We studied the effects of vitamin A deficiency and repletion on rat insulin release and islet cellular retinol binding protein (CRBP) and cellular retinoic acid binding protein (CRABP). Biphasic insulin release from vitamin A-deficient perifused islets was markedly impaired. Release remained impaired with retinoic acid (RA) repletion, 2 micrograms/g diet compared to release from islets of rats repleted with retinol in the form of retinyl palmitate, 4 micrograms/g diet. Release normalized with RA, 8 micrograms/g diet. Vitamin A deficiency did not affect islet insulin content, cell size, number or structure. In vivo, vitamin A-deficient rats had impaired glucose-induced acute insulin release and glucose intolerance, which improved with repletion. Normal islets had greater concentrations of CRBP than CRABP; vitamin A deficiency reduced CRBP but not CRABP levels. We conclude retinol is required for normal insulin secretion. Retinoic acid may substitute for retinol in this function.
B S Chertow, W S Blaner, N G Baranetsky, W I Sivitz, M B Cordle, D Thompson, P Meda