A E Traynor-Kaplan, K E Barrett
H H Kazazian Jr, A F Scott
N Narita, H Nishio, Y Kitoh, Y Ishikawa, Y Ishikawa, R Minami, H Nakamura, M Matsuo
The characteristic three-dimensional cell type organization of islets of Langerhans is perturbed in animal models of diabetes, suggesting that it may be important for islet function. Rat islet cells in culture are able to form aggregates with an architecture similar to native islets (pseudoislets), thus providing a good model to study the molecular basis of islet architecture and its role in islet function. Sorted islet B cells and non-B cells were permanently labeled with two different fluorescent dyes (DiO and DiI), mixed, and allowed to form aggregates during a 5-d culture in the presence or absence of TNF-alpha (100 U/ml), a cytokine suggested to be implicated in the early physiological events leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Confocal microscopy of aggregates revealed that TNF-alpha reversibly perturbs the typical segregation between B and non-B cells. Insulin secretion, was altered in the disorganized aggregates, and returned towards normal when pseudoislets had regained their typical architecture. The homotypic adhesion properties of sorted B and non-B cells cultured for 20 h in the presence or absence of TNF-alpha were studied in a short term aggregation assay. TNF-alpha induced a significant rise in Ca(2+)-independent adhesion of B cells (from 24 +/- 1.1% to 44.3 +/- 1.2%; n = 4, P < 0.001). These findings raise the possibility that the increased expression of Ca(2+)-independent adhesion molecules on B cells leads to altered islet architecture, which might be a factor in the perturbation of islet function induced by TNF-alpha.
V Cirulli, P A Halban, D G Rouiller
The binding of thrombin to fibrin is thought to be an important mechanism by which thrombi exhibit procoagulant activity; however, the extent to which other procoagulants are associated with thrombi has not been previously defined. This study was designed to determine whether clotting factors other than thrombin are bound to whole-blood clots and can thereby contribute to significant procoagulant activity. Clots formed in vitro from human blood exhibited minimal thrombin activity when incubated in plasma depleted of vitamin K-dependent factors by barium-citrate adsorption, as indicated by increases in the concentration of fibrinopeptide A (FPA), a marker of fibrin formation, to 72 nM after 30 min. Incubation of clots in barium-absorbed plasma repleted with 0.9 microM human prothrombin under the same conditions resulted in marked increases in the concentration of FPA (> 1,000 nM) and clotting by 30 min. The increases in FPA were attributable to activation of the added prothrombin by clot-associated Factor Xa, judging from concomitant increases in the concentration of prothrombin fragment 1.2. Similar results were obtained with thrombi induced in the axillary arteries of dogs by vascular injury and incubated with plasma in vitro. Activation of prothrombin was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by tick anticoagulant peptide, a direct inhibitor of Factor Xa, at concentrations of 0.5-5.0 microM. Clot-associated Factor Xa activity was resistant to inhibition by anti-thrombin III, judging from the lack of inhibition of prothrombin activation during incubation of clots in plasma containing heparin pentasaccharide, an anti-thrombin III-mediated inhibitor of Factor Xa. Thus, the activity of Factor Xa appears to be an important determinant of the procoagulant activity of whole-blood clots and arterial thrombi, and is resistant to inhibition by anti-thrombin III-dependent inhibitors.
P R Eisenberg, J E Siegel, D R Abendschein, J P Miletich
Carbamyl phosphate synthetase I (CPS I; EC6,3,4,16) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hyperammonemia. We studied the molecular bases of CPS I deficiency in a newborn Japanese girl with consanguineous parents. Northern and Western blots revealed a marked decrease in CPS I mRNA and enzyme protein but with a size similar to that of the control, respectively. Sequencing of the patient's cDNA revealed a nine-nucleotide deletion at position 832-840. Sequencing analysis of the genomic DNA revealed a G to C transversion at position 840, the last nucleotide of an exon in the splice donor site. This substitution altered the consensus sequence of the splice donor site and the newly cryptical donor site in the exon caused the 9-bp in-frame deletion. This report seems to be the first complete definition of CPS I deficiency, at the molecular level.
R Hoshide, T Matsuura, Y Haraguchi, F Endo, M Yoshinaga, I Matsuda
We have examined cell coupling and expression of gap junction proteins in monolayer cultures of cells derived from human bone marrow stromal cells (BMC) and trabecular bone osteoblasts (HOB), and in the human osteogenic sarcoma cell line, SaOS-2. Both HOB and BMC cells were functionally coupled, since microinjection of Lucifer yellow resulted in dye transfer to neighboring cells, with averages of 3.4 +/- 2.8 (n = 131) and 8.1 +/- 9.3 (n = 51) coupled cells per injection, respectively. In contrast, little diffusion of Lucifer yellow was observed in SaOS-2 monolayers (1.4 +/- 1.8 coupled cells per injection, n = 100). Dye diffusion was inhibited by octanol (3.8 mM), an inhibitor of gap junctional communication. All of the osteoblastic cells expressed mRNA for connexin43 and connexin45, but not for connexins 26, 32, 37, 40, or 46. Whereas all of the osteoblastic cells expressed similar quantities of mRNA for connexin43, the poorly coupled SaOS-2 cells produced significantly less Cx43 protein than either HOB or BMC, as assessed by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation. Conversely, more Cx45 mRNA was expressed by SaOS-2 cells than by HOB or BMC. Thus, intercellular coupling in normal and transformed human osteoblastic cells correlates with the level of expression of Cx43, which appears to mediate intercellular communication in these cells. Gap junctional communication may serve as a means by which osteoblasts can work in synchrony and propagate locally generated signals throughout the skeletal tissue.
R Civitelli, E C Beyer, P M Warlow, A J Robertson, S T Geist, T H Steinberg
BACKGROUND. Insulin resistance and glucose intolerance are a major feature of patients with liver cirrhosis. However, site and mechanism of insulin resistance in cirrhosis are unknown. We investigated insulin-induced glucose metabolism of skeletal muscle by positron-emission tomography to identify possible defects of muscle glucose metabolism in these patients. METHODS. Whole body glucose disposal and oxidation were determined by the combined use of the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique (insulin infusion rate: 1 mU/kg body wt per min) and indirect calorimetry in seven patients with biopsy-proven liver cirrhosis (Child: 1A, 5B, and 1C) and five healthy volunteers. Muscle glucose uptake of the thighs was measured simultaneously by dynamic [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography scan. RESULTS. Both whole body and nonoxidative glucose disposal were significantly reduced in patients with liver cirrhosis (by 48%, P < 0.001, and 79%, P < 0.0001, respectively), whereas glucose oxidation and the increase in plasma lactate were normal. Concomitantly, skeletal muscle glucose uptake was reduced by 69% in liver cirrhosis (P < 0.003) and explained 55 or 92% of whole body glucose disposal in cirrhotics and controls, respectively. Analysis of kinetic constants using a three-compartment model further indicated reduced glucose transport (P < 0.05) but unchanged phosphorylation of glucose in patients with liver cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS. Patients with liver cirrhosis show significant insulin resistance that is characterized by both decreased glucose transport and decreased nonoxidative glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle.
O Selberg, W Burchert, J vd Hoff, G J Meyer, H Hundeshagen, E Radoch, H J Balks, M J Müller
Cholestatic patients undergoing surgery have increased mortality and demonstrate clinical features suggestive of adrenal insufficiency. To examine whether cholestasis influences the status of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, we evaluated rats with acute cholestasis caused by bile duct resection (BDR) and sham-operated and unoperated controls. Basal unstressed plasma concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone were similar in BDR and sham-operated and unoperated control rats. However, exposure of BDR rats to saturated ether vapor resulted in significantly less ACTH and corticosterone release in plasma than in the control animals. To understand the mechanism(s) of decreased HPA axis responsiveness to ether stress in cholestasis, we administered corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and measured hypothalamic content, mRNA levels and in vitro secretion of CRF and arginine vasopressin (AVP), the two principal secretagogues of ACTH. In BDR animals, ACTH responses to CRF were decreased and hypothalamic content of CRF and CRF mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus were decreased by 25 and 37%, respectively. Furthermore, CRF release from hypothalamic explants of BDR rats was 23% less than that of controls. In contrast to CRF, hypothalamic content of AVP was 35% higher, AVP mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus was increased by 6.6-fold, and hypothalamic explant release of AVP was 24% higher in BDR rats than in control animals. Pituitary ACTH contents were similar in BDR and sham resected rats, but higher than unoperated controls. These findings demonstrate that acute cholestasis in the rat is associated with suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness to stress and demonstrate a dissociation between mechanisms of ACTH regulation mediated by CRF and AVP.
M G Swain, V Patchev, J Vergalla, G Chrousos, E A Jones
Mannose-terminated glucocerebrosidase (alglucerase; Ceredase) was designed for enzyme replacement therapy in Gaucher disease to take advantage of mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis by macrophages. To provide a rational basis for designing enzyme replacement therapy protocols, we examined the in vitro binding, uptake, and degradation of alglucerase by murine and human macrophages. Both were found to have approximately 500,000 mannose-dependent receptors for alglucerase per cell with a Kd of 10(-7) M at 0 degrees C. In contrast, the number of binding sites for mannose-bovine serum albumin (mannose-BSA), the classical ligand for the mannose receptor, was only approximately 20,000 with a Kd of 10(-8) M. Alglucerase was also bound in a mannose-dependent manner by cells that lack the capacity to bind mannose-BSA, such as Cos-1 cells, endothelial cells, and peripheral blood monocytes. The fact that the binding of alglucerase by macrophages was mediated principally by a receptor distinct from the classical mannose receptor that binds mannose-BSA was confirmed by differential inhibitors, viz., alpha-methyl-glucoside, fucose, and mannose-BSA, and by its independence on Ca2+. Uptake of alglucerase by macrophages at 37 degrees C was concentration dependent and half maximal at 10(-6) M. However, at a concentration of 10(-7) M, only 0.5% of the added alglucerase was incorporated into macrophages and approximately 50% of the alglucerase taken up was quickly released into the medium. Endothelial cells also manifest mannose-dependent binding and uptake of alglucerase and may therefore account for a large proportion of the infused alglucerase. Our data suggest that only a small amount of the alglucerase administered is effectively delivered to macrophages and that a more efficiently targeted enzyme might have a marked therapeutic advantage over mannose-terminated glucocerebrosidase.
