The human heart is a target organ for the octapeptide hormone, angiotensin II (Ang II). Recent studies suggest that the human heart contains a dual pathway of Ang II formation in which the major Ang II-forming enzymes are angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and chymase. Human heart chymase has recently been purified and its cDNA and gene cloned. This cardiac serine proteinase is the most efficient and specific Ang II-forming enzyme described. To obtain insights into the cardiac sites of chymase-dependent Ang II formation, we examined the cellular localization and regional distribution of chymase in the human heart. Electron microscope immunocytochemistry using an anti-human chymase antibody showed the presence of chymase-like immunoreactivity in the cardiac interstitium and in cytosolic granules of mast cells, endothelial cells, and some mesenchymal interstitial cells. In the cardiac interstitium, chymase-like immunoreactivity is associated with the extracellular matrix. In situ hybridization studies further indicated that chymase mRNA is expressed in endothelial cells and in interstitial cells, including mast cells. Tissue chymase levels were determined by activity assays and by Western blot analyses. Chymase levels were approximately twofold higher in ventricles than in atria. There were no significant differences in chymase levels in ventricular tissues obtained from non-failing donor hearts, failing ischemic hearts, or hearts from patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. These findings suggest that a major site of chymase-dependent Ang II formation in the heart is the interstitium and that cardiac mast cells, mesenchymal interstitial cells, and endothelial cells are the cellular sites of synthesis and storage of chymase. In the human heart, because ACE levels are highest in the atria and chymase levels are highest in ventricles, it is likely that the relative contribution of ACE and chymase to cardiac Ang II formation varies with the cardiac chamber. Such differences may lead to differential suppression of cardiac Ang II levels during chronic ACE inhibitor therapy in patients with congestive heart failure.
H Urata, K D Boehm, A Philip, A Kinoshita, J Gabrovsek, F M Bumpus, A Husain
The effect of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the accumulation of intimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) and development of intimal thickening after balloon catheter injury of the aorta were studied in rabbits with dietary-induced hyperlipidemia. Two sets of New Zealand White rabbits (eight rabbits in each group) were fed either 0.25% cholesterol or 0.25% cholesterol/1% BHT for a total of 6 wk. Serum lipid levels did not differ between the two groups. 3 wk after the start of the study, a balloon injury of the aorta was performed, after which the rabbits were kept on their respective diets for another 3 wk. After this period of time, the rabbits were killed and their aortas were investigated. The BHT-treated rabbits had only one fourth of the intimal thickness (P < 0.0001) and half the number of SMC/mm intima (P < 0.001), as compared to the rabbits fed only cholesterol. There was also a lower number of macrophages in the BHT-treated group. T lymphocytes were present in the intima of cholesterol-fed rabbits, whereas no such cells could be identified in the BHT-fed animals. There were significantly lower levels of autooxidation products of cholesterol (7-oxocholesterol, cholesterol-5,6-epoxide, and 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol) in the aortas of BHT-treated rabbits, P < 0.001. In conclusion, the antioxidant BHT effectively inhibited the accumulation of intimal SMC and the development of intimal thickening of the aorta in hypercholesterolemic rabbits after a balloon catheter-induced injury. These results indicate that antioxidants may modify intimal response to injury.
A Freyschuss, A Stiko-Rahm, J Swedenborg, P Henriksson, I Björkhem, L Berglund, J Nilsson
A major problem in cancer therapy is tumor drug resistance such as is found with antifolates (e.g., methotrexate [MTX]). We are specifically interested in the role of the human folate receptor (hFR) in MTX resistance. To investigate whether transfection of hFR results in increased MTX uptake and increased drug sensitivity, human mammary carcinoma (MCF-7) cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) (cells which do not express detectable levels of hFR) were transfected with hFR cDNA. Stable human mammary carcinoma and Chinese hamster ovary transfectants expressing high levels of hFR were selected for further analysis. Transfected cells which express increased levels of hFR grow more rapidly than mock transfected or wild type cells in media containing physiologic concentrations of folates. The hFR expressed by these cells is sorted to the plasma membrane and is functional as determined by cell surface binding of a radiolabeled folic acid derivative and by internalization of [3H]methotrexate. The stable transfectants that express increased levels of hFR are also more sensitive to MTX in physiologic concentrations of folates. We conclude that increased expression of hFR by human mammary carcinoma and Chinese hamster ovary cells cultured under these conditions results in an enhanced growth rate, increased folic acid binding, and increased MTX uptake and cytotoxicity.
