In patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and matched control subjects we examined the interrelationships between in vivo nonoxidative glucose metabolism and glucose oxidation and the muscle activities, as well as the immunoreactive protein and mRNA levels of the rate-limiting enzymes in glycogen synthesis and glycolysis, glycogen synthase (GS) and phosphofructokinase (PFK), respectively. Analysis of biopsies of quadriceps muscle from 19 NIDDM patients and 19 control subjects showed in the basal state a 30% decrease (P < 0.005) in total GS activity and a 38% decrease (P < 0.001) in GS mRNA/microgram DNA in NIDDM patients, whereas the GS protein level was normal. The enzymatic activity and protein and mRNA levels of PFK were all normal in diabetic patients. In subgroups of NIDDM patients and control subjects an insulin-glucose clamp in combination with indirect calorimetry was performed. The rate of insulin-stimulated nonoxidative glucose metabolism was decreased by 47% (P < 0.005) in NIDDM patients, whereas the glucose oxidation rate was normal. The PFK activity, protein level, and mRNA/microgram DNA remained unchanged. The relative activation of GS by glucose-6-phosphate was 33% lower (P < 0.02), whereas GS mRNA/micrograms DNA was 37% lower (P < 0.05) in the diabetic patients after 4 h of hyperinsulinemia. Total GS immunoreactive mass remained normal. In conclusion, qualitative but not quantitative posttranslational abnormalities of the GS protein in muscle determine the reduced insulin-stimulated nonoxidative glucose metabolism in NIDDM.
H Vestergaard, S Lund, F S Larsen, O J Bjerrum, O Pedersen
S J Scheinman, M A Pook, C Wooding, J T Pang, P A Frymoyer, R V Thakker
The immunoglobulin VH gene 51p1, a member of the large VH1 gene family, is preferentially expressed by B cells in the fetus and in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and appears to be the source for many cryoglobulin rheumatoid factors. Polymorphism of 51p1 may therefore be functionally important. We have studied the germline representation of 51p1 and closely related VH elements to establish their prevalence and allelic relationship. A panel of oligonucleotide probes directed to the complementarity determining regions (CDR1 and CDR2) of 51p1 and a similar gene, hv1263, was used in restriction fragment polymorphism analysis of 48 unrelated individuals and six families. 13 VH alleles to the 51p1 locus were identified, each distinguished by its restriction fragment size, hybridization profile, or both. On some haplotypes the locus was duplicated. Null alleles were not seen. The 13 alleles were cloned, yielding nine distinct nucleotide sequences that were > 98.2% identical and included 51p1 and hv1263. These germline variations could influence specificity for antigen, because the corresponding protein sequences differed by up to five amino acids, including three nonconservative changes in the CDR. Two of the most prevalent variants contained 51p1. These findings expand the spectrum of polymorphism seen among human VH genes and elucidate the germline origin of VH1 sequences frequently expressed in autoantibodies and CLL. We conclude that the 51p1 locus is polymorphic, and that the 51p1 element is the predominant member of a complex set of alleles.
E H Sasso, K Willems van Dijk, A P Bull, E C Milner
Macrophages participate in inflammatory and repair processes in part through the selective release of cytokines that contribute to tissue remodeling. Extracellular matrix components generated at inflammatory sites may influence tissue remodeling by effects on leukocyte adherence and local cytokine production. In murine bone marrow-derived macrophages, we found that soluble hyaluronic acid stimulated IL-1 beta, TNF alpha, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA transcript expression as well as IGF-1 protein synthesis. Monoclonal antibodies to the hyaluronic acid receptor CD44 blocked the effects of hyaluronic acid on IL-1 beta, TNF alpha, and IGF-1 expression. TNF alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA expression preceded IGF-1 protein synthesis, and TNF alpha, but not IL-1 beta, was found to directly stimulate IGF-1. Furthermore, IGF-1 induction was dependent on endogenous TNF alpha production since IGF-1 protein synthesis was inhibited in the presence of anti-TNF alpha antiserum. In addition, IL-1 beta was found to exert a regulatory role on IGF-1 production by enhancing the TNF alpha effect. IL-1 beta and TNF alpha mRNA transcript expression as well as IGF-1 protein synthesis were also stimulated by chrysotile asbestos. Anti-CD44 antibodies had no effect whereas anti-TNF alpha antiserum blocked asbestos-stimulated IGF-1 production. These results indicate that hyaluronate activation of CD44 induces cytokine expression and macrophage-derived IGF-1 production is dependent on TNF alpha expression.
P W Noble, F R Lake, P M Henson, D W Riches
Cell-cell adhesion is essential for many immunological functions and is believed to be important in the regulation of hematopoiesis. Adhesive interactions between human endothelial cells and megakaryocytes were characterized in vitro using the CMK megakaryocytic cell line as well as marrow megakaryocytes. Although there was no adhesion between unactivated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and megakaryocytes, treatment of HUVEC with inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, INF-gamma, or the phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in adhesion. Stimulation of marrow megakaryocytes or CMK cells with the cytokines IL-1 beta, GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-3, or PMA augmented their adhesion to endothelium. Monoclonal antibodies against the LFA-1 subunit of the leukocyte adherence complex CD18 inhibited the binding of marrow megakaryocytes or CMK cells to HUVEC. Adhesion blocking experiments also demonstrated that the VLA-4/VCAM-1 pathway was important for megakaryocyte attachment to HUVEC. Adhesion promoted maturation of megakaryocytic cells as measured by increased expression of glycoproteins GpIb and GpIIb/IIIa and by increased DNA content. These observations suggest that alterations in megakaryocyte adhesion may occur during inflammatory conditions, mediated by certain cytokines, resulting in augmented megakaryocyte maturation.
H Avraham, S Cowley, S Y Chi, S Jiang, J E Groopman
To examine the precise role of potassium and aldosterone on acid-base composition and on collecting tubule ATPases, glucocorticoid-replete adrenalectomized rats were replaced with zero, physiological, or pharmacological doses of aldosterone and were fed varying potassium diets to produce hypokalemia, normokalemia, or hyperkalemia. Radiochemical measurement of ATPase activities showed that collecting tubule H/K-ATPase changed inversely with potassium and not with aldosterone whereas H-ATPase changed directly with aldosterone but not with potassium. When both enzymes changed in the same direction, alterations in acid-base composition were profound; however, when these two acidifying enzymes changed in opposite directions or when only one enzyme changed, the effect on acid-base balance was modest. Serum bicarbonate was approximately 45 meq/liter when aldosterone was high and potassium was low; it was only 29 meq/liter when aldosterone was high but potassium was normal or when aldosterone was normal and potassium was low. Our observations may help explain the metabolic alkalosis of primary aldosteronism in which aldosterone excess and hypokalemia are combined and the metabolic acidosis of aldosterone deficiency in which hypoaldosteronism and hyperkalemia are paired. The present study also demonstrated that aldosterone plays the major role in controlling Na/K-ATPase activity in cortical collecting tubule. Hypokalemia stimulates Na/K-ATPase activity in the medullary collecting tubule; this stimulatory effect of hypokalemia supports the hypothesis that the enzyme is present on the apical membrane at this site.
S Eiam-Ong, N A Kurtzman, S Sabatini
Four different protective protein cDNA mutations, 146A-->G (Q49R), 193T-->C (W65R), 268-269TC-->CT (S90L), and 1184A-->G (Y395C), were identified in six Japanese galactosialidosis patients with various phenotypic manifestations, and another mutation, 746T-->A (Y249N), in a patient of French-German origin with an atypical clinical course. Y395C was a common mutation in four Japanese patients in infancy and childhood; two juvenile patients were compound heterozygotes of Y395C and another common mutation, SpDEx7, and the other two infants were compound heterozygotes of Y395C and mutant alleles other than SpDEx7. We confirmed these mutations in genomic DNA by direct-sequence analysis or restriction-site analysis. The mutant cDNA clones, transiently expressed in a transformed galactosialidosis cell line, did not restore the secondarily deficient beta-galactosidase or alpha-neuraminidase activity except for the Y249N mutation that expressed some carboxypeptidase activity and restored the two lysosomal enzyme activities. Pulse-chase analysis detected a small amount of the mature form, as well as the precursor, in the cells transfected with the Y249N cDNA. Only precursor proteins were detected, mature proteins not appearing for the other mutant cDNAs.
M Shimmoto, Y Fukuhara, K Itoh, A Oshima, H Sakuraba, Y Suzuki
The hypothesis that endogenous PGE2 mediates defective thick ascending limb (TAL) Cl reabsorption (percent delivered load: FRCl%) in rats with vitamin D-induced chronic hypercalcemia (HC) was tested by measuring FRCl% in loop segments microperfused in vivo in HC and control rats treated acutely with indomethacin (Indo) or its vehicle, and obtaining the corresponding outer medullary [PGE2]. Microperfusion conditions were developed in which FRCl% was exclusively furosemide sensitive. To determine the cellular mechanism, tubules were perfused acutely with forskolin (FSK), cAMP, or the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine (SSP). Outer medullary [PGE2] in HC rats was 9 to 10 times greater than control and could be normalized by Indo. FRCl% was 20% lower in HC rats infused with vehicle, and Indo, FSK, and cAMP returned FRCl% to normal despite sustained HC. Indo or FSK had no effect on FRCl% in control rats and Indo did not prevent inhibition of FRCl% by luminal PGE2 (1 microM). Luminal SSP (10(-7), 10(-8) M) in HC did not return FRCl% to control values. We conclude that impaired TAL FRCl% in HC occurs at a pre-cAMP site and is due to endogenous PGE2 and not to HC.
L N Peterson, A J McKay, J S Borzecki
Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone (GRTH) is a syndrome of variable reduction of tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormone. 28 different point mutations in the human thyroid hormone receptor beta (TR beta) gene have been associated with GRTH. These mutations are clustered in two regions of the T3 binding domain of the TR beta (codons 310-347 and 417-453). We now report point mutations in the TR beta gene of six additional families with GRTH and show that three mutations occurred each in three families with GRTH, and that three other mutations were each present in two families. In 11 of these 15 families, lack of a common ancestor could be confirmed by genetic analysis. 28 of the 38 point mutations so far identified, including all those occurring in more than one family, are located in cytosine-guanine-rich areas of the TR beta gene. Differences in clinical and laboratory findings in unrelated families harboring the same TR beta mutation suggest that genetic variability of other factors modulate the expression of thyroid hormone action.
R E Weiss, M Weinberg, S Refetoff
We have examined the effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3) and a low calcemic analogue EB1089 on parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHRP) production and on the development of hypercalcemia in Fischer rats implanted with the Leydig cell tumor H-500. Leydig cell tumors were implanted subcutaneously into male Fischer rats, which received constant infusions intraperitoneally of either 1,25(OH)2D3 (50-200 pmol/24 h), EB1089 (50-400 pmol/24 h), or vehicle for up to 4 wk. A control group of animals received similar infusions without tumor implantation. Plasma calcium, plasma levels of immunoreactive iPTHRP, and tumor PTHRP mRNA levels were determined as well as tumor size, animal body weight, and animal survival time. Non-tumor-bearing animals receiving > 50 pmol/24 h of 1,25(OH)2D3 became hypercalcemic, whereas no significant change in plasma calcium was observed in animals receiving < or = 200 pmol/24 h of EB1089. Tumor-bearing animals receiving vehicle alone or > 50 pmol/24 h of 1,25(OH)2D3 became severely hypercalcemic within 15 d. However, animals treated with low dose 1,25(OH)2D3 and all doses of EB1089 maintained near-normal or normal levels of plasma calcium for up to 4 wk. Additionally, reduced levels of tumor PTHRP mRNA and of plasma iPTHRP were observed compared with controls in both vitamin D- and EB1089-treated rats. Infusion of 50 pmol/24 h of 1,25(OH)2D3 and 200 pmol/24 h of EB1089 significantly reduced tumor volume by the end of experiment. The analogue but not 1,25(OH)2D3 substantially prolonged survival time in tumor-bearing animals with longer survival achieved at the highest dose, 400 pmol/24 h, of EB1089. These studies demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D3 and a low calcemic vitamin D analogue are potent inhibitors of PTHRP production in vivo. Low calcemic analogues may therefore represent important alternative therapy for malignancy-associated hypercalcemia.
