and the exon 11- isoform in leukocytes. Similar amounts of both variants are present in placenta, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. In studies with this assay using skeletal muscle extracts from control and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) subjects, as well as in studies of the two mRNAs in control versus NIDDM muscle using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, we could find no significant difference between control and diabetic subjects. This data contradicts a recent report claiming that normal individuals have only the exon 11- mRNA transcript in their skeletal muscle, whereas NIDDM subjects have similar expression of both mRNAs. Given the emerging evidence that functional differences exist between the two receptor isoforms, these studies are relevant to our understanding of insulin receptor function in health and disease.
H Benecke, J S Flier, D E Moller
Endotoxemia causes hypotension characterized by vasodilation and resistance to vasopressor agents. The molecular mechanisms responsible for these changes are unclear. The ATP-regulated K+ (K+ATP) channel has recently been found to be an important modulator of vascular smooth muscle tone which may transduce local metabolic changes into alterations of vascular flow. We report here that in endotoxic hypotension, the sulfonylurea glyburide, a specific inhibitor for the K+ATP channel, caused vasoconstriction and restoration of blood pressure. Glyburide also induced vasoconstriction and restoration of blood pressure in the vasodilatory hypotension caused by hypoxic lactic acidosis, while it was ineffective in the hypotension induced by sodium nitroprusside. Thus, vasodilation and hypotension in septic shock are, at least in part, due to activation of the K+ATP channel in vascular smooth muscle, and anaerobic metabolism with acidosis is a sufficient stimulus for channel activation. Because anaerobic metabolism and acidosis are common features in shock of any etiology, sulfonylureas may be effective therapeutic agents in the treatment of shock.
D W Landry, J A Oliver