Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare genetic disorder whose most debilitating pathology is progressive and cumulative heterotopic ossification (HO) of skeletal muscles, ligaments, tendons, and fascia. FOP is caused by mutations in the type I BMP receptor gene ACVR1, which enable ACVR1 to utilize its natural antagonist, Activin A, as an agonistic ligand. The physiological relevance of this property is underscored by the fact that HO in FOP is exquisitely dependent on activation of FOP-mutant ACVR1 by Activin A, an effect countered by inhibition of Activin A via monoclonal antibody treatment. Hence, we surmised that ACVR1 antibodies that block activation of ACVR1 by ligand should also inhibit HO in FOP and provide an additional therapeutic option for this condition. Therefore, we generated ACVR1 monoclonal antibodies that block ACVR1’s activation by its ligands. Surprisingly, in vivo, these ACVR1 antibodies stimulate HO and activate signaling of FOP-mutant ACVR1. This property is restricted to FOP-mutant ACVR1 and results from ACVR1 antibody-mediated dimerization of ACVR1. Conversely, wild type ACVR1 is inhibited by ACVR1 antibodies. These results uncover an additional novel property of FOP-mutant ACVR1 and indicate that ACVR1 antibodies should not be considered as therapeutics for FOP.
Senem Aykul, Lily Huang, Lili Wang, Nanditha M. Das, Sandra Reisman, Yonaton Ray, Qian Zhang, Nyanza J. Rothman, Kalyan C. Nannuru, Vishal Kamat, Susannah Brydges, Luca Troncone, Laura Johnsen, Paul B. Yu, Sergio Fazio, John Lees-Shepard, Kevin Schutz, Andrew J. Murphy, Aris N. Economides, Vincent Idone, Sarah J. Hatsell
Antigen-presenting cells (APC) integrate signals emanating from local pathology and program appropriate T cell responses. In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT), recipient conditioning releases Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) that generate pro-inflammatory APC that secrete IL-12, which is a driver of donor Type 1 T helper (Th1) responses causing graft vs. host disease (GVHD). Nevertheless, other mechanisms exist to initiate alloreactive T cells responses, as recipients with disrupted DAMP signaling or lacking IL-12 develop GVHD. We established that tissue damage signals are perceived directly by donor CD4+ T cells and promoted T cell expansion and differentiation. Specifically, the fibroblastic reticular cell-derived DAMP, IL-33, is increased by recipient conditioning and is critical for the initial activation, proliferation, and differentiation of alloreactive Th1 cells. IL-33-stimulation of CD4+ T cell was not required for lymphopenia-induced expansion, however. IL-33 promoted IL-12-independent expression of Tbet and generation of Th1 cells that infiltrated GVHD target tissues. Mechanistically, IL-33 augmented CD4+ T cell TCR-associated signaling pathways in response to alloantigen. This enhanced T cell expansion and Th1 polarization, but inhibited the expression of regulatory molecules like IL-10 and Foxp3. These data established an unappreciated role for IL-33 as a costimulatory signal for donor Th1 generation after alloHCT.
Gaelen K. Dwyer, Lisa R. Mathews, Jose A. Villegas, Anna Lucas, Anne Gonzalez de Peredo, Bruce R. Blazar, Jean-Philippe Girard, Amanda C. Poholek, Sanjiv A. Luther, Warren Shlomchik, Hēth R. Turnquist
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell expansion and persistence represent key factors to achieve complete responses and prevent relapses. These features are typical of early memory T cells, which can be highly enriched through optimized manufacturing protocols. Here, we investigated the efficacy and safety profiles of CAR T-cell products generated from pre-selected naive/stem memory T cells (TN/SCM), as compared to unselected T cells (TBULK). Notwithstanding their reduced effector signature in vitro, limiting CAR TN/SCM doses showed superior antitumor activity and the unique ability to counteract leukemia re-challenge in hematopoietic stem/precursor cell-humanized mice, featuring increased expansion rates and persistence, together with an ameliorated exhaustion and memory phenotype. Most relevantly, CAR TN/SCM proved to be intrinsically less prone to induce severe cytokine release syndrome, independently of the costimulatory endodomain employed. This safer profile was associated with milder T-cell activation, which translated in reduced monocyte activation and cytokine release. These data suggest that CAR TN/SCM are endowed with a wider therapeutic index compared to CAR TBULK.
