R J Lefkowitz
Glucose transport was characterized in rabbit renal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of the fetus late in gestation. Highly purified, osmotically reactive fetal BBMV contained a glucose transporter that was qualitatively indistinguishable from that in the adult: both are concentrative, Na+ dependent, electrogenic, stereospecific, and sensitive to phlorizin. Although the apparent Km for glucose is similar in the fetus and adult, the Vmax is significantly higher in the adult. When the membrane potential was clamped with a protonophore, this difference diminished; however, Vmax remained significantly higher in adult BBMV. This postnatal increase in Vmax was paralleled by a similar increase in the number of phlorizin binding sites. These findings indicate that the maturational increase in glucose transport is, in part, consequent to a more favorable electrical potential for Na+-dependent glucose transport and, in part, the result of the insertion of new transporters. The homogenate activity of several brush border enzymes also demonstrated significant maturational increases. The magnitude of these changes was variable and enzyme dependent. These combined observations suggest that mature expression of membrane proteins (transporters and enzymes) occurs at different stages of development of renal proximal tubule cells.
J C Beck, M S Lipkowitz, R G Abramson
Radioligand binding studies disclosed one class of high affinity atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) receptors on human fibroblast membranes (Kd = 66 pM; maximum number of binding sites [Bmax] = 7,000 sites/cell). ANF increased cellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) content and suppressed isoproterenol- and PGE1-elevated, but not basal, cAMP content. Pertussis toxin pretreatment, which maximally ADP-ribosylated Gi, the guanine nucleotide-binding protein that couples inhibitory receptors to adenylate cyclase and blocks receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase, did not interfere with ANF suppression of isoproterenol- or PGE1-elevated cellular cAMP content. Preliminary incubation of fibroblasts with 8-bromo cGMP or phosphodiesterase inhibitors, including 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, Ro 20-1724, and cilostamide, however, prevented the ANF suppression of cAMP. MB 22948, an inhibitor that is partially selective for cGMP phosphodiesterase, did not block the effect of ANF. We conclude that in these cells, unlike other systems, ANF reduces cAMP content by activating a phosphodiesterase rather than by inhibiting adenylate cyclase.
M A Lee, R E West Jr, J Moss
Skeletal proteins of the red blood cell apparently play an important role in regulating membrane material properties of deformability and stability. However, the role of various intracellular constituents in regulating membrane properties has not been clearly defined. To determine whether Ca2+ and calmodulin might play a role in this regulation, we measured the membrane stability and deformability of resealed ghosts prepared in the presence of varying concentrations of Ca2+ and calmodulin (CaM). For membranes resealed in the presence of Ca2+ and physiologic concentrations of CaM (2-8 microM), membrane stability decreased with increasing Ca2+ concentrations (greater than 1.0 microM). Moreover, Ca2+ and CaM-induced alterations in membrane stability were completely reversible. In the absence of CaM, an equivalent decrease in membrane stability was seen only when Ca2+ concentration was two orders of magnitude higher (greater than 100 microM). Calmodulin did not alter membrane stability in the absence of Ca2+. Compared with these changes in membrane stability, membrane deformability decreased only at Ca2+ concentrations greater than 100 microM, and calmodulin had no effect on Ca2+-induced decrease in membrane deformability. Examination of the effects of Ca2+ and CaM on various membrane interactions have enabled us to suggest that spectrin-protein 4.1-actin interaction may be one of the targets for the effect of Ca2+ and CaM. These results imply that Ca2+ and calmodulin can regulate membrane stability through modulation of skeletal protein interactions, and that these protein interactions are of a dynamic nature on intact membranes.
Y Takakuwa, N Mohandas
Since human acute renal failure (ARF) is frequently the result of multiple rather than single insults, we used a combination of treatments to induce ARF in rats. Uninephrectomized, salt-depleted rats injected with indomethacin developed ARF after administration of radiocontrast. After 24 h, the plasma creatine rose from 103 +/- 3 to 211 +/- 22 mumol/liter (mean +/- SE) and the creatinine clearance dropped from 0.7 +/- 0.1 to 0.2 +/- 0.04 ml/min (P less than 0.001). Severe injury was confined to the outer medulla and comprised necrosis of medullary thick ascending limbs (mTALs), tubular collapse, and casts. Other nephron segments were free of damage except for the proximal convoluted tubules which showed vacuole formation originating from lateral limiting membranes that resembled changes reported in human contrast nephropathy. Cell damage to mTALs included mitochondrial swelling, nuclear pyknosis, and cytoplasmic disruption with superimposed calcification; these changes were most severe in the deepest areas of the outer medulla, away from vasa recta in zones remote from oxygen supply. The fraction of mTALs with severe damage was 30 +/- 7% (range 2-68) and the extent of injury was correlated with a rise in plasma creatinine (r = 0.8, P less than 0.001). Thus, the nature of mTAL injury was similar to the selective lesions observed in isolated kidneys perfused with cell-free medium and was shown to derive from an imbalance between high oxygen demand by actively transporting mTALs and the meager oxygen supply to the renal medulla. Combined multiple renal insults in the rat produce ARF that resembles the clinical syndrome of contrast nephropathy and is characterized by selective mTAL injury conditioned by medullary hypoxia.
S N Heyman, M Brezis, C A Reubinoff, Z Greenfeld, C Lechene, F H Epstein, S Rosen
To determine the cardiac and peripheral circulatory responses to changes in afterload with angiotension and vasopressin, we increased mean aortic pressure 25% and 50% above control in splenectomized and ganglion-blocked dogs. We compared these responses to similar mechanical increases in aortic pressure produced by partial balloon occlusion of the descending aorta. With 25% or 50% increases in aortic pressure, angiotensin, vasopressin, and balloon inflation produced no changes in heart rate, right atrial, and mean pulmonary artery pressures. At 25% increase in aortic pressure, cardiac output was maintained with angiotensin and balloon occlusion but decreased with vasopressin. At 50% increase in aortic pressure, cardiac output was maintained with only balloon occlusion and decreased with both angiotensin and vasopressin. Whenever cardiac output fell, central blood volume did not increase as after-load increased. These changes in preload can be explained by alterations in the venous circulation. Vasopressin did not alter venous compliance or unstressed vascular volume but increased resistance to venous return. Angiotensin also increased resistance to venous return but decreased venous compliance and did not change unstressed vascular volume. Balloon occlusion had no effects on these parameters. We conclude that: (a) angiotensin caused significant venoconstriction resulting in maintenance of cardiac output at 25% but not 50% increase in aortic pressure; (b) vasopressin increased the resistance to venous return without venoconstriction; this resulted in a fall in cardiac output even with a 25% increase in aortic pressure; and (c) the effects of the agents on the venous circulation were independent of the mechanical effects of a pressure increase in the arterial circulation.