M Haq, R Kremer, D Goltzman, S A Rabbani
Intestinal salt and fluid secretion is stimulated by Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxins (ST) through activation of a membrane guanylate cyclase found in the intestine. Guanylin is an endogenous intestinal peptide that has structural similarity to the bacterial peptides. Synthetic preparations of guanylin or E. coli ST 5-17 stimulated Cl- secretion in T84 cells cultured on semipermeable membranes as measured by increases in short circuit current (Isc). The guanylin/ST receptors appeared to be on the apical surface of T84 cells, since addition of guanylin to the apical, but not basolateral, reservoir stimulated Isc. Bumetanide added to the basolateral side effectively inhibited the Isc responses of T84 cells to either guanylin or ST 5-17. Guanylin appeared to be about one-tenth as potent as ST in stimulating transepithelial Cl- secretion. Guanylin and E. coli ST 5-17 both caused massive (> 1,000-fold) increases in cGMP levels in T84 cells, but guanylin was less potent than ST. Both peptides fully inhibited the binding of 125I-ST to receptor sites on intact T84 cells. The radioligand binding data obtained with guanylin or ST 5-17 best fit a model predicting two receptors with different affinity for these ligands. The Ki values for guanylin were 19 +/- 5 nM and 1.3 +/- 0.5 microM, whereas the Ki values for ST 5-17 were 78 +/- 38 pM and 4.9 +/- 1.4 nM. We conclude that guanylin stimulated Cl- secretion via the second messenger, cGMP, in T84 human colon cells. At least two guanylin receptors with different affinities for these ligands may exist in the cultured T84 cells. It may be postulated that guanylin is an endogenous hormone that controls intestinal Cl- secretion by a paracrine mechanism via cGMP and that E. coli ST stimulates Cl- secretion by virtue of an opportunistic mechanism through activation of guanylin receptors.
L R Forte, S L Eber, J T Turner, R H Freeman, K F Fok, M G Currie
To assess the effect of hemodialysis on protein metabolism, leucine flux was measured in seven patients before, during, and after high efficiency hemodialysis using cuprophane dialyzers and bicarbonate dialysate during a primed-constant infusion of L-[1-13C]leucine. The kinetics [mumol/kg per h, mean +/- SD] are as follows: leucine appearance into the plasma leucine pool was 86 +/- 28, 80 +/- 28, and 85 +/- 25, respectively, before, during, and after dialysis. Leucine appearance into the whole body leucine pool, derived from plasma [1-13C]alpha-ketoisocaproate enrichment, was 118 +/- 31, 118 +/- 31, and 114 +/- 28 before, during, and after dialysis, respectively. In the absence of leucine intake, appearance rate reflects protein degradation, which was clearly unaffected by dialysis. Leucine oxidation rate was 17.3 +/- 7.8 before, decreased to 13.8 +/- 7.8 during, and increased to 18.9 +/- 10.3 after dialysis (P = 0.027). Leucine protein incorporation was 101 +/- 26 before, was reduced to 89 +/- 23 during, and returned to 95 +/- 23 after dialysis (P = 0.13). Leucine net balance, the difference between leucine protein incorporation and leucine release from endogenous degradation, was -17.3 +/- 7.8 before, decreased to -28.5 +/- 11.0 during, and returned to -18.9 +/- 10.3 after dialysis (P < 0.0001). This markedly more negative leucine balance during dialysis was accountable by dialysate leucine loss, which was 14.4 +/- 6.2 mumol/kg per h. These data suggest that hemodialysis using a cuprophane membrane did not acutely induce protein degradation. It was, nevertheless, a net catabolic event because protein synthesis was reduced and amino acid was lost into the dialysate.
V S Lim, D M Bier, M J Flanigan, S T Sum-Ping
In vivo short-term effects of recombinant human TNF-alpha on lipolysis, FFA flux, fat oxidation, triglyceride-fatty acid cycling, and glucose kinetics were evaluated with stable isotopic tracers and indirect calorimetry along with monitoring of hemodynamic parameters in fasted dogs. High-dose TNF infusion (10 micrograms/kg) caused a fall in mean arterial pressure (P < 0.01), pulmonary arterial pressure (P < 0.001), and cardiac index (CI) (P < 0.05). The rate of appearance of glycerol (Ra glycerol) and the rate of appearance of FFA (Ra FFA) were decreased by 20% (P < 0.05) and by 42% (P < 0.01), respectively. Total fat oxidation fell by 23% (P < 0.05). In contrast, TNF infusion significantly increased glucose production by 13% (P < 0.05) and metabolic clearance rate of glucose by 25% (P < 0.01). However, TNF infusion did not change energy expenditure. Low-dose TNF infusion (3.5 micrograms/kg) caused changes similar in all respects, except magnitude, to the high-dose effects. There was a significant correlation between percent change of CI (delta CI) and percent change of rate of appearance of palmitate (Ra palmitate; delta Ra palmitate) (P < 0.0001, r = 0.69), Ra FFA (delta Ra FFA) (P < 0.0001, r = 0.60), and Ra glycerol (delta Ra glycerol) (P < 0.0329, r = 0.36). The correlation between delta CI and delta Ra palmitate was greater than the correlation between delta CI and delta Ra glycerol (P = 0.028). We conclude that the acute response to TNF causes a shift towards carbohydrate as an energy substrate in a dose-dependent manner by both decreasing the availability of FFAs and increasing glucose production.
Y Sakurai, X U Zhang, R R Wolfe
Nitric oxide (NO) has antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of infectious pathogens, but an antiviral effect has not been reported. The impact of NO, from endogenous and exogenous sources, on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1) replication was studied in vitro. HSV 1 replication in RAW 264.7 macrophages was reduced 1,806-fold in monolayers induced to make NO by activation with gamma IFN and LPS. A competitive and a noncompetitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase substantially reduced the antiviral effect of activated RAW macrophages. S-nitroso-L-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) is a donor of NO and was added to the media of infected monolayers to assess the antiviral properties of NO in the absence of gamma IFN and LPS. A single dose of S-nitroso-L-acetyl penicillamine 3 h after infection inhibited HSV 1 replication in Vero, HEp2, and RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Neither virucidal nor cytocidal effects of NO were observed under conditions that inhibited HSV 1 replication. Nitric oxide had inhibitory effects, comparable to that of gamma IFN/LPS, on protein and DNA synthesis as well as on cell replication. This report demonstrates that, among its diverse properties, NO has an antiviral effect.
K D Croen
To determine if insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) inhibits pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion in man, recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) was infused for 6 h at 10 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 during a euglycemic clamp in 10 normal men who were fasted for 32 h to enhance GH secretion. Saline alone was infused during an otherwise identical second admission as a control. As a result of rhIGF-I infusion, total and free IGF-I concentrations increased three- and fourfold, respectively. Mean GH concentrations fell from 6.3 +/- 1.6 to 0.59 +/- 0.07 micrograms/liter after 120 min. GH secretion rates, calculated by a deconvolution algorithm, decreased with a t 1/2 of 16.6 min and remained suppressed thereafter. Suppression of GH secretion rates occurred within 60 min when total and free IGF-I concentrations were 1.6-fold and 2-fold above baseline levels, respectively, and while glucose infusion rates were < 1 mumol.kg-1.min-1. During saline infusion, GH secretion rates remained elevated. Infusion of rhIGF-I decreased the mass of GH secreted per pulse by 84% (P < 0.01) and the number of detectable GH secretory pulses by 32% (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin and glucagon decreased to nearly undetectable levels after 60 min of rhIGF-I. Serum free fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate were unaffected during the first 3 h of rhIGF-I but decreased thereafter to 52, 32, and 50% of levels observed during saline. We conclude that fasting-enhanced GH secretion is rapidly suppressed by a low-dose euglycemic infusion of rhIGF-I. This effect of rhIGF-I is likely mediated through IGF-I receptors independently of its insulin-like metabolic actions.
M L Hartman, P E Clayton, M L Johnson, A Celniker, A J Perlman, K G Alberti, M O Thorner
To investigate the contribution of glycation and oxidation reactions to the modification of insoluble collagen in aging and diabetes, Maillard reaction products were measured in skin collagen from 39 type 1 diabetic patients and 52 nondiabetic control subjects. Compounds studied included fructoselysine (FL), the initial glycation product, and the glycoxidation products, N epsilon-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) and pentosidine, formed during later Maillard reactions. Collagen-linked fluorescence was also studied. In nondiabetic subjects, glycation of collagen (FL content) increased only 33% between 20 and 85 yr of age. In contrast, CML, pentosidine and fluorescence increased five-fold, correlating strongly with age. In diabetic patients, collagen FL was increased threefold compared with nondiabetic subjects, correlating strongly with glycated hemoglobin but not with age. Collagen CML, pentosidine and fluorescence were increased up to twofold in diabetic compared with control patients: this could be explained by the increase in glycation alone, without invoking increased oxidative stress. There were strong correlations among CML, pentosidine and fluorescence in both groups, providing evidence for age-dependent chemical modification of collagen via the Maillard reaction, and acceleration of this process in diabetes. These results support the description of diabetes as a disease characterized by accelerated chemical aging of long-lived tissue proteins.
D G Dyer, J A Dunn, S R Thorpe, K E Bailie, T J Lyons, D R McCance, J W Baynes
Glycation, oxidation, and browning of proteins have all been implicated in the development of diabetic complications. We measured the initial Amadori adduct, fructoselysine (FL); two Maillard products, N epsilon-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) and pentosidine; and fluorescence (excitation = 328 nm, emission = 378 nm) in skin collagen from 39 type 1 diabetic patients (aged 41.5 +/- 15.3 [17-73] yr; duration of diabetes 17.9 +/- 11.5 [0-46] yr, [mean +/- SD, range]). The measurements were related to the presence of background (n = 9) or proliferative (n = 16) retinopathy; early nephropathy (24-h albumin excretion rate [AER24] > or = 20 micrograms/min; n = 9); and limited joint mobility (LJM; n = 20). FL, CML, pentosidine, and fluorescence increased progressively across diabetic retinopathy (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively). FL, CML, pentosidine, and fluorescence were also elevated in patients with early nephropathy (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively). There was no association with LJM. Controlling for age, sex, and duration of diabetes using logistic regression, FL and CML were independently associated with retinopathy (FL odds ratio (OR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.12, P < 0.05; CML OR = 6.77, 95% CI = 1.33-34.56, P < 0.05) and with early nephropathy (FL OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.01-1.10, P < 0.05; CML OR = 13.44, 95% CI = 2.00-93.30, P < 0.01). The associations between fluorescence and retinopathy and between pentosidine and nephropathy approached significance (P = 0.05). These data show that FL and Maillard products in skin correlate with functional abnormalities in other tissues and suggest that protein glycation and oxidation (glycoxidation) may be implicated in the development of diabetic retinopathy and early nephropathy.