Silvia Arcangeli, Camilla Bove, Claudia Mezzanotte, Barbara Camisa, Laura Falcone, Francesco Manfredi, Eugenia Bezzecchi, Rita El Khoury, Rossana Norata, Francesca Sanvito, Maurilio Ponzoni, Beatrice Greco, Marta Angiola Moresco, Matteo G. Carrabba, Fabio Ciceri, Chiara Bonini, Attilio Bondanza, Monica Casucci
The major therapeutic goal for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is to restore normal platelet counts using drugs to promote platelet production or by interfering with mechanisms responsible for platelet destruction. 80% of patients possess anti-integrin αIIbβ3 (GPIIbIIIa) IgG autoantibodies causing platelet opsonization and phagocytosis. The spleen is considered the primary site of autoantibody production by autoreactive B cells and platelet destruction. The immediate failure in ~50% of patients to recover a normal platelet count after anti-CD20 Rituximab-mediated B cell depletion and splenectomy suggest that autoreactive, rituximab-resistant, IgG-secreting B cells (IgG-SC) reside in other anatomical compartments. We analyzed >3,300 single IgG-SC from spleen, bone marrow and/or blood of 27 patients with ITP revealing high inter-individual variability in affinity for GPIIbIIIa with variations over 3 logs. IgG-SC dissemination and range of affinities were however similar per patient. Longitudinal analysis of autoreactive IgG-SC upon treatment with anti-CD38 mAb daratumumab demonstrated variable outcomes, from complete remission to failure with persistence of high-affinity anti-GPIIbIIIa IgG-SC in the bone marrow. This study demonstrates the existence and dissemination of high-affinity autoreactive plasma cells in multiple anatomical compartments of patients with ITP that may cause the failure of current therapies.
Pablo Canales-Herrerias, Etienne Crickx, Matteo Broketa, Aurélien Sokal, Guilhem Chenon, Imane Azzaoui, Alexis Vandenberghe, Angga Perima, Bruno Iannascoli, Odile Richard-Le Goff, Carlos Castrillon, Guillaume Mottet, Delphine Sterlin, Ailsa Robbins, Marc Michel, Patrick England, Gael A. Millot, Klaus Eyer, Jean Baudry, Matthieu Mahevas, Pierre Bruhns
Bone metastases are frequent complications of malignant melanoma leading to reduced quality of life and significant morbidity. Regulation of immune cells by the gut microbiome influences cancer progression, but the role of the microbiome in tumor growth in bone is unknown. Using intracardiac or intratibial injections of B16-F10 melanoma cells in mice we showed that gut microbiome depletion by broad-spectrum antibiotics accelerated intraosseous tumor growth and osteolysis. Microbiome depletion blunted melanoma-induced expansion of intestinal natural killer (NK) cells and T helper 1 (Th1) cells and their migration from the gut to tumor bearing bones. Demonstrating the functional relevance of immune cell trafficking from the gut to the bone marrow (BM) in bone metastasis, blockade of S1P-mediated NK and Th1 cells intestinal egress, or inhibition of their CXCR3/CXCL9-mediated influx into the BM prevented expansion of BM NK and Th1 cells and accelerated tumor growth and osteolysis. Using a mouse model, this study revealed mechanisms of microbiota-mediated gut-bone crosstalk that are relevant to the immunological restraint of melanoma metastasis and tumor growth in bone. Microbiome modifications induced by antibiotics might have negative clinical consequences in melanoma patients.