R W Lee, S Standaert, L D Lancaster, D Buckley, S Goldman
In this report the binding of recombinant human interleukins 1 alpha and 1 beta (rIL-1 alpha and rIL-1 beta) to primary cultures of human rheumatoid synovial cells is measured and compared to the concentrations of these mediators required for stimulation of PGE2 production by these same cells. The average concentration of IL-1 alpha required for half-maximal stimulation of PGE2 was 4.6 +/- 1.5 pM (+/- SEM) (n = 6), whereas for IL-1 beta half-maximal stimulation was observed at a concentration of 1.3 +/- 0.24 pM (n = 6). Both direct and competitive binding experiments were performed. In direct binding experiments, IL-1 alpha bound with a Kd of 66 pM (n = 1), while IL-1 beta bound with a Kd of 4 pM (n = 2). In competitive binding experiments, IL-1 alpha inhibited binding of 125I-IL-1 alpha with a Ki of 33-36 pM (n = 2) and binding of 125I-IL-1 beta with a Ki of 51-63 pM (n = 2). IL-1 beta inhibited binding of 125I-IL-1 alpha with a Ki of 2-3 pM (n = 2) and binding of 125I-IL-1 beta with a Ki of 7 pM (n = 2). The binding data were best fit by a model specifying a single class of receptors with homogeneous affinity for either IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta and with an abundance of 3,000-14,000 sites per cell. Autoradiography showed that the vast majority of the synoviocytes within the cultures possessed IL-1 receptors. Comparison of biological response curves with the binding curves indicates that the observed receptors exhibit sufficiently high affinity to mediate the response of human synoviocytes to low picomolar concentrations of IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta.
J Chin, E Rupp, P M Cameron, K L MacNaul, P A Lotke, M J Tocci, J A Schmidt, E K Bayne
The basal and stimulated synthesis of immunoassayable 12- and 5-monohydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETE) and leukotrienes (LT) B4 and C4 was studied in glomeruli isolated from rats with nephrotoxic serum glomerulonephritis (NSGN) induced by low (30 micrograms/g body weight) or high (105 micrograms/g) doses of anti-rat glomerular basement membrane (GBM) immunoglobulin (Ig). In the early heterologous phase of the disease, low doses of anti-GBM Ig enhanced the basal synthesis of 12-HETE but not that of 5-HETE or LT. High anti-GBM Ig doses enhanced the basal synthesis of 5-HETE and LTB4 as well. Under stimulated conditions, enhanced glomerular production of 5-HETE and LTB4 occurred at 15 min after infusion of anti-GBM Ig, peaked at 1 h, and returned toward control levels by 24 h. At 48 h, 72 h, and on day 12, the synthesis of these eicosanoids was impaired. Neutrophile depletion only partially reduced glomerular eicosanoid synthesis after induction of NSGN whereas complement depletion significantly reduced 5-HETE, 12-HETE, and LTB4. These observations indicate that in the heterologous phase of NSGN there is enhanced but short-lived glomerular 5-HETE and LTB4 synthesis. This phenomenon is mediated by complement activation and may be an important proinflammatory event leading to capillary wall injury in the early stages of the disease.
E A Lianos
To establish the glycemic threshold for onset of neuroglycopenia (impaired cognitive function, measured by the latency of the P300 wave), activation of hormonal counterregulation and hypoglycemic symptoms, 12 normal subjects were studied either under conditions of insulin-induced, glucose-controlled plasma glucose decrements, or during maintenance of euglycemia. A decrement in plasma glucose concentration from 88 +/- 3 to 80 +/- 1 mg/dl for 150 min did not result in changes in the latency of the P300 wave nor in an activation of counterregulatory hormonal response. In contrast, a greater decrement in plasma glucose concentration from 87 +/- 3 to 72 +/- 1 mg/dl for 120 min caused an increase in the latency of the P300 wave (from 301 +/- 12 to 348 +/- 20 ms, P less than 0.01), a subsequent increase in all counterregulatory hormones but no hypoglycemic symptoms. Finally, when plasma glucose concentration was decreased in a stepwise manner from 88 +/- 2 to 50 +/- 1 mg/dl within 75 min, the increase in the latency of the P300 wave was correlated with the corresponding plasma glucose concentration (r = -0.76, P less than 0.001). The glycemic threshold for hypoglycemic symptoms was 49 +/- 2 mg/dl. Thus, in normal man the glycemic threshold for neuroglycopenia (72 +/- 1 mg/dl) is greater than currently thought; the hormonal counterregulation follows the onset of neuroglycopenia; the hypoglycemic symptoms are a late indicator of advanced neuroglycopenia.
P De Feo, V Gallai, G Mazzotta, G Crispino, E Torlone, G Perriello, M M Ventura, F Santeusanio, P Brunetti, G B Bolli
To explore the potential role of the parasympathetic nervous system in human glucoregulatory physiology, responses to the muscarinic cholinergic agonist bethanechol (5.0 mg s.c.) and antagonist atropine (1.0 mg i.v.) were measured in normal humans. There were no changes in the plasma glucose concentration or rates of glucose production or utilization following atropine administration. After bethanechol administration there were no changes in the plasma glucose concentration or fluxes despite increments in plasma glucagon (75 +/- 7 to 103 +/- 10 pg/ml, P less than 0.02). There were no changes in insulin or C-peptide levels. To test the hypothesis that direct muscarinic inhibition of glucose production was offset by an indirect action of the agonist, specifically increased glucagon secretion with consequent stimulation of glucose production, bethanechol was administered while glucagon levels were held constant with the islet clamp technique (somatostatin infusion with insulin, glucagon and growth hormone replacement at fixed rates). Under that condition the muscarinic agonist induced a 25% decrement in the plasma glucose concentration (101 +/- 8 to 75 +/- 8 mg/dl, P less than 0.05). When compared with separate clamp control studies (with placebo rather than bethanechol injection) both the rate of glucose production and the glucose concentration were reduced (P less than 0.05) following bethanechol injection; the rate of glucose utilization was unaltered. Thus, we conclude: Withdrawal of parasympathetic tone does not appear to be an important glucoregulatory process in humans. Direct muscarinic cholinergic inhibition of hepatic glucose production occurs in humans but during generalized muscarinic activation this is offset by an indirect muscarinic action, increased glucagon secretion with consequent stimulation of glucose production. Thus, particularly if regional neuronal firing occurs, the parasympathetic nervous system may play an important role in human glucoregulatory physiology.
P J Boyle, S B Liggett, S D Shah, P E Cryer
The cellular origin of hepatic collagen is under active investigation. Several recent studies using cells in primary culture suggest that hepatocytes are the source of much of the collagen in normal rat liver. In view of other data indicating that lipocytes produce substantial amounts of this protein, we have reexamined collagen biosynthesis in hepatocyte cultures that have been carefully characterized with respect to the presence of lipocytes. We find that routinely prepared hepatocyte isolates contain, by number, approximately 10% lipocytes. Lipocytes in early culture are difficult to visualize by phase-contrast microscopy but after 4 d proliferate and eventually replace the parenchymal cells. The size of the lipocyte subpopulation in these cultures correlates positively with collagen production. Similarly, removal of lipocytes by further processing of the initial hepatocyte isolate significantly reduces collagen production. Moreover, the only cells within hepatocyte cultures that display type I collagen by immunohistochemistry are lipocytes. We conclude that lipocytes are the principal source of collagen in primary hepatocyte cultures. The findings indicate also that these cells are the previously described "fibroblast" that appear in relatively long-term hepatocyte cultures.
J J Maher, D M Bissell, S L Friedman, F J Roll
Isolated adult myocytes incubated with [35S]methionine were used to study the expression of proteins in the rat heart during the first 2 wk after either pressure or volume overload. In both models an early (2-4 d) and transient expression of three major stress proteins (heat shock protein [HSP] HSP 70, HSP 68, and HSP 58) was observed together with an increased synthesis of putative ribosomal proteins. Only traces of 35S-labeled HSPs were detected in controls and sham-operated animals. The three stress proteins were identified by their migration in two-dimensional gels, by comigration with HSPs, which had been induced in myocytes by incubation at 41 degrees C and immunoblot analysis using antisera directed against the 70-kD protein. Immunohistochemical staining of HSP 70 in rod-shaped myocytes and detection by immunoblot showed that HSP 70 was equally present and distributed in both sham-operated and overloaded hearts, and provided no evidence for a subpopulation of myocytes acutely involved in the increased expression of HSP 70. It is suggested that the transient expression of HSPs that occurs during the early adaptation of the myocardial cells to overload could confer some degree of protection to the actively growing myocytes.