K N Chung, Y Saikawa, T H Paik, K H Dixon, T Mulligan, K H Cowan, P C Elwood
The maximal hydrolytic activity of Na-K-ATPase is specifically increased in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) of rats with puromycin-induced nephrotic syndrome (NS). This stimulation is independent of aldosterone and of endogenous ouabain-like substance. To investigate the mechanism responsible for this change, we compared the maximal Na-K-ATPase hydrolytic activity, the ouabain sensitive 86Rb influx, the specific [3H]ouabain binding, and the sensitivity of Na-K-ATPase to ouabain in the CCD of control rats and of rats given an intraperitoneal injection of puromycin 7 d before study. Both Na-K-ATPase activity and ouabain-sensitive 86Rb influx increased two-fold in rats with NS (ATPase activity: 34.1 +/- 2.1 vs. 18.0 +/- 0.7 pmol.mm-1 x min-1 +/- SE, n = 6, P < 0.001; Rb influx: 14.4 +/- 0.7 vs. 7.4 +/- 0.4 peq.min-1 +/- SE, n = 6, P < 0.001) whereas specific [3H]ouabain binding decreased in rats with NS (6.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 9.0 +/- 0.6 fmol.mm-1 +/- SE, n = 6, P < 0.005). Therefore, the maximal turnover rate of Na-K-ATPase increased over twofold in rats with NS (5,053 +/- 361 vs. 2,043 +/- 124 cycles.min-1 +/- SE, n = 6, P < 0.001). Analysis of the curves of inhibition of Na-K-ATPase by ouabain showed the presence of two Na-K-ATPase populations in both control and NS rats: a highly sensitive population (apparent Ki: 1.4 x 10(-6) M and 0.9 x 10(-6) M) and a less sensitive moiety (apparent Ki: 2.6 x 10(-4) M and 1.1 x 10(-4) M). The enhancement of Na-K-ATPase activity observed in the CCD of rats with NS was entirely due to the stimulation of the population of Na-K-ATPase with low ouabain sensitivity. These results suggest that a dysregulation of this subclass of Na-K-ATPase might be the primary cause of sodium retention in this model of nephrotic syndrome.
E Féraille, B Vogt, M Rousselot, C Barlet-Bas, L Cheval, A Doucet, H Favre
Marburg and Ebola virus, members of the family Filoviridae, cause a severe hemorrhagic disease in humans and primates. The disease is characterized as a pantropic virus infection often resulting in a fulminating shock associated with hemorrhage, and death. All known histological and pathophysiological parameters of the disease are not sufficient to explain the devastating symptoms. Previous studies suggested a nonspecific destruction of the endothelium as a possible mechanism. Concerning the important regulatory functions of the endothelium (blood pressure, anti-thrombogenicity, homeostasis), we examined Marburg virus replication in primary cultures of human endothelial cells and organ cultures of human umbilical cord veins. We show here that Marburg virus replicates in endothelial cells almost as well as in monkey kidney cells commonly used for virus propagation. Our data support the concept that the destruction of endothelial cells resulting from Marburg virus replication is a possible mechanism responsible for the hemorrhagic disease and the shock syndrome typical of this infection.