Subhashis Pal, Daniel S. Perrien, Tetsuya Yumoto, Roberta Faccio, Andreea Stoica, Jonathan Adams, Craig M. Coopersmith, Rheinallt M. Jones, M. Neale Weitzmann, Roberto Pacifici
Patients with high-risk non muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) frequently relapse after standard intravesical BCG therapy and may have a dismal outcome. Resistance mechanisms to such immunotherapy remain misunderstood. Here, using cancer cell lines, freshly resected human bladder tumors and cohorts of bladder cancer patients pre- and post-BCG therapy, we demonstrate two distinct patterns of immune subversion upon BCG relapse. In the first pattern, intracellular BCG infection of cancer cells induced a post-transcriptional downregulation of HLA-I membrane expression via an inhibition of the autophagy flux. Patients with HLA-I deficient cancer cells post-BCG therapy displayed a myeloid immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) characteristics and dismal outcomes. Conversely, patients with HLA-I proficient cancer cells post-BCG therapy presented with CD8+ T cell tumor infiltrates, upregulation of inflammatory cytokines and inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules. Those patients had a very favorable outcome. We surmise that HLA-I expression in bladder cancers at relapse post-BCG does not result from immunoediting but rather from an immune subversion process directly induced by BCG on cancer cells, which predicts dismal prognosis. Cancer cells HLA-I scoring by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining can be easily implemented by pathologists in routine practice in order to stratify future urothelial cancer patient treatment strategies.
Mathieu Rouanne, Julien Adam, Camélia Radulescu, Diane Letourneur, Delphine Bredel, Severine Mouraud, Anne-Gaelle Goubet, Marion Leduc, Noah Chen, Tuan Zea Tan, Nicolas Signolle, Amélie E. Bigorgne, Michael Dussiot, Lambros Tselikas, Sandrine Susini, François-Xavier Danlos, Anna K. Schneider, Roman M. Chabanon, Sophie Vacher, Ivan Bièche, Thierry Lebret, Yves Allory, Jean-Charles Soria, Nicholas Arpaia, Guido Kroemer, Oliver Kepp, Jean Paul Thiery, Laurence Zitvogel, Aurélien Marabelle
Constant exposure of the airways to inhaled pathogens requires efficient early immune responses protecting against infections. How bacteria on the epithelial surface are detected and first-line protective mechanisms are initiated are not well understood. We have recently shown that tracheal brush cells (BC) express functional taste receptors. Here we report that bitter taste signaling in murine BC induces neurogenic inflammation. We demonstrate that BC signaling stimulates adjacent sensory nerve endings in the trachea to release the neuropeptides CGRP and Substance P that mediate plasma extravasation, neutrophil recruitment and diapedesis. Moreover, we show that bitter tasting quorum-sensing molecules from Pseudomonas aeruginosa activate tracheal BC. BC signaling depends on the key taste transduction gene Trpm5, triggers secretion of immune mediators, among the most abundant members of the complement system, and is needed to combat Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Our data provide functional insight into first-line defense mechanisms against bacterial infections of the lung.
Monika I. Hollenhorst, Rajender Nandigama, Saskia B. Evers, Igor Gamayun, Noran Abdel Wadood, Alaa Salah, Mario Pieper, Amanda Wyatt, Alexey Stukalov, Anna Gebhardt, Wiebke Nadolni, Wera Burow, Christian Herr, Christoph Beisswenger, Soumya Kusumakshi, Fabien Ectors, Tatjana I. Kichko, Lisa Hübner, Peter Reeh, Antje Munder, Sandra-Maria Wienhold, Martin Witzenrath, Robert Bals, Veit Flockerzi, Thomas Gudermann, Markus Bischoff, Peter Lipp, Susanna Zierler, Vladimir Chubanov, Andreas Pichlmair, Peter König, Ulrich Boehm, Gabriela Krasteva-Christ
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare genetic disease characterized by progressive and catastrophic heterotopic ossification (HO) of skeletal muscle and associated soft tissues. FOP is caused by dominantly acting mutations in the gene encoding the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor, ACVR1 (ALK2), the most prevalent of which results in an arginine to histidine substitution at position 206[ACVR1(R206H)]. The fundamental pathological consequence of FOP-causing ACVR1 receptor mutations is to enable activin A to initiate canonical BMP signaling in fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs), which drives HO. We developed a monoclonal blocking antibody (JAB0505) to the extracellular domain of ACVR1 and tested its effect on HO in two independent FOP mouse models. Although JAB0505 inhibited BMP-dependent gene expression in wild-type and ACVR1(R206H)-overexpressing cell lines, JAB0505 treatment profoundly exacerbated injury-induced HO. JAB0505-treated mice exhibited multiple, distinct foci of heterotopic lesions, suggesting an atypically broad anatomical domain of FAP recruitment to endochondral ossification. This was accompanied by dysregulated FAP population growth and an abnormally sustained immunological reaction following muscle injury. JAB0505 drove injury-induced HO in the absence of activin A, indicating that JAB0505 has receptor agonist activity. These data raise serious safety and efficacy concerns for the use of bivalent anti-ACVR1 antibodies to treat patients with FOP.