Y Sato, E Beutler
The precise molecular abnormalities that cause primary cortisol resistance have not been completely described. In a subject with primary cortisol resistance we have observed glucocorticoid receptors (hGR) with a decreased affinity for dexamethasone. We hypothesize that a mutation of the hGR glucocorticoid-binding domain is the cause of cortisol resistance. Total RNA isolated from the index subject's mononuclear leukocytes was used to produce first strand hGR cDNAs, and the entire hGR cDNA was amplified in segments and sequenced. At nucleotide 2,317 we identified a homozygous A for G point mutation that predicts an isoleucine (ATT) for valine (GTT) substitution at amino acid 729. When the wild-type hGR and hGR-Ile 729 were expressed in COS-1 cells and assayed for [3H]-Dexamethasone binding, the dissociation constants were 0.799 +/- 0.068 and 1.54 +/- 0.06 nM (mean +/- SEM) (P < 0.01), respectively. When the wild-type hGR and hGR-Ile 729 were expressed in CV-1 cells that were cotransfected with the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat fused to the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene, the hGR-Ile 729 conferred a fourfold decrease in apparent potency on dexamethasone stimulation of CAT activity. The isoleucine for valine substitution at amino acid 729 impairs the function of the hGR and is the likely cause of primary cortisol resistance in this subject.
D M Malchoff, A Brufsky, G Reardon, P McDermott, E C Javier, C H Bergh, D Rowe, C D Malchoff
The relationship between the plasma triglycerides and the LDL triglycerides of 30 normal and 48 hypertriglyceridemic subjects has been quantified; the data fit a simple adsorption isotherm, LDL triglyceride/(LDL triglyceride+LDL cholesterol ester) = 0.65 plasma triglyceride/(464 + plasma triglyceride). In vitro transfer of triglyceride from concentrated VLDL to VLDL-depleted plasma produced triglyceride-rich LDL that had similar properties. LDL uptake by HepG2 cells increased with LDL triglyceride content whereas the reverse was found with skin fibroblasts. At 37 degrees C, the cores of both normal and hypertriglyceridemic LDL were isotropic liquids. Circular dichroic spectra revealed no difference in the secondary structure of normal and triglyceride-rich LDL. The affinity of monoclonal antibody MB47, which binds to the receptor ligand of apo B-100 was independent of LDL triglyceride content. MB3, which binds near residue 1022 of apo B-100, showed a triglyceride-dependent decrease in affinity for LDL from hypertriglyceridemic subjects and from in vitro incubations. LDL with an elevated triglyceride content formed in vitro had reduced proteolytic cleavage of apo B-100 by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease. From these data, we infer that (a) LDL triglyceride is a predictable function of plasma triglyceride, (b) triglyceride induces subtle changes in apo B-100 structure at a site that is remote from the putative receptor binding ligand, and (c) the triglyceride-dependent receptor-binding determinants of apo B-100 are recognized differently by fibroblasts and HepG2 cells.
B J McKeone, J R Patsch, H J Pownall
It is unclear whether signaling between endothelial cells and muscle cells within ventricular myocardium, known to be important during cardiac development, remains physiologically relevant in the adult heart. Also, the mechanisms regulating the synthesis and activation of locally acting autacoids such as endothelins, cytokines known to have potent effects on contractile function and gene expression in cardiac myocytes, are unknown, as their cells of origin within ventricular muscle. Microvascular endothelial cells isolated from ventricular tissue of adult rats do not express endothelins constitutively. However, the appearance of preproendothelin mRNA can be increased in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells by heterotypic primary culture with adult rat ventricular myocytes. Cell-cell contact, or at least close apposition, appears to be necessary to increase preproendothelin mRNA, as medium conditioned by ventricular myocytes alone was ineffective when applied to monocultures of microvascular endothelial cells. The level of TGF beta precursor mRNA is also markedly increased in microvascular endothelial cells in coculture and precedes the appearance of endothelin precursor transcripts. In coculture, TGF beta acts as an autocrine cytokine, increasing endothelin precursor mRNA and inhibiting the rate of microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. This regulation of endothelial cell phenotype in heterotypic primary cultures suggests that dynamic, reciprocal cell-cell signaling may also be occurring between microvascular endothelium and ventricular myocytes in vivo.
M Nishida, J P Springhorn, R A Kelly, T W Smith
Macrophage uptake of modified forms of LDL leads to cellular cholesterol accumulation. Upon incubation of LDL with phospholipase D (PLase D), a time- and enzyme dose-dependent production of phosphatidic acid (PA), paralleled by a rapid reduction in LDL phosphatidyl choline content (up to 65% within 15 min of incubation) was noted. No lipid peroxidation could be found in PLase D-modified LDL. Upon in vitro incubation of PLase D-LDL with copper ions, however, this modified LDL was substantially oxidized. The addition of 100 micrograms PA/ml to native LDL for the period of its in vitro oxidation resulted in a 63% elevation in the lipoprotein peroxides content. Incubation of PLase D-LDL with J-774A.1 macrophage-like cell line resulted in an increase in its cellular binding and degradation (up to 91 and 110%, respectively) in comparison with native LDL (via the LDL receptor). When PA was added to LDL before its incubation with the macrophages, a PA dose-dependent elevation in the cellular uptake of LDL (by up to twofold) was noted in comparison with LDL that was incubated without PA, suggesting that PA production in PLase D-LDL may be involved in the increased cellular uptake of PLase D-LDL. PLase D activity towards LDL was demonstrated in J-774A.1 macrophages. Human plasma was also shown to possess PLase D activity. Thus, PLase D modification of LDL may take place under certain pathological conditions and PLase D-LDL interaction with arterial wall macrophages can potentially lead to foam cell formation.
M Aviram, I Maor
Normal pregnancy is associated with a two- to threefold increase in plasma triglyceride levels, particularly in the third trimester, due both to the overproduction of VLDLs and to the possible suppression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. Numerous mutations in the human LPL gene causing complete LPL deficiency have been described, but naturally occurring mutations that result in defective LPL with partial activity have not yet been reported. Here we describe a 30-yr-old woman who was first diagnosed with LPL deficiency during pregnancy after she developed pancreatitis. Her plasma triglyceride levels remained mildly elevated at approximately 300 mg/dl (3.4 mmol/liter) after the first pregnancy but rose significantly after she became pregnant again (1800 to 2000 mg/dl) (20.2 to 22.5 mmol/liter). DNA sequence analysis of the LPL gene showed that the patient is homozygous for a Ser172-->Cys missense mutation in exon 5. In vitro mutagenesis revealed that the Ser172-->Cys mutation caused a mutant LPL protein that had residual activity higher than that seen in all eight other missense mutations in patients with LPL deficiency identified in our laboratory. We propose that some mutations in the LPL gene produce a defective LPL with partial activity, which usually leads to mild hypertriglyceridemia.
Y Ma, M S Liu, D Ginzinger, J Frohlich, J D Brunzell, M R Hayden
We have recently cloned, sequenced, and characterized a rat kidney cDNA (D2) that stimulates cystine as well as dibasic and neutral amino acid transport. In order to evaluate the role of this protein in human inherited diseases such as cystinuria, we have isolated a human D2 clone (D2H) by low stringency screening of a human kidney cDNA library using the radiolabeled D2 insert as a probe. The D2H cDNA is 2284 nucleotides long and encodes a 663 amino acid protein that is 80% identical to the rat D2 amino acid sequence and 86% to that of the rabbit homologue rBAT. Microinjection of in vitro transcribed D2H cRNA into Xenopus oocytes induced uptake of cystine as well as dibasic and neutral amino acids in a pattern similar to that of rat D2 and rabbit rBAT. Both neutral and dibasic amino acids inhibited the D2H-induced uptake of cystine. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that D2H, like D2 and rBAT, is expressed strongly in the kidney and intestine. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from a panel of mouse-human somatic cell hybrids showed that the human gene for D2H resides on chromosome 2.
W S Lee, R G Wells, R V Sabbag, T K Mohandas, M A Hediger
A peptide corresponding to the sequence 169-193 of the second extracellular loop of the human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-2 was used as an antigen to screen sera from patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, n = 36) and healthy blood donors (HBD, n = 40). The sera from 14 patients with DCM (38.8%) and 3 HBD (7.5%) recognized the muscarinic receptor peptide at dilutions varying from 1:20 to 1:160 in ELISA. A highly significant correlation (P = 0.006) was found between the presence of antimuscarinic receptor-2 autoantibodies and anti-beta-adrenoceptor-1 autoantibodies in the patients' sera. Affinity-purified autoantibodies from positive sera of patients with DCM recognized on the electrotransferred protein of rat ventricular membrane a major band of about 80 kD. Incubation of autoantibodies with membrane resulted not only in a decrease in the maximal binding sites (Bmax) but also in an increase in Kd of radioligand binding in a concentration-dependent manner. This suggests a mixed-type of inhibition. Moreover, preincubation with atropine abolished the inhibitory effect of autoantibodies on the receptor binding whereas carbachol appeared to have no effect on the activity of the autoantibodies. These data define a subgroup of patients with idiopathic DCM who have in their sera functionally active autoantibodies against muscarinic receptor-2.
L X Fu, Y Magnusson, C H Bergh, J A Liljeqvist, F Waagstein, A Hjalmarson, J Hoebeke
K A King, J Hua, J S Torday, J M Drazen, S A Graham, M A Shipp, M E Sunday
The membrane attack complex of complement (MAC) can induce reversible changes in cell membrane permeability resulting in significant but transient intracellular ionic changes in the absence of cell lysis. Because ion fluxes and cytosolic ionic changes are integral steps in the signaling cascade initiated when growth factors bind to their receptors, we hypothesized that the MAC-induced reversible changes in membrane permeability could stimulate cell proliferation. Using purified terminal complement components we have documented a mitogenic effect of the MAC for quiescent murine 3T3 cells. The MAC enhances the mitogenic effects of serum and PDGF, and also stimulates cell proliferation in the absence of other exogenous growth factors. MAC-induced mitogenesis represents a novel effect of the terminal complement complex that could contribute to focal tissue repair or pathological cell proliferation locally at sites of complement activation.
