Suppression and/or cytotoxicity are believed to play an important role in the defense against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. To analyze the role of suppressor T cells in relation to EBV, we sought to clone and study these T cells. Analysis of 152 T cell clones derived from the peripheral blood of two patients with acute EBV-induced infectious mononucleosis (IM) yielded 11 highly suppressive clones that had no cytotoxic activity for the natural killer sensitive K562 cell line, an autologous EBV-infected cell line, or an allogeneic EBV-infected B cell line. Four of six suppressor T cell clones also profoundly inhibited EBV-induced immunoglobulin production, and five of five clones delayed the outgrowth of immortalized cells. These results indicate that during acute IM, suppressor T cells capable of inhibiting B cell activation in the absence of cytotoxicity can be identified, and may play a key role in the control of EBV infection.
F Wang, R M Blaese, K C Zoon, G Tosato
Hypophosphatemia (Hyp) mice have defective regulation of 25(OH)D-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity in response to hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration. However, recent observations support the existence of anatomically distinct, independently regulated renal 1 alpha-hydroxylase systems in mammalian proximal convoluted and straight tubules. To more completely define the extent of the 1 alpha-hydroxylase regulatory defect in Hyp-mice, we compared enzyme maximum velocity in normal and mutants after infusion of calcitonin. Upon stimulation, renal 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity increased to similar levels in normal and Hyp-mouse renal homogenates. Moreover, time-course and dose-dependence studies revealed similar patterns of response in the animal models. Subsequently, we examined whether PTH and calcitonin stimulatory effects on enzyme activity are mediated through different mechanisms. In both animal models administration of PTH and calcitonin increased enzyme activity to levels greater than those obtained after maximal stimulation by either hormone alone, consistent with additive effects. These observations indicate that a calcitonin-sensitive component of 1 alpha-hydroxylase is not compromised in the X-linked hypophosphatemic syndrome.
T Nesbitt, B Lobaugh, M K Drezner
The glucagon-suppressing activity of insulin and somatostatin were compared at high and low glucose concentrations. In normal dogs made hyperglucagonemic by phloridzin pretreatment, insulin and somatostatin suppressed glucagon at rates of 47 +/- 8 and 35 +/- 8%/h (NS), respectively, despite profound hypoglycemia. In severely hyperglycemic alloxan-diabetic dogs, insulin and somatostatin suppressed glucagon at rates of 48 +/- 13 and 54 +/- 6%/h, respectively, not different from the nondiabetic dogs. After phloridzin pretreatment to eliminate hyperglycemia in the diabetic dogs, insulin and somatostatin suppressed 51 +/- 8 and 31 +/- 10%/h (NS), respectively. Glucose infused in the phloridzin-pretreated insulin-deprived group suppressed glucagon only partially; insulin was required to reduce it further. We conclude that insulin and somatostatin suppress glucagon at similar rates irrespective of ambient glucose levels, and that diabetic hyperglucagonemia represents the summation of stimulation by insulin lack minus suppression by the associated hyperglycemia.
A Starke, T Imamura, R H Unger
We examined the role of reactive oxygen metabolites in the degradation of human glomerular basement membrane (GBM) by stimulated human neutrophils. Neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) caused a significant degradation of GBM over 3 h resulting in 11.4 +/- 0.9% (SEM), n = 11 release of hydroxyproline compared with 0.3 +/- 0.09%, n = 11 release by unstimulated neutrophils. Superoxide dismutase, a scavenger of superoxide, did not inhibit the GBM degradation, whereas catalase, a scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, caused a marked inhibition (-60 +/- 7%, n = 4, P less than 0.001) of hydroxyproline release. Neither alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor, an inhibitor of elastase, nor soya bean trypsin inhibitor, an inhibitor of cathepsin G, caused any significant inhibition of GBM degradation. GBM degradation by cell-free supernatants obtained from stimulated neutrophils was markedly impaired in the presence of metal chelators EDTA (-72 +/- 7, n = 6, P less than 0.001) and 1,10,phenanthroline (-85 +/- 5%, n = 3, P less than 0.001). Considering these results, we postulated that reactive oxygen metabolites generated by the stimulated neutrophils activate a latent GBM degrading metalloproteinase(s). GBM degradation by supernatants obtained from incubations with catalase, azide, an inhibitor of myeloperoxidase, and methionine and taurine, scavengers of hypochlorous acid, was markedly reduced. Our data thus indicate that degradation of the GBM by PMA-stimulated neutrophils is due to activation of a latent metalloproteinase by hypochlorous acid or a similar oxidant generated by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-halide system.
S V Shah, W H Baricos, A Basci
Studies on microvillus membrane from rabbit kidney cortex suggest that chloride absorption may occur by chloride/formate exchange with recycling of formic acid by nonionic diffusion. We tested whether this transport mechanism participates in active NaCl reabsorption in the rabbit proximal tubule. In proximal tubule S2 segments perfused with low HCO-3 solutions, the addition of formate (0.25-0.5 mM) to the lumen and the bath increased volume reabsorption (JV) by 60%; the transepithelial potential difference remained unchanged. The effect of formate on JV was completely reversible and was inhibited both by ouabain and by luminal 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate. Formate (0.5 mM) failed to stimulate JV in early proximal convoluted tubules perfused with high HCO-3 solutions. As measured by miniature glass pH microelectrodes, this lack of formate effect on JV was related to a less extensive acidification of the tubule fluid when high HCO-3 solutions were used as perfusate. These data suggest that chloride/formate exchange with recycling of formic acid by nonionic diffusion represents a mechanism for active, electroneutral NaCl reabsorption in the proximal tubule.