D R McCance, D G Dyer, J A Dunn, K E Bailie, S R Thorpe, J W Baynes, T J Lyons
To evaluate the potential use of a combination of antiresorption and bone formation-promoting agents as a treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis, we examined the effects of combined and separate administration of estrogen (17 beta-estradiol, 30 micrograms/kg per d, s.c.) and parathyroid hormone (rPTH [1-34], 40 micrograms/kg per d, s.c.) on the proximal tibia of ovariectomized (Ovx) rats. The treatments lasted for 4 wk and were initiated 1, 3, and 5 wk after surgery. Ovx resulted in rapid loss of cancellous bone volume (Cn-BV/TV) as well as trabecular connectivity, as determined by two dimensional strut analysis. When administered in a preventive mode, treatment beginning 1 wk post-Ovx, estrogen or PTH treatment alone preserved Cn-BV/TV and trabecular connectivity, and combined estrogen and PTH treatment caused a 40% increment in Cn-BV/TV while maintaining comparable trabecular connectivity with that seen in the Sham-operated animals. When administered in a curative mode to rats with established osteoporosis, treatments beginning 3 or 5 wk post-Ovx, estrogen or PTH treatment alone prevented further loss of connectivity and Cn-BV/TV, whereas the combined treatment resulted in as much as a 300% improvement in one of the parameters of trabecular connectivity, node to node strut length, and a 106% increase in Cn-BV/TV, with respect to the bone status at the initiation of treatment. The beneficial effects of this combined treatment derive from estrogen's ability to prevent accelerated bone resorption and, simultaneously, PTH's promotion of bone formation. These data demonstrate, in an animal model, that therapies can be devised to cure the skeletal defects associated with established osteoporosis.
V Shen, D W Dempster, R Birchman, R Xu, R Lindsay
The sterol 27-hydroxylase (EC 126.96.36.199) catalyzes steps in the oxidation of sterol intermediates that form bile acids. Mutations in this gene give rise to the autosomal recessive disease cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX). CTX is characterized by tendon xanthomas, cataracts, a multitude of neurological manifestations, and premature atherosclerosis. A relatively high prevalence of the disease has been noted in Jews originating from Morocco. The major objectives of the present investigation were to determine the gene structure and characterize the common mutant alleles that cause CTX in Moroccan Jews. The gene contains nine exons and eight introns and encompasses at least 18.6 kb of DNA. The putative promoter region is rich in guanidine and cytosine residues and contains potential binding sites for the transcription factor Sp1 and the liver transcription factor, LF-B1. Blotting analysis revealed that the mutant alleles do not produce any detectable sterol 27-hydroxylase mRNA. No major gene rearrangements were found and single-strand conformational polymorphism followed by sequence analysis identified two underlying mutations: deletion of thymidine in exon 4 and a guanosine to adenosine substitution at the 3' splice acceptor site of intron 4 of the gene. The molecular characterization of CTX in Jews of Moroccan origin provides a definitive diagnosis of this treatable disease.
E Leitersdorf, A Reshef, V Meiner, R Levitzki, S P Schwartz, E J Dann, N Berkman, J J Cali, L Klapholz, V M Berginer
The enzyme protein carboxyl methyltransferase type II has been recently shown to play a crucial role in the repair of damaged proteins. S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is the methyl donor of the reaction, and its demethylated product, S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy), is the natural inhibitor of this reaction, as well as of most AdoMet-dependent methylations. We examined erythrocyte membrane protein methyl esterification in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on conservative treatment or hemodialyzed to detect possible alterations of the methylation pattern, in a condition where a state of disrupted red blood cell function is present. We observed a significant reduction in membrane protein methyl esterification in both groups, compared to control. The decrease was particularly evident for cytoskeletal component ankyrin, which is known to be involved in membrane stability and integrity. Moreover, we observed a severalfold rise in AdoHcy levels, while AdoMet concentration was comparable to that detected in the control, resulting in a lower [AdoMet]/[AdoHcy] ratio (P < 0.001). Our findings show an impairment of this posttranslational modification of proteins, associated with high AdoHcy intracellular concentration in CRF. The data are consistent with the notion that, in CRF, structural damages accumulate in erythrocyte membrane proteins, and are not adequately repaired.
A F Pema, D Ingrosso, V Zappia, P Galletti, G Capasso, N G De Santo
To elucidate mechanisms underlying neovascularization that accompanies certain chronic immune/inflammatory disorders, the effects of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) on endothelial cell (EC) growth in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo were studied. Preincubation of cultured human ECs with IFN-alpha, followed by exposure to IL-2, resulted in effective stimulation of cell growth, whereas either cytokine alone had only a slight effect. The combination of IFN-alpha/IL-2 induced an angiogenic response in the rabbit cornea. IL-2 receptor expression was enhanced on IFN-alpha-treated ECs: p55 was increased and p70 was induced. 125I-IL-2 binding to ECs treated with IFN-alpha was enhanced (Kd from approximately 7 nM to approximately 260 pM with IFN-alpha), and anti-p55 IgG blocked 125I-IL-2/EC interaction as well as IL-2-mediated EC proliferation. Consistent with these findings in cell culture, immunohistologic studies demonstrated p55 and p70 antigen in the vasculature of rheumatoid joints, but not in normal joint tissue. Exposure of cultured ECs to IFN-alpha increased levels of intracellular EC basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and subsequent addition of IL-2 led to bFGF release into the medium. The observation that anti-bFGF IgG largely blocked EC proliferation in response to IFN-alpha/IL-2 suggested that bFGF was a critical agent in this setting. These data suggest a mechanism rendering ECs responsive to IL-2 which may be relevant in immune/inflammatory disorders: IFN-alpha-mediated induction of functional EC receptors for IL-2, which drives cell proliferation by a mechanism dependent on increased synthesis and release of bFGF.
F Cozzolino, M Torcia, M Lucibello, L Morbidelli, M Ziche, J Platt, S Fabiani, J Brett, D Stern
Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of a novel family of calcium-independent plasmalogen-selective phospholipases A2 in canine myocardium that have been implicated as enzymic mediators of ischemic membrane damage. We now report that human myocardium contains two functionally distinct isoforms of cytosolic calcium-independent phospholipase A2. The major cytosolic phospholipase A2 isoform preferentially hydrolyzes plasmalogen substrate, possesses a pH optimum of 7.0, and is chromatographically resolvable from a minor cytosolic calcium-independent phospholipase A2 isoform that hydrolyzes plasmenylcholine and phosphatidylcholine substrates at similar rates and possesses a pH optimum of 8.5. The major cytosolic calcium-independent phospholipase A2 isoform was identified as a 40-kD polypeptide after its 182,000-fold purification by sequential column chromatographies to a final specific activity of 67 mumol/mg.min. The purified 40-kD human myocardial phospholipase A2 preferentially hydrolyzes plasmalogens containing arachidonic acid at the sn-2 position. Both reverse-phase HPLC and fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopic analysis of human myocardial ethanolamine and choline glycerophospholipids demonstrated that plasmenylethanolamine and plasmenylcholine molecular species containing arachidonic acid at the sn-2 position are prominent constituents of human myocardium. Collectively, these results identify and characterize the major human myocardial cytosolic calcium-independent phospholipase A2 activity, demonstrate the presence of functionally distinct human myocardial cytosolic calcium-independent phospholipase A2 isoforms, and document the abundance of arachidonoylated plasmalogen molecular species in human myocardium that serve as substrates.
S L Hazen, C R Hall, D A Ford, R W Gross
Follistatin is a glycoprotein, originally isolated from the gonads, that specifically inhibits follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) biosynthesis and secretion. We have previously detected follistatin mRNA in rat pituitary gonadotropes. To assess the potential physiologic role of follistatin in the rat pituitary, we have investigated the effects of gonadectomy (GDX) and of sex steroid replacement on pituitary follistatin gene expression. Follistatin mRNA levels in individual rat pituitaries were measured by a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. Female and male rats 21 d old underwent surgical GDX and were then killed 21 d after GDX. Follistatin mRNA levels in rat pituitary increased 3.2 +/- 1.5-fold (P < 0.01) in GDX female rats and 8.2 +/- 2.0-fold (P < 0.005) in GDX male rats, compared with intact female and male controls, respectively. Replacement therapy with 17 beta-estradiol-3-benzoate (10 micrograms/100 g body weight) subcutaneously daily for 7 d in GDX female rats resulted in a slight further increase in follistatin mRNA levels compared to GDX females. In contrast, therapy with testosterone propionate (500 micrograms/100 g body weight) subcutaneously daily for 7 d in GDX male rats resulted in a decrease in follistatin mRNA levels, towards but not completely back to baseline levels in intact males. Time-course studies in adult male and female rats showed that the increase in follistatin mRNA levels after GDX is rapid, with significant increases occurring within 24 h after GDX, and parallels or precedes increases in FSH beta mRNA levels and FSH secretion. The regulation of follistatin mRNA levels in the rat pituitary by GDX and by sex steroids suggests that follistatin may be important as an autocrine or paracrine factor in the regulation of FSH.
U B Kaiser, W W Chin
The clearance of particulate triglyceride from the plasma of cholesterol-fed rats with appreciable stores of hepatic cholesterol ester produces a substantial increment in plasma cholesterol. Most of this plasma cholesterol increment arises from existing tissue sources. The increment begins from 4 to 6 h after clearance and is due to the appearance of larger cholesterol-rich, triglyceride-poor, beta migrating lipoproteins, which are isolated in the d < 1.063 fraction with an apoprotein (Apo) content consisting primarily of Apo E and smaller amounts of Apo B. A concurrent decrease in alpha lipoproteins occurs with the beta lipoprotein increment. Within 1 d of clearance the beta lipoproteins fall and alpha lipoproteins increase. The increase in total plasma Apo E and Apo B initially parallels that of the cholesterol, but it persists even when cholesterol falls. A modest decrease in plasma Apo A1 was observed during the time alpha lipoproteins declined. A significant increase in plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase preceded the increase in beta lipoprotein cholesterol. This enzyme increment was absent in rats with little lipoprotein response despite increased hepatic cholesterol. In vivo inhibition of this enzyme with dithionitrobenzoic acid virtually eliminated the postclearance hypercholesterolemia. Plasma particulate triglyceride clearance induces an increase in beta lipoproteins. Coupling of this clearance and hepatic lipoprotein secretion occurs by an unknown mechanism modulated by lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase.
S H Quarfordt, B S Oswald, M O Farouk, D C Wehrenberg, E B Morton, B A Landis
Detailed DNA sequencing of the triple-helical domain of type III procollagen was carried out on cDNA prepared from 54 patients with aortic aneurysms. The 43 male and 11 female patients originated from 50 different families and five different nationalities. 43 patients had at least one additional blood relative who had aneurysms. Five overlapping asymmetric PCR products, covering all the coding sequences of the triple-helical domain of type III procollagen, were sequenced with 28 specific sequencing primers. Analysis of the sequencing gels revealed only two nucleotide changes that altered the structure of the protein. One was a substitution of threonine for proline at amino acid position 501 and its functional importance was not clearly established. The other was a substitution of arginine for an obligatory glycine at amino acid position 136. In 40 of the 54 patients, detection of a polymorphism in the mRNA established that both alleles were expressed. The results indicate that mutations in type III procollagen are the cause of only about 2% of aortic aneurysms.
G Tromp, Y Wu, D J Prockop, S L Madhatheri, C Kleinert, J J Earley, J Zhuang, O Norrgård, R C Darling, W M Abbott
Indirect evidence suggests accelerated degradation of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (ENDO) by superoxide anion (O2-) in hypercholesterolemic vessels (HV). To directly measure O2- production by normal vessels (NV) and HV, we used an assay for O2- based on the chemiluminescence (CL) of lucigenin (L). HV (1 mo cholesterol-fed rabbits) produced threefold more O2- than NV (1.47 +/- 0.20 nM/mg tissue/min, n = 7 vs. 0.52 +/- 0.05 nmol/mg tissue/min, n = 8, P < 0.001). Endothelial removal increased O2- production in NV (0.73 +/- 0.08, n = 6, P < 0.05), while decreasing it in HV (0.76 +/- 0.15, n = 5, P < 0.05). There was no difference between denuded HV and denuded NV. Oxypurinol, a noncompetitive inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, normalized O2- production in HV, but had no effect in NV. In separate isometric tension studies treatment with oxypurinol improved acetylcholine induced relaxations in HV, while having no effect on responses in normal vessels. Oxypurinol did not alter relaxations to nitroprusside. Thus, the endothelium is a source of O2- in hypercholesterolemia probably via xanthine oxidase activation. Increased endothelial O2- production in HV may inactivate endothelium-derived nitric oxide and provide a source for other oxygen radicals, contributing to the early atherosclerotic process.