J A Halperin, A Taratuska, A Nicholson-Weller
This study investigates the pathophysiology of mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus, which has been reported in 46 dialysis patients, while treated with deferoxamine (DFO). This drug aggravates mucormycosis, which we experimentally induced in guinea pigs and which lead to a shortened animal survival (P < or = 0.01). The drug's effect on Rhizopus is not mediated through the polymorphonuclear cells. Fe.DFO, the iron chelate of DFO, abolishes the fungistatic effect of serum on Rhizopus and increases the in vitro growth of the fungus (P < or = 0.0001). This effect is present at Fe.DFO concentrations > or = 0.01 microM, at which fungal uptake of radioiron from 55Fe.DFO is observed. A 1,000-fold higher concentration of iron citrate is required to achieve a similar rate of radioiron uptake and of in vitro growth stimulation as observed with Fe.DFO. These in vitro effects of Fe.DFO (1 microM) in serum on radioiron uptake and on growth stimulation are more striking for Rhizopus than for Aspergillus fumigatus and are practically absent for Candida albicans. For these three fungal species, the rates of radioiron uptake from 55Fe.DFO and of growth stimulation in the presence of Fe.DFO in serum are directly related (r = 0.886). These results underscore the major role of Fe.DFO in the pathogenesis of DFO-related mucormycosis. Pharmacokinetic changes in uremia lead to a prolonged accumulation of Fe.DFO after DFO administration, which helps explain the increased sensitivity of dialysis patients to DFO-related mucormycosis.
J R Boelaert, M de Locht, J Van Cutsem, V Kerrels, B Cantinieaux, A Verdonck, H W Van Landuyt, Y J Schneider
Studies of the immune response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been hampered by the antigenic diversity of the HIV envelope protein. In an effort to predict the efficacy of vaccination we have compared the systemic anti-envelope antibody response in seronegative volunteers immunized with recombinant gp160 (either in vaccinia or as soluble protein produced in baculovirus) derived from the HTLV-IIIB strain of HIV-1 and in two laboratory workers accidentally infected with the same strain. 11 of 14 vaccinees responded to immunization by producing anti-gp160 of similar titer and the same isotype as that seen in the laboratory workers. Four vaccinees also had antibody to the principal neutralizing domain (V3 loop) that was comparable in titer with that seen in the laboratory workers, but the fine specificity of anti-V3 antibody was qualitatively different in the two groups. Antibody that can block the interaction between CD4 and gp120 was present at comparable levels in three vaccines and the lab workers. Neutralizing antibody titers were markedly lower in the vaccinees than in the laboratory workers. In seven of the vaccinees, an immunodominant epitope was at amino acid 720-740. Analyses of monoclonal antibodies to this region indicate that they do not neutralize, bind to infected cells, nor function as immunotoxins. Although the anti-gp160 antibody response was of similar magnitude in both infected and vaccinated individuals, there were important qualitative differences.
S H Pincus, K G Messer, D H Schwartz, G K Lewis, B S Graham, W A Blattner, G Fisher
The role of alpha-2 adrenoceptors in lipid mobilization and blood flow was investigated in situ using microdialysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue in nonobese healthy subjects. The alpha-2 agonist clonidine caused dose-dependent biphasic response with increased glycerol levels at low clonidine concentrations and decreased glycerol levels at concentrations > 10(-7) mol/liter. Similar results were observed with epinephrine plus propranolol. Clonidine action was unaffected in the presence of labetalol (beta-/alpha-1 antagonist) but completely blunted by the presence of yohimbine (alpha-2 antagonist). The pseudolipolytic effect of clonidine was significantly more pronounced in gluteal as compared with abdominal adipose tissue. When clonidine was added together with the vasodilating agents nitroprusside or hydralazine, the pseudolipolytic effect was abolished and a dose-dependent decrease in dialysate glycerol was observed at all clonidine concentrations (10(-10)-10(-4) mol/liter). When ethanol was added to the perfusate to monitor blood flow, the escape of alcohol from the dialysate was accelerated by 30% with hydralazine or nitroprusside (P < 0.01) and 30% retarded (P < 0.05) by clonidine (10(-10) mol/liter). Thus, the results demonstrate an important role of blood flow for regulating lipid mobilization from adipose tissue in vivo. Alpha-2 adrenoceptor activation causes marked retention of lipids in adipose tissue due to vasoconstriction in combination with antilipoiysis.
J Galitzky, M Lafontan, J Nordenström, P Arner
Bisphosphonates are generally considered to act on bone resorption by binding to bone mineral and subsequently inhibiting the activity of the osteoclasts which ingest them. This has been supported by the fact that bisphosphonates adsorbed on mineralized tissue inhibit the resorbing activity of isolated osteoclasts in vitro. However, the effectiveness of different bisphosphonates determined in this system does not reflect their relative potencies in vivo. Employing the well-described isolated osteoclast resorption pit assay, with ivory as the resorption substrate, we show here that this lack of correlation prevails only when the bisphosphonates are added to the mineral before addition of osteoclasts, but not when the cells are treated for a short time (5 min) before allowing them to adhere onto ivory. By using this approach with five different bisphosphonates, a stringent correlation of relative potencies was obtained with those found, both in the rat and in the human, in vivo. Furthermore, by using an osteoblastic cell line (CRP 10/30) which is a powerful promoter of osteoclastic resorption in vitro, we obtained evidence that the inhibitory effect of bisphosphonates was the result of an action on osteoblasts rather than on osteoclasts. Thus, in experiments in which the osteoblastic cells were pretreated for 5 min with bisphosphonates and then cocultured with osteoclasts, inhibition of osteoclastic resorbing activity was obtained. Moreover, it was found that this treatment resulted in a decrease of the stimulatory effect found in CRP 10/30-conditioned medium. In conclusion the present study shows that part of the osteoclast inhibiting action of the bisphosphonates is mediated through an action on osteoblasts.
M Sahni, H L Guenther, H Fleisch, P Collin, T J Martin
It has been reported that sensitivity to angiotensin II (Ang II) is higher in efferent (Ef) than afferent (Af) arterioles (Arts). We tested the hypothesis that this is due to arteriolar differences in the interaction between Ang II and endothelium-derived relaxing factor/nitric oxide (EDNO). Rabbit Af-Arts with glomerulus intact were microperfused in vitro at a constant pressure. Ef-Arts were perfused from the distal end of either the Af-Art (orthograde perfusion) or the Ef-Art (retrograde perfusion) to eliminate influences of the Af-Art or glomerulus, respectively. Ang II did not alter Af-Art luminal diameter until the concentration reached 10(-9) M, which decreased the diameter by 11 +/- 2.6% (n = 11; P < 0.002). In contrast, Ef-Arts became significantly constricted at concentrations as low as 10(-11) M with either perfusion. Surprisingly, the decrease in Ef-Art diameter at 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8) M was significantly greater with retrograde perfusion (44 +/- 6.9%, 70 +/- 5.6%, and 74 +/- 4.1%, respectively; n = 5) than with orthograde perfusion (16 +/- 4.2%, 25 +/- 2.9%, and 35 +/- 3.5%; n = 9). ENDO synthesis inhibition with 10(-4) M nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) decreased the diameter to a greater extent in Af-Arts (22 +/- 3.0%; n = 11) compared to Ef-Arts with either orthograde (9.5 +/- 2.3%; n = 8) or retrograde perfusion (1.2 +/- 2.1%; n = 6). With L-NAME pretreatment, Af-Art constriction induced by 10(-10) M (14 +/- 4.0%, n = 9) and 10(-9) M Ang II (38 +/- 3.9%) was significantly greater compared to nontreated Af-Arts. In contrast, L-NAME pretreatment had no effect on Ang II-induced constriction in Ef-Arts with either perfusion. In conclusion, this study demonstrates higher sensitivity of Ef-Arts to Ang II, particularly with retrograde perfusion. Our results suggest that EDNO significantly modulates the vasoconstrictor action of Ang II in Af-Arts II but not Ef-Arts, contributing to the differential sensitivity to Ang II.
S Ito, S Arima, Y L Ren, L A Juncos, O A Carretero
To test the hypothesis that glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance might originate from abnormalities in insulin receptor signaling, we investigated the effects of glucocorticoids on in vivo tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the insulin receptor substrate IRS-1 in rat skeletal muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with cortisone (100 mg/kg for 5 d) and compared to pair-fed controls. Cortisone treatment of rats resulted in both hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Anesthetized animals were injected with 10 U/kg insulin via cardiac puncture and, after 2 min, hindlimb muscles were removed, snap-frozen, and homogenized in SDS. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation was studied by immunoblotting with phosphotyrosine antibody. Insulin receptors and substrate IRS-1 were identified and quantified with specific antibodies. Cortisone treatment increased the amount of insulin receptor protein by 36%, but decreased the total level of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation (69 +/- 4% of control, P < 0.05). The decreased level of receptor phosphorylation was explained by a reduced number of receptors containing phosphorylated tyrosine residues (64.6 +/- 5% of control, P < 0.05). Glucocorticoid excess decreased skeletal muscle IRS-1 content by 50%, but did not significantly alter the total level of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. The apparent M(r) of IRS-1 was reduced by approximately 10 kD. Treatment with protein phosphatase-2A reduced IRS-1 M(r) in control but not in glucocorticoid-treated muscle indicating that the lower M(r) likely results from lower phosphoserine and/or phosphothreonine content. To investigate the role of hyperinsulinemia in the glucocorticoid response, rats were made insulin-deficient with streptozotocin (100 mg/kg, i.p.). Subsequent treatment with cortisone for 5 d had no effects on insulin levels, tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptors or IRS-1, or the M(r) of IRS-1. In conclusion, glucocorticoid-treated skeletal muscle is characterized by: (a) decreased total tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptors as a result of a reduction in the pool of receptors undergoing tyrosine phosphorylation; (b) decreased IRS-1 content and reduced serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of IRS-1. Glucocorticoid-induced hyperinsulinemia appears to be essential for the development of these alterations.
F Giorgino, A Almahfouz, L J Goodyear, R J Smith
Macrophage-derived apolipoprotein (apo) E and multimers of a synthetic apo E-peptide display monokine-like functions by inhibiting mitogen- or antigen-driven lymphocyte proliferation. This study demonstrated how the target lymphocyte itself can modulate macrophage apo E production. The lymphokine interferon-gamma (IFN) dramatically inhibited the accumulation of apo E in the supernatant of human monocytic THP-1 cells when present during phorbol myristate acetate-induced differentiation. A similar effect was observed when IFN was added to differentiated THP-1 cells. Treatment with IFN did not change the steady-state levels of apo E mRNA. Furthermore, in the presence of IFN no increased degradation or increased uptake of extracellular apo E was detected. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that IFN reduced the accumulation of extracellular apo E and increased the degradation of intracellular apo E. The inhibitory effect of IFN on apo E production also was observed in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Thus, our data demonstrated that IFN inhibited macrophage apo E production by posttranslational mechanisms. This represents a previously uncharacterized immunoregulatory interaction and lends further support to a relationship between lipid metabolism and the immune system.
