Intellectual and social disabilities are common comorbidities in adolescents and adults with MAGEL2 gene deficiency characterizing the Prader-Willi and Schaaf-Yang neurodevelopmental syndromes. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the risk for autism in these syndromes are not understood. We ask whether vasopressin functions are altered by MAGEL2 deficiency and whether a treatment with vasopressin can alleviate the disabilities of social behavior. We used Magel2 knockout mice (adult males) combined with optogenetic or pharmacological tools to characterize disease modifications in the vasopressinergic brain system and monitor its impact on neurophysiological and behavioral functions. We find that the activation of vasopressin neurons and its projections in the lateral septum are inappropriate to perform a social habituation/discrimination task. Mechanistically, the lack of vasopressin impedes the deactivation of somatostatin neurons in the lateral septum, which predicts social discrimination deficits. Correction of vasopressin septal content by administration or optogenetic stimulation of projecting axons suppressed the activity of somatostatin neurons and ameliorated social behavior. This preclinical study identifies vasopressin in the lateral septum as a key factor in the pathophysiology.
Amélie M. Borie, Yann Dromard, Gilles Guillon, Aleksandra Olma, Maurice Manning, Françoise Muscatelli, Michel G. Desarmenien, Freddy Jeanneteau
The tumor microenvironment affects the outcome of radiotherapy against head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We recently found that tolerogenic myeloid cells accumulate in circulation of HNSCC patients undergoing radiotherapy. Here, we analyzed tumor-containing lymph nodes biopsies collected from these patients. After two-weeks of radiotherapy, we found an increase in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) with activated STAT3, while CD8 T-cells were reduced as detected using multiplex IHC. Gene expression profiling indicated upregulation of M2 macrophage-related genes (CD163, CD206), immunosuppressive mediators (ARG1, LIF, TGFB1) and Th2 cytokines (IL4, IL5) in irradiated tumors. We next validated STAT3 as a potential target in human HNSCC-associated TAMs, using UM-SCC1 xenotransplants in humanized mice. Local injections of myeloid cell-targeted STAT3 antisense oligonucleotide (CpG-STAT3ASO) activated human DCs/macrophages, promoted CD8 T-cell recruitment and thereby arrested UM-SCC1 tumor growth. Furthermore, CpG-STAT3ASO synergized with tumor irradiation against syngeneic HPV+ mEERL and HPV– MOC2 HNSCC tumors in mice, triggering tumor regression and/or extending animal survival. The antitumor immune responses were CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell-dependent and associated with the activation of antigen-presenting cells (DCs/M1 macrophages) and increased CD8+ to regulatory T-cell ratio. Our observations suggest that targeted inhibition of STAT3 in tumor-associated myeloid cells augments the efficacy of radiotherapy against HNSCC.
Dayson Moreira, Sagus Sampath, Haejung Won, Seok Voon White, Yu-Lin Su, Marice Alcantara, Chongkai Wang, Peter P. Lee, Ellie Maghami, Erminia Massarelli, Marcin Kortylewski
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) pandemic continues to cause morbidity and mortality. Since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as the cause for COVID 19, some have questioned whether exposure to seasonal common cold coronaviruses (CCCs) could provide tangible protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection or disease. In this issue of the JCI, Sager, et al. examined SARS-CoV-2 infections and outcomes from patients previously tested for CCC as part of a comprehensive respiratory panel using PCR and were segregated into negative (CCC–) or positive (CCC+) exposure. No differences were seen between groups in terms of susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, hospitalized patients with a documented history of CCC+ infection had lower rates of ICU admissions and higher rates of survival than hospitalized CCC– patients. While these findings are associative and not causative, they highlight evidence suggesting that previous CCC+ infection may influence the disease course of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
David K. Meyerholz, Stanley Perlman
Many individuals possess B cells capable of recognizing epitopes on the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. In this issue of the JCI, Paschold and Simnica et al. interrogated the frequency of SARS-CoV-2–specific B cell receptor rearrangements in healthy subjects based on age and cancer status. The authors found that, while SARS-CoV-2–specific antibody signatures can be identified in the repertoires of young, healthy individuals, such sequences are less frequent in elderly subjects or cancer patients. Overall, this study sheds light on B cell repertoire restrictions that might lead to an unfavorable clinical course of COVID-19 infection in risk populations.
