R W Carrell
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) mediates many components of generalized host response to injury and may also contribute to local vascular pathology during immune or inflammatory responses. Because altered function of smooth muscle cells (SMC) accompanies certain vascular diseases, we tested whether SMC themselves might produce this hormone. Unstimulated SMC contain little or no IL-1 mRNA. However, exposure to bacterial endotoxin caused accumulation of IL-1 mRNA in SMC cultured from human vessels. Endotoxin maximally increased IL-1 beta mRNA in SMC after 4-6 h. The lowest effective concentration of endotoxin was 10 pg/ml. 10 ng/ml produced maximal increases in IL-1 beta mRNA. Interleukin-1 alpha mRNA was detected when SMC were incubated with endotoxin under "superinduction" conditions with cycloheximide. Endotoxin-stimulated SMC also released biologically functional IL-1, measured as thymocyte costimulation activity inhibitable by anti-IL-1 antibody. Thus, human SMC can express IL-1 beta and IL-1 alpha genes, or very similar ones, and secrete biologically active product in response to a pathological stimulus. Endogenous local production of this inflammatory mediator by the blood vessel wall's major cell type could play an important early role in the pathogenesis of vasculitis and arteriosclerosis.
P Libby, J M Ordovas, L K Birinyi, K R Auger, C A Dinarello
We describe a 10-yr-old boy with T-lineage non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. He had a mediastinal mass, swollen supraclavicular lymph nodes, and pleural effusion. A supraclavicular lymph node biopsy under light microscopy showed a malignant lymphoma of diffuse lymphoblastic type. Most of the cells taken from the malignant pleural effusion expressed T cell-associated antigens such as Leu-1 and OKT 8. To confirm these antigens as T-lineage lymphoma, we examined genomic DNA from malignant cells obtained from the pleural effusion. As was expected, T cell receptor beta-chain gene rearrangements were demonstrated. However, when the immunoglobulin gene organization was analyzed, we detected rearrangements in both the heavy- and kappa-chain genes. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which kappa-chain gene rearrangement was detected in apparent T-lineage cells. These findings provide important information relating to determination of the cellular lineage of lymphoid malignancy.
K Ha-Kawa, J Hara, Y Keiko, A Muraguchi, N Kawamura, S Ishihara, S Doi, H Yabuuchi
In an attempt to clarify the mechanisms by which angiotensin II (AII) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) regulate mesangial cell function, we examined the membrane potential change of mesangial cells and found that cells contracted and membrane potential depolarized in response to AII and AVP. The depolarization was associated with decreased input resistance. Ca ionophore A23187 caused similar mesangial cell contraction and depolarization. The reversal potential (Vr) of the depolarization response to AII and AVP was -29 +/- 3 and -25 +/- 7 mV (mean +/- SD), respectively. Not only the Vr of the AII-induced depolarization but also Vr of the Ca ionophore-induced response was dependent upon the extracellular Cl- concentration. Further, AII and AVP caused cell contraction and membrane depolarization in Ca++-free medium containing 0.5 mM EGTA. These data suggest the presence of Ca++ -activated Cl- channels in the mesangial cells and that AII and AVP increase Cl- permeability via an elevation of [Ca++]i released from the intracellular organellae.
T Okuda, N Yamashita, K Kurokawa
Fibroblasts from two affected members of a large pedigree in which osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type IV is genetically linked to the pro alpha 2(I) gene of type I collagen synthesize two populations of pro alpha 2(I) chains. One population is normal; the second population appears to have a deletion of about 10 amino acid residues from the middle of the triple helical domain. The mutation in pro alpha 2(I) causes increased posttranslational modification in the amino-terminal half of some pro alpha 1(I) chains, lowers the melting temperature of type I collagen molecules that incorporate a mutant pro alpha 2(I) chain, and prevents or delays the secretion of those molecules from fibroblasts in cell culture. On the basis of this study and linkage studies in additional families, it appears that the OI type IV phenotype is often the result of heterozygosity for mutations in pro alpha 2(I) that alter the triple helical structure of type I collagen.
R J Wenstrup, P Tsipouras, P H Byers
A fluid shear stress of 180 dyn/cm2 was applied for 0.5 and 5 min to platelets in citrated plasma or blood in a cone and plate viscometer with minimal platelet-surface interactions. Platelets aggregated in the shear field if large von Willebrand Factor (vWF) multimers were present. Aggregation did not require ristocetin, other exogenous agents, or desialation of vWF. Unusually large vWF multimers produced by human endothelial cells were functionally more effective than the largest plasma vWF forms in supporting shear-induced aggregation. Shear-induced aggregation was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies to platelet glycoprotein Ib or the IIb/IIIa complex, but was little affected by the absence of fibrinogen. vWF-dependent platelet aggregation under elevated shear stress in partially occluded vessels of the arterial microcirculation may contribute to thrombosis, especially if unusually large vWF multimers are released locally from stimulated or disrupted endothelial cells.