C Delcayre, J L Samuel, F Marotte, M Best-Belpomme, J J Mercadier, L Rappaport
Rheumatoid factors (RFs) in humans have been studied intensively because of their association with autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases. Many human IgM-RFs express cross-reactive idiotypes (CRIs) and have homologous light chains, some of which are encoded by a single V kappa gene, termed V kappa 325. However, although antibody activity generally requires the interaction between heavy and light chain variable regions, much less is known about structural relationships among RF heavy chains. To delineate further the structural and genetic basis of RF autoantibody synthesis, we generated "sequence-dependent" reagents specific for the human heavy and kappa light chain subgroups, and used them to analyze a panel of 27 monoclonal RFs. In addition, these proteins were tested for the expression of a heavy chain-associated CRI (G6), and a light chain-associated CRI (17.109). The results showed that most 17.109-reactive RFs contain heavy chains of the VHI subgroup, which bear the G6 idiotypic marker. However, among the 14 17.109-reactive RFs, two have heavy chains of the VHII subgroup, and another two contain heavy chains of the VHIII subgroup. Previously, we have shown that 17.109 is a phenotypic marker of the human V kappa 325 gene. Accordingly, these results demonstrate that the same human V kappa gene can combine with several VH genes from different VH gene subgroups to generate RF activity.
G J Silverman, R D Goldfien, P Chen, R A Mageed, R Jefferis, F Goñi, B Frangione, S Fong, D A Carson
Recent studies suggest that oxygen free radicals may mediate postischemic myocardial dysfunction ("stunning"), but all the evidence for this hypothesis is indirect. Thus, we used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and the spin trap, alpha-phenyl N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN), to directly investigate whether free radicals are produced after a 15-min coronary artery occlusion and subsequent reperfusion in 30 open-chest dogs. After intracoronary infusion of PBN, EPR signals characteristic of oxygen- and carbon-centered radical adducts were detected in the venous blood draining from the ischemic/reperfused vascular bed. The myocardial release of PBN adducts began during coronary occlusion but increased dramatically in the first few minutes after reperfusion. After this initial burst, the production of radicals abated but did not cease, persisting up to 3 h after reflow. The EPR spectra (aH beta = 2.67-2.79 G, aN = 14.75-15.00 G) were consistent with the trapping by PBN of secondary oxygen- and carbon-centered radicals, such as alkoxy and alkyl radicals, which could be formed by reactions of primary oxygen radicals with membrane lipids. There was a linear, direct relationship between the magnitude of PBN adduct production and the degree of ischemic flow reduction. Recovery of contractile function (measured as systolic wall thickening) after reperfusion was greater (P less than 0.05) in dogs given PBN than in controls. This study demonstrates that reversible regional myocardial ischemia in the intact animal is associated with prolonged free radical generation, and that the intensity of such generation is related to the severity of ischemia. The results provide direct evidence to support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen metabolites contribute to the persistent contractile dysfunction (myocardial stunning) observed after brief ischemia in vivo.
R Bolli, B S Patel, M O Jeroudi, E K Lai, P B McCay
We have developed an in vitro muscle preparation suitable for metabolic studies with human muscle tissue and have investigated the effects of obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) on glucose transport. Transport of 3-O-methylglucose and 2-deoxyglucose was stimulated approximately twofold by insulin in muscle from normal nonobese subjects and stimulation occurred in the normal physiological range of insulin concentrations. In contrast to insulin stimulation of 3-O-methylglucose and 2-deoxyglucose transport in muscle from normal, nonobese subjects, tissue from morbidly obese subjects, with or without NIDDM, were not responsive to insulin. Maximal 3-O-methylglucose transport was lower in muscle of obese than nonobese subjects. Morbidly obese patients, with or without NIDDM, have a severe state of insulin resistance in glucose transport. The novel in vitro human skeletal muscle preparation herein described should be useful in investigating the mechanism of this insulin resistance.
G L Dohm, E B Tapscott, W J Pories, D J Dabbs, E G Flickinger, D Meelheim, T Fushiki, S M Atkinson, C W Elton, J F Caro
The iC3b receptor (CR3) is required for neutrophil adhesive functions, including homotypic aggregation. Because stimuli that enhance neutrophil adhesion also induce up-regulation of surface CR3, it is widely held that these two responses are causally related. We have dissociated CR3 display (immunofluorescence) from CR3 function (aggregation). Neutrophils isolated at 4 degrees C and rewarmed to 37 degrees C up-regulated surface CR3 twofold, but did not aggregate. The kinetics of FMLP-induced CR3 up-regulation were discordant with those of aggregation. In the absence of extracellular divalent cations, CR3 expression increased twofold after exposure to FMLP, but neutrophils did not aggregate. FMLP elicited 3.5-fold more aggregation than the ionophore A23187, yet less than one-half as much CR3 up-regulation. 3 mM sodium salicylate inhibited aggregation 55 +/- 4%, but had no effect on CR3 up-regulation. Conversely, 1 mM tetracaine completely inhibited CR3 up-regulation, while significantly enhancing aggregation. Neutroplasts expressed CR3, but did not up-regulate the receptor; in contrast, FMLP induced CR3-dependent aggregation of neutroplasts. We conclude that, although constitutive surface CR3 is required for neutrophil aggregation, the up-regulation of CR3 is neither necessary nor sufficient to promote cell-cell adhesion.
M R Philips, J P Buyon, R Winchester, G Weissmann, S B Abramson
Previous karyotypic analysis of human small cell lung cancer cell lines has demonstrated a consistent deletion of a portion of the short arm of chromosome 3(p14-23). DNA prepared from tumors and normal tissues obtained from 24 small cell lung cancer and two extrapulmonary small cell cancer patients was hybridized to four probes that detect restriction fragment length polymorphisms within chromosome region 3p14-21. Of the 25 patients who were heterozygous for at least one marker in this region in the DNA from normal tissue, 23 (92%) showed an unequivocal loss of heterozygosity in the DNA from their tumor tissue. From these studies we conclude that loss of alleles from the short arm of chromosome 3 is a consistent finding in unselected small cell lung cancer patients' tumor DNA.
B E Johnson, A Y Sakaguchi, A F Gazdar, J D Minna, D Burch, A Marshall, S L Naylor
To examine the role of liver endothelium in desialation of transferrin (TF), pulse-chase studies were done by incubation of either 3H (sialic acid labeled)-, or 125I, or 59Fe (protein core labeled)-TF with fractionated liver endothelium. While 125I or 59Fe labels were externalized after initial binding and internalization, a large proportion of 3H label was internalized and remained within the cell. When the supernatant of these experiments was studied by isoelectricfocusing and Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA120) affinity chromatography, generation of asialotransferrin was noted by both techniques. Incubation of liver endothelium with double-labeled TF (sialic acids with 3H and protein core with 125I or 59Fe) led initially to a concordant uptake of the two labels, which were then dissociated and 3H was retained by the cell. These findings indicate desialation of TF by liver endothelium. The significance of these findings in the pathogenesis of hepatic siderosis is discussed.