H J Schnittler, F Mahner, D Drenckhahn, H D Klenk, H Feldmann
Since granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is thought to be a granulocyte lineage-specific cytokine, G-CSF receptors on blood cells other than those of granulocyte or monocyte lineage have not been well investigated. We now report that G-CSF receptors are present on platelets. The expression of G-CSF receptors on platelets was demonstrated by flow cytometry and radioreceptor assay. The mean number of G-CSF-binding sites per cell was 41 and the binding affinity was high (Kd 300 pM), similar to the affinity observed on granulocytes. Cross-linking assay revealed that G-CSF receptors were present on a single subunit protein of approximately 150 kD on the platelets. To clarify whether or not G-CSF might produce some direct functional influence on platelet response, the effects on platelet aggregation were studied. Although G-CSF itself did not affect platelet aggregation in vitro, preincubation with G-CSF augmented a secondary aggregation of platelets induced by low concentrations of adenosine diphosphate (ADP). There was a dose-response relationship for this G-CSF activity at concentrations of up to 10 ng/ml. Furthermore, the augmented ADP-induced secondary aggregation of platelets on G-CSF receptors was completely abrogated in the presence of anti-G-CSF polyclonal antibodies. These results indicate that platelets possess functional G-CSF receptors.
K Shimoda, S Okamura, N Harada, S Kondo, T Okamura, Y Niho
The effect of human eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) as well as other eosinophil proteins, on binding of [3H]N-methyl-scopolamine ([3H]NMS: 1 x 10(-10) M) to muscarinic M2 receptors in heart membranes and M3 receptors in submandibular gland membranes was studied. MBP inhibited specific binding of [3H]NMS to M2 receptors but not to M3 receptors. MBP also inhibited atropine-induced dissociation of [3H]NMS-receptor complexes in a dose-dependent fashion, demonstrating that the interaction of MBP with the M2 muscarinic receptor is allosteric. This effect of MBP suggests that it may function as an endogenous allosteric inhibitor of agonist binding to the M2 muscarinic receptor. Inhibition of [3H]NMS binding by MBP was reversible by treatment with heparin, which binds and neutralizes MBP. Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) also inhibited specific binding of [3H]NMS to M2 receptors but not to M3 receptors and inhibited atropine-induced dissociation of [3H]NMS-receptor complexes. On a molar basis, EPO is less potent than MBP. Neither eosinophil cationic protein nor eosinophil-derived neurotoxin affected binding of [3H]NMS to M2 receptors. Thus both MBP and EPO are selective allosteric antagonists at M2 receptors. The effects of these proteins may be important causes of M2 receptor dysfunction and enhanced vagally mediated bronchoconstriction in asthma.
D B Jacoby, G J Gleich, A D Fryer
Liver regeneration is an important process that allows for recovery from hepatic injuries caused by viruses, toxins, ischemia, surgery, and transplantation. Previously, we identified > 70 immediate-early genes induced in regenerating liver after hepatectomy, 41 of which were novel. While it is expected that the proteins encoded by these genes may have important roles in regulating progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle during regeneration, we were surprised to note that many of these "early" genes are expressed for extended periods during the hepatic growth response. Here we define several patterns of expression of immediate-early, delayed-early, and liver-specific genes during the 9-d period after hepatectomy. One pattern of induction parallels the major growth period of the liver that ends at 60-72 h after hepatectomy. A second pattern has two peaks coincident with the first and second G1 phases of the two hepatic cell cycles. A third group, which includes liver-specific genes such as C/EBP alpha, shows maximal expression after the growth period. Although the peak in DNA synthesis in nonparenchymal cells occur 24 h later than in hepatocytes, most of the genes studied demonstrate similar induction in both cell types. This finding suggests that the G0/G1 transition occurs simultaneously in all cells in the liver, but that the G1 phase of nonparenchymal cells may be relatively prolonged. Finally, we examined the expression of > 70 genes in clinical settings that could induce liver regeneration, including after perfusion in a donor liver, hepatic ischemia, and fulminant hepatic failure. We found that a small number of early and liver-specific genes were selectively activated in human livers under these conditions, and we thereby provide a potential means of measuring the caliber of the regenerative response in clinical situations.