John B. Lees-Shepard, Sean J. Stoessel, Julian T. Chandler, Keith Bouchard, Patricia Bento, Lorraine N. Apuzzo, Parvathi Madhavi Devarakonda, Jeffrey W. Hunter, David J. Goldhamer
BACKGROUND. Neutralizing antibodies are considered a key correlate of protection by current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The manner in which human infections respond to therapeutic SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, including convalescent plasma therapy (CPT), remains to be fully elucidated. METHODS. Here, we conducted a proof-of-principle study of CPT based on a phase I trial in thirty hospitalized COVID-19 patients with a median interval between the onset of symptoms and the first transfusion of 9 days (IQR, 7-11.8 days). A comprehensive longitudinal monitoring of the virologic, serologic, and disease status of recipients allowed deciphering of parameters on which plasma therapy efficacy depends. RESULTS. In the context of this trial CPT was safe as evidenced by the absence of transfusion related adverse events and a low mortality (3.3%). Treatment with highly neutralizing plasma was significantly associated with faster virus clearance, as demonstrated by Kaplan-Meier analysis (p= 0.034) and confirmed in a parametric survival model including viral load and comorbidity (adjusted hazard ratio (HR)= 3.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1;8.1], p= 0.026). The onset of endogenous neutralization had a noticeable effect on viral clearance but, importantly, even after adjusting for their pre-transfusion endogenous neutralization status recipients benefitted from plasma therapy with high neutralizing antibodies (HR= 3.5 [95% CI 1.1;11], p= 0.034). CONCLUSION. In summary, our data demonstrate a clear impact of exogenous antibody therapy on the rapid clearance of viremia before and after onset of the endogenous neutralizing response and more broadly point beyond antibody-based interventions to critical laboratory parameters for improved evaluation of current and future SARS-CoV-2 therapies. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04869072 FUNDING. This study was funded via an “Innovation-Pool” project by the University Hospital Zurich, the “Swiss Red Cross “Glückskette” Corona Funding”, Pandemiefonds of the UZH Foundation and the Clinical Research Priority Program ‘Comprehensive Genomic Pathogen Detection’ of the University of Zurich.
Maddalena Marconato, Irene A. Abela, Anthony Hauser, Magdalena Schwarzmüller, Rheliana Katzensteiner, Dominique L. Braun, Selina Epp, Annette Audigé, Jacqueline Weber, Peter Rusert, Emèry Schindler, Chloé Pasin, Emily West, Jürg Böni, Verena Kufner, Michael Huber, Maryam Zaheri, Stefan Schmutz, Beat M. Frey, Roger D. Kouyos, Huldrych F. Günthard, Markus G. Manz, Alexandra Trkola
The roles of neutrophils in renal inflammation are currently unclear. On examining these cells in the unilateral ureteral obstruction murine model of chronic kidney disease, we found that the injured kidney bore a large and rapidly expanding population of neutrophils that expressed the eosinophil marker Siglec-F. We first confirmed that these cells were neutrophils. Siglec-F+ neutrophils were recently detected for the first time by several studies on other disease contexts. We then showed that (i) these cells were derived from conventional neutrophils in the renal vasculature by TGF-β1 and GM-CSF, (ii) they differed from their parent cells by more frequent hypersegmentation, higher expression of pro-fibrotic inflammatory cytokines, and, notably, expression of Collagen 1, and (iii) their depletion reduced collagen deposition and disease progression, but adoptive transfer increased renal fibrosis. These findings have thus unveiled a subtype of neutrophils that participate in renal fibrosis and maybe a new therapeutic target in chronic kidney disease.