S Irie, T Kishimoto, M Tavassoli
Escherichia coli heat stable enterotoxin (STa) caused Cl- secretion across T84 cell monolayers in a dose-dependent manner only when applied to the apical membrane surface and not when applied to the basolateral surface. Measurement of cAMP, cGMP, and free cytosolic Ca2+ in response to STa suggested that cGMP alone mediated the Cl- secretory response. Studies utilizing blockers of the Na+,K+-ATPase pump, a Na+,K+,Cl- cotransport system, a K+ channel, and a Cl- channel suggest that all of them participate in the Cl- secretory process induced by STa. The results suggest that the Cl- secretory response induced by STa is mediated by cGMP after the enterotoxin binds to its receptor on the apical membrane. The enterotoxin, by increasing cGMP, opens a K+ channel on the basolateral membrane as well as a Cl- channel on the apical membrane. The activation of these ion exit mechanisms, together with activations of the Na+,K+,Cl- cotransporter and the Na+,K+-ATPase pump drives Cl- exit through the Cl- channel on the apical membrane.
P A Huott, W Liu, J A McRoberts, R A Giannella, K Dharmsathaphorn
We have constructed and characterized two types of myosin heavy chain (MHC) cDNA clones (pHMHC2, pHMHC5) from a fetal human heart cDNA library. Comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences between pHMHC2 and pHMHC5 shows 95.1 and 96.2% homology, respectively. The carboxyl-terminal peptide and 3'-untranslated (3'-UT) regions are highly divergent and specific for these cDNA clones. By using the synthetic oligonucleotide probes that are complementary to the unique 3'-UT regions of these cDNA clones, we demonstrate that pHMHC2 is exclusively transcribed in the atrium, whereas the mRNA for pHMHC5 is predominantly expressed in the ventricle. This result indicates that pHMHC2 and pHMHC5 code for alpha- and beta-form MHCs, respectively. Furthermore, we show that beta-form MHC mRNA is expressed in adult atrium at a low level but scarcely expressed in fetal atrium. Finally, we demonstrate that MHC isozymic transition in pressure-overloaded atrium is, at least in part, regulated at a pretranslational level.
M Kurabayashi, H Tsuchimochi, I Komuro, F Takaku, Y Yazaki
Abnormal renovascular reactivity, characterized by paradoxical vasoconstriction to a reduction in renal perfusion pressure (RPP) in the autoregulatory range, increased sensitivity to renal nerve stimulation (RNS), and loss of vasodilatation to acetylcholine have all been demonstrated in ischemic acute renal failure (ARF). To determine if ischemic injury alters vascular contractility by increasing smooth muscle cell calcium or calcium influx, the renal blood flow (RBF) response to reductions in RPP within the autoregulatory range and to RNS were tested before and after a 90-min intrarenal infusion of verapamil or diltiazem in 7-d ischemic ARF rats. Both calcium entry blockers, verapamil and diltiazem, blocked the aberrant vasoconstrictor response to a reduction in RPP and RNS (both P less than 0.001). In a second series of experiments the potential role of an ischemia-induced endothelial injury and of the absence of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) production were examined to explain the lack of vasodilatation to acetylcholine. Acetylcholine, bradykinin (a second EDRF-dependent vasodilator), or prostacyclin, an EDRF-independent vasodilator, was infused intrarenally for 90 min, and RBF responses to a reduction in RPP and RNS were tested in 7-d ischemic ARF rats. Neither acetylcholine nor bradykinin caused vasodilatation or altered the slope of the relationship between RBF and RPP. By contrast, prostacyclin increased RBF (P less than 0.001), but did not change the vascular response to changes in RPP. It was concluded that the abnormal pressor sensitivity to a reduction in RPP and RNS was due to changes in renovascular smooth muscle cell calcium activity that could be blocked by calcium entry blockers. A lack of response to EDRF-dependent vasodilators, as a result of ischemic endothelial injury, may contribute to the increased pressor sensitivity of the renal vessels.
J D Conger, J B Robinette, R W Schrier
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was found to stimulate renin secretion in vivo in normal human volunteers. Moreover, CGRP stimulated the release of renin in vitro from isolated rat renal juxtaglomerular cells (half-maximal effective concentration [EC50] 100 nM) concomitant with stimulation of cAMP production (EC50 60 nM). Immunoreactive CGRP was recognized in rat renal cortical nerve fibers, and intact rat CGRP was identified in extracts of the rat renal cortex. Because CGRP containing sensory nerve fibers are seen in the region of the juxtaglomerular apparatus, it would seem that the release of CGRP from these afferent nerves may be involved in the physiological control of renin secretion.
A Kurtz, R Muff, W Born, J M Lundberg, B I Millberg, M P Gnädinger, D E Uehlinger, P Weidmann, T Hökfelt, J A Fischer
Children with ventricular septal defect (VSD) often demonstrate failure to thrive (FTT). Such patients usually have reduced systemic cardiac output which has been postulated as a cause for their growth retardation. This study was conducted to ascertain the mechanism of the reduced cardiac output in children with VSD and FTT and also in a porcine model of VSD. Forward stroke volume was reduced in VSD-FTT children, 31 +/- 8 ml/m2, compared to normal children, 49 +/- 15 ml/m2 (P less than 0.05), but was not reduced in children with VSD and normal growth and development (41 +/- 16 ml/m2). Forward stroke volume was also reduced in swine with VSD compared to controls. Contractility assessed by mean velocity of circumferential shortening (Vcf) corrected for afterload was similar in normals and VSD-FTT children. Contractile performance was also similar in normal and VSD swine. Afterload assessed as systolic stress was similar in FTT-VSD children and normal subjects. Preload assessed as end-diastolic stress was increased in the VSD-FTT group. End-diastolic volume was not larger in the VSD-FTT group. We conclude that the reduced stroke volume seen in VSD-FTT children and VSD-swine was not due to reduced contractility, increased afterload or reduced preload. The reduced stroke volume may have been due to failure of end-diastolic volume to increase adequately.
W J Corin, M M Swindle, J F Spann Jr, K Nakano, M Frankis, R W Biederman, A Smith, A Taylor, B A Carabello
Although several genetic defects are known to impair oxidative microbicidal/cytotoxic mechanisms in human PMN, no deficiencies of PMN granule components that mediate oxygen-independent microbicidal activity have yet been reported. We analyzed PMN from patients with various granulocyte disorders for their content of two azurophil granule constituents, defensins and cathepsin G, that exert microbicidal/cytotoxic activity in vitro, and one component, elastase, that has ancillary microbicidal/cytotoxic activity. PMN from two (of two) patients with specific granule deficiency (SGD) displayed an almost complete deficiency of defensins, which in normal cells constitute greater than 30% of the protein content of azurophil granules. The SGD PMN contained normal or mildly decreased amounts of cathepsin G and elastase. Conversely, the PMN of three (of three) patients with Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) substantially lacked cathepsin G and elastase, but their defensin content was normal or mildly decreased. Both CHS and SGD patients suffer from frequent and severe bacterial infections, and CHS patients frequently develop an atypical lymphoproliferative syndrome. The profound deficiency of PMN components with microbicidal/cytotoxic activity in SGD and CHS may contribute to the clinical manifestations of these disorders.
T Ganz, J A Metcalf, J I Gallin, L A Boxer, R I Lehrer
We have identified a beta-thalassemia gene that carries a novel nonsense mutation in a Chinese patient. This mutation, a G to T substitution at the first position of codon 43, changes the glutamic acid coding triplet (GAG) to a terminator codon (TAG). Based on oligonucleotide hybridization studies of 78 Chinese and Southeast Asian beta-thalassemia chromosomes, we estimate that this mutation accounts for a small minority of the beta-thalassemia mutations in that population. Study of the expression of this cloned gene in a transient expression system demonstrated a 65% decrease in levels of normally spliced mutant beta-globin mRNA. However, the study of reticulocyte RNA isolated from an individual heterozygous for this mutation demonstrated a total absence of this mutant mRNA in vivo. The basis for this big discrepancy between the level of accumulated mRNA in vivo and in vitro is probably the result of differences in the stabilities of the mutant mRNA in erythroid cells.