K Brand, N Mackman, L K Curtiss
Dendritic cells (DC) present antigen and initiate T cell-mediated immune responses. To investigate the possible association of autoimmunity with DC function, we compared the accessory activity of splenic DC from Wistar/Furth (WF) and diabetes-prone (DP) BioBreeding (BB) rats. The latter develop autoimmune diabetes and thyroiditis. DC function was quantified in vitro by measuring T cell proliferation in mitogen-stimulated and mixed lymphocyte reactions. When purified without macrophage coculture, WF and DP DC displayed similar levels of accessory activity. In contrast, when purified by a method involving coculture with macrophages, DC from DP rats consistently displayed greater accessory activity. This finding could not be explained by morphological or phenotypic differences between DP and WF DC. In accessory activity assays performed after reciprocal DC cocultures with DP and WF macrophages, DP DC exhibited higher accessory activity irrespective of macrophage donor strain. We also compared the accessory activity of WF and DP DC cultured in the presence of conditioned medium and a mixture of IL-1 and GM-CSF. In all assays, DP DC exhibited higher accessory activity. In studies of (WF x DP) F1 hybrids, the high accessory activity of DP DC was observed to be heritable, and studies of WF and DP radiation chimeras indicated that the effect was an intrinsic property of the DP hematopoietic system. We conclude: (a) splenic DC from DP and WF rats possess similar basal levels of accessory potency; (b) after interaction with macrophages, DC of DP origin are capable of greater stimulatory activity than are WF DC; and (c) the mechanism responsible for this phenomenon involves differential responsiveness of DP and WF DC to macrophage-derived factors such as IL-1 and GM-CSF.
A Tafuri, W E Bowers, E S Handler, M Appel, R Lew, D Greiner, J P Mordes, A A Rossini
The subtype and the expression of the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor were investigated in the normal mucosa from human intestine by means of radioligand binding, RNase mapping, and measurement of adenylate cyclase activity. The study of the binding of the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist, [3H]RX821002, to epithelial cell membranes indicated the existence of a single class of noninteracting sites displaying a high affinity for the radioligand (Kd = 1.1 +/- 0.5 nM). The rank order of potency of antagonists to inhibit [3H]RX821002 binding (RX821002 > yohimbine = rauwolscine > phentolamine approximately idazoxan >> chlorpromazine > prazosin) suggested that the receptor is of the alpha 2A subtype. A conclusion which is confirmed by the fact that only alpha 2C10 transcripts were found in the human intestine mucosa. Competition curves with (-)-norepinephrine demonstrated that 60% of the receptor population exhibited high affinity for agonists. This high-affinity state was abolished by the addition of GTP plus Na+ or by prior treatment of the membranes with pertussis toxin indicating it corresponded to G protein-coupled receptors. [32P]ADP-ribosylation and immunoblotting experiments identified two pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins corresponding to Gi2 and Gi3. The study of the distribution of the receptor indicated that (a) the proximal colon is the intestine segment exhibiting the highest receptor density and (b) the receptor is predominantly expressed in crypts and is preferentially located in the basolateral membrane of the polarized cell. The distribution of the receptor along the crypt-surface axis of the colon mucosa can be correlated with a higher level of alpha 2C10-specific mRNA and a higher efficiency of UK14304 to inhibit adenylate cyclase in crypt cells.
P Valet, J M Senard, J C Devedjian, V Planat, R Salomon, T Voisin, G Drean, A Couvineau, D Daviaud, C Denis
Activation of tissue-specific gene expression of the components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in humans may play an important role in cardiovascular regulation and pathophysiology. Studies of human tissue RAS expression, however, have been limited by the lack of availability of sufficient amounts of fresh human tissues and a sensitive method for detecting specific mRNAs. To demonstrate the presence of components of local RASs in humans we used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after reverse transcription to detect renin- angiotensinogen-, and angiotensin-converting enzyme-mRNA in small quantities of human tissues. Results indicated that all components of the RAS were widely expressed in human organ samples. In order to study changes of gene expression in small tissue samples (e.g., renal biopsies) obtained from patients, we established a competitive PCR assay for quantification of renin, using a 155-basepair deletion mutant of the human renin cDNA as an internal standard. Renin-mRNA concentration was quantitated in the kidney (1.74 +/- 0.2 pg renin/micrograms total RNA), adrenal gland (1.15 +/- 0.15 pg renin/micrograms total RNA), placenta (0.7 +/- 0.1 pg renin/micrograms total RNA), and saphenous vein (0.02 +/- 0.01 pg renin/micrograms total RNA). The method described here may serve as a highly sensitive tool to quantify alterations in gene expression in man under various pathophysiologic conditions. This study should provide the methodological basis for future studies of tissue RAS in human physiology and disease.
M Paul, J Wagner, V J Dzau
The expression and localization of PDGF beta receptors and PDGF-AB/BB in human healing wounds was evaluated by immunohistochemical techniques and in situ hybridization. Expression of PDGF beta receptor protein and PDGF-AB/BB were analyzed in wound margin biopsies using the PDGFR-B2 and PDGF 007 antibodies. PDGF beta receptor expression was minor in normal skin. An increased expression of PDGF beta receptor protein was prominent in vessels in the proliferating tissue zone in wounds as early as 1 d after surgery and was apparent < or = 4 wk after surgery. There was also a concordant increase in PDGF beta receptor mRNA detected by in situ hybridization. PDGF-AB/BB was present in healing wounds as well as in normal skin. In normal skin, expression of PDGF-AB/BB was confined to peripheral nerve fibers and to solitary cells of the epidermis and of the superficial dermis. In wounds, infiltrating mononuclear cells also stained for PDGF-AB/BB. To identify cell types expressing PDGF AB/BB and PDGF beta receptors, respectively, we performed double immunofluorescence stainings. PDGF beta receptors were expressed by vascular smooth muscle cells and cells in capillary walls; the receptor protein could not be detected in neurofilament containing structures, T lymphocytes, or CD68 expressing macrophages. PDGF-AB/BB colocalized with neurofilaments, it was present in Langerhans cells of the epidermis and in HLA-DR positive cells located in the epidermal/dermal junction area. Of the macrophages infiltrating the wound, 43 +/- 18% stained positively for PDGF AB/BB. Since PDGF-AB/BB and PDGF beta receptors are expressed in the healing wound, two essential prerequisites for a role of PDGF in wound healing are fulfilled.
C Reuterdahl, C Sundberg, K Rubin, K Funa, B Gerdin
The granulomatous immune response in tuberculosis is characterized by delayed hypersensitivity and is mediated by various cytokines released by the stimulated mononuclear phagocytes, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) and IL-1 beta. We have demonstrated that Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall component lipoarabinomannan (LAM), mycobacterial heat shock protein-65 kD, and M. tuberculosis culture filtrate, devoid of LPS as assessed by the Amebocyte Lysate assay, stimulate the production of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta proteins and mRNA from mononuclear phagocytes (THP-1 cells). The effect of LAM on the release of these cytokines was specific, as only LAM stimulation was inhibited by anti-LAM monoclonal antibody. Interestingly, we found that LAM and Gram-negative bacterial cell wall-associated endotoxin LPS may share a similar mechanism in their stimulatory action as demonstrated by inhibition of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta release by monoclonal antibodies to CD14. Anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody MY4 inhibited both TNF alpha and IL-1 beta release with LAM and LPS but no effect was observed with other mycobacterial proteins. An isotype antibody control did not inhibit release of cytokines under the same experimental conditions. M. tuberculosis and its components upregulated IL-1 beta and TNF alpha mRNAs in THP-1 cells. Nuclear run-on assay for IL-1 beta demonstrated that LAM increased the transcription rate. The induction of IL-1 beta was regulated at the transcriptional level, in which these stimuli acted through cis-acting element(s) on the 5' flanking region of the IL-1 beta genomic DNA. M. tuberculosis cell wall component LAM acts similarly to LPS in activating mononuclear phagocyte cytokine TNF alpha and IL-1 beta release through CD14 and synthesis at the transcriptional level; both cytokines are key participants in the host immune response to tuberculosis.
Y Zhang, M Doerfler, T C Lee, B Guillemin, W N Rom
Plasmids containing cDNA for the rat 67- and 65-kD isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD-67 and GAD-65) were expressed in COS-cells, and lysates of [35S]methionine-labeled cells were used for immunoprecipitations. Sera from 38 patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, which precipitated a 64-kD antigen from rat islets, reacted with recombinant GAD-65 in relation to their anti-64-kD titers. The eight strongest sera also precipitated recombinant GAD-67, suggesting that certain epitopes are common to both isoforms. Subsequently, [35S]methionine-labeled GAD-65 was purified from COS cell lysates and employed in a binding assay with 50 sera of patients with recent onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus. 38 sera (76%) precipitated labeled GAD-65 with titers that correlated with islet cell antibodies (ICA), determined in a standard immunofluorescence assay. 2 sera were GAD positive but ICA negative, 4 were positive only for ICA, and 6 were negative for both GAD and ICA, as were the sera of 20 controls. The data illustrate that antibodies against GAD-65 are present in a majority of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and that autoantibodies against other islet cell antigens also exist. The radioligand-binding assay, which is convenient and sensitive for detecting GAD antibodies, will facilitate the screening of individuals with autoimmune islet cell disease.
L A Velloso, O Kämpe, A Hallberg, L Christmanson, C Betsholtz, F A Karlsson
The alpha V/41 polymorphism of erythroid alpha-spectrin has been characterized initially by an increased susceptibility to proteolysis of the alpha IV-alpha V domain junction (Alloisio N., L. Morlé, J. Maréchal, A.-F. Roux, M.-T. Ducluzeau, D. Guetarni, B. Pothier, F. Baklouti, A. Ghanem, R. Kastally, et al. 1991. J. Clin. Invest. 87:2169-2177). Until now, it has been found associated invariably with a low expression level of the corresponding alpha chain. Among 61 chromosomes investigated in French and North African individuals or kindreds, we observed 19 chromosomes with the alpha V/41 polymorphism. With no single exception, the latter displayed a point mutation in exon 40 (Leu-->Val; CTA-->GTA) at position alpha 1857. According to the triple helical model of spectrin structure, this change accounts for the peptide maps' abnormalities. Sequencing the entire alpha V domain cDNA disclosed, in addition, a partial skipping of exon 46. At the gene level, a substitution (C-->T) was evidenced at nucleotide -12 of intron 45. This mutation appeared linked to the exon 40 mutation in 17 chromosomes, again with no single exception, among 53 examined chromosomes. We hypothesized that the lack of exon 46 would hamper the nucleation process and eventually account for the low expression feature. The present doubly mutated allele was renamed allele alpha LELY (low expression, Lyon).