L Schild, G Giebisch, L P Karniski, P S Aronson
We have compared the phenotypes of the two common deletion forms of alpha+-thalassemia by analysis of umbilical cord blood samples from Melanesia. Homozygotes for the leftward, 4.2-kilobase, deletion (-alpha 4.2) had significantly higher levels of Hb Bart's at birth than homozygotes for the rightward, 3.7-kilobase, deletion (-alpha 3.7). Compound heterozygotes for each deletion had intermediate values. Although deletion forms of alpha 0 thalassemia were not found in this survey, nondeletion alpha-thalassemia was present at low frequency. Since the predominant rightward deletion in this population, -alpha 3.7III, entirely removes the alpha 1-gene and the 4.2-kilobase deletion deletes the alpha 2-gene, these data indicate that the alpha 2-globin gene has a higher output than the alpha 1-gene, on single alpha-gene chromosomes.
D K Bowden, A V Hill, D R Higgs, S J Oppenheimer, D J Weatherall, J B Clegg
To provide insight into the factors that control growth of the penis we measured the amount and intracellular distribution of specific high affinity androgen receptor in foreskins obtained at circumcision from 49 males varying in age from newborn to 59 yr. Total (cytosolic plus nuclear extract) androgen receptor decreased from approximately 40 fmol/g tissue weight in newborn foreskins to approximately 25 fmol/g by 1 yr of age. The amount of receptor rose in childhood to approximately 180 fmol/g in the late teenage years and fell thereafter to approximately 20-40 fmol/g in men older than 40 yr. The amount of receptor in the nuclear fraction increased at the time of puberty and subsequently decreased in parallel with the decline in total receptor level. These changes in androgen-receptor amount are similar when expressed per milligram DNA or per milligram protein.
C G Roehrborn, J L Lange, F W George, J D Wilson
Monokine-stimulated endothelial cells are known to produce both burst- and colony-stimulating activities, but neither the nature of the monokine nor the hematopoietic growth factor(s) produced is known. We show by mRNA analysis that an immortalized line of human endothelial cells constitutively produce granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Furthermore, interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor induce early passage human umbilical endothelial cells to produce the same growth factor.
C A Sieff, S Tsai, D V Faller
Endothelial cell growth factor (ECGF) alpha was studied for its effects on bone formation in cultured fetal rat calvariae and on bone resorption in cultured fetal rat long bones. ECGF at 0.1-100 ng/ml stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA, an effect enhanced by heparin. Treatment with ECGF for 24 h decreased the incorporation of [3H]proline into collagen but treatment for 48-96 h increased collagen and noncollagen protein synthesis, an effect that was concomitant with an increase in DNA content. ECGF did not alter collagen degradation in calvariae or 45Ca release from long bones, which indicated it had no effect on bone resorption. Although ECGF increased prostaglandin E2 concentrations, its effect on DNA synthesis was not prostaglandin-mediated. In conclusion, ECGF stimulates calvarial DNA synthesis, which is an effect that results in a generalized increase in protein synthesis, but ECGF has no effect on matrix degradation or bone resorption.
E Canalis, J Lorenzo, W H Burgess, T Maciag
We assayed [9,10(n)-3H]palmitate oxidation by fibroblast monolayers from patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. Activities in the different disorders were (percent control): short-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase deficiency (115%), medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (18%), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (28%), multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation disorder, mild and severe variants (49% and 7%), and palmityl-carnitine transferase deficiency (4%). Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation disorder, medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient lines, and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient lines all complemented one another after polyethylene glycol fusion, with average activity increases of 31-83%. We detected two complementation groups in the severe multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation disorder lines, consistent with deficiencies of either electron transfer flavoprotein or electron transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase. The metabolic block in the latter cell lines is threefold more severe than in the former (P less than 0.001). No intragenic complementation was observed within either group. We assigned two patients with previously unreported severe multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation disorder to the electron transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxido-reductase-deficient group.
A Moon, W J Rhead
Autoantibodies to components of the nucleolus are a unique serological feature of patients with scleroderma. There are autoantibodies of several specificities; one type produces a speckled pattern of nucleolar staining in immunofluorescence. In actinomycin D and 5,6-dichloro-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole-treated Vero cells, staining was restricted to the fibrillar and not the granular regions. By double immunofluorescence, specific rabbit anti-RNA polymerase I antibodies stained the same fibrillar structures in drug-segregated nucleoli as scleroderma sera. Scleroderma sera immunoprecipitated 13 polypeptides from [35S]methionine-labeled HeLa cell extract with molecular weights ranging from 210,000 to 14,000. Similar polypeptides were precipitated by rabbit anti-RNA polymerase I antibodies, and their common identities were confirmed in immunoabsorption experiments. Microinjection of purified IgG from a patient with speckled nucleolar staining effectively inhibited ribosomal RNA transcription. Autoantibodies to RNA polymerase I were restricted to certain patients with scleroderma and were not found in other autoimmune diseases.
G Reimer, K M Rose, U Scheer, E M Tan
To regulate the quantity of respiratory tract fluid, the airway epithelium either secretes chloride, Cl-, or reabsorbs sodium, Na+. Many secretagogues inhibit Na+ absorption, but the decrease may result from a fall in the electrochemical gradient for Na+ absorption. We examined regulation of Na+ absorption independent of Cl- secretion, by bathing canine tracheal epithelium in Cl--free, gluconate Ringers solution. Prostaglandin E2, 2-chloroadenosine, and isoproterenol increased short-circuit current (Isc) and the rate of Na+ absorption. In contrast, indomethacin, which inhibits endogenous prostaglandin production, decreased Isc. These agents regulate cellular levels of cAMP; direct addition of 8-Br-cAMP also acutely increased Isc. We examined chronic regulation of Na+ absorption in cell monolayers grown on permeable supports in serum-free media. Exposure to aldosterone for two days increased baseline Isc by 50% and the amiloride-inhibitable current by 55%. These data indicate that Na+ absorption is both acutely and chronically regulated in the airway epithelium.
