To determine the exact site and mechanism of action of thiazide diuretics, effects of 10(-4) M trichlormethiazide (TCM) on NaCl transport were examined in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), the connecting tubule (CNT) and the cortical collecting duct (CCD) of rabbit kidney by the in vitro microperfusion technique. TCM added to the lumen decreased lumen-to-bath 36Cl flux (JCl(LB)) only in the CNT without changing the transmural voltage (VT). In the DCT, 10(-4) M furosemide did not change JCl(LB) even if it was added to the lumen with 10(-4) M TCM, whereas 10(-5) M amiloride in the lumen decreased the lumen-to-bath 22Na flux (JNa(LB)) and VT. In the CNT, TCM added to the lumen did not affect the bath-to-lumen 36Cl flux. Addition of TCM to the bath slightly decreased JCl(LB). Luminal addition of 10(-4) M TCM also decreased JNa(LB). Amiloride at 10(-5) M in the lumen decreased both JNa(LB) and VT. Addition of TCM with 10(-5) M amiloride further decreased JNa(LB) without affecting VT, indicating that TCM affects the electroneutral Na+ transport, which is distinct from the amiloride-sensitive conductive Na+ pathway. When Na+ was removed from the lumen, JCl(LB) was markedly decreased, but addition of TCM did not cause further decrease in JCl(LB). Furosemide did not affect JCl(LB), but addition of both 10(-4) M TCM and furosemide decreased JCl(LB), indicating that Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport is not involved in the action of TCM. Removal of HCO3- slightly decreased JCl(LB), and TCM caused further decrease in JCl(LB). Amiloride at 10(-3) M, a concentration supposed to inhibit the Na+/H+ antiport, slightly decreased JCl(LB), and addition of TCM caused a further marked decrease in JJl(LB). The similar results were also obtained when the combined effects of 10(-3) M 4,4'-diisothiocyano-stilben-2,2'-disulfonate(DIDS) and 10(-4) M TCM were examined. These findings suggest that the parallel antiport of Na+/H+ and Cl-/HCO3- is not involved in the action of TCM. By excluding other possible mechanisms involving neutral Na+-dependent Cl- transport, we conclude that TCM inhibits Na+-Cl- cotransport in the luminal membrane of the rabbit CNT.
T Shimizu, K Yoshitomi, M Nakamura, M Imai