Andrew I. Flyak
ABSTRACTIndividuals harboring the loss-of-function (LOF) proprotein convertase subtilising/kexin type 9 Gln152His variation (PCSK9Q152H) have low circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and are therefore protected against cardiovascular disease (CVD). This uncleavable form of pro-PCSK9, however, is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of liver hepatocytes where it would be expected to contribute to ER storage disease (ERSD); a heritable condition known to cause systemic ER stress and liver injury. Here, we examined liver function in members of several French-Canadian families known to carry the PCSK9Q152H variation. We report that PCSK9Q152H carriers exhibited marked hypocholesterolemia and normal liver function despite their lifelong state of ER PCSK9 retention. Mechanistically, hepatic overexpression of PCSK9Q152H using adeno-associated viruses in male mice greatly increased the stability of key ER stress response chaperones in liver hepatocytes and unexpectedly protected against ER stress and liver injury rather than to induce them. Our findings show that ER retention of PCSK9 not only reduced CVD risk in patients but may also protect against ERSD and other ER stress-driven conditions of the liver. In summary, we have uncovered a co-chaperone function for PCSK9Q152H that explains its hepatoprotective effects and generated a translational mouse model for further mechanistic insights into this clinically relevant LOF PCSK9 variant.
Paul F. Lebeau, Hanny Wassef, Jae Hyun Byun, Khrystyna Platko, Brandon Ason, Simon Jackson, Joshua Dobroff, Susan Shetterly, William G. Richards, Ali A. Al-Hashimi, Kevin D. Won, Majambu Mbikay, Annik Prat, An Tang, Guillaume Paré, Renata Pasqualini, Nabil G. Seidah, Wadih Arap, Michel Chretien, Richard C. Austin
TH17 cell subpopulations have been defined that contribute to inflammation and homeostasis, yet the characteristics of TH17 cells that contribute to host defense against infection are not clear. To elucidate the antimicrobial machinery of the TH17 subset, we studied the response to Cutibacterium acnes, a skin commensal that is resistant to IL-26, the only known TH17 secreted protein with direct antimicrobial activity. We generated C. acnes-specific antimicrobial TH17 clones (AMTH17) with varying antimicrobial activity against C. acnes, which we correlated by RNA-seq to the expression of transcripts encoding proteins that contribute to antimicrobial activity. Additionally, we validated that AMTH17-mediated killing of C. acnes as well as bacterial pathogens, was dependent on the secretion of granulysin, granzyme B, perforin and histone H2B. We found that AMTH17s can release fibrous structures composed of DNA decorated with the histone H2B that entangle C. acnes that we call T cell extracellular traps (TETs). Within acne lesions, H2B and IL-17 colocalized in CD4+ T cells, in proximity to TETs in the extracellular space composed of DNA decorated with H2B. This study identifies a functionally distinct subpopulation of TH17 cells with an ability to form TETs containing secreted antimicrobial proteins that capture and kill bacteria.
George W. Agak, Alice Mouton, Rosane Teles, Thomas A. Weston, Marco Morselli, Priscila R. Andrade, Matteo Pellegrini, Robert L. Modlin
BACKGROUND. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused over one million deaths worldwide, thus there is an urgent need to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies. The anti-tuberculosis vaccine Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) demonstrates non-specific protective innate immune-boosting effects. Here, we determined if history of BCG vaccination was associated with decreased SARS-CoV-2 infection and seroconversion in a retrospective observational study of a diverse cohort of health care workers (HCWs). METHODS. We assessed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and collected medical questionnaires, including BCG vaccination status and pre-existing demographic and clinical characteristics, from an observational cohort of HCWs in a multi-site Los Angeles healthcare organization. We used multi-variate analysis to estimate if history of BCG vaccination was associated with decreased rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and seroconversion. RESULTS. Of the 6,201 HCWs, 29.6% reported a history of BCG vaccination whereas 68.9% did not receive BCG vaccination. Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG as well as incidence of self-reported clinical symptoms associated with COVID-19 were significantly decreased among HCWs with a history of BCG vaccination compared to those without BCG vaccination. After adjusting for age and sex, we found that history of BCG vaccination, but not meningococcal, pneumococcal or influenza vaccination, was associated with decreased SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroconversion. CONCLUSIONS. History of BCG vaccination was associated with decreased seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and reduced reported COVID-19-related clinical symptoms in this cohort of HCWs. Therefore, large randomized prospective clinical trials of BCG vaccination are urgently needed to confirm if BCG vaccination can induced a protective effect against SARS-CoV2 infection. FUNDING. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute (U54 CA26059) and the Erika J. Glazer Family Foundation. Key words: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, BCG, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, healthcare workers, trained immunity.