J L Moake, N A Turner, N A Stathopoulos, L H Nolasco, J D Hellums
Differences in aortic impedance between normotensives and hypertensives are not well characterized. We examined impedance in 8 normotensive and 11 hypertensive (mean 96.7 vs. 122.2 mmHg) age-matched, Chinese patients undergoing cardiac catheterization at rest, during nitroprusside, and handgrip exercise before and after beta blockade (propranolol). Hypertensives had higher resistance (2,295 vs. 1713 dyn-s/cm5), characteristic impedance (145.7 vs. 93.9 dyn-s/cm5), total external power (1,579 vs. 1174 mW), peripheral reflections (ratio of backward to forward wave components of 0.54 vs. 0.44), and first zero crossing of impedance phase angle (4.15 vs. 2.97 Hz). These abnormalities were eliminated with vasodilatation. Differences between groups were not further exacerbated when pressure was increased during handgrip exercise. Beta blockade further increased resistance and reflections. Thus, hemodynamic abnormalities of essential hypertension (increased resistance, reflections, and pulse wave velocity, and decreased compliance) are compatible with an increased vasomotor tone that is further unmasked during generalized beta blockade.
C T Ting, K P Brin, S J Lin, S P Wang, M S Chang, B N Chiang, F C Yin
The present studies examined the mechanism of bicarbonate transport across basolateral membrane vesicles prepared from rabbit renal cortex. Isotopic sodium uptake was stimulated by bicarbonate when compared with gluconate (2.5 nmol/mg protein per 5 s versus 1.4 nmol/mg protein per 5 s), and this process was inhibited by disulfonic stilbenes. Imposition of an interior-positive potassium diffusion potential further stimulated isotopic sodium uptake to 3.4 nmol/mg protein per 5 s, an effect that occurred only in the presence of bicarbonate and was blocked by disulfonic stilbenes. Kinetic analysis of the rate of bicarbonate-dependent sodium uptake as a function of sodium concentration revealed saturable stimulation with a Vmax of 2.7 nmol/mg protein per 2 s and a Km of 10.4 mM. The effect of bicarbonate concentration on bicarbonate-dependent sodium uptake was more complex. The present results demonstrate an electrogenic (negatively charged) sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter in basolateral membrane vesicles from the rabbit renal cortex. The electrogenicity implies a stoichiometry of at least two bicarbonate ions for each sodium ion.
T Akiba, R J Alpern, J Eveloff, J Calamina, D G Warnock
To determine whether [2(3)H], [3(3)H], and [6(14)C]glucose provide an equivalent assessment of glucose turnover in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and nondiabetic man, glucose utilization rates were measured using a simultaneous infusion of these isotopes before and during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps. In the nondiabetic subjects, glucose turnover rates determined with [6(14)C]glucose during insulin infusion were lower (P less than 0.02) than those determined with [2(3)H]glucose and higher (P less than 0.01) than those determined with [3(3)H]glucose. In IDDM, glucose turnover rates measured with [6(14)C]glucose during insulin infusion were lower (P less than 0.05) than those determined with [2(3)H]glucose, but were not different from those determined with [3(3)H]glucose. All three isotopes indicated the presence of insulin resistance. However, using [3(3)H]glucose led to the erroneous conclusion that glucose utilization was not significantly decreased at high insulin concentrations in the diabetic patients. [6(14)C] and [3(3)H]glucose but not [2(3)H]glucose indicated impairment in insulin-induced suppression of glucose production. These results indicate that tritiated isotopes do not necessarily equally reflect the pattern of glucose metabolism in diabetic and nondiabetic man.
P M Bell, R G Firth, R A Rizza
The mechanism by which sickle cells and xerocytic red cells become depleted of cations in vivo has not been identified previously. Both types of cells exhibit elevated permeabilities to sodium and potassium, in the case of sickle cells, when deoxygenated. The ouabain-insensitive fluxes of sodium and potassium were equivalent, however, in both cell types under these conditions. When incubated 18 hours in vitro, sickle cells lost cations but only when deoxygenated. This cation depletion was blocked by ouabain, removal of external potassium, or pretreatment with 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate, which blocks the increase in cation permeability induced by deoxygenation. The loss of cation exhibited by oxygenated xerocytes similarly incubated was also blocked by ouabain. These data support the hypothesis that the elevated "passive" cation fluxes of xerocytes and deoxygenated sickle cells are not directly responsible for cation depletion of these cells; rather, these pathologic leaks interact with the sodium pump to produce a net loss of cellular cation.