R Wilmotte, J Maréchal, L Morlé, F Baklouti, N Philippe, R Kastally, L Kotula, J Delaunay, N Alloisio
To study the relation between the human Na(+)-H+ exchanger (NHE-1) and the renal brush border membrane (BBM) Na(+)-H+ exchanger, polyclonal antibodies to synthetic peptides representing a putative external (Ab-E) and an internal cytosolic domain (Ab-I) of human NHE-1 were generated in rabbits. Western immunoblot analyses indicated that both antibodies recognized a 97-kD protein in rabbit renal BBM but not basolateral membranes (BLM). Octyl glucoside-extracted rabbit renal BBM proteins also contained the 97-kD polypeptide as did a fraction eluted from an anion-exchange column with 0.2 M NaCl (fraction A). A fraction eluting between 0.2 and 0.4 M NaCl (fraction B) did not contain this protein. Prior reconstitution studies have indicated that Na(+)-H+ exchange activity is higher significantly in fraction B than fraction A. Administration of NH4Cl for 3-7 d to rabbits, a stimulus known to increase renal BBM Na(+)-H+ exchange activity, did not result in a change in expression of the 97-kD protein in either renal BBM or BLM. The results indicate that affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies to two separate domains of the human Na(+)-H+ exchanger recognize a 97-kD protein in rabbit renal BBM but not BLM. The dissociation between recognition of the 97-kD protein using antibodies and the majority of functional Na(+)-H+ exchange activity after chromatographic fractionation of solubilized BBM proteins and in native BBM after administration of NH4Cl suggest that rabbit renal BBM contains more than one form of Na(+)-H+ exchanger.
E J Weinman, D Steplock, D Corry, S Shenolikar
A human hematopoietic disorder designated as Tn syndrome or permanent mixed-field polyagglutinability has been ascribed to a stem cell mutation leading to a specific deficiency of UDP-Gal:GalNAc alpha 1-O-Ser/Thr beta 1-3 galactosyltransferase (beta 3 Gal-T) activity in affected cells. To test for the possibility that an allele of the beta 3Gal-T gene might be repressed instead of mutated, we have investigated whether 5-azacytidine or sodium n-butyrate, both inducers of gene expression, would reactivate expression of beta 3Gal-T in cloned enzyme-deficient T cells derived from a patient affected by the Tn syndrome. Flow cytometry revealed that a single treatment induced de novo expression of the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (Gal beta 1-3GalNAc-R), the product of beta 3Gal-T activity. In addition, a sialylated epitope on CD43 (leukosialin), which is present on normal but not on beta 3Gal-T-deficient T cells, was also reexpressed. Although no beta 3Gal-T activity was detectable in untreated Tn syndrome T cells, after exposure to 5-azaC,beta 3Gal-T activity reached nearly normal values. Both agents failed to reactivate beta 3Gal-T in Jurkat T leukemic cells, which also lack beta 3Gal-T activity. These data demonstrate that Tn syndrome T cells contain an intact beta 3Gal-T gene copy and that the enzyme deficiency in this patient is due to a persistent and complete but reversible repression of a functional allele. In contrast, the cause of beta 3Gal-T deficiency appears to be different in Jurkat T cells.
M Thurnher, S Rusconi, E G Berger
Samples donated by patients with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) were screened for mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Peripheral blood cells of T-ALL relapse patient H.A. were found to possess a heterozygous point mutation at codon 175 of the p53 gene. To determine whether this was an inherited mutation, a B cell line (HABL) was established. Leukemic T cell lines (HATL) were concurrently established by growing peripheral blood leukemic T cells at low oxygen tension in medium supplemented with IGF-I. Previously we had shown that > 60% of leukemic T cell lines possessed mutations in the p53 gene (Cheng, J., and M. Hass. 1990. Mol. Cell. Biol. 10:5502), mutations that might have originated with the donor's leukemic cells, or might have been induced during establishment of the cell lines. To answer whether establishment of the HATL lines was associated with the induction of p53 mutations, cDNAs of the HATL and HABL lines were sequenced. The HATL lines retained the same heterozygous p53 mutation that was present in the patient's leukemic cells. The HABL line lacked p53 mutations. Immunoprecipitation with specific anti-p53 antibodies showed that HATL cells produced p53 proteins of mutant and wild type immunophenotype, while the HABL line synthesized only wild-type p53 protein. The HATL cells had an abnormal karyotype, while the HABL cells possessed a normal diploid karyotype. These experiments suggest that (a) p53 mutation occurred in the leukemic cells of relapse T-ALL patient HA; (b) the mutation was of somatic rather than hereditary origin; (c) the mutation was leukemia associated; and (d) establishment of human leukemia cell lines needs not be associated with in vitro induction of p53 mutations. It may be significant that patient HA belonged to a category of relapse T-ALL patients in whom a second remission could not be induced.
J Yeargin, J Cheng, A L Yu, R Gjerset, M Bogart, M Haas
The unique granular proteins of eosinophils may have a pathogenetic role in asthma and in the defense against parasitic infestations. However, the mechanisms regulating eosinophil degranulation are largely unknown. We examined the hypothesis that release of these proteins is regulated by endogenous activation of phospholipase A2. Human eosinophils (HE) were isolated from the peripheral blood of 42 subjects either by Percoll density separation or by negative-selection immunomagnetic fractionation. Eosinophil activation was initiated in vitro with 10(-6) M FMLP and 5 micrograms/ml cytochalasin B and was assessed by measurement of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and superoxide radical (.O2-) secretion. Treatment of HE with 100 microM mepacrine before activation blocked EPO release (2.0 +/- 0.2 vs 10.2 +/- 2.1% cell content for activated HE, P < 0.004, n = 9), .O2- generation (2.6 +/- 0.9 vs 44.2 +/- 10.8 nmol/ml per 10(6) HE, P < 0.002, n = 5), and LTC4 secretion (68.2 +/- 32.2 vs 1,125.2 +/- 526.8 pg/ml per 10(6) HE, P < 0.04, n = 8). Pretreatment of HE with 100 microM 4-bromophenacyl bromide before activation similarly blocked EPO release, .O2- generation and LTC4 secretion. Addition of AA to HE after treatment with 100 microM mepacrine and before subsequent activation reversed the inhibition of both EPO (10.4 +/- 2.2% with 1 microM AA vs 2.0 +/- 0.2% for mepacrine, n = 5, P < 0.02) and LTC4 secretion (695.1 +/- 412.9 with 10 microM AA vs 68.2 +/- 32.2 pg/ml per 10(6) HE for mepacrine, n = 8, P < 0.04), but did not reverse inhibition of .O2- generation by mepacrine. We demonstrate that secretion of preformed cytotoxic proteins and .O2- by eosinophils is regulated endogenously by phospholipase A2.
S R White, M E Strek, G V Kulp, S M Spaethe, R A Burch, S P Neeley, A R Leff
Oral contraceptives (OC) raise plasma triglyceride and VLDL levels, which may be of concern, since some conditions characterized by elevated triglycerides are associated with atherosclerosis. To identify the responsible mechanism, we studied 11 healthy premenopausal women, 5 of whom were taking OC containing 0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol, and 6 of whom were not. Their rates of VLDL and LDL metabolism were measured by endogenously labeling apoB, the protein component of VLDL and LDL, by an intravenous infusion of deuterated leucine. OC use had the greatest effect on the large, triglyceride-rich VLDL subfraction (Sf 60-400), increasing plasma levels threefold and production rates fivefold (P < 0.05). Among OC users, small VLDL (Sf 20-60) levels were 2.2 times higher, and production rates were 3.4-fold higher (P < 0.05). The fractional catabolic rates of large and small VLDL were similar among OC users and nonusers. LDL levels and metabolic rates were not significantly different between the two groups. Thus, contemporary low dose OC substantially raise VLDL levels by increasing the production rate of large, triglyceride-rich VLDL, and not by slowing VLDL catabolism. Since VLDL catabolism is not impaired, we speculate that the hypertriglyceridemia induced by OC may be less atherogenic than that of hypertriglyceridemia resulting from impaired lipolysis. This may explain why long-term OC use does not appear to promote atherosclerosis.
B W Walsh, F M Sacks
The platelet GP Ib-IX receptor supports platelet adhesion and activation by binding to vWf in the exposed subendothelial matrix. An abnormal GP Ib-IX complex exists in platelet-type or pseudo-von Willebrand disease and has a characteristic increased affinity for soluble vWf resulting in impaired hemostatic function due to the removal of larger vWf multimers from the circulation. Genetic studies within an afflicted family have demonstrated that the disease is linked to a Gly233-->Val amino acid substitution within the alpha-subunit of the oligomeric GP Ib-IX complex (Miller, J.L., D. Cunningham, V.A. Lyle, and C. L. Finch. 1991. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 88:4761-4765). To evaluate the functional consequences of this mutation, we constructed a recombinant analogue of the alpha-subunit of GP Ib containing Val233. Experiments comparing molecules with either Gly233 or Val233 revealed that the Val substitution generates a molecule with increased affinity for vWf. The recombinant fragment reproduces the functional abnormality of the GP Ib-IX complex in platelet-type von Willebrand disease, thus establishing the molecular basis of the bleeding disorder within this family. Moreover, it becomes apparent that structural elements responsible for the regulation of hemostasis through modulation of vWf affinity for platelets reside within the alpha-subunit of the GP Ib-IX complex.
M Murata, S R Russell, Z M Ruggeri, J Ware
Nitric oxide (NO.) has been implicated in the regulation of renal vascular tone and tubular sodium transport. While the endothelial cell is a well known source of NO(.), recent studies suggest that tubular epithelial cells may constitutively generate NO(.). An inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase which produces far greater quantities of NO. exists in some cell types. We sought to determine whether kidney epithelial cells exposed to cytokines could express an inducible nitric oxide synthase. Primary cultures of rat proximal tubule and inner medullary collecting duct cells generated NO. on exposure to TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. NO. production by both cell types was inhibited by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine; this inhibition was partially reversed by the addition of excess L-arginine. Stimulation of kidney epithelial cells with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma dramatically increased the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA. In summary, renal proximal tubule and inner medullary collecting duct cells can produce NO. via expression of an inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase.