Y Ohara, T E Peterson, D G Harrison
Transport of vitamin D3 from its sites of cutaneous synthesis into the circulation has been assumed to be via the plasma vitamin D binding protein (DBP). We studied vitamin D transport from the skin in seven healthy volunteers who received whole body irradiation with 27 mJ/cm2 dosage of ultraviolet B light (290-320 nm). Samples of venous blood were collected serially in EDTA and immediately chilled. In KBr, plasma samples were ultracentrifuged to provide a rapid separation of proteins of density < and > 1.3 g/ml. Upper and lower phases and serial fractions were analyzed for vitamin D3 (extraction, HPLC), cholesterol (enzyme assay), and human DBP (hDBP) (radial immunodiffusion). Total plasma vitamin D (basal level < 1 ng/ml) increased by 10 h and peaked at 24 h (9 +/- 1 ng/ml). 98% of the D3 remained at the density > 1.3 layers for up to 7 d, whereas cholesterol (> 85%) was detected at density < 1.3 and all of the hDBP was at density > 1.3. In three volunteers who each ingested 1.25 mg of vitamin D2, the total plasma D2 increased to 90 +/- 32 ng/ml by 4 h, and the D2 was evenly distributed between the upper and lower layers at 4, 8, and 24 h after the dose, indicating a continuing association of the vitamin with chylomicrons and lipoproteins, as well as with hDBP. Actin affinity chromatography removed D3 from plasma of irradiated subjects, indicating the association of the D3 with DBP. These findings indicate that endogenously synthesized vitamin D3 travels in plasma almost exclusively on DBP, providing for a slower hepatic delivery of the vitamin D and the more sustained increase in plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol observed after depot, parenteral administration of vitamin D. In contrast, the association of orally administered vitamin D with chylomicrons and lipoproteins allows for receptor-mediated, rapid hepatic delivery of vitamin D, and the reported rapid but less-sustained increases in plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol.
J G Haddad, L Y Matsuoka, B W Hollis, Y Z Hu, J Wortsman
Autoantibodies to five aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases have been reported, and all have been associated with a syndrome of myositis and interstitial lung disease. Four of these synthetases exist free in the cytoplasm, but the fifth, isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (recognized by anti-OJ autoantibodies), is a component of the multi-enzyme complex containing at least seven synthetases. In an effort to better understand the origins of these antibodies, we examined sera from 11 patients with anti-OJ autoantibodies for evidence of reaction with other components of the complex. All sera showed a characteristic pattern of 10 proteins bands by immunoprecipitation from HeLa cell extract. 10 of 11 sera significantly inhibited isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase enzyme activity. Serum and IgG from four patients also inhibited leucyl-tRNA synthetase activity, and serum and IgG from two inhibited lysyl-tRNA synthetase. Immunoblotting experiments supported reaction of the two sera with lysyl-tRNA synthetase, and revealed additional reactivity of three sera with a 160-kD component believed to be glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase. Despite reaction of some sera with additional synthetases, the immunoprecipitated tRNA appeared the same with all sera, and functioned as tRNA(ile). While reaction with more than one synthetase was seen with some anti-OJ sera, all synthetases targeted by anti-OJ sera were components of the complex, rather than unassociated synthetases. These findings suggest that an initial autoantibody response against isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase was followed by extension to involve other components of the synthetase complex. These observations may have implications for understanding the generation of antisynthetase autoantibodies.
I N Targoff, E P Trieu, F W Miller
A transition of G to A at nucleotide position 279 in exon 1 of the vasopressin gene has been identified in patients with familial central diabetes insipidus. The mutation predicts an amino acid substitution of Thr (ACG) for Ala (GCG) at the COOH terminus of the signal peptide in preprovasopression (preproVP). Translation in vitro of wild-type and mutant mRNAs produced 19-kD preproVPs. When translated in the presence of canine pancreatic rough microsomes, wild-type preproVP was converted to a 21-kD protein, whereas the mutant mRNA produced proteins of 21 kD and 23 kD. NH2-terminal amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the 21-kD proteins from the wild-type and the mutants were proVPs generated by the proteolytic cleavage of the 19-residue signal peptide and the addition of carbohydrate. Accordingly, mutant preproVP was cleaved at the correct site after Thr-19, but the efficiency of cleavage by signal peptidase was < 25% that observed for the wild-type preproVP, resulting in the formation of a predominant glycosylated but uncleaved 23-kD product. These data suggest that inefficient processing of preproVP produced by the mutant allele is possibly involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes insipidus in the affected individuals.
M Ito, Y Oiso, T Murase, K Kondo, H Saito, T Chinzei, M Racchi, M O Lively
A high fat, high cholesterol "atherogenic" diet induced considerably greater hepatic levels of conjugated dienes and expression of several inflammatory and oxidative stress responsive genes (JE, the mouse homologue of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, colony-stimulating factors, heme oxygenase, and members of the serum amyloid A family) in fatty streak susceptible C57BL/6 mice compared to fatty streak resistant C3H/HeJ mice. Since serum amyloid A proteins bind exclusively to HDL and influence the properties of HDL, serum amyloid A expression may contribute to the decrease in HDL levels seen in the susceptible strains. Induction of a similar set of genes was observed upon injection of minimally oxidized low density lipoprotein. The transcription factor NF-kappa B is known to be activated by oxidative stress and is involved in the transcriptional regulation of several of these genes. On the atherogenic diet the susceptible C57BL/6 mice exhibited significant NF-kappa B-like activation whereas the resistant C3H/HeJ mice exhibited little or no activation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the atherogenic diet resulted in the accumulation of oxidized lipids in certain tissues (e.g., liver and arteries) and the resulting inflammatory response to this oxidative stress was genetically determined.
F Liao, A Andalibi, F C deBeer, A M Fogelman, A J Lusis
Vascular renin angiotensin system (RAS) has been reported to exist in vascular wall. However, there is no direct evidence whether the vascular RAS per se can modulate growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), because there is no suitable method to investigate the effect of endogenously produced vasoactive substances on growth of these cells. In this study, we transferred angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and/or renin cDNAs into cultured VSMC using the efficient Sendai virus (hemagglutinating virus of Japan) liposome-mediated gene transfer method, to examine their relative roles in VSMC growth in vitro. Within 35 min or 6 h, the transfection of ACE cDNA into VSMC by hemagglutinating virus of Japan method resulted in a twofold higher ACE activity than control vector, whereas a cationic liposome (Lipofectin)-mediated method failed to show any effect. This in vitro system provided us with the opportunity to investigate the influence of endogenous vascular RAS on VSMC growth. Transfection of ACE or renin cDNA resulted in increased DNA and RNA synthesis, which was inhibited with the specific angiotensin II receptor antagonist (DuP 753: 10(-6) M). Angiotensin I added to ACE-transfected VSMC increased RNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Cotransfection of renin and ACE cDNAs stimulated further RNA synthesis as compared to ACE or renin cDNA alone. These results showed that transfected components of RAS can modulate VSMC growth through the endogenous production of vascular angiotensin II, and that ACE as well as renin are rate limiting in determining the VSMC RAS activity. We conclude that the hemagglutinating virus of Japan liposome-mediated gene transfer technique provides a new and useful tool for study of endogenous vascular modulators such as vascular RAS.
R Morishita, G H Gibbons, Y Kaneda, T Ogihara, V J Dzau
The serology of chronic hepatitis B infection has been established through the use of commercial immunoassays to measure the structural antigens of the hepatitis B virus and their respective antibodies in serum. However, the commercial assays have not been designed to detect serum antibodies in the presence of an excess of circulating antigens. A series of serum samples from 200 HBeAg-positive, chronically infected hepatitis B patients with varying degrees of liver disease were analyzed using novel immunoassays designed to detect antibodies in the presence of circulating viral antigens. All patients, regardless of their liver disease, were seronegative for antibodies specific for the envelope antigens or the secreted nucleoprotein antigen (HBeAg) when the commercial assays were used. In contrast, virtually all chronically infected patients with liver disease and approximately 50% of patients without liver disease demonstrated anti-HBe and anti-envelope antibodies when sera were tested in the more sensitive immunoassays. Furthermore, asymptomatic patients could be serologically distinguished from symptomatic patients based on antibody fine specificity, titer, and IgG subclass. This study revealed that the majority of chronically infected hepatitis B patients produce a variety of antibodies for many years, and are not immunologically unresponsive, as suggested by the current assays.
T Maruyama, A McLachlan, S Iino, K Koike, K Kurokawa, D R Milich
In contrast to its macrophage-activating capacity, IFN-gamma downregulates expression of the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR), which mediates uptake of Candida and other microorganisms. We found that IFN-gamma induced a concentration-dependent increase in the capacity of human monocyte-derived macrophages to ingest and kill both opsonized and unopsonized Candida albicans and to release superoxide anion upon stimulation with Candida. Mannan or mannosylated albumin inhibited this activated uptake of unopsonized Candida, but glucan did not. Addition of mAb to complement receptor (CR) 3 did not inhibit ingestion; macrophages that lacked CR3 (leukocyte adhesion defect) showed normal upregulation of ingestion by IFN-gamma. The increased candidacidal activity of IFN-gamma-activated macrophages was associated with reduced expression of MMR by a mean of 79% and decreased pinocytic uptake of 125I-mannosylated BSA by 73%; K(uptake) of pinocytosis was not changed. Exposure of resident macrophages to unopsonized Candida did not elicit a transient increase in intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i); macrophages activated by IFN-gamma expressed a brisk increase in [Ca2+]i on exposure to Candida. These data suggest that macrophage activation by IFN-gamma can enhance resistance to C. albicans infection in spite of downregulation of the MMR, perhaps through enhanced coupling of the MMR to microbicidal functions.
L Maródi, S Schreiber, D C Anderson, R P MacDermott, H M Korchak, R B Johnston Jr
Clinical studies have revealed a correlation between cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and acute allograft rejection. Likewise, for a murine model we observed that C3H (H-2k) recipients infected with murine CMV (MCMV) rejected BALB/c (H-2d) cardiac allografts earlier than uninfected recipients (6.9 +/- 0.1 d compared with 8.1 +/- 0.6 d; P < 0.001). It has been hypothesized that MCMV epitopes crossreact with alloantigens and in this manner induce rejection. However, we also demonstrated that MCMV caused accelerated rejection in the reverse combination (C3H heart engrafted to BALB/c recipient; 7.2 +/- 0.3 and 9.4 +/- 0.4 d for infected and control animals, respectively; P < 0.001) and accelerated rejection of grafts of a third, unrelated haplotype (C57Bl/6; H-2b; 8.0 +/- 0.7 d compared with 10.1 +/- 0.6 for infected and control C3H recipients, respectively; P < 0.03). Ultraviolet (UV) inactivation of MCMV before administration to the graft recipient abrogated the ability to induce rapid rejection. Activated T lymphocytes were present in grafts from infected recipients 2 d before control recipients (P < 0.02) and, at the time of graft rejection, were almost exclusively CD8+ for both infected and control recipients. Thus, MCMV accelerated rejection appears not to result from crossreaction between MCMV epitopes and MHC products. The failure of UV-inactivated virus to accelerate rejection and the high proportion of CD8+ T cells recovered from all rejected grafts suggest that the class I pathway of antigen presentation may be important in the induction of early rejection.