J J Cullen, M J Welsh
The transepithelial chloride permeability of airway and sweat ductal epithelium has been reported to be decreased in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). In the present study, we investigated whether the airway epithelial defect was in the cell path by characterizing the relative ion permeabilities of the apical membrane of respiratory epithelial cells from CF and normal subjects. Membrane electric potential difference (PD) and the responses to luminal Cl- replacement, isoproterenol, and amiloride were measured with intracellular microelectrodes. The PD across the apical barrier was smaller for CF (-11 mV) than normal (-29 mV) epithelia whereas the PD across the basolateral barrier was similar, (-26 and -34 mV respectively). In contrast to normal nasal epithelium, the apical membrane in CF epithelia was not Cl- permselective and was not responsive to isoproterenol. Amiloride, a selective Na+ channel blocker, induced a larger apical membrane hyperpolarization and a greater increase in transepithelial resistance in CF epithelia. Both reduced apical cell membrane Cl- conductance and increased Na+ conductance appear to contribute to the abnormal function of respiratory epithelia of CF patients.
C U Cotton, M J Stutts, M R Knowles, J T Gatzy, R C Boucher
Bone formation is impaired in aluminum-associated bone disease. Reductions in the number of osteoblasts or in the function of individual osteoblasts could account for this finding. Thus, quantitative bone histology and measurements of bone formation were done at three skeletal sites in piglets given aluminum (Al) parenterally, 1.5 mg/kg per d, for 8 wk (Al, n = 4) and in control animals (C, n = 4). Bone Al was 241 +/- 40 mg/kg per dry weight in Al and 1.6 +/- 0.9 in C, P less than 0.001. All Al-treated animals developed osteomalacia with increases in osteoid seam width, osteoid volume, and mineralization lag time at each skeletal site, P less than 0.05 vs. C for all values. Mineralized bone formation at the tissue level was lower in Al than in C, P less than 0.05 for each skeletal site, due to reductions in active bone forming surface. Bone formation at the cellular level was similar in each group, however, and total osteoid production by osteoblasts did not differ in C and Al. Aluminum impairs the formation of mineralized bone in vivo by decreasing the number of active osteoblasts, and this change can be distinguished from the effect of aluminum to inhibit, either directly or indirectly, the calcification of osteoid.
A B Sedman, A C Alfrey, N L Miller, W G Goodman
The c-myc proto-oncogene is amplified and expressed at high levels in HL-60 cells, a cell line derived from a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Upon induction to terminal maturation, expression of c-myc is greatly reduced. We have studied the level of gene expression at which the change in c-myc expression is controlled and the changes in chromatin configuration that accompany the repression of myc expression. We report here that the repression of myc expression with induced maturation is controlled at the level of transcription, and that reduced expression is accompanied by the loss of a single DNAse I hypersensitive site 0.9 kilobase pair upstream from the gene.
K A High, C A Stolle, J W Schneider, W Hu, E J Benz Jr
Expression of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene was studied by Northern blot analysis in normal human hematopoietic cells and a series of leukemias. GM-CSF messenger (m)RNA was detected in activated T cells, but not in normal bone marrow cells, monocytes, or nonactivated T cells. In contrast, leukemic cells from 11 of 22 cases of acute myeloblastic leukemia expressed GM-CSF transcripts. Biologically active CSF was detected in supernatant conditioned by 6 of these 11 leukemias. Expression of the GM-CSF gene was not detected in "common" (pre-B cell) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (11 cases tested) or chronic myeloid leukemia (4 cases tested). These results show that the GM-CSF gene is constitutively expressed in a subset of patients with AML, and further suggest that expression of this gene could contribute to the abnormal growth properties characteristic of AML.
D C Young, K Wagner, J D Griffin
Brief periods of ischemia and reperfusion may lead to arrhythmias and delayed epicardial activation. To determine the nature of the electrophysiologic substrate and to gain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the electrophysiologic and hemodynamic abnormalities that develop in this setting, standard microelectrode techniques were used to measure action potential characteristics, conduction velocity, and space constants in canine isolated epicardial preparations removed after a 15-min anterior descending artery occlusion and 20-min reflow period in vivo. Our results demonstrate a significant reduction in conduction velocity (0.78 +/- 0.38 vs. 0.31 +/- 0.12 m/s, P less than 0.001), space constant (1.05 +/- 0.42 vs. 0.45 +/- 0.12 mm, P = 0.004), resting membrane potential (81.3 +/- 2.5 vs. 61.7 +/- 7.8 mV, P less than 0.001), action potential amplitude (94.1 +/- 4.2 vs. 64.1 +/- 1.5 mV, P less than 0.001), and dV/dT (164.7 +/- 37.3 vs. 52.6 +/- 19.7 V/s, P less than 0.001) in postischemic reperfused myocardium. The space constant and dV/dT each correlated with conduction velocity; in addition, the space constant was an independent predictor of conduction velocity in these tissues. These electrophysiologic abnormalities may play a role in the arrhythmias and abnormalities of contraction present in postischemic, reperfused myocardium.
J H Levine, E N Moore, H F Weisman, A H Kadish, L C Becker, J F Spear
Addition of fibrinogen to human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture resulted in release of von Willebrand factor (vWf) from Weibel-Palade bodies that was temporally related to formation of fibrin in the medium. Whereas no release occurred before gelation, the formation of fibrin was associated with disappearance of Weibel-Palade bodies and development of extracellular patches of immunofluorescence typical of vWf release. Release also occurred within 10 min of exposure to preformed fibrin but did not occur after exposure to washed red cells, clot liquor, or structurally different fibrin prepared with reptilase. Metabolically labeled vWf was immunopurified from the medium after release by fibrin and shown to consist of highly processed protein lacking pro-vWf subunits. The contribution of residual thrombin to release stimulated by fibrin was minimized by preparing fibrin clots with nonstimulatory concentrations of thrombin and by inhibiting residual thrombin with hirudin or heating. We conclude that fibrin formed at sites of vessel injury may function as a physiologic secretagogue for endothelial cells causing rapid release of stored vWf.