G F Atweh, H E Brickner, X X Zhu, H H Kazazian Jr, B G Forget
Cholesterol ester-rich (CER) VLDL accumulate rapidly in the plasma of rabbits fed cholesterol-enriched diets. However, the major loci of enhanced synthesis of subfractions of CER-VLDL, their interaction with macrophages, and their relative contribution to atherogenesis have not yet been elucidated. To determine whether anabolism is hepatic or intestinal, subfractions of CER-VLDL were characterized at selected intervals from day 0 to 60 of cholesterol feeding. Rate zonal ultracentrifugation of CER-VLDL from rabbits fed cholesterol for 4 and 60 d demonstrated an early increase of the proportion of cholesterol carried in the intestinally-derived fraction (designated as Fx-I) of VLDL compared with that in hepatically-derived particles (Fx-H). Quantification by size exclusion HPLC also demonstrated that Fx-I was a prominent CER-VLDL component at day 4, while Fx-H particles became increasingly prominent with further cholesterol feeding. At both 4 and 60 d Fx-I stimulated cholesterol esterification and intracellular cholesterol content in macrophages more than the corresponding Fx-H did. In fact, Fx-H harvested at 4 d produced no cholesterol ester deposition. In contrast, Fx-H harvested at 60 d markedly stimulated cholesterol esterification and intracellular cholesterol content. Thus, both compositional and metabolic characteristics of CER-VLDL changed as a function of the duration cholesterol feeding.
A Daugherty, K Oida, B E Sobel, G Schonfeld
Three different receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (FcR) have been characterized on human leukocytes. We have identified four healthy members of one family, whose blood phagocytic cells lack functional 72 kD high-affinity FcRI. Their monocytes were unable to bind the Fc portion of mouse (m)-IgG2a and of monomeric human IgG, and they were unreactive with two anti-FcRI monoclonal antibodies. Thus, FcRI is either absent, expressed at very low density, or is so structurally altered as to be unable to bind both its ligand and the anti-FcRI antibodies. The failure to bind the Fc portion of mIgG2a underlies the previously reported inability of these monocytes to support T cell mitogenesis on OKT3 stimulation. FcRI was not inducible upon incubation of their monocytes or neutrophils in gamma interferon. However, their monocytes were able to bind aggregated human IgG, and to phagocytose IgG-coated particles in vitro. Both functions could be blocked with a monoclonal antibody to the 40-kD low-affinity FcRII and therefore apparently were mediated exclusively through FcRII. This also demonstrates that FcRII can mediate phagocytosis independently. Despite the FcRI defect, these subjects had no circulating immune complexes, no evidence of autoimmune pathology and no increased susceptibility to infections.
J L Ceuppens, M L Baroja, F Van Vaeck, C L Anderson
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a specific and rapid inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase. Clinical studies suggest that PAI-1 may play a crucial role in the regulation of fibrinolysis. A number of factors modulate PAI-1 activity in endothelial cell culture, and the isolation of PAI-1 cDNA now allows study of PAI-1 regulation at the mRNA level. We examined the effect of endothelial cell growth factor (ECGF) and heparin on PAI-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) culture. The addition of ECGF and heparin to HUVEC cultures results in a 3-10-fold decrease in the PAI-1 activity secreted into the conditioned media. This effect is mediated at the mRNA level. A decrease in PAI-1 is also seen with higher concentrations of ECGF alone, but is greatly enhanced by the addition of heparin. No significant change in tPA antigen or mRNA levels was observed.
B A Konkle, D Ginsburg
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is released from colon cancer cells into the circulation where it is monitored clinically as an indicator of the recurrence or progression of cancer. We have studied the mechanism of CEA membrane attachment and release using the human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line LS-174T, specimens of human colon cancers, and serum from colon cancer patients. CEA release by cells in vitro and in vivo is associated with the conversion of CEA from a membrane-bound, hydrophobic molecule to a soluble, hydrophilic form with no apparent decrease in molecular mass. When LS-174T cell membranes were incubated with various buffers, proteases, and phospholipases, the only agents that released CEA and converted it to the hydrophilic form were preparations of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). Both [3H]ethanolamine and [3H]palmitate could be incorporated metabolically into CEA but only palmitate was released by treatment with PI-PLC, consistent with the presence of a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol linkage. PI-PLC treatment also release significant quantities of CEA from living monolayers and from seven human colon cancer specimens. These experiments suggest that cellular CEA is anchored to membranes by a covalent linkage to a membrane phosphatidylinositol molecule, and that an endogenous phospholipase may be important for releasing CEA in vitro and in vivo.
T L Sack, J R Gum, M G Low, Y S Kim
The effects of low concentrations of human serum on antibody-sensitized sheep erythrocytes (EA) were studied. We report that exposure to low concentrations of serum induced a large but transient increase in the membrane permeability of those EA that do not lyse. This change in the permeability of the erythrocyte membrane resulted in net uptake of Na+ and decrease in cell K+, without affecting the total internal cation content. Although exposure to serum also allowed for net uptake of larger molecules like L-glucose, it did not lead to cell swelling. Experiments with sera genetically deficient in one of the terminal complement components showed that C8, but not C9, was required to produce the observed change in membrane permeability. Therefore, we propose that the C5b-8 complex can mediate the transient increase in permeability observed in unlysed erythrocytes during complement activation by whole serum.
J A Halperin, A Nicholson-Weller, C Brugnara, D C Tosteson
Physiologic concentrations of angiotensin II stimulate sodium transport by intestinal and renal early (S1) and late (S2) proximal tubule epithelial cells. We recently found that hydrogen ion secretion, which effects sodium bicarbonate absorption, was a transport function preferentially and potently increased by angiotensin II in S1 cells. S1 cells are normally responsible for half of the total renal hydrogen ion secretion. The mechanism by which angiotensin II regulates intestinal sodium transport is by potentiating sympathetic nerve activity and norepinephrine release. Direct control of hydrogen ion secretion by angiotensin II via receptors on epithelial cells has not been previously demonstrated. We now report that stimulation of in vivo hydrogen ion secretion in the rat early proximal tubule by angiotensin II was not mediated via change in nerve activity. Rather, enhanced hydrogen ion secretion by angiotensin II correlated with increased angiotensin II receptor density on epithelial cells in the early compared to late microdissected proximal tubule. Basolateral as well as luminal angiotensin II stimulated bicarbonate absorption. Angiotensin II reduced bicarbonate permeability and caused alteration in the apparent substrate affinity, but not maximal capacity, of the proximal hydrogen ion secretory system involving the Na+/H+ antiporter.