J F Carlquist, J Shelby, Y L Shao, J H Greenwood, M E Hammond, J L Anderson
J S Grober, B L Bowen, H Ebling, B Athey, C B Thompson, D A Fox, L M Stoolman
A S Weyrich, X Y Ma, D J Lefer, K H Albertine, A M Lefer
In this report, we describe the intracellular localization of multimerin in platelets and its biosynthesis by Dami cells, a megakaryocytic cell line. Immunoelectron microscopy was used to examine frozen thin sections of resting and activated platelets. Multimerin was localized within the platelet alpha-granule in an eccentric position. Within activated platelets, multimerin was found in the surface-connected open cannalicular system and on the external plasma membrane. Light microscopic immunocytochemistry demonstrated multimerin in normal megakaryocytes and in Dami cells after stimulation with PMA. Confirmation of multimerin biosynthesis by Dami cells was obtained by metabolic labeling studies. Both platelet and Dami cell multimerin demonstrated several subunit sizes on reduced SDS-PAGE. However, peptide mapping confirmed structural homology between the different multimerin subunits. Glycosidase digestion demonstrated that multimerin is heavily glycosylated with mainly complex, N-linked carbohydrate. In contrast to the multimerin isolated from platelets, cultured Dami cells secreted mainly smaller multimers of the protein. Biosynthesis of multimerin by a megakaryocytic cell line supports endogenous biosynthesis by megakaryocytes as the origin of this platelet alpha-granule protein.
C P Hayward, D F Bainton, J W Smith, P Horsewood, R H Stead, T J Podor, T E Warkentin, J G Kelton
Real time measurements of cell-substratum adhesion in endothelial cells were obtained by tandem scanning confocal microscopy of sites of focal contact (focal adhesions) at the abluminal cell surface. Focal contact sites were sharply defined (low radiance levels) in the living cell such that the images could be enhanced, digitized, and isolated from other cellular detail. Sites of focal contact are the principal determinant of cell-substratum adhesion. Measurements of (a) the focal contact area and (b) the closeness of contact (inverse radiance) were used to nominally define the adhesion of a single cell or field of cells, and to record spontaneous and induced changes of cell adhesion in real time. The topography of focal contacts was estimated by calculating separation distances from radiance values using a calibration technique based on interference ring optics. While slightly closer contact was noted between the cell membrane and substratum at or near the center of each focal contact, separation distances throughout the adhesion regions were always < 50 nm. Subtraction of consecutive images revealed continuous spontaneous remodeling of individual focal adhesions in unperturbed cells during periods of < 1 min. Despite extensive remodeling of focal contact sites, however, cell adhesion calculated for an entire cell over extended periods varied by < 10%. When cytoskeletal stability was impaired by exposure to cytochalasin or when cells were exposed to proteolytic enzyme, endothelial adhesion declined rapidly. Such changes were recorded at the level of single cells, groups of cells, and at single focal adhesions. In both unperturbed and manipulated cells, the dynamics of remodeling and cell adhesion characteristics varied greatly between individual sites within the same cell; disappearance of existing sites and appearance of new ones often occurred within minutes while adjacent sites underwent minimal remodelling. Tandem scanning confocal microscopy image analysis of living cells in real time provides repetitive spatial, temporal, and quantitative information about cell adhesion. Such an approach should allow more precise quantitative analyses to be made of the interactions between extracellular matrix, adhesion proteins, integrins, and the cytoskeleton in the living cell.
P F Davies, A Robotewskyj, M L Griem
Sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) react with enzymes of the 2-oxo dehydrogenase pathways, particularly PDC-E2. These enzymes are present in all nucleated cells, yet autoimmune damage is confined to biliary epithelial cells. Using a panel of eight mouse monoclonal antibodies and a human combinatorial antibody specific for PDC-E2, we examined by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy sections of liver from patients with PBC, progressive sclerosing cholangitis, and hepatocarcinoma. The monoclonal antibodies gave typical mitochondrial immunofluorescence on biliary epithelium and on hepatocytes from patients with either PBC, progressive sclerosing cholangitis, or hepatocarcinoma. However, one of eight mouse monoclonal antibodies (C355.1) and the human combinatorial antibody reacted with great intensity and specificity with the luminal region of biliary epithelial cells from patients with PBC. Simultaneous examination of these sections with an antiisotype reagent for human IgA revealed high IgA staining in the luminal region of biliary epithelial cells in patients with PBC. IgG and IgA antibodies to PDC-E2 were detected in the bile of patients with PBC but not normal controls. We believe that this data may be interpreted as indicating that a molecule cross-reactive with PDC-E2 is expressed at high levels in the luminal region of biliary epithelial cells in PBC.
J Van de Water, J Turchany, P S Leung, J Lake, S Munoz, C D Surh, R Coppel, A Ansari, Y Nakanuma, M E Gershwin
In this study, autoantibodies to RNA polymerase II from sera of patients with systemic sclerosis have been identified and characterized. These antibodies immunoprecipitated polypeptides of 220 kD (IIA) and 145 kD (IIC), the two largest subunits of RNA polymerase II, and bound both subunits in immunoblots. These polypeptides were immunoprecipitated by the anti-RNA polymerase II monoclonal antibody 8WG16, which recognizes the carboxyl-terminal domain of the 220-kD subunit, and their identity to the proteins bound by human sera was confirmed in immunodepletion studies. Sera with anti-RNA polymerase II antibodies also immunoprecipitated proteins that were consistent with components of RNA polymerases I and III. In vitro transcription experiments showed that the human antibodies were an effective inhibitor of RNA polymerase II activity. In indirect immunofluorescence studies, anti-RNA polymerase II autoantibodies stained the nucleoplasm, as expected from the known location of RNA polymerase II, and colocalized with the anti-RNA polymerase II monoclonal antibody. The human sera also stained the nucleolus, the location of RNA polymerase I. From a clinical perspective, these antibodies were found in 13 of 278 patients with systemic sclerosis, including 10 with diffuse and three with limited cutaneous disease, but were not detected in sera from patients with other connective tissue diseases and from normal controls. We conclude that anti-RNA polymerase II antibodies are specific to patients with systemic sclerosis, and that they are apparently associated with antibodies to RNA polymerases I and III. These autoantibodies may be useful diagnostically and as a probe for further studies of the biological function of RNA polymerases.
M Hirakata, Y Okano, U Pati, A Suwa, T A Medsger Jr, J A Hardin, J Craft
By in situ hybridization, 44-100% of the blood eosinophils from five patients with hypereosinophilia and four normal subjects exhibited intense hybridization signals for TNF-alpha mRNA. TNF-alpha protein was detectable by immunohistochemistry in blood eosinophils of hypereosinophilic subjects, and purified blood eosinophils from three atopic donors exhibited cycloheximide-inhibitable spontaneous release of TNF-alpha in vitro. Many blood eosinophils (39-91%) from hypereosinophilic donors exhibited intense labeling for macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) mRNA, whereas eosinophils of normal donors demonstrated only weak or undetectable hybridization signals for MIP-1 alpha mRNA. Most tissue eosinophils infiltrating nasal polyps were strongly positive for both TNF-alpha and MIP-1 alpha mRNA. By Northern blot analysis, highly enriched blood eosinophils from a patient with the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome exhibited differential expression of TNF-alpha and MIP-1 alpha mRNA. These findings indicate that human eosinophils represent a potential source of TNF-alpha and MIP-1 alpha, that levels of expression of mRNA for both cytokines are high in the blood eosinophils of hypereosinophilic donors and in eosinophils infiltrating nasal polyps, that the eosinophils of normal subjects express higher levels of TNF-alpha than MIP-1 alpha mRNA, and that eosinophils purified from the blood of atopic donors can release TNF-alpha in vitro.
J J Costa, K Matossian, M B Resnick, W J Beil, D T Wong, J R Gordon, A M Dvorak, P F Weller, S J Galli
To assess further the clinical significance of asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis, we used a computer algorithm to reconstruct images three dimensionally from the high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) scan of the chest in 60 asbestos-exposed subjects. Pulmonary function tests, chest radiographs, and HRCT scans were performed on all study subjects. The volume of asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis was computed from the three-dimensional reconstruction of the HRCT scan. Among those with pleural fibrosis identified on the HRCT scan (n = 29), the volume of the pleural lesion varied from 0.01% (0.5 ml) and 7.11% (260.4 ml) of the total chest cavity. To investigate the relationship between asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis and restrictive lung function, we compared the computer-derived estimate of pleural fibrosis to the total lung capacity and found that these measures were inversely related (r = -0.40; P = 0.002). After controlling for age, height, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and the presence of interstitial fibrosis on the chest radiograph, the volume of pleural fibrosis identified on the three-dimensional reconstructed image from the HRCT scan was inversely associated with the total lung capacity (P = 0.03) and independently accounted for 9.5% of the variance of this measure of lung volume. These findings further extend the scientific data supporting an independent association between pleural fibrosis and restrictive lung function.
D A Schwartz, J R Galvin, S J Yagla, S B Speakman, J A Merchant, G W Hunninghake
We have shown previously that atherosclerotic lesions can be induced in normocholesterolemic rabbits by immunization with mycobacterial heat shock protein 65 (hsp65), which has a high degree of sequence homology with mammalian hsp60. To investigate a possible relationship between hsp60 expression and the antigenic specificities of infiltrating T cells in the lesion, 38 New Zealand White rabbits were treated either by immunization with recombinant mycobacterial hsp65 or by administration of a 0.2% cholesterol diet. Atherosclerotic lesions were observed after 16 wk, particularly in the aortic arch and arterial bifurcations of rabbits immunized with hsp65 or fed with a cholesterol-rich diet. Hsp65 staining of aortas showed a heterogeneous distribution, and significantly increased staining intensity in atherosclerotic lesions compared to aortic media or adventitia. This abundantly expressed hsp65 was observed in atherosclerotic lesions induced by hsp65 immunization as well as those induced by cholesterol-rich diet alone. Interestingly, a population of the T lymphocytes isolated from all forms of atherosclerotic lesions specifically responded to hsp65 in vitro. IL-2-expanded T cell lines derived from atherosclerotic lesions showed a significantly higher hsp65 reactivity than those developed from peripheral blood of the same donor. Furthermore, levels of circulating antibodies and numbers of spleen cells specifically reacting against hsp65 were elevated in all experimental animals. Flow cytometric analysis of spleen cells showed elevated immune response-associated antigen expression in treated animals. In conclusion, increased hsp65 expression in intimal cells and the presence of hsp65-specific T cells in blood and in atherosclerotic lesions may be important in initiating the development of atherosclerosis and perpetuating the lesions.
Q Xu, R Kleindienst, W Waitz, H Dietrich, G Wick
The cutaneous permeability barrier to systemic water loss is mediated by hydrophobic lipids forming membrane bilayers within the intercellular domains of the stratum corneum (SC). The barrier emerges during day 20 of gestation in the fetal rat and is correlated with increasing SC thickness and increasing SC lipid content, the appearance of well-formed lamellar bodies in the epidermis, and the presence of lamellar unit structures throughout the SC. Because glucocorticoids accelerate lung lamellar body and surfactant maturation in man and experimental animals, these studies were undertaken to determine whether maternal glucocorticoid treatment accelerates maturation of the epidermal lamellar body secretory system. Maternal rats were injected with betamethasone or saline (control) on days 16-18, and pups were delivered prematurely on day 19. Whereas control pups exhibited immature barriers to transepidermal water loss (8.16 +/- 0.52 mg/cm2 per h), glucocorticoid-treated pups exhibited competent barriers (0.74 +/- 0.14 mg/cm2 per h; P < 0.001). Glucocorticoid treatment also: (a) accelerated maturation of lamellar body and SC membrane ultrastructure; (b) increased SC total lipid content twofold; and (c) increased cholesterol and polar ceramide content three- to sixfold. Thus, glucocorticoids accelerate the functional, morphological, and lipid biochemical maturation of the permeability barrier in the fetal rat.