J A Ribes, C W Francis, D D Wagner
Endotoxemia is frequently associated clinically with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC); however, the mechanism of endotoxin action in vivo is unclear. Modulation of tissue factor (TF) and thrombomodulin (TM) expression on the endothelial surface may be relevant pathophysiologic mechanisms. Stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with endotoxin (1 microgram/ml) increased surface TF activity from 1.52 +/- 0.84 to 11.89 +/- 8.12 mU/ml-10(6) cells at 6 h (n = 11) which returned to baseline by 24 h. Repeated stimulation at 24 h resulted in renewed TF expression. Endotoxin (1 microgram/ml) also caused a decrease in TM expression to 55.0 +/- 6.4% of control levels at 24 h (n = 10) that remained depressed at 48 h. Both effects were dose and serum dependent. A temporary rise in TF expression accompanied by a sustained fall in TM expression comprise a shift in the hemostatic properties of the endothelium that would favor intravascular coagulation and may contribute to the pathogenesis of DIC in gram-negative septicemia.
K L Moore, S P Andreoli, N L Esmon, C T Esmon, N U Bang
The blood cells of patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) have abnormal interactions with complement. The activity of the alternative pathway C3 convertase on the platelets of 9 out of 19 patients with PNH was elevated. 10 patients had C3 convertase activity within the normal range even though 80-95% of their platelets lacked the complement regulatory protein decay accelerating factor (DAF) that is absent from the affected blood cells in PNH. PNH and normal platelets released factor H when C3 was bound to their surfaces. This may account for the apparent regulation of C3 convertase activity on platelets that lack DAF. The abnormal uptake of the membrane attack complex of complement by PNH III erythrocytes was not seen in PNH platelets. 111Indium-labeled platelet survival times were normal in five of eight patients, which suggests that the lack of the membrane attack complex defect results in normal platelet survival in PNH.
D V Devine, R S Siegel, W F Rosse
To compare passive urea transport across the inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs) and the papillary surface epithelium (PSE) of the kidney, two determinants of passive transport were measured, namely permeability coefficient and surface area. Urea permeability was measured in isolated perfused IMCDs dissected from carefully localized sites along the inner medullas of rats and rabbits. Mean permeability coefficients (X 10(-5) cm/s) in rat IMCDs were: outer third of inner medulla (IMCD1), 1.6 +/- 0.5; middle third (IMCD2), 46.6 +/- 10.5; and inner third (IMCD3), 39.1 +/- 3.6. Mean permeability coefficients in rabbit IMCDs were: IMCD1, 1.2 +/- 0.1; IMCD2, 11.6 +/- 2.8; and IMCD3, 13.1 +/- 1.8. The rabbit PSE was dissected free from the underlying renal inner medulla and was mounted in a specially designed chamber to measure its permeability to urea. The mean value was 1 X 10(-5) cm/s both in the absence and presence of vasopressin (10 nM). Morphometry of renal papillary cross sections revealed that the total surface area of IMCDs exceeds the total area of the PSE by 10-fold in the rat and threefold in the rabbit. We conclude: the IMCD displays axial heterogeneity with respect to urea permeability, with a high permeability only in its distal two-thirds; and because the urea permeability and surface area of the PSE are relatively small, passive transport across it is unlikely to be a major source of urea to the inner medullary interstitium.
J M Sands, M A Knepper
We investigated the interactions of rotaviruses with glycoproteins and cells that support rotaviral replication. We found that a wide range of naturally occurring glycoproteins, including ovalbumins and ovomucoids from chicken and turkey eggs, and mucin derived from bovine submaxillary glands, inhibit the replication of rotaviruses in MA-104 cells. Our studies further indicated that the glycoproteins bind directly to rotaviruses and that virus-glycoprotein binding is dependent largely upon interactions with sialic acid oligosaccharides. We found that accessible sialic acid oligosaccharides are required for efficient rotavirus infection of MA-104 cells, thus demonstrating that sialic acid oligosaccharides play an important role in the interactions of rotaviruses with both glycoproteins and cells that support rotaviral replication. Bovine submaxillary mucin and chicken ovoinhibitor can also prevent the shedding of rotavirus antigen and the development of rotavirus gastroenteritis in a mouse model of rotavirus infection. Our findings document that a range of glycoproteins inhibit the in vivo and in vitro replication of rotaviruses and suggest that the alteration in the quantity or chemical composition of intestinal glycoproteins is a potential means for the modulation of enteric infections.
R H Yolken, R Willoughby, S B Wee, R Miskuff, S Vonderfecht
Isolated perfused rabbit hearts that have previously been subjected to in vivo left ventricular myocardial infarction respond to N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or bradykinin (BK) administration with the synthesis of large quantities of eicosanoids. To anatomically localize these synthetic responses we studied the effects of fMLP and BK on eicosanoid synthesis in isolated atria and isolated perfused ventricles from normal and infarcted (4 d in vivo) rabbit hearts. These studies revealed that enhanced agonist-stimulated eicosanoid synthesis occurs largely in the right atria of infarcted hearts, a site distant from the zone of injury. Studies of exogenous arachidonate metabolism in microsomes prepared from various regions of the heart showed that while prostaglandin synthetic capacity is preferentially localized to the right atrium, right atria from normal and infarcted hearts have similar thromboxane and PGE2 synthetic capacity. These results demonstrate that enhanced agonist-stimulated eicosanoid synthesis following rabbit left ventricular myocardial infarction occurs largely in the right atrium, and that this effect is independent of the activity of prostaglandin synthetic enzymes.