B A Haber, K L Mohn, R H Diamond, R Taub
A cell-mediated autoimmune mechanism has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis. Using a murine model of myocarditis caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), we previously reported that the heart is infiltrated first by natural killer cells, which express a cytolytic factor, perforin, and then by activated T cells. This action may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the observed myocardial cell damage. Cell-cell contact and adhesion is required in immune responses, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which is a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), plays an important role in this process. To investigate the essential role of the ICAM-1/LFA-1 pathway in the cell-mediated cytotoxicity involved in viral myocarditis, we examined by immunofluorescence the expression of ICAM-1 in murine hearts with acute myocarditis caused by CVB3. We also evaluated the induction of ICAM-1 in cultured cardiac myocytes treated with cytokines by immunofluorescence and Northern blot hybridization. Furthermore, we analyzed the effects of in vivo administration of anti-ICAM-1 mAbs on the inflammation associated with acute viral myocarditis. We found that CVB3-induced murine acute myocarditis resulted in enhanced expression of ICAM-1 in myocardial cells. The expression of ICAM-1 in myocardial cells could be induced in vitro by IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, which were shown to be synthesized by the infiltrating cells. In vivo treatment with F(ab')2 fragments of an anti-ICAM-1 mAb significantly reduced the myocardial inflammation induced by CVB3. These data strongly suggest that the expression of ICAM-1 in myocardial cells plays a critical role in the cell-mediated cytotoxicity involved in acute viral myocarditis.
Y Seko, H Matsuda, K Kato, Y Hashimoto, H Yagita, K Okumura, Y Yazaki
This study was designed to investigate the mechanism for ethanol-induced hepatic vasoconstriction in isolated perfused rat liver. Upon initiation of ethanol infusion into the portal vein at concentrations ranging from 25 to 100 mM, portal pressure began to increase in a concentration-dependent manner and reached maximal levels in 2-5 min (initial phase), followed by a gradual decrease over the period of ethanol infusion (escape phenomenon). Endothelin-1 antiserum significantly inhibited this ethanol-induced hepatic vasoconstriction by 45-80%. Cessation of infusion of endothelin-1 antiserum was followed by a subsequent increase in portal pressure. On the other hand, when a nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), was infused into the portal vein simultaneously with ethanol, the initial phase of the response of portal pressure to ethanol was not altered and the peak values of portal pressure remained unchanged. However, after the peak increase in portal pressure, the rate of decrease was less than in the absence of L-NMMA. Thus, L-NMMA diminished the escape phenomenon and sustained the vasoconstriction. This study supports the hypothesis that two endothelium-derived vasoactive factors, endothelin-1 and nitric oxide, regulate hepatic vascular tone in the presence of ethanol.
M Oshita, Y Takei, S Kawano, H Yoshihara, T Hijioka, H Fukui, M Goto, E Masuda, Y Nishimura, H Fusamoto
Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) causes fibrinogen proteolysis when alpha 2-antiplasmin levels fall, and this may contribute to t-PA-induced hemorrhage. Because clot-bound plasmin is protected from alpha 2-antiplasmin inhibition, we tested the possibility that alpha 2-antiplasmin supplementation would block t-PA-induced fibrinogenolysis and bleeding without affecting thrombolysis. When added to human or rabbit plasma, alpha 2-antiplasmin inhibits t-PA-induced fibrinogenolysis, but hat little effect on the lysis of 125I-fibrin clots. To examine its effect in vivo, rabbits with preformed 125I-labeled-jugular vein thrombi were randomized to receive t-PA, t-PA and alpha 2-antiplasmin, or saline. alpha 2-Antiplasmin infusion produced a modest decrease in t-PA-induced thrombolysis (from 40.2% to 30.1%, P = 0.12), but reduced fibrinogen consumption from 87% to 27% (P = 0.0001), and decreased blood loss from standardized ear incisions from 5,594 to 656 microliter (P < 0.0001). We hypothesize that alpha 2-antiplasmin limits t-PA-induced hemorrhage by inhibiting fibrinogenolysis and subsequent fragment X formation because (a) SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis indicate less fragment X formation in alpha 2-antiplasmin treated animals, and (b) when added to a solution of fibrinogen and plasminogen clotted with thrombin in the presence of t-PA, fragment X shortens the lysis time in a concentration-dependent fashion. These findings suggest that fragment X incorporation into hemostatic plugs contributes to t-PA-induced bleeding. By blocking t-PA-mediated fibrinogenolysis, alpha 2-antiplasmin supplementation may improve the safety of fibrin-specific plasminogen activators.