Magali Noval Rivas, Joseph E. Ebinger, Min Wu, Nancy Sun, Jonathan Braun, Kimia Sobhani, Jennifer E. Van Eyk, Susan Cheng, Moshe Arditi
Bone is maintained by coupled activities of bone-forming osteoblasts/osteocytes and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Alterations in this relationship can lead to pathologic bone loss, such as osteoporosis. It is well known that osteogenic cells support osteoclastogenesis via production of RANKL. Interestingly, our recently identified bone marrow mesenchymal cell population—marrow adipogenic lineage precursors (MALPs) that form a multi-dimensional cell network in bone—was computationally demonstrated to be the most interactive with monocyte-macrophage lineage cells through high and specific expression of several osteoclast regulatory factors, including RANKL. Using an adipocyte-specific Adipoq-Cre to label MALPs, we demonstrated that mice with RANKL deficiency in MALPs have a drastic increase in trabecular bone mass in long bones and vertebrae starting from 1 month of age, while their cortical bone appears normal. This phenotype was accompanied by diminished osteoclast number and attenuated bone formation at the trabecular bone surface. Reduced RANKL signaling in calvarial MALPs abolished osteolytic lesions after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections. Furthermore, in ovariectomized mice, elevated bone resorption was partially attenuated by RANKL deficiency in MALPs. In summary, our studies identified MALPs as a critical player in controlling bone remodeling during normal bone metabolism and pathological bone loss in a RANKL-dependent fashion.
Wei Yu, Leilei Zhong, Lutian Yao, Yulong Wei, Tao Gui, Ziqing Li, Hyunsoo Kim, Nicholas Holdreith, Xi Jiang, Wei Tong, Nathaniel A. Dyment, Xiaowei Sherry Liu, Shuying Yang, Yongwon Choi, Jaimo Ahn, Ling Qin
Human herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis can be caused by inborn errors of the TLR3 pathway resulting in impairment of central nervous system (CNS) cell-intrinsic antiviral immunity. Deficiencies of the TLR3 pathway impair cell-intrinsic immunity to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and HSV-1 in fibroblasts, and to HSV-1 in cortical but not trigeminal neurons. The underlying molecular mechanism is thought to involve impaired IFN-a/b induction by the TLR3 recognition of dsRNA viral intermediates or by-products. However, we show here that human TLR3 controls constitutive levels of IFNB mRNA and secreted bioactive IFN-b protein, thereby also constitutive mRNA levels for IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in fibroblasts. Tlr3-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts also have lower basal ISG levels. Moreover, human TLR3 controls basal levels of IFN-b secretion and ISGs mRNA in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neurons. Consistently, TLR3-deficient human fibroblasts and cortical neurons are vulnerable not only to both VSV and HSV-1, but also to several other families of viruses. The mechanism by which TLR3 restricts viral growth in human fibroblasts and cortical neurons in vitro, and by which the human central nervous system prevents infection by HSV-1 in vivo, is therefore based on the control of early viral infection by basal IFN-b immunity, rather than viral recognition triggering an amplification of IFN-a/b production.