C H Joiner, O S Platt, S E Lux 4th
The ontogenic switch from fetal to adult hemoglobin could result from discontinuous events, such as replacement of fetal erythroid progenitor cells by adult ones, or gradual modulation of the hemoglobin program of a single progenitor cell pool. The former would result in progenitors at midswitch with skewed fractional beta-globin synthesis programs, the latter in a Gaussian distribution. For these studies, we obtained bone marrow from rhesus monkey fetuses at 141-153 d (midswitch). Mononuclear cells were cultured in methyl cellulose with erythropoietin, and single BFU-E-derived colonies were removed and incubated with [3H]leucine. Globin synthesis was examined by gel electrophoresis and fluorography. The beta-globin synthesis pattern of single fetal colonies was skewed, and did not fit a normal distribution. The fetal pattern resembled the pattern of an artificial mixture of fetal and adult progenitors, suggesting that the fetal progenitor pool could contain populations with different beta-globin programs. This non-Gaussian distribution in the progenitors of midswitch fetuses is consistent with a discontinuous model for hemoglobin switching during ontogeny.
B P Alter, R S Weinberg, D C Linch, J M Schofield, B T Jackson, G J Piasecki, J C Thornton, D G Nathan
A specific radioimmunoassay has been established for a growth hormone-dependent insulinlike growth factor (IGF) binding protein (BP) from human plasma. Although the assay was directed against a 53-kD, acid-stable BP subunit, the main immunoreactive BP in the circulation had an apparent molecular mass of approximately 125 kD. Only higher primate species showed cross-reactivity, and IGF-I, IGF-II, and other peptides were without effect. Circulating BP levels in healthy subjects rose threefold from early childhood to puberty. In 65 adults aged 18 to 65, the mean level (+/- SD) was 6.12 +/- 1.43 micrograms/ml, and declined with age. Strong growth hormone-dependence of BP was also seen; there was a 2.2-fold increase in active acromegaly and a 50-80% reduction in growth hormone deficiency. Poorly controlled diabetic subjects had BP levels 40% below normal, whereas in renal failure and third-term pregnancy a mild elevation was seen. Measurement of BP may provide a useful adjunct to IGF assays in growth disorders.
R C Baxter, J L Martin
Small amounts of plasma protein normally reach the alveolar epithelial surface by a size-selective process that restricts the passage of very large molecules. Size selectivity may be compromised in the lungs of patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). To assess this question, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from normal volunteers (n = 11), cardiac edema patients (n = 3), and ARDS patients (n = 8) was compared. Mean total protein in ARDS BALF was greater than 12 times the levels in normals or cardiac edema patients. BALF/plasma total protein ratios and measurements of epithelial lining fluid protein also separated the patients groups. The large proteins IgM and alpha 2-macroglobulin were found in ARDS BALF at greater than 90 times the concentrations of normal or cardiac edema fluid. The relationship of distribution coefficient vs. log molecular weight for seven proteins (54,000-900,000 mol wt) hyperbolically increased in normals but was flat in ARDS patients. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a paucity of high molecular weight proteins in normal and cardiac edema BALF, but demonstrated the full spectrum of plasma proteins in ARDS BALF. We conclude that normal size selectivity is preserved in cardiac edema but is destroyed by the alveolar-capillary injury of ARDS.
J F Holter, J E Weiland, E R Pacht, J E Gadek, W B Davis
Studies were designed to explore the association of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) activities with lipoproteins in human postheparin plasma (PHP). The major peak of LPL activity after gel filtration of PHP eluted after the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and just before the peak of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. When PHP contained chylomicrons, an additional peak of LPL activity eluted in the void volume of the column. Most HTGL activity eluted after the LDL and preceded the elution of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. LPL activity in preheparin plasma eluted in the same position, relative to lipoproteins, as did LPL in PHP. Gel filtration of purified human milk LPL mixed with plasma or isolated LDL produced a peak of activity eluting before LDL. During gel filtration of PHP in high salt buffer (1 M NaCl) or after isolation of lipoproteins by ultracentrifugation in high salt density solutions, most of the lipase activity was not associated with lipoproteins. LPL activity was removed from PHP by elution through immunoaffinity columns containing antibodies to apolipoprotein (apo) B and apo E. Since lipoproteins in PHP have undergone prior in vivo lipolysis, LPL activity in PHP may be bound to remnants of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins.
I J Goldberg, J J Kandel, C B Blum, H N Ginsberg
Hypocalcemic vitamin D (D)-depleted rats were supplemented with calcium or 1,25(OH)2D3, and the metabolism of D3 to 25(OH)D3 was studied. Infusion with 7 or 65 pmol 1,25(OH)2D3 X 24 h-1 led to normal or slight hypercalcemia associated with physiological and supraphysiological plasma concentrations of the hormone while calcium supplementation normalized plasma calcium despite 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations as low as those observed in hypocalcemic controls. Constant administrations of [14C]D3 during the supplementation regimens uncovered a stimulation of the in vivo 25(OH)D3 production by calcium supplementation; this was further confirmed in vitro by an increase in the hepatic microsomal D3-25 hydroxylase. The group supplemented with pharmacological doses of the hormone displayed lower circulating concentrations of both D3 and 25(OH)D3 while the in vitro 25(OH)D3 production remained unaffected by 1,25(OH)2D3. Investigation of the kinetics of intravenous 25(OH)[3H]D3 revealed similar elimination constants in all groups. The data indicate that calcium supplementation of hypocalcemic D-depleted rats results in an increased transformation of D3 into 25(OH)D3 while supplementation with 1,25(OH)2D3 does not affect the in vitro D3-25 hydroxylase but seems to influence the in vivo handling of the vitamin by accelerating its metabolism.