Seungwon Ryu, Jae Woo Shin, Soie Kwon, Jiwon Lee, Yong Chul Kim, Yoe-Sik Bae, Yong-Soo Bae, Dong Ki Kim, Yon Su Kim, Seung Hee Yang, Hye Young Kim
Once human photoreceptors die, they do not regenerate, thus photoreceptor transplantation has emerged as a potential treatment approach for blinding diseases. Improvements in transplant organization, donor cell maturation and synaptic connectivity to the host will be critical in advancing this technology to clinical practice. Unlike the unstructured grafts of prior cell suspension transplantations into end-stage degeneration models, we describe extensive incorporation of iPSC retinal organoid-derived human photoreceptors into mice with cone dysfunction. This incorporative phenotype was validated in both cone-only as well as pan-photoreceptor transplantations. Rather than forming a glial barrier, Müller cells extended throughout the graft, even forming a series of adherens junctions between mouse and human cells, reminiscent of an outer limiting membrane. Donor-host interaction appeared to promote polarisation as well as development of morphological features critical for light detection, namely formation of inner and well stacked outer segments oriented towards the retinal pigment epithelium. Putative synapse formation and graft function was evident both at a structural and electrophysiological level. Overall, these results show that human photoreceptors interact readily with a partially degenerated retina. Moreover, incorporation into the host retina appears to be beneficial to graft maturation, polarisation and function.
Sylvia J. Gasparini, Karen Tessmer, Miriam Reh, Stephanie Wieneke, Madalena Carido, Manuela Völkner, Oliver Borsch, Anka Swiersy, Marta Zuzic, Olivier Goureau, Thomas Kurth, Volker Busskamp, Günther Zeck, Mike O. Karl, Marius Ader
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic synovial inflammation with aberrant epigenetic alterations, eventually leading to joint destruction. However, the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms underlying RA pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here we showed that Ubiquitin-like containing PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1) is a central epigenetic regulator that suppressively orchestrates multiple pathogeneses in RA. UHRF1 expression was remarkably up-regulated in synovial fibroblasts (SF) from arthritis model mice and RA patients. Mice with SF-specific Uhrf1 conditional knockout showed more severe arthritic phenotypes than littermate control. Uhrf1-deficient SF also exhibited enhanced apoptosis resistance and up-regulated expression of several cytokines including Ccl20. In RA patients, DAS28, CRP, and Th17 accumulation as well as apoptosis resistance were negatively correlated with UHRF1 expression in synovium. Finally, Ryuvidine administration that stabilizes UHRF1 ameliorated arthritis pathogeneses in a mouse model of RA. This study demonstrated that UHRF1 expressed in RA SF can contribute to negative feedback mechanisms that suppress multiple pathogenic events in arthritis, suggesting that targeting UHRF1 could be one of the therapeutic strategies for RA.
Noritaka Saeki, Kazuki Inoue, Maky Ideta-Otsuka, Kunihiko Watamori, Shinichi Mizuki, Katsuto Takenaka, Katsuhide Igarashi, Hiromasa Miura, Shu Takeda, Yuuki Imai
The protective human antibody response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus focuses on the spike (S) protein which decorates the virion surface and mediates cell binding and entry. Most SARS-CoV-2 protective antibodies target the receptor-binding domain or a single dominant epitope (‘supersite’) on the N terminal domain (NTD). Here, using the single B cell technology LIBRA-seq, we isolated a large panel of NTD-reactive and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies from an individual who had recovered from COVID-19. We found that neutralizing antibodies to the NTD supersite commonly are encoded by the IGHV1-24 gene, forming a genetic cluster that represents a public B cell clonotype. However, we also discovered a rare human antibody, COV2-3434, that recognizes a site of vulnerability on the SARS-CoV-2 S protein in the trimer interface and possesses a distinct class of functional activity. COV2-3434 disrupted the integrity of S protein trimers, inhibited cell-to-cell spread of virus in culture, and conferred protection in human ACE2 transgenic mice against SARS-CoV-2 challenge. This study provides insight about antibody targeting of the S protein trimer interface region, suggesting this region may be a site of virus vulnerability.