Daxing Gao, Michael J. Ciancanelli, Peng Zhang, Oliver Harschnitz, Vincent Bondet, Mary Hasek, Jie Chen, Xin Mu, Yuval Itan, Aurélie Cobat, Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu, Benedetta Bigio, Lazaro Lorenzo, Gabriele Ciceri, Jessica L. McAlpine, Esperanza Anguiano, Emmanuelle Jouanguy, Damien Chaussabel, isabelle Meyts, Michael S. Diamond, Laurent Abel, Sun Hur, Gregory A. Smith, Luigi D. Notarangelo, Darragh Duffy, Lorenz Studer, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Shen-Ying Zhang
Katherine Uyhazi and renowned gene therapy pioneer Jean Bennett share their perspective on the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna for their discovery of the CRISPR/Cas9 genetic scissors that have revolutionized genome editing.
Katherine E. Uyhazi, Jean Bennett
Genetic factors undoubtedly affect the development of congenital heart disease (CHD), but still remain ill-defined. We sought to identify genetic risk factors associated with CHD and to accomplish functional analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)-carrying genes. We performed a genome-wide association study of 4,034 Caucasian CHD patients and 8,486 healthy controls. One SNP on chromosome 5q22.2 reached genome-wide significance across all CHD phenotypes and was also indicative for septal defects. One region on chromosome 20p12.1 pointing to the MACROD2 locus identified four highly significant SNPs in patients with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Three highly significant risk variants on chromosome 17q21.32 within the GOSR2 locus were detected in patients with anomalies of thoracic arteries and veins (ATAV). Genetic variants associated with ATAV are suggested to influence expression of WNT3, and variant rs870142 related to septal defects is proposed to influence expression of MSX1. The expression of all four genes was analyzed during cardiac differentiation of human and murine induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro and by single-cell RNAseq analyses of developing murine and human hearts. Our data show that MACROD2, GOSR2, WNT3 and MSX1 play an essential functional role in heart development at the embryonic and newborn stage.
Harald Lahm, Meiwen Jia, Martina Dreßen, Felix F. M. Wirth, Nazan Puluca, Ralf Gilsbach, Bernard Keavney, Julie Cleuziou, Nicole Beck, Olga Bondareva, Elda Dzilic, Melchior Burri, Karl C. König, Johannes A. Ziegelmüller, Claudia Abou-Ajram, Irina Neb, Zhong Zhang, Stefanie A. Doppler, Elisa Mastantuono, Peter Lichtner, Gertrud Eckstein, Jürgen Hörer, Peter Ewert, James R. Priest, Lutz Hein, Rüdiger Lange, Thomas Meitinger, Heather J. Cordell, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Markus Krane
The SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus global pandemic (COVID-19) has led to millions of cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths globally. While older adults appear at high risk for severe disease, hospitalizations and deaths due to SARS-CoV-2 among children have been relatively rare. Integrating single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of developing mouse lung with temporally-resolved immunofluorescence in mouse and human lung tissue, we found expression of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein primer TMPRSS2 was highest in ciliated cells and type I alveolar epithelial cells (AT1), and TMPRSS2 expression increased with aging in mice and humans. Analysis of autopsy tissue from fatal COVID-19 cases detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA most frequently in ciliated and secretory cells in airway epithelium and AT1 cells in peripheral lung. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was highly colocalized in cells expressing TMPRSS2. Together, these data demonstrate the cellular spectrum infected by SARS-CoV-2 in lung epithelium and suggest that developmental regulation of TMPRSS2 may underlie the relative protection of infants and children from severe respiratory illness.
