We examined the role of reactive oxygen metabolites in the degradation of human glomerular basement membrane (GBM) by stimulated human neutrophils. Neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) caused a significant degradation of GBM over 3 h resulting in 11.4 +/- 0.9% (SEM), n = 11 release of hydroxyproline compared with 0.3 +/- 0.09%, n = 11 release by unstimulated neutrophils. Superoxide dismutase, a scavenger of superoxide, did not inhibit the GBM degradation, whereas catalase, a scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, caused a marked inhibition (-60 +/- 7%, n = 4, P less than 0.001) of hydroxyproline release. Neither alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor, an inhibitor of elastase, nor soya bean trypsin inhibitor, an inhibitor of cathepsin G, caused any significant inhibition of GBM degradation. GBM degradation by cell-free supernatants obtained from stimulated neutrophils was markedly impaired in the presence of metal chelators EDTA (-72 +/- 7, n = 6, P less than 0.001) and 1,10,phenanthroline (-85 +/- 5%, n = 3, P less than 0.001). Considering these results, we postulated that reactive oxygen metabolites generated by the stimulated neutrophils activate a latent GBM degrading metalloproteinase(s). GBM degradation by supernatants obtained from incubations with catalase, azide, an inhibitor of myeloperoxidase, and methionine and taurine, scavengers of hypochlorous acid, was markedly reduced. Our data thus indicate that degradation of the GBM by PMA-stimulated neutrophils is due to activation of a latent metalloproteinase by hypochlorous acid or a similar oxidant generated by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-halide system.
S V Shah, W H Baricos, A Basci