P Haddad, M Gascon-Barré, G Brault, V Plourde
We have previously shown that human leukemic cells proliferate normally in serum-free media containing various transferrin forms, but the addition of transferrin-gallium leads to inhibition of cellular proliferation. Because gallium has therapeutic potential, the effects of transferrin-gallium on leukemic cell proliferation, transferrin receptor expression, and cellular iron utilization were studied. The cytotoxicity of gallium is considerably enhanced by its binding to transferrin and cytotoxicity can be reversed by transferrin-iron but not by other transferrin forms. Exposure to transferrin-gallium leads to a marked increase in cell surface transferrin binding sites, but despite this, cellular 59Fe incorporation is inappropriately low. Although shunting of transferrin-gallium to another cellular compartment has not been ruled out, other studies suggest that transferrin-gallium impairs intracellular release of 59Fe from transferrin by interfering with processes responsible for intracellular acidification. These studies, taken together, demonstrate that inhibition of cellular iron incorporation by transferrin-gallium is a prerequisite for inhibition of cellular proliferation.
C R Chitambar, P A Seligman
These studies examined regulation of superficial proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) transport as a function of length. When single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) increased from 28.7 +/- 0.7 nl/min in hydropenia to 41.5 +/- 0.4 nl/min in euvolemia, bicarbonate, chloride, and water reabsorption in the early (1st mm) PCT increased proportionally: from 354 +/- 21 peq/mm X min, 206 +/- 55 peq/mm X min, and 5.9 +/- 0.4 nl/mm X min to 520 +/- 12 peq/mm X min, 585 +/- 21 peq/mm X min, and 10.1 +/- 0.4 nl/mm X min, respectively. These high transport rates did not increase further, however, when SNGFR went to 51.2 +/- 0.7 or 50.7 +/- 0.6 nl/min after atrial natriuretic factor or glucagon administration. Anion and water transport rates in the late PCT were lower and exhibited less flow dependence. During chronic metabolic alkalosis, acidification was inhibited in the late but not early PCT. In conclusion, the early PCT is distinguished from the late PCT by having high-capacity, flow-responsive but saturable, anion- and water-reabsorptive processes relatively unaffected by alkalemia.
F Y Liu, M G Cogan
Free-flow micropuncture studies were carried out on superficial rat proximal and distal tubules to assess the participation of different nephron segments in bicarbonate transport. Particular emphasis was placed on the role of the distal tubule, and micro-calorimetric methods used to quantitate bicarbonate reabsorption. Experiments were carried out in control conditions, during dietary potassium withdrawal, and after acute intravenous infusions of carbonic anhydrase. We observed highly significant net bicarbonate reabsorption in normal acid-base conditions as evidenced by the maintenance of significant bicarbonate concentration gradients in the presence of vigorous fluid absorption. Distal bicarbonate reabsorption persisted in hypokalemic alkalosis and even steeper transepithelial concentration gradients of bicarbonate were maintained. Enhancement of net bicarbonate reabsorption followed the acute intravenous administration of carbonic anhydrase but was limited to the nephron segments between the late proximal and early distal tubule. The latter observation is consistent with a disequilibrium pH along the proximal straight tubule (S3 segment), the thick ascending limb of Henle, and/or the early distal tubule.
G Capasso, R Kinne, G Malnic, G Giebisch
Daily human energy requirements calculated from separate components of energy expenditure are inaccurate and usually in poor agreement with measured energy intakes. Measurement of energy expenditure over periods of 24 h or longer is needed to determine more accurately rates of daily energy expenditure in humans. We provide a detailed description of a human respiratory chamber and methods used to determine rates of energy expenditure over 24-h periods in 177 subjects. The results show that: fat-free mass (FFM) as estimated by densitometry is the best available determinant of 24-h energy expenditures (24EE) and explains 81% of the variance observed between individuals (24EE [kcal/d] = 597 + 26.5 FFM); 24EE in an individual is very reproducible (coefficient of variation = 2.4%); and even when adjusted for differences in FFM, there is still considerable interperson variability of the daily energy expenditure. A large portion of the variability of 24EE among individuals, independent of differences in body size, was due to variability in the degree of spontaneous physical activity, i.e., "fidgeting," which accounted for 100-800 kcal/d in these subjects.