M Aszterbaum, K R Feingold, G K Menon, M L Williams
In rats, the respective contribution of the thyroid and peripheral tissues to the pool of T3 remains unclear. Most, if not all, of the circulating T3 produced by extrathyroidal sources is generated by 5'-deiodination of T4, catalyzed by the selenoenzyme, type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase (5'D-I). 5'D-I in the liver and kidney is almost completely lost in selenium deficiency, resulting in a marked decrease in T4 deiodination and an increase in circulating T4 levels. Surprisingly, circulating T3 levels are only marginally decreased by selenium deficiency. In this study, we used selenium deficiency and thyroidectomy to determine the relative contribution of thyroidal and extrathyroidal sources to the total body pool of T3. Despite maintaining normal serum T4 concentrations in thyroidectomized rats by T4 replacement, serum T3 concentrations remained 55% lower than those seen in intact rats. In intact rats, restricting selenium intake had no effect on circulating T3 concentrations. Decreasing 5'D-I activity in the liver and kidney by > 90% by restricting selenium intake resulted in a further 20% decrease in serum T3 concentrations in the thyroidectomized, T4 replaced rats, suggesting that peripheral T4 to T3 conversion in these tissues generates approximately 20% of the circulating T3 concentrations. While dietary selenium restriction markedly decreased intrahepatic selenium content (> 95%), intrathyroidal selenium content decreased by only 27%. Further, thyroid 5'D-I activity actually increased 25% in the selenium deficient rats, suggesting the continued synthesis of this selenoenzyme over selenoproteins in other tissues in selenium deficiency. These data demonstrate that the thyroid is the major source of T3 in the rat and suggest that intrathyroidal T4 to T3 conversion may account for most of the T3 released by the thyroid.
J P Chanoine, L E Braverman, A P Farwell, M Safran, S Alex, S Dubord, J L Leonard
We investigated the effects of 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol treatment of rats on various transport functions in isolated basolateral and canalicular liver plasma membrane vesicles. Both membrane subfractions were purified to a similar degree from control and cholestatic livers. Although moderate membrane lipid alterations were predominantly observed in basolateral vesicles, no change in basolateral Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity was found. Furthermore, while Na(+)-dependent taurocholate uptake was decreased by approximately 40% in basolateral vesicles, the maximal velocity of ATP-dependent taurocholate transport was decreased by 63% in canalicular membranes. In contrast, only minimal changes or no changes at all were observed for electrogenic taurocholate transport in "cholestatic" canalicular membranes and total microsomes, respectively. However, canalicular vesicles from cholestatic livers also exhibited marked reductions in ATP-dependent transport of S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione and in Na(+)-dependent uptake of adenosine, while in the same vesicles HCO3-/SO4- exchange and Na+/glycine cotransport activities were markedly stimulated. These data show that in addition to the previously demonstrated sinusoidal transport abnormalities ethinylestradiol-induced cholestasis is also associated with multiple canalicular membrane transport alterations in rat liver. Hence, functional transport alterations at both polar surface domains might ultimately be responsible for the inhibitory effects of estrogens on the organic anion excretory capacity and on bile formation in rat liver.
R Bossard, B Stieger, B O'Neill, G Fricker, P J Meier
The rate and efficiency of key steps in the life cycle of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 was examined in three primary cell types, T cells, monocytes, and T helper dendritic cells using the same quantity of virus involved and same cell number. The results show that viral DNA synthesis proceeds much more rapidly and efficiently in primary T helper dendritic cell populations than in primary T cell and monocyte populations. The increased rate of virus DNA synthesis is attributable either to an increase in the efficiency and the rate of uptake of the virus particles by the T helper dendritic cells, as compared with that in other cell types, or to an increased efficiency and rate of viral DNA synthesis in the T helper dendritic cells. In the subsequent phase of viral expression the appearance of spliced viral mRNA products also occur more rapidly in cultures of primary-blood-derived T helper dendritic cells than is the case in primary T cells and monocytes. The increased efficiency of the early steps of HIV-1 replication in primary-blood-derived T helper dendritic cells than in other blood-derived mononuclear cells raises the possibility that these cells play a central role in HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis.
E Langhoff, K H Kalland, W A Haseltine
The oxygen free radical system has been reported to be activated by influenza virus infection in the lungs. However, the involvement of oxygen radicals in viral myocarditis is still unknown. Captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and potent free radical scavenger with a sulfhydryl group, was effective for the treatment of viral myocarditis, while enalapril, an ACE inhibitor without a sulfhydryl group, was not effective against acute myocarditis. In this study, we investigated the role of oxygen radicals in the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis and the therapeutic effects of agents with a sulfhydryl group. 4-wk-old BALB/c mice were inoculated with the encephalomyocarditis virus, and treated with captopril or N,2-mercapto-propionyl glycine (MPG), a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid derivative without ACE inhibiting property, from days 4 to 14. On day 14, captopril and MPG significantly improved survival of mice and myocardial injury (necrosis, cellular infiltration, and calcification) in a dose-dependent manner compared with the infected control group. Thus, captopril and MPG were effective for the treatment of virus-induced myocarditis. Furthermore, a striking induction of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and copper/zinc SOD (Cu/Zn-SOD) mRNAs in infected hearts was found (8-13-fold for Mn-SOD and 4-11-fold for Cu/Zn-SOD) when compared with age-matched uninfected mice hearts. MPG completely inhibited the increase of both mRNAs, even when treatment was started on day 4. Thus, oxygen radicals may play an important role in the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis, and a therapeutic approach by eliminating oxygen radicals seems possible.
H Suzuki, A Matsumori, Y Matoba, B S Kyu, A Tanaka, J Fujita, S Sasayama
To examine the human antibody repertoire generated against a biologically significant antigen we have obtained sequences of heavy chain variable region genes (IgVH) from 15 monoclonal antibodies specific for the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib PS). All VH segments are members of the VH3 family and 9 of 15 are members of the smaller VH3b subfamily. Restriction is evident by the shared use of certain VDJ joints in independent hybridomas from different subjects. Two hybridomas generated from the same subject demonstrate identical heavy chain variable region gene sequences but differ in isotype and rearrange alternative light chain variable region genes (IgVL), suggesting that in a normal immune response, a single pre-B cell clone may use different light chain rearrangements and give rise to progeny capable of reacting with antigen. Using a polymerase chain reaction assay optimized to detect base pair differences among VH genes we demonstrate that at least a portion of expressed anti-Hib PS VH genes have undergone somatic mutation. Anti-Hib PS heavy chain genes are homologous to VH segments encoding autoantibodies and two hybridomas secrete anti-Hib PS antibody that cross-reacts with self antigens (double-stranded DNA and single-stranded DNA). Comparison of VH regions of self-reactive and monospecific anti-Hib PS Ab demonstrates no consistent structural feature correlating with fine antigen specificity. These data demonstrate significant restriction in VH usage and VDJ recombination in the anti-Hib PS response and confirm that autoantibodies may be elicited during normal immune responses.
E E Adderson, P G Shackelford, A Quinn, P M Wilson, M W Cunningham, R A Insel, W L Carroll
Pre-eclampsia is a placental disorder, but until now, biochemical details of dysfunction have been lacking. During an analysis of the oligosaccharide content of syncytiotrophoblast microvesicles purified from the placental chorionic villi of 10 primigravid women with proteinuric pre-eclampsia, we found an excess of glycogen breakdown products. Further investigation revealed a 10-fold increase in glycogen content (223 +/- 117 micrograms glycogen/mg protein), when compared with controls matched for gestational age at delivery (23 +/- 18 micrograms glycogen/mg protein) (P < 0.01). This was confirmed by examination of electron micrographs of chorionic villous tissue stained for glycogen. The increase in glycogen content was associated with 16 times more glycogen synthase (1,323 +/- 1,013 relative to 83 +/- 96 pmol glucose/mg protein per min) (P < 0.001), and a threefold increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity (2,280 +/- 1,360 relative to 700 +/- 540 pmol glucose/mg protein per min; P < 0.05). Similar changes in glycogen metabolism were found in trophoblast microvesicles derived from hydatidiform moles. Glycogen accumulation in villous syncytiotrophoblast may be a metabolic marker of immaturity of this cell which is unable to divide. The implications of these findings with regard to the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia are discussed.
P D Arkwright, T W Rademacher, R A Dwek, C W Redman
In septic shock, hypotension, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and neutrophil activation are related to the activation of the blood coagulation contact system. This study evaluates in dogs the effect of the C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), a main inhibitor of the blood coagulation contact system, on the cardiovascular and respiratory dysfunction associated with endotoxic shock. Two groups were included: controls, which received Escherichia coli endotoxin, and a C1-INH group in which C1-INH was infused before E. coli endotoxin administration. In both groups, endotoxin produced hypodynamic shock; however, the decrease in the systolic index and the ventricular systolic work indexes were greater in controls than the C1-INH group. In controls, the arterial O2 partial pressure decreased by 30% and the alveolo-arterial O2 difference increased by 625%, these parameters remained unchanged in the C1-INH group. Hypoxemia was associated with increased intrapulmonary shunt, decreased blood coagulation contact factors, and decreased C3c. In contrast, C1-INH administration prevented endotoxin-induced hypoxemia, the increase in intrapulmonary shunt, and the decrease in blood coagulation contact factors. This study shows that, in dogs with endotoxic shock, pulmonary dysfunction is associated with an activation of the blood coagulation contact phase system. An inhibition of this system by C1-INH prevented the hypoxemia induced by endotoxic shock.
R Guerrero, F Velasco, M Rodriguez, A Lopez, R Rojas, M A Alvarez, R Villalba, V Rubio, A Torres, D del Castillo
MHC-linked genes strongly influence susceptibility to autoimmune diseases and also regulate responses to exogenous antigens. To begin to understand the mechanism of this MHC effect on disease, we have investigated MHC-congenic mouse strains that develop spontaneous autoimmunity because of the lpr gene. C57BL6/lpr (B6/lpr) mice (H-2b) are known to have substantial levels of autoantibodies to chromatin, single stranded DNA (ssDNA3), and IgG of different murine subclasses (rheumatoid factor). We have crossed the H-2d and the H-2bm12 (la mutant) haplotypes onto the B6/lpr background. Surprisingly, levels of all the autoantibodies were markedly lower in B6/lpr.H-2d, but levels in B6/lpr.H-2bm12 were no different from those in B6/lpr mice. The downregulating influence of the H-2d allele was dominant, and there was no effect on autoantibody fine specificities. The genetics of the H-2d effect and its diffuse influence on multiple autoantibody specificities, in addition to the lack of effect of the bm12 mutation, which modifies the peptide-binding groove of I-A, together raise the question of whether MHC-linked genes other than classical (IR) genes may be responsible for MHC disease associations in this model.
P L Cohen, E Creech, D Nakul-Aquaronne, R McDaniel, S Ackler, R G Rapoport, E S Sobel, R A Eisenberg
HIV encephalitis is unusual in that neurologic damage occurs in the absence of significant infection of neuronal or glial cells. Because the predominant infected cell in the brain is the macrophage, it has been proposed that release of viral or immune activation factors from macrophages may mediate neurologic damage. Numerous studies have examined the concentration of immune activation factors in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), however, there has been no correlation between these CSF measurements and severity of HIV encephalitis (Wiley, C.A., C.L. Achim, R.D. Schrier, M.P. Heyes, J.A. McCutchen, and I. Grant. 1992. AIDS (Phila.). 6:1299-1307. Because CSF measurements may not represent tissue concentrations of these factors, we examined the concentrations of HIV p24, quinolinic acid (QUIN), IL-1, IL-3, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and GMCSF within the brains of 10 AIDS autopsies. Homogenization and extraction of cortical gray, cortical white and deep gray matter showed a good correlation between the amount of HIV gp41 immunostaining and extracted HIV gag protein p24. The concentrations of cytokines were low in the tissue extracts and showed no correlation with severity of HIV encephalitis. Brain extracts from mild cases of HIV encephalitis showed elevated levels of TNF-alpha in deep gray matter, while in more severe cases, elevated TNF-alpha levels were also found within cortical white and cortical gray matter. Brain tissue and CSF QUIN concentrations were substantially increased compared to control values. QUIN concentrations were not correlated with the severity of HIV encephalitis. We conclude that increased tissue levels of TNF-alpha and QUIN may have a role in the etiology of HIV-related neurologic dysfunction.