F Y Liu, M G Cogan
Using isolated, in situ, single-pass perfused rat livers, incubations of freshly isolated hepatocytes, and sinusoidal membrane-enriched vesicles, we and others have shown the saturability of transport (efflux) of hepatic glutathione (GSH). These observations have implicated a carrier mechanism. Our present studies were designed to provide further evidence in support of a carrier mechanism for hepatic GSH efflux by demonstrating competition by liver-specific ligands which are taken up by hepatocytes. Perfusing livers with different substances, we found that: (a) sulfobromophthalein-GSH (BSP-GSH) had a dose-dependent and fully reversible inhibitory effect on GSH efflux, while GSH alone did not have any effect; (b) taurocholate had no inhibitory effect; (c) all of the organic anions studied, i.e., BSP, rose bengal, indocyanine green, and unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), manifested potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects, with absence of toxic effects and complete reversibility of inhibition in the case of UCB. The inhibitory effects of UCB could be overcome partially by raising (CoCl2-induced) hepatic GSH concentration. Because of the physiological importance of UCB, we conducted a detailed study of its inhibitory kinetics in the isolated hepatocyte model in the range of circulating concentrations of UCB. Studies with Cl- -free media, to inhibit the uptake of UCB by hepatocytes, showed that the inhibition of GSH efflux by UCB is apparently from inside the cell. This point was confirmed by showing that the inhibition is overcome only when bilirubin-loaded cells are cleared of bilirubin (incubation with 5% bovine serum albumin). Using Gunn rat hepatocytes and purified bilirubin mono- and diglucuronides, we found that both UCB and glucuronide forms of bilirubin inhibit GSH efflux in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that the organic anions, although taken up by a mechanism independent of GSH, may competitively inhibit the carrier for GSH efflux from inside the hepatocyte.
M Ookhtens, I Lyon, J Fernandez-Checa, N Kaplowitz
Whereas marked variations in the clinical manifestations of hereditary spherocytosis have long been recognized, we have only recently begun to define the molecular basis for this heterogeneity. An important unanswered question is whether decreased spectrin results in reduced membrane mechanical stability, and if this reduction in membrane mechanical stability can be related to in vivo surface area loss. Using the ektacytometer, we quantitated membrane surface area and stability in erythrocytes from 18 individuals with hereditary spherocytosis and deficiencies of spectrin (30-80% of normal spectrin level). Membrane mechanical stability was reduced and the magnitude of the reductions correlated with the spectrin content. Moreover, the reductions in mechanical stability correlated with in vivo loss of membrane surface area. These data indicate that decreased spectrin content results in reduced membrane mechanical stability and surface area loss in vivo. We conclude that partial deficiencies of spectrin, reductions in membrane mechanical stability, and loss of membrane surface area are directly related and are major features determining the heterogeneous clinical manifestations of hereditary spherocytosis.
J A Chasis, P Agre, N Mohandas
As a consequence of an increased flux through the sorbitol pathway fructose levels rise in various tissues in diabetes. Also, in vitro nonenzymatic fructosylation of protein induces the generation of fluorescence at a rate 10 times greater than glucosylation. The administration of sorbinil, an aldose reductase inhibitor known to lower tissue fructose concentration, to experimental diabetic rats led to a decrease in the fluorescence related to advanced Maillard products in their skin collagen. This effect is consistent with the in vivo occurrence of nonenzymatic fructosylation of collagen. A potential pathogenetic role for this posttranslational modification in diabetic complications should be considered.
G Suárez, R Rajaram, K C Bhuyan, A L Oronsky, J A Goidl
The physical, chemical, and receptor binding properties of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) fractions from familial dysbetalipoproteinemic (dys-beta) subjects, homozygous for apolipoprotein (apo-) E2 (E2/2 phenotype), and subjects with the E3/3 phenotype were studied to gain insights into the pathogenesis of dysbetalipoproteinemia, a disorder characterized by the presence of beta-VLDL in the plasma. Pre-beta-VLDL from dys-beta subjects were larger (27 vs. 17 x 10(6) D) and more triglyceride rich (68 vs. 43% dry weight) than beta-VLDL. Pre-beta-VLDL predominated in the Sf greater than 100 flotation fraction, whereas beta-VLDL predominated in the Sf 20-60 fraction. Because lipolysis converts large VLDL (Sf greater than 100) in vivo to smaller, more cholesteryl ester-rich VLDL (Sf 20-60), it is likely that pre-beta-VLDL are precursors of beta-VLDL. Although beta-VLDL were not found in type V hyperlipidemic E3/3 subjects, they were induced by intravenous heparinization, suggesting that lipolysis of pre-beta-VLDL in vivo can result in beta-VLDL formation. Similarly, heparinization of a dys-beta subject produced more beta-VLDL, at the expense of pre-beta-VLDL. The pre-beta-VLDL from normolipidemic and type V hyperlipidemic E3/3 subjects, respectively, had 90 and 280 times the affinity for the apo-B,E(LDL) receptor than did the pre-beta-VLDL from dys-beta subjects. Heparin-induced beta-VLDL from type V hyperlipidemic subjects had a sixfold higher binding affinity than did heparin-induced beta-VLDL from dys-beta subjects. These data suggest that pre-beta-VLDL from E2/2 subjects interact poorly with lipoprotein receptors in vivo, decreasing their receptor-mediated clearance and increasing their conversion to beta-VLDL during lipolytic processing.
D A Chappell
Previous investigations of p150,95 (CD11c), the third member of the CD18 membrane glycoprotein family that includes CR3 (Mac-1 or CD11b) and LFA-1 (CD11a), had demonstrated that solubilized p150,95 bound to iC3b-agarose in a manner similar to isolated CR3. The current study showed that membrane surface p150,95 also expressed iC3b-receptor activity and was probably the same as the neutrophil receptor for iC3b- or C3dg-coated erythrocytes (EC3bi or EC3dg) that had been previously designated CR4. Normal neutrophil and macrophage CR4-dependent EC3bi rosettes were inhibited by monoclonal anti-p150,95, and cells from a patient with CD18 deficiency did not form CR4-dependent EC3bi rosettes. With neutrophils that bore large amounts of CR1 and CR3 and little p150,95, EC3bi were found primarily via CR1 and CR3, and demonstration of p150,95-dependent rosettes required large amounts of fixed iC3b, low-ionic strength buffer, and antibody blockade of CR1 and CR3. By contrast, culture-derived macrophages expressed eight times more p150,95 than did monocytes and EC3bi were bound to both p150,95 and CR3 when EC3bi bore small amounts of fixed iC3b and assays were carried out in isotonic buffer. Comparison of the amounts of CR1, CR3, and CR4 in various tissues by immunoperoxidase staining revealed that CR4 was the most abundant C3 receptor molecule on tissue macrophages, and suggested that CR4 might be involved in clearance of C3-opsonized particles or immune complexes.
B L Myones, J G Dalzell, N Hogg, G D Ross
Splenic B cells from normal and autoimmune mice were transferred to MHC-compatible xid recipients. Monoclonal antibodies were secreted by the transferred B cells in splenic fragment cultures. These antibodies were evaluated for reactivity and cross-reactivity against a panel of six autoantigens and two conventional antigens using an ELISA assay. The autoantibodies and conventional antibodies produced in splenic fragment cultures by normal DBA/2 and autoimmune NZB B cells expressed similar degrees of antigenic cross-reactivity. Previous studies have demonstrated that ELISA assays of splenic fragment culture supernatants detect antibodies with affinities of 5 x 10(6) M-1 or greater. We therefore also analyzed the cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies derived from hybridomas. This permitted an assessment of antibodies with lower binding affinities. Cross-reactivity was detected more frequently among these hybridomas. Consistent with our earlier observations, hybridoma antibodies specific for conventional antigens exhibited cross-reactivity with a frequency similar to that of antibodies specific for autoantigens.