Bryce A. Schuler, A. Christian Habermann, Erin J. Plosa, Chase J. Taylor, Christopher Jetter, Nicholas M. Negretti, Meghan E. Kapp, John T. Benjamin, Peter Gulleman, David S. Nichols, Lior Z. Braunstein, Alice Hackett, Michael Koval, Susan H. Guttentag, Timothy S. Blackwell, Steven A. Webber, Nicholas E. Banovich, Jonathan A. Kropski, Jennifer M. S. Sucre
Age-related sarcopenia constitutes an important health problem associated with adverse outcomes. Sarcopenia is closely associated with fat infiltration in muscle, which is attributable to interstitial mesenchymal progenitors. Mesenchymal progenitors are non-myogenic in nature but are required for homeostatic muscle maintenance. However, the underlying mechanism of mesenchymal progenitor-dependent muscle maintenance is not clear, nor is the precise role of mesenchymal progenitors in sarcopenia. Here, we show that mice genetically engineered to specifically deplete mesenchymal progenitors exhibited phenotypes markedly similar to sarcopenia, including muscle weakness, myofiber atrophy, alterations of fiber types, and denervation at neuromuscular junctions. Through searching for genes responsible for mesenchymal progenitor-dependent muscle maintenance, we found that Bmp3b is specifically expressed in mesenchymal progenitors, whereas its expression level is significantly decreased during aging or adipogenic differentiation. The functional importance of Bmp3b in maintaining myofiber mass as well as muscle-nerve interaction was demonstrated using knockout mice and cultured cells treated with Bmp3b. Furthermore, the administration of recombinant BMP3B in aged mice reversed their sarcopenic phenotypes. These results reveal previously unrecognized mechanisms by which the mesenchymal progenitors ensure muscle integrity and suggest that age-related changes in mesenchymal progenitors have a considerable impact on the development of sarcopenia.
Akiyoshi Uezumi, Madoka Ikemoto-Uezumi, Heying Zhou, Tamaki Kurosawa, Yuki Yoshimoto, Masashi Nakatani, Keisuke Hitachi, Hisateru Yamaguchi, Shuji Wakatsuki, Toshiyuki Araki, Mitsuhiro Morita, Harumoto Yamada, Masashi Toyoda, Nobuo Kanazawa, Tatsu Nakazawa, Jun Hino, So-ichiro Fukada, Kunihiro Tsuchida
Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are devastating, slowly progressing neurodegenerative conditions caused by expansion of polyQ-encoding CAG repeats within the coding regions of distinct, unrelated genes. In spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), polyQ expansion within the androgen receptor (AR) causes progressive neuromuscular toxicity, the molecular basis of which is unclear. Using quantitative proteomics, we identified changes in the AR interactome caused by polyQ expansion. We found that the deubiquitinase USP7 preferentially interacts with polyQ-expanded AR, and that lowering USP7 levels reduced mutant AR aggregation and cytotoxicity in cell models of SBMA. Moreover, USP7 knockdown suppressed disease phenotypes in SBMA and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) fly models, and monoallelic knockout of Usp7 ameliorated several motor deficiencies in transgenic SBMA mice. USP7 overexpression resulted in reduced AR ubiquitination, indicating the direct action of USP7 on AR. Using quantitative proteomics, we identified the ubiquitinated lysine residues on mutant AR that are regulated by USP7. Finally, we found that USP7 also differentially interacts with mutant Huntingtin (HTT) protein in striatum and frontal cortex of a knock-in mouse model of Huntington’s disease. Taken together, our findings reveal a critical role for USP7 in the pathophysiology of SBMA and suggest a similar role in SCA3 and Huntington’s disease.
Anna Pluciennik, Yuhong Liu, Elana Molotsky, Gregory B. Marsh, Bedri Ranxhi, Frederick J. Arnold, Sophie St-Cyr, Beverly L. Davidson, Naemeh Pourshafie, Andrew P. Lieberman, Wei Gu, Sokol V. Todi, Diane E Merry
FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) rely on fatty acid -oxidation (FAO)-driven oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for differentiation and function. Recent data demonstrate a role for Tregs in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis with tissue-resident Tregs possessing tissue-specific transcriptomes. However, specific signals that establish tissue-resident Treg programs remain largely unknown. Tregs metabolically rely on FAO, and considering the lipid-rich environments of tissues, we hypothesized that environmental lipids drive Treg homeostasis. First, using human adipose tissue to model tissue residency, we identified oleic acid as the most prevalent free fatty acid. Mechanistically, oleic acid amplified Treg FAO-driven OXPHOS metabolism, creating a positive feedback mechanism that increased the expression of FOXP3 and phosphorylation of STAT5, which enhanced Treg suppressive function. Comparing the transcriptomic program induced by oleic acid to the pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid, we found that Tregs sorted from peripheral blood and adipose of healthy donors transcriptomically resembled the oleic acid in vitro treated Tregs, whereas Tregs from the adipose of MS patients more closely resembled an arachidonic acid transcriptomic profile. Finally, we found oleic acid concentrations were reduced in the adipose of MS patients, and exposure of MS Tregs to oleic acid restored defects in their suppressive function. These data demonstrate the importance of fatty acids in regulating tissue inflammatory signals.