C L Achim, M P Heyes, C A Wiley
Bicarbonate transport was studied in vivo by separate microperfusion experiments of early and late distal tubules. Total CO2 was measured by microcalorimetry and fluid absorption by 3H-inulin. Significant bicarbonate absorption was observed in all experimental conditions. Bicarbonate transport was load-dependent upon increasing the luminal bicarbonate concentration from 15 to 50 mM in both early and late distal tubule segments and remained constant at higher concentrations at a maximum rate of 100-110 pmol/min per mm. At low lumen bicarbonate concentrations (15 mM), higher rates of bicarbonate absorption were observed in early (32.9 +/- 4.57 pmol/min per mm) as compared to late distal tubules (10.7 +/- 3.1 pmol/min per mm). Amiloride and ethyl-isopropylamiloride both inhibited early but not late distal tubule bicarbonate absorption whereas acetazolamide blocked bicarbonate transport in both tubule segments. Fluid absorption was significantly reduced in both tubule segments by amiloride but only in early distal tubules by ethyl-isopropylamiloride. Substitution of lumen chloride by gluconate increased bicarbonate absorption in late but not in early distal tubules. Bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of H-ATPase, inhibited late and also early distal tubule bicarbonate absorption, the latter at higher concentration. After 8 d on a low K diet, bicarbonate absorption increased significantly in both early and late distal tubules. Schering compound 28080, a potent H-K ATPase inhibitor, completely blocked this increment of bicarbonate absorption in late but not in early distal tubule. The data suggest bicarbonate absorption via Na(+)-H+ exchange and H-ATPase in early, but only by amiloride-insensitive H+ secretion (H-ATPase) in late distal tubules. The study also provides evidence for activation of K(+)-H+ exchange in late distal tubules of K depleted rats. Indirect evidence implies a component of chloride-dependent bicarbonate secretion in late distal tubules and suggests that net bicarbonate transport at this site results from bidirectional bicarbonate movement.
T Wang, G Malnic, G Giebisch, Y L Chan
Absence of dietary carbohydrate decreases both activities of intestinal brush border sucrase-alpha-dextrinase. We examined the molecular mechanism causing this decrease. Adult rats were fed chow (70% CHO) or matched carbohydrate-free (CHO-free) diet for 7 d. Sucrase activity decreased by 50% in whole homogenates and brush borders. Enzyme kinetics revealed no change in sucrose affinity (CHO-free Km = 18 mM, chow Km = 21 mM), but fewer active sites (CHO-free Vmax = 2,720, chow Vmax = 5,000 mumol/min per g protein). Intraintestinal pulse-labeling of [35S]methionine in vivo revealed no differences in incorporation into sucrase. Immunoreactive sucrase protein, assayed by ELISA and rocket immunoelectrophoresis, increased twofold per milliunit of sucrase enzymatic activity in CHO-free jejunum. Total immunosucrase (St), the sum of active and inactive enzyme (St = Sa+Si), was unchanged with carbohydrate withdrawal, but > 50% of the sucrase protein became inactive. SDS-PAGE of sucrase immunoprecipitates revealed alteration of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits in CHO-free animals: (a) alpha and beta subunits migrated farther (mass change--2 kD); and (b) the alpha subunit became diffuse or was a doublet and was less abundant than the beta subunit. Rather than representing loss of sucrase protein, the decline in sucrase activity is achieved with structural subunit changes, probably involving postinsertional processing.
R Quan, G M Gray
Since absence of expression of the c-src gene product in mice indicates that the pp60c-src tyrosine kinase is required and essential for osteoclastic bone resorption, we tested the effects of the antibiotic herbimycin A, which is an inhibitor of pp60c-src on osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro and on hypercalcemia in vivo. We examined the effects of herbimycin A on the formation of bone resorbing osteoclasts in mouse long-term marrow cultures, on isolated rodent osteoclasts and on bone resorption in organ cultures of fetal rat long bones stimulated by parathyroid hormone. We found that herbimycin A in concentrations of 1-100 ng/ml inhibited bone resorption in each of these systems. We determined the effects of herbimycin A (100 ng/ml) on src tyrosine kinase activity in mouse marrow cultures and found that it was decreased. Herbimycin A also decreased elevated blood calcium levels that were induced either by repeated subcutaneous injections of recombinant human interleukin-1 alpha or by a human tumor. There was no evidence for toxicity in any of these culture systems or in mice treated with herbimycin A. A different tyrosine kinase inhibitor that does not inhibit pp60c-src was used as a control and caused none of these effects. These data suggest that pp60c-src tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be useful pharmacologic inhibitors of osteoclastic bone resorption and hypercalcemia.
T Yoneda, C Lowe, C H Lee, G Gutierrez, M Niewolna, P J Williams, E Izbicka, Y Uehara, G R Mundy
We studied the influence of glucagon on hepatic LDL receptors and plasma lipoproteins in rats. A dose-dependent (maximum, threefold) increase in LDL-receptor binding was evident already at a dose of 2 x 4 micrograms, and detectable 3 h after injection; concomitantly, cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B and apoE within LDL and large HDL decreased in plasma. LDL receptor mRNA levels were however unaltered or reduced. Hepatic microsomal cholesterol was increased and the enzymatic activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase in hepatic microsomes were reduced. Insulin alone increased receptor binding and receptor mRNA levels twofold, but plasma cholesterol was unchanged and plasma apoE and apoB increased. Administration of insulin to glucagon-treated animals reduced the LDL-receptor binding to control levels and apoB appeared in LDL particles. Estrogen treatment increased LDL-receptor binding and mRNA levels five- and eightfold, respectively. Combined treatment with glucagon and estrogen reduced the stimulation of LDL-receptor mRNA levels by 80% although LDL-receptor binding was unchanged. Immunoblot analysis showed that glucagon increased the number of hepatic LDL receptors. We conclude that glucagon induces the number of hepatic LDL receptors by a mechanism not related to increased mRNA levels, suggesting the presence of a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism present in the liver in vivo.
M Rudling, B Angelin
IL-6, a multifunctional cytokine produced by monocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, promotes the growth of EBV-immortalized B cells in vitro and renders these cells tumorigenic in athymic mice. In the present study, serum/plasma IL-6 bioactivity was found to be abnormally elevated, albeit transiently, in 17 of 18 solid organ transplant recipients with posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), with a mean maximal level of 196.7 U/ml. This represents a 16.4 increase above the normal mean (11.3 U/ml). In contrast, only 3 of 10 solid organ transplant recipients with uncomplicated courses posttransplant had abnormally elevated serum/plasma IL-6 bioactivity (mean maximal level 41.4 U/ml, P = 0.0007). When transferred to single cell culture, the 11 PTLD tissues produced 640 to 1.25 x 10(6) IL-6 U/ml in the culture supernatant, with a mean maximal level of 35,025 IL-6 U/ml. Cell separation experiments demonstrated that the adherent cells, identified as non-B cells, were the principal source of IL-6 production in vitro by PTLD tissue. Control cultures of inflammatory lymphoid tissue negative for lymphoproliferative disease as well as of PBL from patients with acute EBV-induced infectious mononucleosis consistently produced < 10 IL-6 U/ml. Thus, IL-6 is produced at high levels by PTLD tissues and may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of PTLD.
G Tosato, K Jones, M K Breinig, H P McWilliams, J L McKnight
The molecular pathology of somatotrophinomas has been investigated by a combined search for dominant mutations of the gene encoding the Gs alpha protein and for recessive mutations involving chromosome 11q13, which contains the gene causing multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Somatotrophinomas and peripheral leukocytes were obtained from thirteen patients with acromegaly; one patient also suffered from MEN1. Five DNA probes identifying restriction fragment length polymorphisms from 11q revealed allele loss in pituitary tumors from five (four non-MEN1 and one MEN1) patients. Deletion mapping revealed that the region of allele loss common to the somatotrophinomas involved 11q13. An analysis for similar allelic deletions at 12 other loci from chromosomes 1-5, 7-9, 12-14, and 17 did not reveal generalized allele loss in the somatotrophinomas. These results, which represent the first report of chromosome 11 allele loss occurring in non-MEN1 somatotrophinomas, indicate that a recessive oncogene on 11q13 is specifically involved in the monoclonal development of somatotrophinomas. In addition Gs alpha mutations were detected in two non-MEN1 somatotrophinomas, one of which also revealed allele loss of chromosome 11. Thus, our results reveal that the development of somatotrophinomas is associated with alterations in both dominant and recessive oncogenes and further characterization of these genetic abnormalities will help to elucidate the multistep etiology and progression of somatotrophinomas.
R V Thakker, M A Pook, C Wooding, M Boscaro, M Scanarini, R N Clayton
Urea exchange is enhanced in renal collecting duct cells and erythrocytes by transporters which can be inhibited by phloretin and urea analogs such as thiourea. In this study, evidence for a comparable transporter was found in rat livers perfused with solutions which contained no red cells and in suspensions of hepatocytes. Bolus injections containing 125I-albumin (intravascular indicator), 99mTc-DTPA (extracellular indicator), 3HOH (water indicator), and [14C]urea were administered into the portal vein and fluid was collected from the hepatic vein. Under control conditions, [14C]urea and 3HOH emerged from the hepatic vein at nearly the same rate. However when the perfusate contained 2.5 mM phloretin (equivalent to 0.058 mM phloretin not bound to albumin), the amount of [14C]urea which had been recovered in the hepatic venous outflow by the time of peak 125I-albumin concentrations exceeded 3HOH recovery by a factor of 2.31 +/- 0.23 (n = 7). When the perfusate contained 200 mM thiourea, the comparable recovery of [14C]urea from the hepatic veins exceeded that of 3HOH by a factor of 3.48 +/- 0.44 (n = 7). These effects were at least partially reversible and suggested inhibition of urea transporters in hepatocytes. This conclusion was supported by studies of unloading of [14C]urea from hepatocytes which were exposed to unlabeled solutions: in the presence of phloretin, the amount of [14C]urea remaining within hepatocytes at 4 s was approximately twice that remaining in hepatocytes which had not been exposed to phloretin. Rapid transport of urea out of hepatocytes may increase urea synthesis and minimize cellular swelling due to urea accumulation.
R M Effros, E Jacobs, A Hacker, K Ozker, C Murphy
The development of antigen-specific functional T lymphocyte immunity in infants and children is an area of immunology that needs elucidation. Leukocytes from cord blood (CBL) and from PBL of children of different ages who were in the hospital for minor surgical procedures were compared with PBL from healthy adults for their ability to generate T helper cell (Th) responses assessed by in vitro proliferation and IL-2 production after stimulation with: influenza A virus (FLU); tetanus toxoid (TET); adult allogeneic PBL that were either undepleted (ALLO) or depleted of adherent antigen presenting cells (ALLONW); and PHA. CBL generated Th responses to ALLONW, ALLO, and PHA, but not to FLU or TET. PBL from infants between 6 and 13 mo of age responded to ALLO and PHA; none responded to FLU or ALLONW, and two of four responded weakly to TET. PBL from children between 13 and 26 mo of age responded to all stimuli except FLU, to which only one child responded marginally. PBL from children older than 36 mo responded to all stimuli at levels comparable to those of PBL from adults. The use of undepleted and adherent cell-depleted CBL and PBL from children of different ages as allogeneic stimulators of responses generated by PBL from adults indicated that the antigen presenting function of CBL and PBL from children 13 mo or older are sufficiently developed to present alloantigen, whereas PBL from children younger than 13 mo are not. Therefore, our results indicate that age-dependent differences exist in both T helper and antigen-presenting functions of CBL and PBL from children of different ages. Surprisingly, CBL appear to be more efficient in antigen-presenting function than PBL from children younger than 13 mo. These findings are important for establishing developmental parameters of T helper cell immunity relevant for pediatric infection and transplantation in infants and children.