A S Evers, C G Dunkel, J E Saffitz, P Needleman
We studied the effects of vitamin A deficiency and repletion on rat insulin release and islet cellular retinol binding protein (CRBP) and cellular retinoic acid binding protein (CRABP). Biphasic insulin release from vitamin A-deficient perifused islets was markedly impaired. Release remained impaired with retinoic acid (RA) repletion, 2 micrograms/g diet compared to release from islets of rats repleted with retinol in the form of retinyl palmitate, 4 micrograms/g diet. Release normalized with RA, 8 micrograms/g diet. Vitamin A deficiency did not affect islet insulin content, cell size, number or structure. In vivo, vitamin A-deficient rats had impaired glucose-induced acute insulin release and glucose intolerance, which improved with repletion. Normal islets had greater concentrations of CRBP than CRABP; vitamin A deficiency reduced CRBP but not CRABP levels. We conclude retinol is required for normal insulin secretion. Retinoic acid may substitute for retinol in this function.
B S Chertow, W S Blaner, N G Baranetsky, W I Sivitz, M B Cordle, D Thompson, P Meda
The dependence of vascular relaxation on an intact endothelium and the relationship between relaxation and cyclic GMP accumulation were determined in coronary arteries isolated from cardiac transplantation patients with or without coronary atherosclerosis. In nonatherosclerotic arteries, the endothelium-dependent agent acetylcholine produced concentration-related relaxations. In atherosclerotic arteries, endothelium-dependent relaxations were abolished with acetylcholine, partly suppressed with substance P and histamine, and completely preserved with the ionophore A23187. In these arteries, the endothelium-independent agent nitroglycerin remained fully active. Accumulation of cyclic GMP in atherosclerotic strips was suppressed with acetylcholine but unattenuated with A23187 and nitroglycerin. In aortas from rabbits with diet-induced atherosclerosis, there was likewise an impaired cholinergic relaxation and cyclic GMP accumulation in the presence of preserved responses to A23187 and nitroglycerin. The results demonstrate that impaired cholinergic responses in atherosclerotic arteries reflect a muscarinic defect and not an inability of endothelium to release endothelial factor or smooth muscle to respond to it.
C Bossaller, G B Habib, H Yamamoto, C Williams, S Wells, P D Henry
The effects of somatostatin (SRIF), insulin, and triiodothyronine (T3) on the growth of human hepatoma cells were investigated on the well-differentiated human hepatoma cell line Hep3B. Results showed that both insulin and T3 can stimulate cell growth of serum starved Hep3B cells at physiological concentrations. SRIF alone showed little growth-promoting activity. When added concurrently with insulin, however, SRIF suppressed the insulin-induced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, SRIF had no inhibitory effect on T3-induced cell proliferation. SRIF is labile in the medium, with a half-life of about 2 h during culture incubation. SRIF did not disturb the insulin binding to its surface receptors nor inhibit the insulin-dependent receptor kinase activity of Hep3B cells in vitro. These results suggest that postreceptor regulation may be involved. The selective suppression by SRIF of insulin-induced cell growth provides an unique approach to the study of insulin actions on proliferation of human hepatoma cells.
C K Chou, L T Ho, L P Ting, C P Hu, T S Su, W C Chang, C S Suen, M Y Huang, C M Chang
Stimulated platelets, in the presence or absence of aspirin, synthesize significant quantities of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE), which is chemotactic and chemokinetic, and enhances mononuclear cell procoagulant activity. During a cell-cell interaction between stimulated platelets and unstimulated neutrophils, platelet 12-HETE is metabolized to 12,20-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12,20-DiHETE) by neutrophils. Characteristics of the enzyme system in unstimulated neutrophils responsible for this omega-hydroxylation were investigated. A broad range of cytochrome P-450 inhibitors, as well as leukotriene B4, blocked formation of 12,20-DiHETE. Owing largely to released proteases, neutrophil homogenization abolished activity. Pretreatment with diisopropylfluorophosphate preserved activity in neutrophil homogenates. omega-Hydroxylation of 12-HETE was confined solely to the microsomal fraction. Specific activity increased 6.6-fold compared with neutrophil sonicates. The electron donor NADPH was a required cofactor. These results indicate that the enzyme in unstimulated human neutrophils, which metabolizes 12-HETE from stimulated platelets to 12,20-DiHETE in this cell-cell interaction, is a cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase.
A J Marcus, L B Safier, H L Ullman, N Islam, M J Broekman, C von Schacky
Kininogenase activity was detected by cleavage of radiolabeled substrate (125I-high molecular weight kininogen [HMWK]) in 22 of 24 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from 17 asthmatics who either responded to aerosolized allergen challenge or had symptoms of active asthma. In contrast, six of seven normal controls lacked enzymatic activity. Levels of free immunoreactive kinin found in BAL fluid correlated with the presence of kininogenase activity (P = 0.002). The cleavage pattern of 125I-HMWK by the BAL fluid kininogenase (a dominant 65,000-mol wt fragment), and synthetic inhibitor profile (phe-phe-arg-CH2Cl and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride) were compatible with a tissue kallikrein. Peak kininogenase activity eluted at an apparent molecular weight of 20,000-34,000 by HPLC gel filtration. Its antigenic identity was established by immunoblotting with anti-human urinary kallikrein antibody and its activity was inhibited by this antibody. Lysylbradykinin was generated during incubation of fractionated BAL fluid and purified HMWK, the characteristic cleavage product of the tissue kallikreins. We conclude that elevated amounts of tissue kallikrein and kinin are present in the bronchoalveolar spaces of asthmatic subjects. Kinin generation may contribute to the asthmatic response directly through edema formation and smooth muscle contraction and by augmenting release and/or production of preformed (histamine) and secondary mediators such as leukotrienes and platelet-activating factor.