E Ravussin, S Lillioja, T E Anderson, L Christin, C Bogardus
To determine if constituents of cotton plants might play a role in byssinosis by injuring pulmonary epithelium, we added extracts of cotton dust, green bract, and field-dried bract to human A549 and rat type II pneumocytes. Injury was measured as pneumocyte lysis and detachment, and inhibition of protein synthesis. Extracts of cotton dust and field-dried bract produced significant dose- and time-dependent lysis and detachment of both target cells, while green bract extract was less damaging. Extracts treated with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone to remove tannins produced significantly less injury. In contrast, purified 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-flavan 3,4-diol (THF), a tannin in cotton dust and bract, caused substantial cell damage. Field-dried bract extract and THF also produced dose-dependent inhibition of pneumocyte protein synthesis. Endotoxin levels did not correlate with observed injury. THF added to rat tracheal explants caused epithelial disruption and desquamation, whereas endotoxin did not. Instillation of cotton dust and field-dried bract extract in rat lungs produced disruption of bronchial epithelium and smooth muscle constriction, while polyvinylpolypyrrolidone-treated cotton dust extract produced no injury. These findings suggest that extracts of cotton plants are toxic to alveolar, tracheal, and bronchial epithelium and that THF or other tannins may be the responsible agents.
G H Ayars, L C Altman, C E O'Neil, B T Butcher, E Y Chi
The chemotactic activity of human C5a des Arg is enhanced significantly by an anionic polypeptide (cochemotaxin) in normal human serum and plasma. We have found that the cochemotaxin attaches to the oligosaccharide chain of native C5a des Arg to form a complex with potent chemotactic activity for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Although capable of enhancing the chemotactic activity of native C5a des Arg, the cochemotaxin had no effect on the chemotactic activity of either deglycosylated C5a des Arg, native C5a, or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Of the known components of the oligosaccharide chain, only sialic acid prevented enhancement by the cochemotaxin of the chemotactic activity exhibited by native C5a des Arg. Sialic acid also prevented the formation of C5a des Arg-cochemotaxin complexes, detected by acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, molecular sieve chromatography on polyacrylamide gels, and sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation.
H D Perez, D E Chenoweth, I M Goldstein
Fibronectin (Fn) is produced by cells in blood vessels at inflammatory sites in vivo. Fn release into the circulation thus may be a marker for vascular injury. In support of this, we found that oxidant-induced vascular injury of isolated perfused rabbit lungs caused elevated circulating Fn levels. Western blot analysis indicated that Fn released from the injured blood vessels was intact, dimeric, and possessed electrophoretic mobility identical with Fn produced by fibroblasts. Unlike Fn isolated from rabbit plasma, Fn derived from lung perfusate or produced by fibroblasts reacted with antibodies raised to a synthetic peptide containing sequences from the extra type III Fn domain that is transcribed in fibroblasts but not hepatocytes. Vascular injury by protease was also associated with intravascular release of Fn, but with cleavage. Oxidant-induced vascular injury causes release of tissue-derived Fn, which can be distinguished from plasma Fn by its size and content of antigenic determinants of the extra type III domain.
J H Peters, M H Ginsberg, B P Bohl, L A Sklar, C G Cochrane
Small amounts (0.1-0.5 mM) of deoxycholate enhanced amylase secretion, which had been induced by submaximal doses of carbachol or cholecystokinin octapeptide, without affecting the maximal levels of these reactions from isolated rat pancreatic acini. Deoxycholate alone did not induce these reactions. The other bile acids such as cholate, chenodeoxycholate, ursodeoxycholate, and taurocholate were also active. Under the similar conditions, deoxycholate enhanced the secretagogue-induced diacylglycerol formation that was derived mainly from the phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol-4-monophosphate. Deoxycholate did not enhance the secretagogue-induced hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate or Ca2+ mobilization. Deoxycholate did not affect amylase secretion, which was induced by the simultaneous addition of protein kinase C-activating 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin. Since diacylglycerol and Ca2+ may be responsible for the secretagogue-induced amylase secretion, our results indicate that small amounts of bile acids increase the sensitivity to the secretagogue of diacylglycerol formation and subsequent activation of protein kinase C, and thereby enhance amylase secretion from pancreatic acini.