D M Klinman, S Banks, A Hartman, A D Steinberg
The various physiological processes that constitute liver function are compartmentalized within the hepatic acinus. The molecular mechanisms modulating the development and maintenance of this hepatocyte heterogeneity have not been defined. The objective of this study was to determine whether transcriptional or posttranscriptional zonal modulation of cytochromes P-450b,e gene expression was responsible for the heterogeneous induction of the P-450 proteins, which is observed after phenobarbital (PB) administration. The exact localization in liver tissue of hepatocytes responding to PB with induction of either P-450b,e mRNA or proteins was established by in situ hybridization and by immunofluorescence, respectively. As demonstrated by quantitative assessment of autoradiographs of approximately 20 hepatocytes located between a terminal portal venule and a hepatic venule, PB induced the P-450b,e mRNA up to sixfold in the 12-15 hepatocytes located closer to the hepatic venules (zones 2 and 3). In contrast, there was only a twofold induction in the 4-6 hepatocytes surrounding the terminal portal venules (zone 1). Quantitative immunofluorescence using an MAb showed that the acinar distribution of PB-induced P-450b,e proteins was similar to that of the mRNA. This combined approach indicated that, most likely, an increased rate of transcription of cytochromes P-450b,e genes in hepatocytes of zones 2 and 3 concomitantly, with a relative lack of activation, or repression, of these genes in hepatocytes of zone 1, were responsible for the heterogeneous phenotype observed after PB administration. Therefore, modulation of gene expression among hepatocytes of the liver acinus is one mechanism by which the functional heterogeneity of hepatocytes is attained. Experiments in which the induction of cytochromes P-450b,e genes was studied after administration of either PB or para-hydroxyphenobarbital, a main hepatic metabolite of PB, suggested that the species involved in the inductive process is the parent PB molecule rather than para-hydroxyphenobarbital.
E Wojcik, C Dvorak, J Chianale, P G Traber, D Keren, J J Gumucio
Eight cases of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency were studied at the subcellular and protein level with monoclonal antibodies against sucrase-isomaltase. At least three phenotypes were revealed: one in which sucrase-isomaltase protein accumulated intracellularly probably in the endoplasmic reticulum, as a membrane-associated high-mannose precursor, one in which the intracellular transport of the enzyme was apparently blocked in the Golgi apparatus, and one in which catalytically altered enzyme was transported to the cell surface. All patients expressed electrophoretically normal or near normal high-mannose sucrase-isomaltase. The results suggest that different, probably small, mutations in the sucrase-isomaltase gene lead to the synthesis of transport-incompetent or functionally altered enzyme which results in congenital sucrose intolerance.
H Y Naim, J Roth, E E Sterchi, M Lentze, P Milla, J Schmitz, H P Hauri
TGF-beta 1 is a polypeptide that is abundant in bone matrix, is produced by bone cells, and modulates proliferation and differentiated functions of osteoblastic cells in vitro. TGF-beta 2 is a closely related polypeptide that was originally isolated from bone matrix. TGF-beta 1 has been shown previously to stimulate prostaglandin production in cultures of neonatal mouse calvariae, which causes these bones to resorb. We found similar effects with TGF-beta 2. In comparison, TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 failed to stimulate bone resorption in fetal rat long bone cultures during a 3-d incubation period in concentrations up to 50-100 times greater than those capable of inducing bone resorption in calvariae. Incubation with TGF-beta 1 for a further 3 d decreased bone resorption up to 30%. Moreover, bone resorption induced by the bone-resorbing agents IL 1 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 was partially or completely inhibited by TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 during the second half of the 6-d incubation period. Inhibition of DNA synthesis with hydroxyurea inhibited bone resorption in long bones in a similar pattern to that seen with TGF-beta 1. The inhibitory effects of TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 on bone resorption in long bone cultures may therefore be due to inhibition of osteoclast precursor proliferation.
J Pfeilschifter, S M Seyedin, G R Mundy
We used a recombinant cDNA probe for human chromogranin A to measure the expression of mRNA encoded by this gene in a variety of normal human tissues and tumor specimens using Northern blot and in situ hybridization analysis. With few exceptions, the expression of chromogranin A mRNA appears to be restricted to normal tissues and tumors of neuroendocrine lineage. However, we have detected mRNA expression of this gene in 1 of 14 cell lines and 2 of 13 tumor specimens of colon adenocarcinoma. The finding of chromogranin A expression in some colon carcinomas suggests that a previously unrecognized subgroup of these tumors has neuroendocrine features. The detection of this subgroup demonstrates the potential for improving tumor classification through the use of techniques and reagents developed by recombinant DNA technology.
L J Helman, A F Gazdar, J G Park, P S Cohen, J D Cotelingam, M A Israel
The effects of fasting and refeeding on the glucose transport response to insulin in isolated rat adipose cells have been examined using 3-O-methylglucose transport in intact cells and cytochalasin B binding and Western blotting in subcellular membrane fractions. After a 72-h fast, basal glucose transport activity decreases slightly and insulin-stimulated activity decreases greater than 85%. Following 48 h of fasting, insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity is diminished from 3.9 +/- 0.5 to 1.3 +/- 0.3 fmol/cell per min (mean +/- SEM). Similarly, the concentrations of glucose transporters are reduced with fasting in both the plasma membranes from insulin-stimulated cells from 38 +/- 5 to 18 +/- 3 pmol/mg of membrane protein and the low density microsomes from basal cells from 68 +/- 8 to 34 +/- 9 pmol/mg of membrane protein. Ad lib. refeeding for 6 d after a 48-h fast results in up to twofold greater maximally insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity compared with the control level (7.1 +/- 0.4 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.2 fmol/cell per min), before returning to baseline at 10 d. However, the corresponding concentration of glucose transporters in the plasma membranes is restored only to the control level (45 +/- 5 vs. 50 +/- 5 pmol/mg of membrane protein). Although the concentration of glucose transporters in the low density microsomes of basal cells remains decreased, the total number is restored to the control level due to an increase in low density microsomal protein. Thus, the insulin-resistant glucose transport in adipose cells from fasted rats can be explained by a decreased translocation of glucose transporters to the plasma membrane due to a depleted intracellular pool. In contrast, the insulin hyperresponsive glucose transport observed with refeeding appears to result from (a) a restored translocation of glucose transporters to the plasma membrane from a repleted intracellular pool and (b) enhanced plasma membrane glucose transporter intrinsic activity.
B B Kahn, I A Simpson, S W Cushman
The reactive center of C1-inhibitor, a plasma protease inhibitor that belongs to the serpin superfamily, is located on a peptide loop which is highly susceptible to proteolytic cleavage. With plasma kallikrein, C1s and beta-Factor XIIa, this cleavage occurs at the reactive site residue P1 (Arg444); with neutrophil elastase, it takes place near P1, probably at residue P3 (Val442). After these cleavages, C1-inhibitor is inactivated and its conformation is modified. Moreover, in vivo, cleaved C1-inhibitor is removed from the blood stream more rapidly than the intact serpin, which suggests that proteolysis unmasks sites responsible for cellular recognition and the uptake of the cleaved inhibitor. In the study reported here, we show, using an MAb, that an identical neoepitope is created on C1-inhibitor after the cleavage of its exposed loop by plasma kallikrein, C1s, beta-Factor XIIa, and by neutrophil elastase.