Naveenchandra Suryadevara, Andrea R. Shiakolas, Laura A. VanBlargan, Elad Binshtein, Rita E. Chen, James Brett Case, Kevin J. Kramer, Erica C. Armstrong, Luke Myers, Andrew Trivette, Christopher Gainza, Rachel S. Nargi, Christopher N. Selverian, Edgar Davidson, Benjamin J. Doranz, Summer M. Diaz, Laura S Handal, Robert H. Carnahan, Michael S. Diamond, Ivelin S. Georgiev, James E. Crowe Jr.
Highly effective modulator therapies dramatically improve the prognosis for those with cystic fibrosis (CF). The triple combination of elexacaftor, tezacaftor, and ivacaftor (ETI) benefits many, but not all, of those with the most common F508del mutation in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Here, we showed that poor sweat chloride concentration responses and lung function improvements upon initiation of ETI were associated with elevated levels of active transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in the upper airway. Furthermore, TGF-β1 impaired the function of ETI-corrected F508del-CFTR, thereby increasing airway surface liquid (ASL) absorption rates and inducing mucus hyperconcentration in primary CF bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. TGF-β1 not only decreased CFTR mRNA but was also associated with increases in the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and TNF-⍺ protein. Losartan improved TGF-β1-mediated inhibition of ETI-corrected F508del-CFTR function and reduced TNFA and COX2 mRNA and TNF⍺ protein expression. This occurred likely by improving correction of mutant CFTR rather than increasing its mRNA (without an effect on potentiation), thereby reversing the negative effects of TGF-β1 and improving ASL hydration in the CF airway epithelium in vitro. Importantly, these effects were independent of type 1 angiotensin II receptor inhibition.
Michael D. Kim, Charles D. Bengtson, Makoto Yoshida, Asef J. Niloy, John S. Dennis, Nathalie Baumlin, Matthias Salathe
BACKGROUND. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common intrauterine infection, leading to infant brain damage. Prognostic assessment of CMV-infected fetuses has remained an ongoing challenge in prenatal care, in the absence of established prenatal biomarkers of congenital CMV (cCMV) infection severity. We aimed to identify prognostic biomarkers of cCMV-related fetal brain injury. METHODS. Global proteome analysis was performed in mid-gestation amniotic fluid samples, comparing fetuses with severe cCMV to asymptomatic CMV-infected fetuses. The levels of selected differentially-excreted proteins were further determined by specific immunoassays. RESULTS. Employing unbiased proteome analysis in a discovery cohort, we identified amniotic fluid proteins related to inflammation and neurological disease pathways, which demonstrated distinct abundance in fetuses with severe cCMV. Amniotic fluid levels of two of these proteins - the immunomodulatory proteins chemerin and galectin-3-binding-protein - were highly predictive of the severity of cCMV in an independent validation cohort, differentiating between fetuses with severe (N=17) and asymptomatic (N=26) cCMV, with 100-93.8% positive predictive value, and 92.9-92.6% negative predictive value (for chemerin - galectin-3-binding-protein, respectively). CONCLUSION. Analysis of chemerin and galectin-3-binding-protein in mid-gestation amniotic fluids could be employed in the clinical setting to profoundly improve the prognostic assessment of CMV-infected fetuses. TRIAL REGISTRATION. NA FUNDING. Israel Science Foundation; Research Fund - Hadassah Medical Organization.