Y Takeyama, H Nakanishi, H Ohyanagi, Y Saitoh, K Kaibuchi, Y Takai
Studies were conducted to examine the effects of adrenalectomy (ADX) and selective, physiological adrenal corticosteroid replacement on sodium and potassium transport by the superficial loop of Henle and distal tubule of rat kidney in vivo. In the loop of Henle, ADX inhibited sodium reabsorption by 33%. Whereas dexamethasone had no effect on reabsorption, aldosterone increased sodium transport to control levels. Thus, physiological levels of mineralocorticoids, but not glucocorticoids, control a fraction of sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle. ADX also inhibited potassium reabsorption in the loop of Henle. Both dexamethasone and aldosterone reversed the inhibition, although only aldosterone increased reabsorption to control levels. In the distal tubule, ADX reduced sodium reabsorption by 44%. Both aldosterone and dexamethasone stimulated reabsorption: however, only aldosterone increased transport to control. Potassium secretion by the distal tubule was also reduced 34% by ADX. Aldosterone, but not dexamethasone, stimulated secretion. Thus, physiological levels of aldosterone regulate a fraction of sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion in the distal tubule.
B A Stanton
Cyclic AMP stimulates HCO3 secretion and Cl self-exchange in rabbit cortical collecting tubule. We found that varying peritubular [Cl] changed the Cl self-exchange rate with saturation kinetics (Km, 3-4 mM). HCO3 secretion also showed saturation kinetics as a function of mean luminal [Cl] (Km, 4-11 mM). Both Cl self-exchange and Cl-HCO3 exchange thus appear to be carrier-mediated. Addition/removal of basolateral HCO3 qualitatively changed Cl and HCO3 transport as expected for Cl-HCO3 exchange, but quantitatively changed Cl absorption more than HCO3 secretion. The diffusive Cl permeability and the transepithelial conductance in the presence of HCO3/CO2 and cAMP were higher than in their absence suggesting that HCO3/CO2 and cAMP together increase a conductive Cl pathway parallel to a 1:1 Cl-HCO3 exchanger. Thus, cAMP not only stimulates the overall process of anion exchange (probably by increasing an electroneutral exchanger and/or a series Cl conductance), but also stimulates a Cl conductance parallel to the exchange process.
V L Schuster
The interaction of Factor XIIa with Factor XI was investigated using two monoclonal antibodies, one (3Cl) directed against the heavy chain of Factor XIa and the other (5F4) against its light chain. 3C1 either as intact IgG or as Fab' fragment, enhanced the rate of Factor XIa generation in the fluid phase but inhibited it in the presence of kaolin and high molecular weight (HMW) kininogen. In contrast, the Fab' fragments of 5F4 inhibited only the fluid phase activation and had no effect on the surface-mediated activation. 3C1 was found to block the binding of Factor XI to HMW kininogen, whereas 5F4 did not. We conclude: a domain on the heavy chain region of Factor XI is essential for binding to HMW kininogen and for optimal surface-mediated activation by Factor XIIa; and binding of 3C1 to Factor XI changes its conformation rendering it a more favorable substrate for Factor XIIa in the fluid phase.
H Akiyama, D Sinha, F S Seaman, E P Kirby, P N Walsh
We compared the mycelial to yeast transitions of the Downs strain of Histoplasma capsulatum (low level of virulence) with those of G184A and G222B, two more virulent strains having different levels of pathogenicity for mice. When the morphological transitions are initiated by a temperature shift from 25 degrees to 37 degrees C, all three strains undergo similar physiological changes, but these are less severe in G184A and G222B than in the Downs strain. The transitions from mycelial to yeast morphology in both of the more virulent strains are also one-third more rapid than in Downs. We also find that the differences in temperature sensitivity of the three strains can be correlated with the temperature required for complete uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. The differences in sensitivity to elevated temperatures extend to the growth of yeast cells of all three strains. Considered together, our results suggest that sensitivity to elevated temperatures may be a key factor accounting for differences in virulence and that uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation may be the primary event in the morphological transition in all three strains.
G Medoff, B Maresca, A M Lambowitz, G Kobayashi, A Painter, M Sacco, L Carratu
The effects of obesity and body fat distribution on splanchnic insulin metabolism and the relationship to peripheral insulin sensitivity were assessed in 6 nonobese and 16 obese premenopausal women. When compared with the nonobese women, obese women had significantly greater prehepatic production and portal vein levels of insulin both basally and following glucose stimulation. This increase correlated with the degree of adiposity but not with waist-to-hip girth ratio (WHR). WHR, however, correlated inversely with the hepatic extraction fraction and directly with the posthepatic delivery of insulin. The latter correlated with the degree of peripheral insulinemia. The decline in hepatic insulin extraction with increasing WHR also correlated with the accompanying diminution in peripheral insulin sensitivity. Increasing adiposity is thus associated with insulin hypersecretion. The pronounced hyperinsulinemia of upper body fat localization, however, is due to an additional defect in hepatic insulin extraction. This defect is closely allied with the decline in peripheral insulin sensitivity.