S C Christiansen, D Proud, C G Cochrane
We examined the independent effects of a high potassium diet and increased aldosterone levels on the development of renal potassium adaptation. This condition is defined by the increased ability of the kidneys to excrete an acute infusion of potassium. Rats were adrenalectomized (ADX) and received aldosterone at basal levels (0.5 microgram/100 g X d) or at high levels (2.0 micrograms/100 g X d) for 10 d. In each experimental group, animals received either a control diet or a high potassium diet. In ADX animals with basal aldosterone levels, a high potassium intake increased but did not completely restore the ability to excrete potassium and induced proliferation of the basolateral membrane of principal cells in the collecting tubule (i.e., morphologic adaptation). In contrast, increased aldosterone did not induce functional adaptation. Elevated aldosterone and dietary potassium intake were required to produce functional potassium adaptation indistinguishable from that in potassium-loaded, adrenal-intact animals.
B Stanton, L Pan, H Deetjen, V Guckian, G Giebisch
These studies were designed to determine whether the insulin resistance of fasting extends to its antilipolytic effects and whether fasting enhances the lipolytic effects of adrenergic stimulation independent of changes in plasma hormone and substrate concentrations. Palmitate flux was determined isotopically ([1-14C]palmitate) before and during epinephrine infusion in normal volunteers after a 14-h (day 1) and an 84-h (day 4) fast. Using a pancreatic clamp, constant plasma hormone and glucose concentrations were achieved on both study days in seven subjects. Six subjects were infused with saline and served as controls. During the pancreatic clamp, palmitate flux was greater (P less than 0.01) on day 4 than day 1, despite similar plasma insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and glucose concentrations. The lipolytic response to epinephrine was greater (P less than 0.05) on day 4 than day 1 in both groups of subjects. In conclusion, lipolysis during fasting is less completely suppressed by insulin and more readily stimulated by epinephrine.
M D Jensen, M W Haymond, J E Gerich, P E Cryer, J M Miles
Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) is a membrane protein that protects blood cells from damage by autologous complement. Using monoclonal antibodies in both direct-binding studies and flow cytometry, we found that resting neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMN]) expressed 10(4) DAF molecules on their surface, and that surface DAF expression more than doubled when the cells were activated. Upregulation of surface DAF occurred within minutes, paralleled the upregulation of complement receptor types 1 and 3 (CR1 and CR3), and was not dependent on new protein synthesis. It was unaffected by EDTA but was inhibited by 10 microM trifluoperazine, suggesting involvement of intracellular Ca2+ and calmodulin or protein kinase C. Upon activation, the affected PMN lacking surface DAF from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobulinuria failed to increase DAF expression. In contrast, these cells increased CR1 and CR3 expression normally, suggesting that DAF deficiency in affected cells involves abnormal synthesis or packaging of DAF for intracellular storage. Translocation of DAF to the cell surface induced by chemoattractants may be important in allowing PMN to survive and function at inflammatory sites where there is rapid complement turnover.
M Berger, M E Medof
Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture filtrates varied in their ability to slow human ciliary beat frequency (7-71%). This activity did not correlate with known virulence factors. However, a close correlation (r = 0.97) existed between ciliary slowing and pigment content. In a prolonged culture, the increase in activity correlated (r = 0.94) with pigment accumulation. Gel filtration of lyophilized filtrate yielded a single peak of activity corresponding to the pigment fraction. Pyocyanin extracted from an active strain, and 1-hydroxyphenazine were purified by high performance liquid chromatography, and characterized by ultraviolet absorbance spectra and mass spectrometry. Both slowed cilia in a dose-dependent manner, and were synthesized and shown to be indistinguishable from the biological compounds. Pyocyanin caused gradual onset of slowing and ultimate widespread ciliostasis with epithelial disruption. 1-hydroxyphenazine caused rapid onset of ciliary slowing associated with dyskinesia and ciliostasis. Pyocyanin assayed within filtrates accounted for a significant proportion of the bioactivity present.
R Wilson, T Pitt, G Taylor, D Watson, J MacDermot, D Sykes, D Roberts, P Cole
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) produced a dose-dependent immediate stimulation of inositol triphosphate and diacylglycerol production in the opossum kidney cell line, primary culture proximal tubular cells, and basolateral membranes from canine proximal tubular segments. The increase in inositol triphosphate production was accompanied by a minor increase in inositol phosphate and no significant increase in inositol bisphosphate production. Associated with the changes in inositol triphosphate and diacylglycerol, there was an immediate hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4'5-bisphosphate. The effect on phospholipid hydrolysis was followed by stimulation of phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 4' monophosphate and phosphatidylinositol. PTH produced a sudden increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ in opossum kidney cells that persisted for approximately 1 min. Inositol triphosphate transiently increased cytoplasmic Ca2+ in saponin-treated opossum kidney and primary culture proximal tubule cells. The effects of PTH were not mimicked by cyclic nucleotides. In fact, cyclic AMP appeared to diminish inositol triphosphate production. These results demonstrate that PTH may activate renal tubular epithelial cells by the production of inositol triphosphate and diacylglycerol.
K A Hruska, D Moskowitz, P Esbrit, R Civitelli, S Westbrook, M Huskey
The tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor was examined with partially-purified insulin receptors from adipocytes obtained from 13 lean nondiabetics, 14 obese nondiabetics, and 13 obese subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM). Incubation of receptors at 4 degrees C with [gamma-32P]ATP and insulin resulted in a maximal 10-12-fold increase in autophosphorylation of the 92-kDa beta-subunit of the receptor with a half maximal effect at 1-3 ng/ml free insulin. Insulin receptor kinase activity in the three experimental groups was measured by means of both autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate Glu4:Tyr1. In the absence of insulin, autophosphorylation and Glu4:Tyr1 phosphorylation activities, measured with equal numbers of insulin receptors, were comparable among the three groups. In contrast, insulin-stimulated kinase activity was comparable in the control and obese subjects, but was reduced by approximately 50% in the NIDDM group. These findings indicate that the decrease in kinase activity in NIDDM resulted from a reduction in coupling efficiency between insulin binding and activation of the receptor kinase. The insulin receptor kinase defects observed in NIDDM could be etiologically related to insulin resistance in NIDDM and the pathogenesis of the diabetic state.