Olesya Vorontsov, Lorinne Levitt, Daniele Lilleri, Gilad W. Vainer, Orit Caplan, Licita Schreiber, Alessia Arossa, Arsenio Spinillo, Milena Furione, Or Alfi, Esther Oiknine-Djian, Meital Kupervaser, Yuval Nevo, Sharona Elgavish, Moran Yassour, Maurizio Zavattoni, Tali Bdolah-Abram, Fausto Baldanti, Miriam Geal-Dor, Zichria Zakay-Rones, Nili Yanai, Simcha Yagel, Amos Panet, Dana G. Wolf
CD4 T helper (Th) cells play a key role in orchestrating immune responses, but the identity of the CD4 Th cells involved in the anti-tumor immune response remains to be defined. We analyzed the immune cell infiltrates of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and colorectal cancers and identified a subset of CD4 Th cells distinct from FOXP3+ regulatory T cells that co-express PD-1 and ICOS. These tumor-infiltrating CD4 Th cells (CD4 Th TIL) have a tissue-resident memory phenotype, are present in MHC class II-rich areas and proliferate in the tumor suggesting local antigen recognition. The T-cell receptor repertoire of the PD-1+ICOS+ CD4 Th TIL is oligoclonal, with T-cell clones expanded in the tumor, but present at low frequencies in the periphery. Finally, these PD-1+ICOS+ CD4 Th TIL were shown to recognize both tumor-associated antigens and tumor-specific neoantigens. Our findings provide an approach for isolating tumor-reactive CD4 Th TIL directly ex vivo that will help define their role in the anti-tumor immune response and potentially improve future adoptive T-cell therapy approaches.
Rebekka Duhen, Olivier Fesneau, Kimberly A. Samson, Alexandra K. Frye, Michael Beymer, Venkatesh Rajamanickam, David Ross, Eric Tran, Brady Bernard, Andrew D. Weinberg, Thomas Duhen
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are associated with significant alterations in the bone marrow microenvironment that include decreased expression of key niche factors and myelofibrosis. Here, we explore the contribution of TGF-β to these alterations by abrogating TGF-β signaling in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Loss of TGF-β signaling in Osx-Cre-targeted MSCs prevents the development of myelofibrosis in both MPLW515L and Jak2V617F models of MPNs. In contrast, despite the absence of myelofibrosis, loss of TGF-β signaling in mesenchymal stromal cells does not rescue the defective hematopoietic niche induced by MPLW515L, as evidenced by decreased bone marrow cellularity, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell number, and Cxcl12 and Kitlg expression and the presence of splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis. Induction of myelofibrosis by MPLW515L was intact in Osx-Cre; Smad4f/f recipients, demonstrating that SMAD4-independent TGF-β signaling mediates the myelofibrosis phenotype. Indeed, treatment with a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor prevents the development of myelofibrosis induced by MPLW515L. Together, these data show that JNK-dependent TGF-β signaling in mesenchymal stromal cells is responsible for the development of myelofibrosis but not hematopoietic niche disruption in MPNs, suggesting that the signals that regulate niche gene expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells are distinct from those that induce a fibrogenic program.
Juo-Chin Yao, Karolyn A. Oetjen, Tianjiao Wang, Haoliang Xu, Grazia Abou-Ezzi, Joseph R. Krambs, Salil Uttarwar, Eric J. Duncavage, Daniel C. Link
CD13, an ectoenzyme on myeloid and stromal cells, also circulates as a shed, soluble protein (sCD13) with powerful chemoattractant, angiogenic and arthritogenic properties, which require engagement of a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Here we identify the GPCR that mediates sCD13 arthritogenic actions as the bradykinin receptor B1 (B1R). Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting verified high expression of B1R in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial tissue and synovial cell (FLS) lines, and demonstrated binding of sCD13 to B1R. Chemotaxis, and phosphorylation of Erk1/2, induced by sCD13, were inhibited by B1R antagonists. In ex vivo RA synovial tissue organ cultures, a B1R antagonist reduced secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Several mouse arthritis models, including serum-transfer, antigen-induced, and local innate immune stimulation arthritis models, were attenuated in Cd13-/- and B1R-/- mice and were alleviated by B1R antagonism. These results establish a CD13/B1R axis in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis and identify B1R as a compelling novel therapeutic target in RA and potentially other inflammatory diseases.