A N Peiris, R A Mueller, G A Smith, M F Struve, A H Kissebah
We have performed microperfusion studies on distal tubules of normal and alkalotic rats in an attempt to demonstrate in vivo bicarbonate secretion. All perfusion solutions were free of phosphate and other nonbicarbonate buffers. In both normal and alkalotic rats, distal perfusions elicited significant tCO2 entry only at high flow (24 nl/min). Even when perfusate tCO2 concentration closely matched plasma tCO2 concentration (30 mM tCO2), significant tCO2 entry again occurred at high flow. This was associated with a rise of the perfusate tCO2 concentration, which indicated net entry of tCO2 against a concentration gradient. In this "symmetrical" perfusion situation, acetazolamide blockade prevented tCO2 entry. Accordingly: distal tubule tCO2 entry is demonstrable in both alkalotic and normal rats at high flow rates; increasing perfusate tCO2 concentration can suppress tCO2 entry; and entry can occur in the absence of a gradient and this effect can be blocked by acetazolamide.
M Iacovitti, L Nash, L N Peterson, J Rochon, D Z Levine
We have recently identified a diabetic patient with marked fasting hyperinsulinemia. Family study revealed that the abnormality was an autosomal dominant trait. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profile of the patient's serum insulin showed that she had an abnormal insulin in addition to a normal insulin. We have purified her insulin(s) from the specimen of her pancreas, which was biopsied during an operation of cholelithiasis. Insulin was also immunologically purified from the serum of her portal vein. The reverse-phase HPLC analysis revealed that the ratios of normal to abnormal insulin in the pancreas, portal vein, and peripheral vein were 5:4, 4:5, and 1:7, respectively. Radioreceptor assay for insulin using guinea pig kidney membrane revealed that the binding activities of the normal component insulin, the abnormal component insulin and her pancreatic insulin containing both components were 100, 5, and 50% of standard human insulin, respectively. The biological activities of the normal component, the abnormal component and her pancreatic insulin to stimulate glucose oxidation in rat adipocytes were found to be 100, 8, and 60% of standard human insulin, respectively. Analysis of amino acid sequences of the abnormal insulin purified from her pancreas strongly suggested the substitution of leucine for valine at the third position of the A chain, A3 (Val----Leu).
H Sakura, Y Iwamoto, Y Sakamoto, T Kuzuya, H Hirata
Full-length cDNA for plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) was isolated from a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) lambda gt11 cDNA library. Three overlapping clones were identified by immunologic screening of 10(6) recombinant phage using a rabbit anti-human fibrosarcoma PAI-1 antiserum. The fusion proteins encoded by these three clones also react strongly with a monoclonal mouse anti-human fibrosarcoma PAI-1 antibody. By nucleotide sequence analysis, PAI-1 cDNA encodes a protein containing 402 amino acids with a predicted, nonglycosylated molecular mass of 45 kD. Identity of this material as authentic PAI-1 was confirmed by the presence of high level homology with the primary amino acid sequence of an internal peptide prepared from purified rat hepatoma PAI-1. The predicted amino acid sequence also reveals extensive homology with other members of the serine protease inhibitor gene family. Cultured HUVECs contain two PAI-1 mRNA species, both encoded by a single gene, differing by 1 kb in the 3' untranslated region. The PAI-1 gene is located on human chromosome 7.
D Ginsburg, R Zeheb, A Y Yang, U M Rafferty, P A Andreasen, L Nielsen, K Dano, R V Lebo, T D Gelehrter
During liquid preservation under blood bank conditions, red cell membranes inexorably undergo damage that decreases erythrocyte survival after transfusion. Accordingly, we have surveyed membrane skeletal protein interactions during storage. We uncovered a decrease in the in vitro formation of spectrin-actin complex in the absence (50%) or presence (60%) of protein 4.1. Actual formation of the spectrin-actin-protein 4.1 complex fell in a linear fashion during the storage period. This fall in spectrin-actin interaction tightly correlated with the decline in total red cell phospholipid (R = 0.9932) measured simultaneously. This decrement of spectrin-actin association could be restored to greater than 70% of normal values by preincubation of stored spectrin with 50 mM dithiothreitol. This storage injury to spectrin-actin interaction might weaken the membrane skeleton and lead to decreased red cell survival. In vitro reversibility of the damage by reducing agents suggests a possible new direction for prolonging the shelf life of stored blood.
L C Wolfe, A M Byrne, S E Lux
Since dietary protein increases urinary dopamine (DA) excretion in animals, this study was undertaken to assess the role of DA production in the acute changes in renal function following protein ingestion in man. Excretion of DA, sodium, potassium, water, solute, and creatinine were measured in six normal men in 30-min intervals over 5 h after oral ingestion of protein and/or carbidopa, an inhibitor of DA formation from 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). Overall, protein increased urinary DA 50% (P = 0.031) while carbidopa reduced it 70% (P less than 0.0001), although suppression of DA excretion by carbidopa was not uniform over the 5 h of observation. Carbidopa doubled the level of DOPA in venous plasma and greatly magnified the DOPA response to protein. Inhibition of decarboxylase activity reduced excretion of sodium, potassium, solute and water after protein ingestion. These results indicate that extraneuronal DOPA decarboxylation in kidney contributes to acute protein-induced changes in renal function in man and suggest a general role for the decarboxylation of circulating DOPA in the expression of dopaminergic effects on the kidney in vivo.