B A Markewitz, J R Michael, D E Kohan
Recent evidence suggests that the potent constrictor peptide, endothelin (ET) has a mediating role in cyclosporine A (CsA)-related renal vasoconstriction. However, the nature of the CsA-ET interaction and effect on the renal vasculature is uncertain. The purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to determine if CsA exposure caused direct local release of ET from the endothelium of the renal microvasculature and (b) to determine if locally generated ET has paracrine effects on the underlying vascular smooth muscle to induce vasoconstriction. Experiments were performed in isolated rat renal arterioles. First it was determined that both afferent arteriole (AA) and efferent arteriole (EA) exhibited concentration-dependent decreases in lumen diameter to increasing molar concentrations of CsA. The AA was more sensitive to the vasoconstrictive effects of CsA than the EA. Next, the blocking effect of a recently synthesized putative ETA receptor antagonist was verified in both the AA and EA, where it was found that the cyclic peptide cyclo D-Asp-L-Pro-D-Val-L-Leu-D-Trp totally inhibited the vasoconstriction observed with ET addition. Finally, the role of locally stimulated ET in CsA-induced vasoconstriction was tested by determining the effect of the ETA receptor antagonist on CsA-induced AA and EA constriction. In the AA the vasoconstrictor effect of 10(-11) M CsA was completely blocked by the ETA receptor antagonist. However, in contrast to AA, 10(-11) M CsA in EA in the presence of the ETA receptor antagonist decreased EA lumen diameter by a mean of 41% from baseline (4.80 +/- 0.75 microns vs 7.80 +/- 0.84 microns, P < 0.05). This change in lumen diameter was similar to that induced by CsA alone. These data suggest that CsA directly constricts renal microvessels. This effect is mediated by ET in the AA but not the EA.
D M Lanese, J D Conger
Debrisoquin hydroxylase (CYP2D6) is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the metabolism of > 30 commonly prescribed medications. Deficiency in CYP2D6 activity, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, was found to be significantly less common in American blacks (1.9%) than whites (7.7%). To determine the genetic basis for this difference, inactivating CYP2D6 mutations were assessed by allele-specific PCR amplification and RFLP analyses of genomic DNA from 126 unrelated whites and 127 unrelated blacks. Blacks had a twofold lower frequency (8.5 versus 23%, P = 0.001) of the CYP2D6(B) mutation (point mutation at intron 3/exon 4 splice site), while complete deletion of the CYP2D6 gene (5.5% blacks, 2.4% whites), and the CYP2D6(A) mutation (single nucleotide deletion in exon 5; 0.24% blacks, 1.4% whites) were not different between the two groups. The prevalence of heterozygous genotypes was significantly lower in blacks (25 versus 42% of extensive metabolizers, P = 0.009), consistent with the observed prevalence of the deficient trait in blacks and whites. We conclude that the same CYP2D6 mutations lead to a loss of functional expression in blacks and whites, but American blacks have a lower prevalence of the deficient trait due to a lower frequency of the CYP2D6(B) mutation. This could explain racial differences in drug effects and disease risk.
W E Evans, M V Relling, A Rahman, H L McLeod, E P Scott, J S Lin
Nonenzymatic glycation of proteins occurs at an accelerated rate in diabetes and can lead to the formation of advanced glycation end products of proteins (AGEs), which bind to mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) and induce chemotaxis. We have isolated two cell surface-associated binding proteins that mediate the interaction of AGEs with bovine endothelial cells. One of these proteins is a new member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of receptors (termed receptor for AGEs or RAGE); and the second is a lactoferrin-like polypeptide (LF-L). Using monospecific antibodies to these two AGE-binding proteins, we detected immunoreactive material on Western blots of detergent extracts from human MPs. Radioligand-binding studies demonstrated that antibody to the binding proteins blocked 125I-AGE-albumin binding and endocytosis by MPs. Chemotaxis of human MPs induced by soluble AGE-albumin was prevented in a dose-dependent manner by intact antibodies raised to the AGE-binding proteins, F(ab')2 fragments of these antibodies and by soluble RAGE. When MP migration in response to N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe was studied in a chemotaxis chamber with AGE-albumin adsorbed to the upper surface of the chamber membrane, movement of MPs to the lower compartment was decreased because of interaction of the glycated proteins with RAGE and LF-L on the cell surface. The capacity of AGEs to attract and retain MPs was shown by implanting polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) mesh impregnated with AGE-albumin into rats: within 4 d a florid mononuclear cell infiltrate was evident in contrast to the lack of a significant cellular response to PTFE with adsorbed native albumin. These data indicate that RAGE and LF-L have a central role in the interaction of AGEs with human mononuclear cells and that AGEs can serve as a nidus to attract MPs in vivo.
A M Schmidt, S D Yan, J Brett, R Mora, R Nowygrod, D Stern
Variant von Willebrand disease designated as type I New York or type Malmö is characterized by enhanced ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination with normal von Willebrand factor multimeric distribution in plasma. We have studied four such patients belonging to three unrelated families and found in all of them a unique cytosine-to-thymine transition changing the codon for Pro503 (CCG) to Leu (CTG). In three patients the mutant allele also had a silent mutation in the codon for Ser500 (TCG-->TCA). Both nucleotide changes are present in the von Willebrand factor pseudogene; however, the characterization of distinctive markers where the gene and pseudogene differ, as well as the examination of amplified cDNA derived from platelet mRNA, confirmed that the abnormality occurs in the von Willebrand factor gene of the patients. Moreover, recombinant expression of the isolated glycoprotein Ib-binding domain of von Willebrand factor provided direct evidence that the Pro503-->Leu mutation is responsible for enhanced platelet reactivity to lower ristocetin concentrations. These results define a new structural element affecting the affinity of von Willebrand factor for glycoprotein Ib and establish the molecular basis of a variant form of von Willebrand disease.
L Holmberg, J A Dent, R Schneppenheim, U Budde, J Ware, Z M Ruggeri
Acid-base status and renal acid excretion were studied in the Dahl/Rapp salt-sensitive (S) rat and its genetically salt-resistant counterpart (R). S rats developed hypertension while on a very high salt diet (8%) and while on a more physiological salt diet (1%) and remained normotensive while on a very low salt diet (0.08%). Under the high salt diet, intracellular pH measured in freshly isolated thymic lymphocytes using 2',7'-bis (carboxyethyl)-5 (6)-carboxyfluorescein acetomethyl ester, a pH-sensitive dye, was lower in S than in R rats both when measured in the presence of HCO3/CO2 (7.32 +/- 0.02 vs. 7.38 +/- 0.02, respectively, P < 0.05) and in its absence (7.18 +/- 0.04 vs. 7.27 +/- 0.02, respectively, P < 0.05). Under the high salt diet, net acid excretion was higher in S than R rats (1,777 +/- 111 vs. 1,017 +/- 73 muEq/24 h per 100 g body wt, respectively, P < 0.001), and this difference was due to higher rates of both titratable acid and ammonium excretion. Directionally similar differences in intracellular pH and net acid excretion between S and R rats were also observed in salt-restricted animals. In S and R rats placed on a normal salt intake (1%) and strictly pair-fed to control food intake as a determinant of dietary acid, net acid excretion was also higher in S than in R rats (562 +/- 27 vs. 329 +/- 21 muEq/24 h per 100 g, respectively, P < 0.01). No significant difference in either blood pH or bicarbonate levels were found between S and R rats on either the 0.08%, 1%, or 8% salt diets. We conclude that renal acid excretion is augmented in the salt-sensitive Dahl/Rapp rat. Enhanced renal acid excretion may be a marker of increased acid production by cells from subjects with salt-sensitive hypertension.
D C Batlle, A M Sharma, M W Alsheikha, M Sobrero, A Saleh, C Gutterman
High plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity is associated with insulin resistance and is correlated with hyperinsulinemia. The cellular origin of plasma PAI-1 in insulin resistance is not known. The hepatoma cell line Hep G2 has been shown to synthesize PAI-1 in response to insulin. The aim of this study was to analyze the insulin-mediated response of PAI-1 and lipid synthesis in Hep G2 cells after producing an insulin-resistant state by decreasing insulin receptor numbers. The effect of metformin, a dimethyl-substituted biguanide, known to lower plasma insulin and PAI-1 levels in vivo was concomitantly evaluated. Preincubation by an 18-h exposure of Hep G2 cells to 10(-7) M insulin aimed at reducing the number of insulin receptors, was followed by a subsequent 24-h stimulation with 10(-9) M insulin. The decrease in insulin receptors was accompanied as expected, by a reduction in [14C]acetate incorporation, an index of lipid synthesis, whereas PAI-1 secretion and PAI-1 mRNA expression were enhanced. The addition of metformin did not modify the effect of insulin on insulin receptors or [14C]acetate incorporation. In contrast, the drug (10(-4) M) inhibited insulin-mediated PAI-1 synthesis. The results indicate that PAI-1 synthesis in presence of insulin is markedly increased in down-regulated cells, and that metformin inhibits this effect by acting at the cellular level. These in vitro data are relevant with those found in vivo in insulin-resistant patients. Hep G2 cells may be a suitable model to study PAI-1 regulation in response to hyperinsulinemia.
F Anfosso, N Chomiki, M C Alessi, P Vague, I Juhan-Vague
The gene for tumor necrosis factor, TNF, was expressed in 45 out of 63 biopsies of human epithelial ovarian cancer. In serous tumors, there was a positive correlation between level of TNF expression and tumor grade. TNF mRNA was found in epithelial tumor cells and infiltrating macrophages, whereas TNF protein localized primarily to a subpopulation of macrophages within and in close proximity to tumor areas. mRNA and protein for the p55 TNF receptor gene localized to the tumor epithelium and tumor, but not to stromal macrophages. The p75 TNF receptor was confined to infiltrating cells. Cells expressing TNF mRNA were also found in ovarian cancer ascites and TNF protein was detected in some ascitic fluids. In 2 out of 12 biopsies of normal ovary, TNF mRNA was detected in a minority of cells in the thecal layer of the corpus luteum. Serum levels of TNF and its soluble receptor did not correlate with extent of TNF expression in matched biopsies. Northern and Southern analysis revealed no gross abnormality of the TNF gene. The coexpression of TNF and its receptor in ovarian cancer biopsies suggests the capacity for autocrine/paracrine action. TNF antagonists may have therapeutic potential in this malignancy.