Saige L. Pompura, Allon Wagner, Alexandra Kitz, Jacob Laperche, Nir Yosef, Margarita Dominguez-Villar, David Hafler
Seed grant programs are an efficient mechanism for universities to invest in high-risk ideas, incite collaborative research, support early career faculty, and direct faculty towards a specific goal. At the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic, Johns Hopkins leadership quickly mobilized to support research teams as they pivoted to gather preliminary data and seek solutions to save lives. Here we discuss key lessons learned from the program.
Julie Messersmith, Chasmine Stoddart-Osumah, Marc Lennon, Denis Wirtz
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are major unsolved public health problems, and diabetes is an independent risk factor for AF. However, the mechanism(s) underlying this clinical association is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protein O-GlcNAcylation (OGN) are increased in diabetic hearts, and calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) is a proarrhythmic signal that may be activated by ROS (ox-CaMKII) and OGN (OGN-CaMKII). We induced type 1 (T1D) and type 2 DM (T2D) in a portfolio of genetic mouse models capable of dissecting the role of ROS and OGN at CaMKII and global OGN in diabetic AF. Here we show that T1D and T2D significantly increased AF, and this increase required CaMKII and OGN. T1D and T2D both require ox-CaMKII to increase AF, however we did not detect OGN-CaMKII nor a role for OGN-CaMKII in diabetic AF. Collectively, our data affirm CaMKII as a critical proarrhythmic signal in diabetic AF, and suggest ROS primarily promotes AF by ox-CaMKII, while OGN promotes AF by a CaMKII-independent mechanism(s). These results provide new and unanticipated insights into the mechanisms for increased AF in DM, and suggest potential benefits for future CaMKII and OGN targeted therapies.
Olurotimi O. Mesubi, Adam G. Rokita, Neha Abrol, Yuejin Wu, Biyi Chen, Qinchuan Wang, Jonathan M. Granger, Anthony Tucker-Bartley, Elizabeth D. Luczak, Kevin R Murphy, Priya Umapathi, Partha S. Banerjee, Tatiana Boronina, Robert N. Cole, Lars S. Maier, Xander H.T. Wehrens, Joel L. Pomerantz, Long-Sheng Song, Rexford Ahima, Gerald W. Hart, Natasha E. Zachara, Mark E. Anderson
Resistance to oncogene-targeted therapies involves discrete drug-tolerant persister cells, originally discovered through in vitro assays. Whether a similar phenomenon limits efficacy of programmed death (PD)-1 blockade is poorly understood. Here, we performed dynamic single-cell RNA sequencing of murine organotypic tumor spheroids undergoing PD-1 blockade, identifying a discrete sub-population of immunotherapy persister cells (IPCs) that resisted CD8 T-cell mediated killing. These cells expressed Snai1 and stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1), and exhibited hybrid epithelial-mesenchymal features characteristic of a stem cell-like state. IPCs were expanded by interleukin-6 (IL-6) but were vulnerable to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced cytotoxicity, relying on Birc2 and Birc3 as survival factors. Combining PD-1 blockade with Birc2/3 antagonism in mice reduced IPCs and enhanced tumor cell killing in vivo, resulting in durable responsiveness that matched TNF cytotoxicity thresholds in vitro. Together, these data demonstrate the power of high-resolution functional ex vivo profiling to uncover fundamental mechanisms of immune escape from durable anti-PD-1 responses, while identifying IPCs as a cancer cell subpopulation targetable by specific therapeutic combinations.