Pei-Suen Tsou, Chenyang Lu, Mikel Gurrea-Rubio, Sei Muraoka, Phillip L. Campbell, Qi Wu, Ellen N. Model, Matthew E. Lind, Sirapa Vichaikul, Megan N. Mattichak, William D. Brodie, Jonatan L. Hervoso, Sarah Ory, Camila I. Amarista, Rida Pervez, Lucas Junginger, Mustafa Ali, Gal Hodish, Morgan M. O'Mara, Jeffrey H. Ruth, Aaron M. Robida, Andrew J. Alt, Chengxin Zhang, Andrew G. Urquhart, Jeffrey N. Lawton, Kevin C. Chung, Tristan Maerz, Thomas L. Saunders, Vincent E. Groppi, David A. Fox, Mohammad A. Amin
AbstractType 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s) function as progenitor cells in the lung. We have shown previously that failure of AEC2 regeneration results in progressive lung fibrosis in mice and is a cardinal feature of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). In this study, we identified a deficiency of a specific zinc transporter SLC39A8 (ZIP8) in AEC2s from both IPF lungs and lungs of old mice. Loss of ZIP8 expression was associated with impaired renewal capacity of AEC2s and enhanced lung fibrosis. ZIP8 regulation of AEC2 progenitor function was dependent on SIRT1. Replenishment with exogenous zinc and SIRT1 activation promoted self-renewal and differentiation of AEC2s from lung tissues of IPF patients and old mice. Deletion of Zip8 in AEC2s in mice impaired AEC2 renewal, increased susceptibility of the mice to bleomycin injury, and the mice developed spontaneous lung fibrosis. Therapeutic strategies to restore zinc metabolism and appropriate SIRT1 signaling could improve AEC2 progenitor function and mitigate ongoing fibrogenesis.
Jiurong Liang, Guanling Huang, Xue Liu, Forough Taghavifar, Ningshan Liu, Yizhou Wang, Nan Deng, Changfu Yao, Ting Xie, Vrishika Kulur, Kristy Dai, Ankita Burman, Simon C. Rowan, S. Samuel Weigt, John Belperio, Barry Stripp, William C. Parks, Dianhua Jiang, Paul W. Noble
Subendothelial macrophage internalization of modified lipids and foam cell formation are hallmarks of atherosclerosis. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are involved in various cellular activities; however, their role in foam cell formation is not fully understood. Here, using a loss-of-function lipid accumulation screening, we identified ubiquitin-specific peptidase 9 X-linked (USP9X) as a factor that suppressed lipid uptake in macrophages. We found that USP9X expression in lesional macrophages was reduced during atherosclerosis development in both humans and rodents. Atherosclerotic lesions from macrophage USP9X-deficient mice showed increased macrophage infiltration, lipid deposition, and necrotic core content than control apolipoprotein E-knockout (Apoe-/-) mice. Additionally, loss-of-function USP9X exacerbated lipid uptake, foam cell formation and inflammatory responses in macrophages. Mechanistically, the class A1 scavenger receptor (SR-A1) was identified as a USP9X substrate that removed the K63 polyubiquitin chain at the K27 site. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of USP9X increased SR-A1 cell surface internalization following binding of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). The K27R mutation of SR-A1 dramatically attenuated basal and USP9X knockdown-induced ox-LDL uptake. Moreover, blocking binding of USP9X to SR-A1 with a cell-penetrating peptide exacerbated foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. In this study, we identified macrophage USP9X as a beneficial regulator of atherosclerosis and revealed the specific mechanisms for the development of potential therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis.
Biqing Wang, Xuening Tang, Liu Yao, Yuxin Wang, Zhipeng Chen, Mengqi Li, Naishi Wu, Dawei Wu, Xiangchen Dai, Hongfeng Jiang, Ding Ai