M Clerici, L DePalma, E Roilides, R Baker, G M Shearer
Previous studies have shown that a gene mapping in the inverted repeats of the L component of herpes simplex virus, type 1 DNA, designated as gamma (1) 34.5, was dispensable for growth in cells in culture but that the deletion mutant (R3616) and a mutant containing a stop codon (R4009) in each copy of the gene were incapable of replicating in the central nervous systems (CNS) of mice. Restoration of the deleted sequences restored the wild type virus phenotype. We report here that the gamma (1) 34.5 mutant viruses (R3616 and R4009) replicated in the vaginal tract of two different strains of mice and guinea pig, although both viruses were shed at lower titer and for fewer days than the wild type and restored viruses. Both R3616 and R4009 failed to replicate or cause significant pathology in the cornea of Balb/C mice or following intranasal inoculation of Swiss Webster mice. Analyses of sensory trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia innervating the site of inoculation indicated that the incidence of establishment of latency or reactivation from latency by R3616 and R4009 viruses was significantly lower than that determined for mice infected with wild type or restored virus. Thus, selective deletion of gamma (1) 34.5 gene abolished the capacity of the virus to spread from peripheral mucosal sites to the CNS or replicate in the CNS, and diminished the capacity of the virus to replicate at mucosal sites and, subsequently, establish latency, or be able to be reactivated ex vivo. The results of our studies may have direct implications for the development of genetically engineered herpes simplex virus vaccines.
R J Whitley, E R Kern, S Chatterjee, J Chou, B Roizman
Hormonal control of immunoglobulin (Ig) absorption and of intestinal Fc receptor mRNA expression were investigated in rats to assess its potential role in the normal postsuckling inhibition of this transport system. Corticosterone and L-thyroxine therapy caused premature inhibition of the absorption of orally administered murine monoclonal antibody and of Fc receptor mRNA expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Low-dose corticosterone had no effect on Fc receptor mRNA synthesis after 3 d but decreased Ig transport fivefold after 7 d. High dose corticosterone resulted in a threefold reduction in Fc receptor after 3 d, and there was almost complete inhibition (> 30-fold) of transport and of Fc receptor transcript levels after 7 d. Similarly, 7 d of high-dose thyroxine decreased both serum Ig transport and Fc receptor (> 30-fold). However, adrenalectomy did not prevent the normal post-suckling declines in Ig transport or receptor synthesis. This study demonstrates that exogenous corticosteroids and thyroxine hormone inhibit Ig transport and steady-state duodenal Fc receptor mRNA levels in suckling rats. Endogenous adrenal steroids however, do not appear to be entirely responsible for the age-dependent decline in this transport system.
M G Martín, S V Wu, J H Walsh
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) plays a significant role in vivo in regulating coagulation that results from exposure of blood to tissue factor after vascular injury as in the case of gram negative sepsis. Highly purified recombinant TFPI (6 mg/kg) was administered either 30 min or 4 h after the start of a lethal intravenous Escherichia coli infusion in baboons. Early posttreatment of TFPI resulted in (a) permanent seven-day survivors (5/5) with significant improvement in quality of life, while the mean survival time for the controls (5/5) was 39.9 h (no survivors); and (b) significant attenuations of the coagulation response and various measures of cell injury, with significant reductions in pathology observed in E. coli sepsis target organs, including kidneys, adrenals, and lungs. TFPI administration did not affect the reduction in mean systemic arterial pressure, the increases in respiration and heart rate, or temperature changes associated with the bacterial infusion. TFPI treated E. coli infected baboons had significantly lower IL-6 levels than their phosphate buffered saline-treated controls, however tumor necrosis factor levels were similarly elevated in both groups. In contrast to the earlier 30-min treatment, the administration of TFPI at 4 h, i.e., 240 min, after the start of bacterial infusion resulted in prolongation of survival time, with 40% survival rate (2/5) and some attenuation of the coagulopathic response, especially in animals in which fibrinogen levels were above 10% of normal at the time of TFPI administration. Results provide evidence for the significance of tissue factor and tissue factor pathway inhibitor in bacterial sepsis, and suggest a role for blood coagulation in the regulation of the inflammatory response.
A A Creasey, A C Chang, L Feigen, T C Wün, F B Taylor Jr, L B Hinshaw
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is an important inherited disease. The phenotype has been linked, in some kindreds, to the beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC) gene. Missense and silent mutations in the beta-MHC gene were used as markers to demonstrate the expression of mutant and normal cardiac beta-MHC gene message in skeletal muscle of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients. Mutant beta-myosin, also shown to be present in skeletal muscle by Western blot analysis, translocated actin filaments slower than normal controls in an in vitro motility assay. Thus, single amino acid changes in beta-myosin result in abnormal actomyosin interactions, confirming the primary role of missense mutations in beta-MHC gene in the etiology of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
G Cuda, L Fananapazir, W S Zhu, J R Sellers, N D Epstein
Phagocytes generate H2O2 for use by a secreted heme enzyme, myeloperoxidase, to kill invading bacteria, viruses, and fungi. We have explored the possibility that myeloperoxidase might also convert L-tyrosine to a radical catalyst that cross-links proteins. Protein-bound tyrosyl residues exposed to myeloperoxidase, H2O2, and L-tyrosine were oxidized to o,o'-dityrosine, a stable product of the tyrosyl radical. The cross-linking reaction required L-tyrosine but was independent of halide and free transition metal ions; the heme poisons azide and aminotriazole were inhibitory. Activated neutrophils likewise converted polypeptide tyrosines to dityrosine. The pathway for oxidation of peptide tyrosyl residues was dependent upon L-tyrosine and was inhibited by heme poisons and catalase. Dityrosine synthesis was little affected by plasma concentrations of Cl- and amino acids, suggesting that the reaction pathway might be physiologically relevant. The requirement for free L-tyrosine and H2O2 for dityrosine formation and the inhibition by heme poisons support the hypothesis that myeloperoxidase catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins by a peroxidative mechanism involving tyrosyl radical. In striking contrast to the pathways generally used to study protein oxidation in vitro, the reaction does not require free metal ions. We speculate that protein dityrosine cross-linking by myeloperoxidase may play a role in bacterial killing or injuring normal tissue. The intense fluorescence and stability of biphenolic compounds may allow dityrosine to act as a marker for proteins oxidatively damaged by myeloperoxidase in phagocyte-rich inflammatory lesions.
J W Heinecke, W Li, G A Francis, J A Goldstein
Endothelial cells impart thromboresistance to the blood vessel wall. As modulators of fibrinolytic activity, these cells synthesize and secrete tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) as well as its physiologic inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. In addition, endothelial cells support membrane-associated assembly of plasminogen and tissue plasminogen activator. Recently, an M(r) approximately 40,000 protein expressed on endothelial cells has been shown to interact noncompetitively through disparate mechanisms with both t-PA and plasminogen, suggesting trimolecular assembly of enzyme, substrate, and receptor (Hajjar, K. A. 1991. J. Biol. Chem. 266:21962-21970). In the present study, treatment of cultured endothelial cells with DL-homocysteine was specifically associated with a selective reduction in cellular binding sites for t-PA. This 65% decrease in binding was associated with a 60% decrease in cell-associated t-PA activity. No change in affinity for t-PA or plasminogen or in the maximal number of binding sites for plasminogen was observed. Matrix-associated t-PA binding sites were not affected. These data suggest a new mechanism whereby homocysteine may perturb endothelial cell function, thus promoting a prothrombotic state at the surface of the blood vessel wall.
K A Hajjar
Polymyositis is an inflammatory myopathy characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration of muscle tissue. Myocytotoxic T lymphocytes have been recognized in the infiltrates, but the muscle antigen, target of the immune attack, has not been identified. Molecular characterization of the variable regions of T cell receptors (TCRs) on the infiltrating lymphocytes can be expected to provide insights into the pathogenic process. The V alpha/beta TCR repertoire was investigated by RNA-PCR in muscle biopsies from 15 polymyositis patients and 16 controls (6 Duchenne muscular dystrophy and 10 with no inflammatory or dystrophic myopathy). A variety of rearranged variable TCR genes was found in polymyositis, V alpha 1, V alpha 5, V beta 1, and V beta 15 being the most common (present in 60-100% of patients). In Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients TCR V alpha or beta rearrangements were found although no restriction was observed; no rearrangements were found in muscles from the other controls. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of the J beta 2.1 region in 90% of the V beta 15 clones studied, no random N additions in the diversity region, and a common motif within the CDR3 region. These results suggest that selection of muscle-infiltrating T lymphocytes is antigen driven in polymyositis.
R Mantegazza, F Andreetta, P Bernasconi, F Baggi, J R Oksenberg, O Simoncini, M Mora, F Cornelio, L Steinman
Proliferation and functional activation of endothelial cells within a tissue site of inflammation are regulated by humoral factors released by cells, such as T lymphocytes and monocytes, infiltrating the perivascular space. In the present study we investigated the effects of interleukin 3 (IL-3), an activated T lymphocyte-derived cytokine, on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Proliferative activity, evaluated both by estimation of the fraction of cells in the S phase and by direct cell count demonstrated that IL-3, at the dose of 25 ng/ml, enhances more than threefold both DNA synthesis and cell proliferation above baseline control conditions. Binding studies with radioiodinated ligand demonstrated that HUVEC constitutively express a smaller number of IL-3 binding sites (approximately 99 binding sites per cell, with an apparent Kd of 149 pM). Accordingly, molecular analysis showed the presence of transcripts for both alpha and beta subunits of the IL-3 receptor. Functional activation of endothelial cells was evaluated by the expression of the endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1) transcript and by leukocyte adhesion. The ELAM-1 gene transcript was clearly detectable 4 h after IL-3 addition and started to decrease after 12 h. Moreover, IL-3-induced ELAM-1 transcription was followed by enhanced adhesion of neutrophils and CD4+ T cells to HUVEC. The findings that IL-3 can stimulate both proliferation and functional activation of endothelial cells suggest that this cytokine can be involved in sustaining the process of chronic inflammation.
M F Brizzi, G Garbarino, P R Rossi, G L Pagliardi, C Arduino, G C Avanzi, L Pegoraro
The selectins and the beta 2-integrins (CD11/CD18) mediate distinct adhesive interactions between neutrophils and endothelial cells. Selectins are believed to initiate binding by mediating neutrophil rolling, whereas beta 2-integrins are required for subsequent activation-induced firm sticking and emigration. In vitro evidence suggests that two endothelial cell selectins, P- and E-selectin, can mediate rolling by binding to the carbohydrate ligand sialyl-Lewisx (sLex) on neutrophil surface glycoconjugates. To test the relative contribution of selectins and beta 2-integrins in vivo we used intravital microscopy to study the behavior of neutrophils from two patients with distinct inherited leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndromes. Neutrophils from a patient suffering from CD18 deficiency showed normal rolling behavior but were incapable of sticking or emigrating upon chemotactic stimulation. Neutrophils from a second patient with a newly described adhesion deficiency had normal CD18 but did not express sLex. These neutrophils rolled poorly and also failed to stick in venules under shear force. Under static conditions, however, chemoattractant-induced sticking and emigration could be observed. This demonstrates that both selectin-carbohydrate-mediated initiation of adhesion and subsequent activation-induced beta 2-integrin engagement are essential for the normal function of human neutrophils in vivo.
U H von Andrian, E M Berger, L Ramezani, J D Chambers, H D Ochs, J M Harlan, J C Paulson, A Etzioni, K E Arfors