Kartik Sehgal, Andrew J. Portell, Elena V. Ivanova, Patrick H. Lizotte, Navin R. Mahadevan, Jonathan R. Greene, Amir Vajdi, Carino Gurjao, Tyler Teceno, Luke J. Taus, Tran C. Thai, Shunsuke Kitajima, Derek Liu, Tetsuo Tani, Moataz Noureddine, Christie J. Lau, Paul T. Kirschmeier, David Liu, Marios Giannakis, Russell W. Jenkins, Prafulla C. Gokhale, Silvia Goldoni, Maria Pinzon-Ortiz, William D. Hastings, Peter Hammerman, Juan J. Miret, Cloud P. Paweletz, David A. Barbie
Oligodendrocytes express low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) to endocytose cholesterol for the maintenance of adulthood myelination. However, the potential role of LDLR in chronic cerebral ischemia-related demyelination remains unclear. We used bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) to induce sustained cerebral ischemia in mice. This hypoxic-ischemic injury caused a remarkable decline of oligodendroglial LDLR with impaired oligodendroglial differentiation and survival. Oligodendroglial cholesterol levels, however, remained unchanged. Mice miR-344e-3p and human homolog miR-410-3p, two miRNAs directly targeting Ldlr, were identified in experimental and clinical leukoaraiosis, thus leading to LDLR reduction. Lentiviral delivery of LDLR ameliorated the demyelination following chronic cerebral ischemia. By contrast, Ldlr-/- mice displayed inadequate myelination in the corpus callosum. Ldlr-/- oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) exhibited defective ability to differentiate and myelinate axons in vitro. Transplantation with Ldlr-/- OPCs could not rescue the BCAS-induced demyelination. Such LDLR-dependent myelin restoration might involve a physical interaction of the Asn-Pro-Val-Tyr (NPVY) motif with phosphotyrosine binding domain of Shc, which subsequently activated MEK/ERK pathway. Together, our findings demonstrate that the aberrant oligodendroglial LDLR in chronic cerebral ischemia impairs myelination through intracellular signal transduction. Preservation of oligodendroglial LDLR may provide a promising approach to treat ischemic demyelination.
Yi Xie, Xiaohao Zhang, Pengfei Xu, Nana Zhao, Ying Zhao, Yunzi Li, Ye Hong, Mengna Peng, Kang Yuan, Ting Wan, Rui Sun, Deyan Chen, Lili Xu, Jingjing Chen, Hongquan Guo, Wanying Shan, Juanji Li, Rongrong Li, Yunyun Xiong, Dezhi Liu, Yuhui Wang, George Liu, Ruidong Ye, Xinfeng Liu
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are synthesized by neurons and glia and released into the extracellular space, where they act as modulators of neuroplasticity and neuroinflammatory agents. Development of epilepsy (epileptogenesis) is associated with increased expression of MMPs and therefore they may represent potential therapeutic drug targets. Using qPCR and immunohistochemistry, we studied the expression of MMPs and their endogenous inhibitors TIMPs, in patients with status epilepticus (SE) or temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and in a rat TLE model. Furthermore, we tested the MMP2/9 inhibitor IPR-179 in the rapid kindling rat model and in the intrahippocampal kainic-acid mouse model.In both human and experimental epilepsy, MMP and TIMP expression was persistently dysregulated in the hippocampus compared to controls. IPR-179 treatment reduced seizure severity in the rapid kindling model and reduced the number of spontaneous seizures in the kainic-acid model (during and up to 7 weeks after delivery) without side effects while improving cognitive behavior. Moreover, our data suggest that IPR-179 prevented an MMP2/9-dependent switch-off normally restraining network excitability during the activity period. Since increased MMP expression is a prominent hallmark of the human epileptogenic brain and the MMP inhibitor IPR-179 has antiseizure and antiepileptogenic effects in rodent epilepsy models and attenuates seizure-induced cognitive decline, it deserves further investigation in clinical trials.
Diede W.M. Broekaart, Alexandra Bertran, Shaobo Jia, Anatoly Korotkov, Oleg Senkov, Anika Bongaarts, James D. Mills, Jasper Joris Anink, Jesus Seco-Moral, Johannes Baaijen, Sander Idema, Elodie Chabrol, Albert Becker, Wytse Wadman, Teresa Tarrago, Jan A. Gorter, Eleonora Aronica, Roger Prades, Alexander Dityatev, Erwin A. van Vliet