M Williams, J B Young, R M Rosa, S Gunn, F H Epstein, L Landsberg
The clonogenic growth of myeloid leukemia cell lines was inhibited by recombinant tumor necrosis factor (rTNF) at 1-15 pM concentration. However, wild type (promyelocytic) HL-60 cells were highly resistant to growth inhibition, but responded with differentiation into monocyte-like cells at 100 pM rTNF. The clonogenic growth of fresh acute myeloid leukemia cells was inhibited by 50% at approximately 15 pM rTNF. The growth of normal granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (CFU-GM) was also inhibited (by 50 pM rTNF), as was the growth of erythroid progenitors (BFU-E) (by 150 pM rTNF). A synergistic antiproliferative effect was demonstrated between rTNF and recombinant interferon-gamma. Use of radioiodinated rTNF enabled us to detect 1,500-2,100 binding sites on myeloid cell lines at 4 degrees C with Kd of approximately 300 pM. At 37 degrees C, the transfer of bound ligand to lysosomes was followed by degradation, inhibited by NH4+. No correlation was observed between the number of binding sites or affinity at 4 degrees C and antiproliferative response to the addition of rTNF.
C Peetre, U Gullberg, E Nilsson, I Olsson
Platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether), an inflammatory mediator with a wide range of biological activities including neutrophil aggregation and chemotaxis, was studied for its effect on human eosinophil locomotion (chemotaxis and chemokinesis). Human eosinophils (25-95% purity) were obtained from donors with a variety of diseases associated with hypereosinophilia. PAF-acether elicited directional locomotion of eosinophils, in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, at concentrations from 10(-5) to 10(-8) M; lyso-PAF had minimal activity over the same dose range. Compared with PAF-acether, the eosinophil locomotory responsiveness of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), histamine, and the valyl- and alanyl-eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis (ECF-A) tetrapeptides was negligible. Conversely, neutrophil responsiveness to PAF-acether (optimum 10(-6) M) was comparable in effect to LTB4 (optimum dose 10(-8) M). It was shown that PAF-acether elicited both chemotaxis and chemokinesis of eosinophils. Comparison of normal density and light density eosinophils revealed no qualitative difference in the response to PAF-acether and the other chemoattractants, although the light density cells seemed to demonstrate a greater degree of locomotion to PAF-acether and LTB4. Thus, PAF-acether appears to be a potent eosinophilotactic agent which may play a role in inflammatory reactions characterized by eosinophil infiltration.
A J Wardlaw, R Moqbel, O Cromwell, A B Kay
The apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) gene in leukocytes and the apoB-100 messenger RNA (mRNA) and translated apolipoprotein in the livers from normal and abetalipoproteinemic individuals were evaluated. Four complementary DNA probes for apoB-100 covering the 5', middle, and 3' regions of the apoB-100 mRNA were utilized and Southern blot analysis indicated that the apoB-100 gene is present in abetalipoproteinemia without major insertions or deletions. Polyadenylated hepatic apoB-100 mRNA from two abetalipoproteinemic patients was normal in size, and the concentration of apoB-100 mRNA was increased sixfold compared with control hepatic apoB-100 mRNA levels. ApoB-100 was detected in hepatocytes of abetalipoproteinemic patients by immunohistochemical techniques. These results indicate that the biochemical defect in abetalipoproteinemic patients studied is most consistent with a posttranslational defect in apoB-100 processing or secretion with an up-regulation of the apoB-100 mRNA.
K J Lackner, J C Monge, R E Gregg, J M Hoeg, T J Triche, S W Law, H B Brewer Jr
Thrombospondin with fibrinogen, fibronectin, and von Willebrand factor binds to platelets stimulated with agonists and support platelet adhesive functions. The receptors for the latter three proteins are associated with membrane glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa. Thrombasthenic platelets deficient in GPIIb-IIIa have been utilized to examine the role of this membrane protein in the interactions of thrombospondin with platelets. Radioiodinated thrombospondin bound to thrombin-stimulated platelets from normal and thrombasthenic donors with a similar affinity and capacity. As monitored with a monoclonal antibody to thrombospondin, the divalent ion-dependent and -independent pathways for the expression of the endogenous pool of thrombospondin on the surface of thrombin-stimulated platelets from normal and thrombasthenic donors were also qualitatively and quantitatively similar. GPIIb-IIIa or ligands associated with GPIIb-IIIa thus are not essential for the binding of thrombospondin to platelets. Therefore, thrombospondin interacts with unique receptors on platelets.
M L Aiken, M H Ginsberg, E F Plow