M S Naylor, G W Stamp, W D Foulkes, D Eccles, F R Balkwill
The blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is refractory to most forms of cancer chemotherapy, but may be amenable to drugs that differentiate rather than kill leukemic cells. One mechanism implicated in resistance to cytodestructive drugs is overexpression of P-glycoprotein, the MDR1 gene product. While several classes of drugs sensitize multidrug-resistant (MDR) cells by interfering with the function of P-glycoprotein in vitro, few sensitizers have been effective in vivo. We have developed a preclinical model of MDR/CML uncomplicated by other mechanisms of drug resistance to evaluate the effects of MDR1 overexpression on cytodestructive and differentiation therapy and the ability of sensitizers to restore chemosensitivity in this disease. The CML-derived cell line K562 was transfected with a human MDR1 cDNA from the pHaMDR1/A expression vector and selected with vinblastine. Resistant K562 clones were 20-30-fold resistant to vinblastine, were cross-resistant to doxorubicin and etoposide, and remained sensitive to cytosine arabinoside, 6-thioguanine, hydroxyurea, and mechlorethamine. Resistance was associated with decreased cellular accumulation of cytotoxic drug and was reversed by cyclosporin A and trans-flupenthixol. The MDR phenotype did not adversely affect the ability of K562 cells to produce fetal hemoglobin in response to hemin, and was associated with increased responsiveness of cells to differentiate with cytosine arabinoside. Upon differentiation, the resistant clones increased MDR1 mRNA and P-glycoprotein. These studies suggest that the overexpression of the MDR1 gene in CML may not adversely affect the ability to undergo erythroid differentiation and that these resistant K562 cell lines are good models for studying drug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein in CML.
W N Hait, S Choudhury, S Srimatkandada, J R Murren
HIV-1 infection may initiate to an HLA-associated response designated diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome, characterized by increased numbers of circulating CD8 T cells that infiltrate salivary glands, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Since this response could either be an antigenically driven process induced by HIV-1 or a lymphoproliferation of cells with neoplastic or unusual features, we sought to define the phenotype of the cellular populations, the nature of tissue derangement, and the tissue localization of virus in diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. Circulating CD8 T cells were greatly increased while CD4 T cell numbers remained in the range found in asymptomatic seropositive persons. The majority of CD8 and CD4 T cells in both blood and tissues had the memory phenotype of CD29+ (beta 1 integrin) and CD11a+/CD18 (beta 2 integrin) expression, but lacked markers of recent activation. A proportion of the circulating CD8 T cells also expressed CD57 (Leu 7) but not other markers of natural killer cells. HIV-encoded proteins were identified in tissue macrophages located in periacinar areas of the salivary glands. CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), a ligand for the CD11a integrin, was strongly expressed on postcapillary venule endothelium within lymphoid foci, and HLA-DR molecules were found on limited regions of ductular epithelium adjacent to lymphoid aggregates. These findings suggest that (a) the visceral lymphocytic infiltration in diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome is an antigen-driven, and MHC-determined, host immune response to an element associated with HIV-1 infection, and (b) that the specific adhesive molecule interactions mediating the cellular influx, as well as the subsequent tissue damage, reflect altered patterns of gene expression in tissues undergoing an immune response.
S Itescu, J Dalton, H Z Zhang, R Winchester
Nonisotopic in situ hybridization using a digoxigenin-labeled cDNA probe to the 3' nonstructural region (NS5) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was performed on liver tissue from 33 patients. The results were compared with PCR detection of HCV RNA performed on 24 of the biopsies. Nonisotopic in situ hybridization correlated well with PCR findings. Hybridization signals were detected, within the cytoplasm and nuclei/nucleoli of hepatocytes, mononuclear, and biliary epithelial cells. In patients with clinically and histologically defined chronic active hepatitis related to active HCV infection, HCV genome was frequently detected in biliary epithelium and correlated well with biliary damage, an otherwise uncommon finding in chronic active hepatitis due to other hepatotropic viruses. Further studies using sense and antisense probes synthesized from the 5' non-coding region of the HCV genome confirmed the localization of positive strand of HCV in the above cell populations. The replicative intermediate strand was also present in all cells, although less frequently observed, apart from biliary epithelium, where negative strand of HCV was undetectable. The findings of HCV genome in liver biopsies of two patients with no significant histological abnormalities may suggest that the damage seen in chronic HCV infection is immune mediated, although the cytopathic effect of the virus may also be important.
K T Nouri Aria, R Sallie, D Sangar, G J Alexander, H Smith, J Byrne, B Portmann, A L Eddleston, R Williams
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a secreted endothelial cell-specific mitogen. To evaluate whether VEGF may play a role in angiogenesis, we have determined the spatial and temporal patterns of expression of VEGF and VEGF receptors during natural angiogenic processes taking place within the female reproductive system. Four angiogenic processes were analyzed: neovascularization of ovarian follicles, neovascularization of the corpus luteum, repair of endometrial vessels, and angiogenesis in embryonic implantation sites. During all processes, VEGF mRNA was found to be expressed in cells surrounding the expanding vasculature. VEGF was predominantly produced in tissues that acquire new capillary networks (theca layers, lutein cells, endometrial stroma, and the maternal decidua, respectively). VEGF-binding activity, on the other hand, was found on endothelial cells of both quiescent and proliferating blood vessels. These findings are consistent with a role for VEGF in the targeting of angiogenic responses to specific areas. Using in situ hybridization, we show that VEGF is expressed in 10 different steroidogenic and/or steroid-responsive cell types (theca, cumulus, granulosa, lutein, oviductal epithelium, endometrial stroma, decidua, giant trophoblast cells, adrenal cortex, and Leydig cells). Furthermore, in some cells upregulation of VEGF expression is concurrent with the acquisition of steroidogenic activity, and expression in other cell types is restricted to a particular stage of the ovarian cycle. These findings suggest that expression of VEGF is hormonally regulated. We propose that excessive expression of VEGF during gonadotropin-induced ovulation may contribute to the development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndromes by virtue of the vascular permeabilization activity of this factor.
D Shweiki, A Itin, G Neufeld, H Gitay-Goren, E Keshet
The cellular origin of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a polypeptide implicated in liver regeneration, was examined in normal liver and in hepatic regeneration induced by carbon tetrachloride. In normal liver, HGF and its mRNA were abundant in lipocytes, with smaller amounts present also in sinusoidal endothelial and Kupffer cells. In regenerating liver, HGF gene expression increased exclusively in endothelial cells. HGF mRNA levels rose sixfold in these cells, peaking at 6 h after toxin administration and returning to near normal by 24 h. The rise in HGF mRNA was accompanied by a 5.4-fold increase in HGF secretion. CCl4 did not alter HGF expression by either Kupffer cells or lipocytes; nor did it induce HGF expression by hepatocytes. Nonparenchymal liver cells contained two HGF transcripts: one predicting a full-length molecule of 728 amino acids; and the other encoding a functional five-amino acid deletion variant of HGF. The variant was less abundant than the full-length transcript, but increased in parallel with native HGF mRNA in response to CCl4. The response of nonparenchymal cells to HGF was examined by plating endothelial cells and lipocytes in the presence of recombinant human HGF. Under the conditions examined, the growth factor exerted neither mitogenic nor scatter factor activity on these cells.
J J Maher
Tissue factor (TF) is a major activator of the coagulation cascade and may play a role in initiating thrombosis after intravascular injury. To investigate whether medial vascular smooth muscle provides a source of TF following arterial injury, the induction of TF mRNA and protein was studied in balloon-injured rat aorta. After full length aortic injury, aortas were harvested at various times and the media and adventitia separated using collagenase digestion and microscopic dissection. In uninjured aortic media, TF mRNA was undetectable by RNA blot hybridization. 2 h after balloon injury TF mRNA levels increased markedly. Return to near baseline levels occurred at 24 h. In situ hybridization with a 35S-labeled antisense rat TF cRNA probe detected TF mRNA in the adventitia but not in the media or endothelium of uninjured aorta. 2 h after balloon dilatation, a marked induction of TF mRNA was observed in the adventitia and media. Using a functional clotting assay, TF procoagulant activity was detected at low levels in uninjured rat aortic media and rose by approximately 10-fold 2 h after balloon dilatation. Return to baseline occurred within 4 d. These data demonstrate that vascular injury rapidly induces active TF in arterial smooth muscle, providing a procoagulant that may result in thrombus initiation or propagation.
J D Marmur, M Rossikhina, A Guha, B Fyfe, V Friedrich, M Mendlowitz, Y Nemerson, M B Taubman
Cytogenetic study of a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) showed an unusual karyotype 46,xy,t(11;17) (q23;21) without apparent rearrangement of chromosome 15. Molecular studies showed rearrangements of the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) gene but no rearrangement of the promyelocytic leukemia gene consistent with the cytogenetic data. Similar to t(15;17) APL, all-trans retinoic acid treatment in this patient produced an early leukocytosis which was followed by a myeloid maturation, but the patient died too early to achieve remission. Further molecular analysis of this patient showed a rearrangement between the RAR alpha gene and a newly discovered zinc finger gene named PLZF (promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger). The fusion PLZF-RAR alpha gene found in this case, was not found in DNA obtained from the bone marrow of normals, APL with t(15;17) and in one patient with AML-M2 with a t(11;17). Fluorescence in situ hybridization using a PLZF specific probe localized the PLZF gene to chromosomal band 11q23.1. Partial exon/intron structure of the PLZF gene flanking the break point on chromosome 11 was also established and the breakpoint within the RAR alpha gene was mapped approximately 2 kb downstream of the exon encoding the 5' untranslated region and the unique A2 domain of the RAR alpha 2 isoform.
S J Chen, A Zelent, J H Tong, H Q Yu, Z Y Wang, J Derré, R Berger, S Waxman, Z Chen
Angiotensin (Ang) II stimulates hypertrophic growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Accompanying this growth is the induction of the expression of growth-related protooncogenes (c-fos, c-jun, and c-myc), as well as the synthesis of the autocrine growth factors, such as PDGF-A and TGF-beta 1. In this study, we demonstrate further that Ang II also induces the synthesis of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a potent mitogen for VSMC. To examine how these factors interact to modulate the growth response of VSMC to Ang II, we used antisense oligomers to determine the relative contribution of these three factors. Treatment of confluent, quiescent smooth muscle cells with specific antisense oligomers complementary to bFGF, PDGF-A, and TGF-beta 1 efficiently inhibited the syntheses of these factors. Our results demonstrate that in these VSMC, TGF-beta 1 affects a key antiproliferative action, modulating the mitogenic properties of bFGF. Autocrine PDGF exerts only a minimal effect on DNA synthesis. An imbalance in these signals activated by Ang II may result in abnormal VSMC growth leading to the development of vascular disease.