A de Agostini, P A Patston, V Marottoli, S Carrel, P C Harpel, M Schapira
Human neutrophils, when stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or fMet-Leu-Phe in the presence or absence of cytochalasin B, released metalloproteinases that catalytically inactivated the plasma serine proteinase inhibitor, alpha 1-antitrypsin. Inactivation, measured as loss of elastase inhibitory capacity, was accompanied by cleavage of a Mr 4,000 peptide from the COOH-terminus. Cleavage of alpha 1-antitrypsin by cell supernatants was inhibited by EDTA, o-phenanthroline, and DTT, but not by inhibitors of serine or thiol proteinases. Gelatinase and collagenase were separated from the medium of stimulated neutrophils. Both preparations cleaved and inactivated alpha 1-antitrypsin, with cleavage occurring close to the reactive center, at the Phe-Leu bond between positions P7 and P6. Cleavage by purified gelatinase was very slow and could account for only a minor fraction of the activity of neutrophil supernatants. The collagenase preparation was more active. However, the unusual cleavage site, and the ability of fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated neutrophils to cleave alpha 1-antitrypsin without releasing collagenase, suggests that collagenase is not responsible for cleavage by the cells, which, by implication, is due to an as yet uncharacterized metalloenzyme. Our results demonstrate that by releasing metalloproteinases, neutrophils could proteolytically inactivate alpha 1-antitrypsin at sites of inflammation. This provides an alternative to the previously documented mechanism of inactivation by neutrophil-derived oxidants.
M C Vissers, P M George, I C Bathurst, S O Brennan, C C Winterbourn
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an endogenous steroid that blocks carcinogenesis, retards aging, and exerts antiproliferative properties. In vitro, it is a potent inhibitor of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the first committed step of the pentose phosphate pathway. In man, serum levels of DHEA and its sulfate peak in early adulthood and drop markedly with age. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that low levels of DHEA or its sulfate conjugate are linked to an increased risk of developing cancer or of death from cardiovascular disease. Like cancer, atherosclerosis is a proliferative process characterized by both initiation and promotion phases. This similarity provided a framework in which to study the antiatherogenic effects of DHEA. Rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups. Two groups of rabbits received aortic endothelial injury by balloon catheter and were fed a 2% cholesterol diet for 12 wk. DHEA, 0.5%, was incorporated into the diet of one group receiving the 2% cholesterol diet and endothelial injury and also into the diet of one of the control groups. Animals were killed after 12 wk and aortas, hearts, and livers were studied. Plasma samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, VLDL, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, DHEA, and DHEA-sulfate levels. The atherogenic insult resulted in severe atherosclerosis in animals not treated with DHEA. In those receiving DHEA there was an almost 50% reduction in plaque size (P = 0.006), inversely related to the serum level of DHEA attained. Fatty infiltration of the heart and liver were also markedly reduced. These beneficial actions were not attributable to differences in body weight gain, food intake, total plasma cholesterol or distribution of cholesterol among the VLDL, LDL, or HDL fractions. The results show that high levels of plasma DHEA inhibit the development of atherosclerosis and they provide an important experimental link to the epidemiologic studies correlating low DHEA-sulfate plasma levels with an enhanced risk of cardiovascular mortality.
G B Gordon, D E Bush, H F Weisman
To determine the exact site and mechanism of action of thiazide diuretics, effects of 10(-4) M trichlormethiazide (TCM) on NaCl transport were examined in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), the connecting tubule (CNT) and the cortical collecting duct (CCD) of rabbit kidney by the in vitro microperfusion technique. TCM added to the lumen decreased lumen-to-bath 36Cl flux (JCl(LB)) only in the CNT without changing the transmural voltage (VT). In the DCT, 10(-4) M furosemide did not change JCl(LB) even if it was added to the lumen with 10(-4) M TCM, whereas 10(-5) M amiloride in the lumen decreased the lumen-to-bath 22Na flux (JNa(LB)) and VT. In the CNT, TCM added to the lumen did not affect the bath-to-lumen 36Cl flux. Addition of TCM to the bath slightly decreased JCl(LB). Luminal addition of 10(-4) M TCM also decreased JNa(LB). Amiloride at 10(-5) M in the lumen decreased both JNa(LB) and VT. Addition of TCM with 10(-5) M amiloride further decreased JNa(LB) without affecting VT, indicating that TCM affects the electroneutral Na+ transport, which is distinct from the amiloride-sensitive conductive Na+ pathway. When Na+ was removed from the lumen, JCl(LB) was markedly decreased, but addition of TCM did not cause further decrease in JCl(LB). Furosemide did not affect JCl(LB), but addition of both 10(-4) M TCM and furosemide decreased JCl(LB), indicating that Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport is not involved in the action of TCM. Removal of HCO3- slightly decreased JCl(LB), and TCM caused further decrease in JCl(LB). Amiloride at 10(-3) M, a concentration supposed to inhibit the Na+/H+ antiport, slightly decreased JCl(LB), and addition of TCM caused a further marked decrease in JJl(LB). The similar results were also obtained when the combined effects of 10(-3) M 4,4'-diisothiocyano-stilben-2,2'-disulfonate(DIDS) and 10(-4) M TCM were examined. These findings suggest that the parallel antiport of Na+/H+ and Cl-/HCO3- is not involved in the action of TCM. By excluding other possible mechanisms involving neutral Na+-dependent Cl- transport, we conclude that TCM inhibits Na+-Cl- cotransport in the luminal membrane of the rabbit CNT.
T Shimizu, K Yoshitomi, M Nakamura, M Imai
Confluent cultures of human skin fibroblast lines established from fetal and postnatal donors were exposed to a broad range of oxygen tensions (10-600 mmHg) for 1 wk; superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was subsequently determined. Hyperoxia increased SOD activity slightly in postnatal lines but not in fetal lines. The magnitude of the increase in postnatal lines was not significant. Fetal lines exhibit only about one-fifth the SOD activity observed in postnatal lines. The results indicate that, while development-associated changes in SOD do occur in human cells, these alterations do not result from variations in ambient oxygen tension.
R G Allen, A K Balin
Although the degree of hyperglycemia is a powerful and independent risk factor for diabetic microvascular disease, it has not been established if and how high glucose per se can induce the typical lesions of microangiopathy. We have investigated in human vascular endothelial cells the expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) for collagen type IV and fibronectin, the two glycoproteins characteristically increased in diabetic basement membranes. In 12 confluent primary cultures exposed for 11 +/- 1 d (mean +/- SD) to 30 mM glucose and exhibiting cell number and thymidine incorporation similar to control cultures, the levels of collagen IV and fibronectin mRNA were, respectively, 238 +/- 140 and 221 +/- 231 percent of control (P less than 0.01). The effects of high glucose were selective (the levels of collagen I and c-myc mRNA remained unchanged), independent of the proliferative activity of the cultures and of the plating substratum, and maintained throughout multiple passages. However, several days of exposure to high glucose were required before their appearance. These observations establish that high glucose is a perturbation sufficient to mimic the effects of diabetes on the regulation of basement membrane components and propose that modifications in gene expression may pertain to the chain of events leading to diabetic angiopathy.
E Cagliero, M Maiello, D Boeri, S Roy, M Lorenzi
Human platelets are derived from megakaryocytes as anucleate cells, and thus contain only vestigial amounts of RNA capable of being transcribed into protein. This has greatly hampered efforts to study directly platelet-specific gene products and their associated polymorphisms. In this report, we describe direct amplification, using the polymerase chain reaction, of platelet-derived mRNA in amounts sufficient to permit detailed analysis, such as restriction mapping and nucleotide sequencing. The ability to generate large amounts of cDNA from platelet-specific mRNA sequences should make possible direct molecular characterization of normal platelet proteins, and facilitate the investigation of a wide variety of inherited platelet disorders.
P J Newman, J Gorski, G C White 2nd, S Gidwitz, C J Cretney, R H Aster