G R Freidenberg, R R Henry, H H Klein, D R Reichart, J M Olefsky
We have studied major histocompatibility complex markers in randomly ascertained Caucasian patients with gluten-sensitive enteropathy and their families. The frequencies of extended haplotypes, defined as haplotypes of specific HLA-B, DR, BF, C2, C4A, and C4B allelic combinations, occurring more frequently than expected, were compared on patient chromosomes, on normal chromosomes from the study families, and on chromosomes from normal families. Over half of patient chromosomes consisted almost entirely of two extended haplotypes [HLA-B8, DR3, SC01] and [HLA-B44, DR7, FC31] which, with nonextended HLA-DR7, accounted for the previously observed HLA markers of this disease: HLA-B8, DR3, and DR7. There was no increase in HLA-DR3 on nonextended haplotypes or in other extended haplotypes with HLA-DR3 or DR7. The distribution of homozygotes and heterozygotes for HLA-DR3 and DR7 was consistent with recessive inheritance of the major histocompatibility complex-linked susceptibility gene for gluten-sensitive enteropathy. On the other hand, by odds ratio analysis and from the sum of DR3 and DR7 homozygotes compared with DR3/DR7 heterozygotes, there was an increase in heterozygotes and a decrease in homozygotes suggesting the presence of modifying phenomena.
C A Alper, E Fleischnick, Z Awdeh, A J Katz, E J Yunis
Soluble immune response suppressor (SIRS), a lymphokine that suppresses antibody production and delayed type hypersensitivity in vivo, has been detected in urine and serum from certain patients with nephrotic syndrome. In the present paper, the relationship between SIRS production and nephrotic syndrome is further characterized. A striking correlation was found between detection of SIRS and the presence of steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). A potential mechanism of SIRS production in SRNS patients was identified, in that lymphocytes from patients produced SIRS without requiring activation by exogenous agents, and incubation of normal lymphocytes with serum from patients activated the cells to secrete SIRS in culture. Although SIRS disappears rapidly from urine or serum after initiation of corticosteroid therapy, hydrocortisone (10(-6)-10(-7) M) did not block secretion of SIRS by activated suppressor cells. It did, however, inhibit in vitro activation of lymphocytes to produce SIRS by concanavalin A, interferon, or SRNS patient serum. The association of suppressor cell activation with SRNS and the sensitivity of both to steroids suggest that the pathogeneses of albuminuria and SIRS production are related.
H W Schnaper, T M Aune
Endothelial injury may contribute to the augmented coronary vascular tone seen in myocardial ischemia by impairing endothelial production or release of vasodilators. In vitro reactivity of arterial rings was studied after 60 min of coronary occlusion and 60 min of reperfusion in anesthetized dogs. Ischemia without reperfusion blunted contractile reactivity to potassium chloride (KCl), whereas ischemia plus reperfusion augmented contractile responses to both KCl and ergonovine. The response to acetylcholine, an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, was abolished in reperfused arteries, whereas the response to nitroprusside, an endothelium-independent vasodilator, was intact. Verapamil pretreatment restored KCl contractile responses to normal in reperfused coronary rings and partially restored endothelium-dependent relaxation. Electron microscopy revealed a nondenuding epicardial coronary endothelial injury in reperfused arteries. These data support the hypothesis that reperfusion of ischemic myocardium augments reactivity to vasoconstrictor agents by causing endothelial cell damage, excessive calcium influx, and loss of modulating vasodilator function.
K M VanBenthuysen, I F McMurtry, L D Horwitz
Lack of muscle glycogen phosphorylase activity leads to McArdle's disease, a rare metabolic myopathy. To investigate its molecular basis at the nucleic acid level, we isolated muscle phosphorylase cDNA clones from a human cDNA library in Escherichia coli plasmid pBR 322. Subcloning of one insertion of M13 bacteriophage permitted its definite identification by sequencing. Northern blot experiments revealed one specific messenger RNA of 3.4 kilobases found uniquely in tissues expressing muscle phosphorylase. We show that McArdle's disease exhibits a molecular heterogeneity at the messenger RNA level. In eight unrelated cases of McArdle's disease in which no inactive proteins had been detected, we assayed muscle biopsies for phosphorylase mRNA by Northern blotting. In five cases, no muscle phosphorylase mRNA could be detected, while in three other cases, normal length mRNA was present in lower amounts. Moreover, Southern blot analysis of DNA isolated from white blood cells in four McArdle patients revealed no major deletion or rearrangements of the phosphorylase gene as compared with controls.
S Gautron, D Daegelen, F Mennecier, D Dubocq, A Kahn, J C Dreyfus
A molecular linkage analysis of four large families with the Lowe oculocerebrorenal syndrome (LS) provided a subregional localization of LS to the distal long arm of the X chromosome at Xq24-q26. Probes from two loci that identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and map to Xq24-q26 showed no recombination with LS. A maximum likelihood recombination distance (theta) = 0.00 was obtained for DXS10 with the logarithm of the odds (lod) of 6.450. For DXS42, theta = 0.00 with a lod of 5.087. Assignment of the gene or genes for LS to Xq24-q26 has the potential of improving carrier detection and providing prenatal diagnosis in families at risk for the disease.
D N Silver, R A Lewis, R L Nussbaum
To determine if erythropoietin affects megakaryocytopoiesis, we measured acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, a marker of the murine megakaryocytic lineage, after the addition of human recombinant erythropoietin to serumless murine bone marrow cultures. Erythropoietin increased AchE activity substantially. Moreover, when the hormone was added to serumless cultures of 426 isolated single megakaryocytes derived from megakaryocytic colonies, erythropoietin induced a significant increase in the diameters of these cells. From a Bayesian analysis of the likelihood that some megakaryocytes increased in DNA content during the culture period, we estimate that 61% of the cells increased in ploidy. These data indicate that the action of erythropoietin is not restricted to the erythroid lineage.