H Itoh, M Mukoyama, R E Pratt, G H Gibbons, V J Dzau
Approximately 2% of Caucasians and African-Americans are homozygous for a nonsense mutation in exon 2 of the AMPD1 (AMP deaminase) gene. These individuals have a high grade deficiency of AMPD activity in their skeletal muscle. More than 100 patients with AMPD1 deficiency have been reported to have symptoms of a metabolic myopathy, but it is apparent many individuals with this inherited defect are asymptomatic given the prevalence of this mutant. Results of the present study provide a potential molecular explanation for "correction" of this genetic defect. Alternative splicing eliminates exon 2 in 0.6-2% of AMPD1 mRNA transcripts in adult skeletal muscle. Expression studies document that AMPD1 mRNA, which has exon 2 deleted, encodes a functional AMPD peptide. A much higher percentage of alternatively spliced transcripts are found during differentiation of human myocytes in vitro. Transfection studies with human minigene constructs demonstrate that alternative splicing of the primary transcript of human AMPD1 is controlled by tissue-specific and stage-specific signals. Alternative splicing of exon 2 in individuals who have inherited this defect provides a mechanism for phenotypic rescue and variations in splicing patterns may contribute to the variability in clinical symptoms.
H Morisaki, T Morisaki, L K Newby, E W Holmes
This study evaluated whether recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) enhances recovery of renal function and reduces catabolism in rats with ischemic acute renal failure (ARF). ARF and sham rats received subcutaneous injections of either rhIGF-I or vehicle three times daily starting 5 h after surgery. Serum creatinine and urea, which initially rose similarly in the ARF+vehicle and ARF+rhIGF-I rats, increased more slowly after commencing the rhIGF-I injections. 72 h after surgery, the ARF+rhIGF-I rats, in comparison with ARF+vehicle animals, showed significantly greater renal plasma flow and filtration fraction, a fivefold higher glomerular filtration rate, greater renal cortical IGF-I levels, increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in proximal tubule nuclei and enhanced DNA synthesis in the renal cortex, corticomedullary junction, glomeruli, and tubules as demonstrated by [3H]thymidine incorporation and in corticomedullary junction tubules as determined by autoradiography. Estimated total nitrogen output (ETNO) was greater in ARF+vehicle than in ARF+rhIGF-I or sham rats throughout the study. ETNO in ARF+rhIGF-I rats returned to sham values by the second day after surgery. 72 h after surgery, protein degradation was increased and protein synthesis reduced in the epitrochlearis muscle of ARF+vehicle as compared with ARF+rhIGF-I or sham+vehicle rats. Thus, treatment with rhIGF-I starting 5 h after inducing ischemic ARF in rats increases recovery of renal function, enhances formation of new renal tubular cells, lowers protein degradation, and increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and reduces net catabolism.
H Ding, J D Kopple, A Cohen, R Hirschberg
Differentiation therapy may provide an alternative for treatment of cancers that do not respond to cytotoxic chemotherapy or hormonal manipulations. This hypothesis led us to evaluate the effect of a nontoxic differentiation inducer, sodium phenylacetate (NaPA), on hormone-refractory prostate cancer, the second most common cause of cancer deaths in men. NaPA treatment of androgen-independent PC3 and DU145 prostate cell lines, like that of hormone-responsive LNCaP cultures, resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Similar treatments were not significantly inhibitory to replicating normal endothelial cells and skin fibroblasts. In addition to the selective cytostatic effect, NaPA induced reversion of the prostatic cells to a nonmalignant phenotype, evidenced by their reduced invasiveness and loss of tumorigenicity in athymic mice. Phenotypic reversion was accompanied by alterations in gene expression, including selective reduction in tumor growth factor-beta 2 mRNA levels and increased amounts of class I major histocompatibility complex HLA transcripts. Furthermore, there was a decrease in tumor-associated proteolysis mediated by urokinase plasminogen activator, a molecular marker of disease progression in humans. When tumor cells were treated with NaPA together with suramin, a drug with demonstrable activity in patients, there was complete abrogation of cell growth under conditions in which each treatment alone produced only a partial effect. The in vitro antineoplastic activity was observed with drug concentrations that have been achieved in humans with no significant toxicities, suggesting that PA, used alone or in combination with other antitumor agents, warrants evaluation in the treatment of advanced prostatic cancer.
D Samid, S Shack, C E Myers
Thyroid hormone resistance (THR) is primarily an autosomal dominant inherited disease characterized by resistance of pituitary and peripheral tissues to the action of thyroid hormone. We investigated whether the heterogeneous phenotypic features that occur not only among kindreds but also within the same kindred might be due to the expression of differing ratios of mutant and normal receptors in tissues. Using an allele-specific primer extension method, we determined the relative expression of normal and mutant mRNAs from the fibroblasts of affected and unaffected members of two kindreds with TRH: A-H and N-N. While two affected members of A-H, as expected, had nearly equal amounts of normal and mutant hTR beta mRNA, two other members had mutant mRNA levels that accounted for at least 70% of the hTR beta mRNA. Phenotypic variability within and between kindreds with generalized resistance to thyroid hormone GRTH may be due to this differential expression of the mutant and wild type mRNA. Furthermore, when several clinical parameters of THR were compared in several affected members from two kindreds with GRTH, we found that two cases in one kindred exhibited a high mutant-to-normal hTR beta ratio and had considerably more bone resistance during their development. In certain kindreds with THR, differing ratios of normal and mutant hTR receptors may be age and growth related and may account for the reported attenuation of phenotypic symptoms with age.
A J Mixson, P Hauser, G Tennyson, J C Renault, D L Bodenner, B D Weintraub
Lymphocytes from patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), a chronic autoimmune disease, have recently been shown to have decreased surface expression of MHC class I antigens. Since IDDM and other autoimmune diseases share a strong genetic association with MHC class II genes, which may in turn be linked to genes that affect MHC class I expression, we studied other autoimmune diseases to determine whether MHC class I expression is abnormal. Fresh PBLs were isolated from patients with IDDM, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease, systemic lupus erythematosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjogren's syndrome. Nondiabetic and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients served as controls. MHC class I expression was measured with a conformationally dependent monoclonal antibody, W6/32. Freshly prepared PBLs from the autoimmune diseases studied and the corresponding fresh EBV-transformed B cell lines had decreased MHC class I expression compared with PBLs from normal volunteers and non-insulin-dependent (nonautoimmune) diabetic patients. Only 3 of more than 180 donors without IDDM or other clinically recognized autoimmune disease had persistently decreased MHC class I expression; one patient was treated with immunosuppressive drugs, and subsequent screening of the other two patients revealed high titers of autoantibodies, revealing clinically occult autoimmunity. Patients with nonautoimmune inflammation (osteomyelitis or tuberculosis) had normal MHC class I expression. Autoimmune diseases are characterized by decreased expression of MHC class I on lymphocytes. MHC class I expression may be necessary for self-tolerance, and abnormalities in such expression may lead to autoimmunity.
Y Fu, D M Nathan, F Li, X Li, D L Faustman
Endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells produce heparinlike compounds that are growth inhibitory for vascular smooth muscle cells, and it has been suggested that these compounds play a regulatory role that is perturbed with vascular injury. Indeed, exogenous heparin preparations effectively suppress smooth muscle cell proliferation following injury imposed on vascular endothelium. We now report that protamine, an agent that binds heparin and negates its anticoagulant properties, has potent stimulatory effects on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. The administration of protamine, alone or as part of commonly used insulin preparations, stimulated the proliferation of cultured smooth muscle cells, exacerbated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferative lesions in laboratory rats, and interfered with the growth-inhibitory effects of heparin in culture and in vivo. These results confirm the importance of endogenous heparinlike compounds in arterial homeostasis and may require reconsideration of protamine use following vascular reparative procedures and in diabetics.
E R Edelman, L A Pukac, M J Karnovsky
The mechanism by which soluble mediators of immune cell origin depress myocardial contractility, either globally as in systemic sepsis, or regionally in areas of inflammatory myocardial infiltrates, remains unclear. When freshly isolated ventricular myocytes from adult rat hearts were preincubated for at least 24 h in medium conditioned by endotoxin (LPS)-activated rat alveolar macrophages, their subsequent inotropic response to the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol was reduced from 225 +/- 19% to 155 +/- 10% of the baseline amplitude of shortening (mean +/- SEM, P < 0.05). Neither baseline contractile function nor the contractile response to high extracellular calcium were affected. To determine whether an endogenous nitric-oxide (NO)-signaling pathway within ventricular myocytes was responsible for their decreased responsiveness to isoproterenol, the L-arginine analogue L-NMMA was added to the preincubation medium. While L-NMMA did not affect baseline contractile function or the response of control myocytes to isoproterenol, it completely restored the positive inotropic response to isoproterenol in myocytes preincubated in LPS-activated macrophage medium. Release of NO by ventricular myocytes following exposure to activated macrophage medium was detected as an increase in cGMP content in a reporter-cell (RFL-6) bioassay and also as increased nitrite content in myocyte-conditioned medium. Thus, the depressed contractile response of adult rat ventricular myocytes to beta-adrenergic agonists by a 24-h exposure to soluble inflammatory mediators is mediated at least in party by induction of an autocrine NO signaling pathway.
J L Balligand, D Ungureanu, R A Kelly, L Kobzik, D Pimental, T Michel, T W Smith
J L Madara, T W Patapoff, B Gillece-Castro, S P Colgan, C A Parkos, C Delp, R J Mrsny
The antiviral activity of azidothymidine (AZT), dideoxycytidine (ddC), and dideoxyinosine (ddI) against HIV-1 was comparatively evaluated in PHA-stimulated PBM. The mean drug concentration which yielded 50% p24 Gag negative cultures were substantially different: 0.06, 0.2, and 6 microM for AZT, ddC, and ddI, respectively. We found that AZT was preferentially phosphorylated to its triphosphate (TP) form in PHA-PBM rather than unstimulated, resting PBM (R-PBM), producing 10- to 17-fold higher ratios of AZTTP/dTTP in PHA-PBM than in R-PBM. The phosphorylation of ddC and ddI to their TP forms was, however, much less efficient in PHA-PBM, resulting in approximately 5-fold and approximately 15-fold lower ratios of ddCTP/dCTP and ddATP/dATP, respectively, in PHA-PBM than in R-PBM. The comparative order of PHA-induced increase in cellular enzyme activities examined was: thymidine kinase > uridine kinase > deoxycytidine kinase > adenosine kinase > 5'-nucleotidase. We conclude that AZT, ddC, and ddI exert disproportionate antiviral effects depending on the activation state of the target cells, i.e., ddI and ddC exert antiviral activity more favorably in resting cells than in activated cells, while AZT preferentially protects activated cells against HIV infection. Considering that HIV-1 proviral DNA synthesis in resting lymphocytes is reportedly initiated at levels comparable with those of activated lymphocytes, the current data should have practical relevance in the design of anti-HIV chemotherapy, particularly combination chemotherapy.
W Y Gao, T Shirasaka, D G Johns, S Broder, H Mitsuya