T Ishibashi, J A Koziol, S A Burstein
To determine the role of dietary sodium intake in the reduction in beta-adrenergic sensitivity in hypertension, lymphocyte beta-receptors from 8 borderline hypertensive and 16 normotensive subjects were studied after 5 d on a high sodium diet (400 meq/d) and also following a low sodium diet (10 meq/d). During the high sodium diet, lymphocyte beta-receptor-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity, expressed as the relative increase over basal levels stimulated by the beta-agonist isoproterenol, was significantly (P less than 0.025) decreased in hypertensive (24 +/- 5%, mean +/- SE) compared with normotensive (42 +/- 4%) subjects. Neither beta-receptor density nor the proportion of nonsequestered beta-receptors differed between groups. A low sodium diet significantly increased beta-receptor-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in hypertensives (low sodium, 51 +/- 7%; high sodium, 24 +/- 5%, P less than 0.025) to a level not different than that of normotensives (46 +/- 5%). Thus, reduced lymphocyte beta-receptor responsiveness in hypertensive subjects is not due to beta-receptor sequestration and is corrected on a low sodium diet. Dietary sodium may be an important factor in the beta-receptor defect in early hypertension.
R D Feldman, W J Lawton, W L McArdle
The effect of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) on the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP) in rat brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been examined. Thyroidectomized rats have a threefold reduction in basal UCP levels. When exposed to cold, they become hypothermic and show a fivefold lower response of UCP than euthyroid controls. T3 augments the basal levels and the response of UCP and its mRNA to cold in a dose-dependent manner. However, to normalize the response of UCP, T3 has to be given in a dosage that produces systemic hyperthyroidism. Mere T3 replacement corrects the systemic hypothyroidism but not the hypothermia or the low levels of UCP. In contrast, replacement doses of T4 prevent the hypothermia and correct the UCP level. Both effects of T4 are blocked by preventing T4 to T3 conversion in BAT. Thus, the optimal UCP response to cold and protection against hypothermia require a high BAT T3 concentration, which is attained from euthyroid levels of T4 via the activation of the BAT T4 5'deiodinase during cold exposure, but not from euthyroid plasma T3 levels.
A C Bianco, J E Silva
Complementary DNA (cDNA) clones specific for phospholamban of sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes have been isolated from a canine cardiac cDNA library. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequence indicates that phospholamban consists of 52 amino acid residues and lacks an amino-terminal signal sequence. The protein has an inferred mol wt 6,080 that is in agreement with its apparent monomeric mol wt 6,000, estimated previously by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Phospholamban contains two distinct domains, a hydrophilic region at the amino terminus (domain I) and a hydrophobic region at the carboxy terminus (domain II). We propose that domain I is localized at the cytoplasmic surface and offers phosphorylatable sites whereas domain II is anchored into the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane.
J Fujii, A Ueno, K Kitano, S Tanaka, M Kadoma, M Tada
Natural killer (NK) cells, which represent a small fraction of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, were purified by immunofluorescent cell sorting of NKH1+ cells. cytotoxicity of NKH1+ cells could be enhanced through activation by monoclonal antibodies (anti-T11(2) and anti-T11(3)) specific for epitopes of the sheep erythrocyte receptor or by recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2). After 18 h, incubation with both anti-T11(2/3) and rIL-2 resulted in similar levels of enhanced cytotoxicity against NK-resistant as well as NK-sensitive targets. Before and after induction, cytotoxicity was found predominantly within the NKH1+ population. These results suggest that several distinct mechanisms may be capable of enhancing NK activity and that the cells responsible for lymphokine-activated killing are likely to be the same population capable of spontaneous or natural killing before activation in vitro.
R E Schmidt, J M Michon, J Woronicz, S F Schlossman, E L Reinherz, J Ritz
Susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) has been linked to the immunoglobulin G (Gm) markers as well as HLA-DR genes. We have used a genomic Ig gamma 1 probe which detects polymorphisms in the gamma 1, gamma 2, gamma 3 and pseudogamma genes to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms associated with MS. A negative association was found between a 5.9-kilobase (kb) Bst EII gamma 3 fragment and MS. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA revealed the presence of this fragment in 84 of 140 (60.0%) controls, but in only 17 of 59 (28.8%) MS patients. The frequency of the fragment in 47 myasthenia gravis and 16 Graves' disease patients was similar to that in controls, 60.0 and 62.5%, respectively.
C N Gaiser, M J Johnson, G de Lange, L Rassenti, L L Cavalli-Sforza, L Steinman
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired hematopoietic stem cell disorder in which the blood cells demonstrate aberrant interactions with serum complement. In part, this is due to the absence of the complement regulatory protein, decay accelerating factor (DAF). A small number of patients with PNH have gone on to develop acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, which is thought to arise from the injured marrow as a second hematopoietic disorder. We have studied a patient with PNH who developed acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML); the blasts from this patient were found to lack DAF as measured by polyclonal antibody binding and fluorescence flow cytometry as well as by immunoblotting. The blasts from 11 other patients with AML bound anti-DAF antibody in amounts similar to normal mononuclear cells from healthy donors. Cells of the human leukemia cell lines HL-60, K562, U937, and HEL also bound anti-DAF antibody. In addition to DAF deficiency, blasts from the PNH patient had undetectable alkaline phosphatase activity, in contrast to human leukemia cell lines. These data suggest that the leukemic cells of the PNH patient arose out of the PNH clone and that AML in the setting of PNH is not a separate disorder.
D V Devine, W L Gluck, W F Rosse, J B Weinberg