J I Weitz, B Leslie, J Hirsh, P Klement
Plasma and whole-body turnover studies of human C-reactive protein (CRP), isolated from a single normal healthy donor and labeled with 125I, were undertaken in 8 healthy control subjects and 35 hospitalized patients including cases of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, infections, and neoplasia. Plasma clearance of 125I-CRP closely approximated to a monoexponential function and was similar in the control and all patient groups. There was no evidence for accelerated clearance or catabolism of CRP in any of the diseases studied. The 19-h half-life was more rapid than that of most human plasma proteins studied previously, and the fractional catabolic rate was independent of the plasma CRP concentration. The synthesis rate of CRP is thus the only significant determinant of its plasma level, confirming the validity of serum CRP measurement as an objective index of disease activity in disorders associated with an acute-phase response. Approximately 90% of injected radioactivity was recovered in the urine after 7 d, and scintigraphic imaging studies with 123I-labeled CRP in 10 patients with different focal pathology showed no significant localization of tracer. The functions of CRP are thus likely to be effected predominantly in the fluid phase rather than by major deposition at sites of tissue damage or inflammation.
D M Vigushin, M B Pepys, P N Hawkins
Activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is one of the earliest postreceptor events in the insulin signaling pathway. Incubation of soleus muscles from lean mice with 50 nM insulin caused a 3-10-fold increase in antiphosphotyrosine-immunoprecipitable PI3K (antiPTyr-PI3K) activity within 2 min in muscle homogenates as well as both the cytosolic and membrane fractions. Insulin did not affect total PI3K activity. Both the antiPTyr-PI3K stimulation and activation of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase were dependent on hormone concentration. In muscles from obese, insulin-resistant mice, there was a 40-60% decrease in antiPTyr-PI3K activity after 2 min of insulin that was present equally in the cytosolic and membrane fractions. A significant reduction in insulin sensitivity was also observed. The defect appears to result from alterations in both insulin receptor and postreceptor signaling. Starvation of obese mice for 48 h, which is known to reverse insulin resistance, normalized the insulin response of both PI3K and the receptor tyrosine kinase. The results demonstrate that: (a) antiPTyr-PI3K activity is responsive to insulin in mouse skeletal muscle, (b) both the insulin responsiveness and sensitivity of this activity are blunted in insulin-resistant muscles from obese mice, (c) these alterations result from a combination of insulin receptor and postreceptor defects, and (d) starvation restores normal insulin responses.
S J Heydrick, D Jullien, N Gautier, J F Tanti, S Giorgetti, E Van Obberghen, Y Le Marchand-Brustel
Endothelins (ET) produce endothelium-dependent vasodilation through nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. The present study was designed to elucidate the cellular mechanism by which ET induces synthesis and release of endothelium-derived NO by cultured bovine endothelial cells (EC). Binding studies revealed that bovine EC membrane had the binding sites of a novel agonist (BQ3020) for non-isopeptide-selective receptor subtype (ETB). Affinity labeling studies showed a major labeled band with the apparent molecular mass of 50 kD. Northern blot analysis demonstrated the expression of mRNA for ETB receptor. BQ3020 rapidly and dose dependently induced formation of inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate and increased intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in fura-2-loaded cells. Concomitantly, BQ3020 dose dependently stimulated production of both nitrate/nitrite (NOx) and cyclic GMP; a highly significant correlation existed between NOx and cGMP production. The stimulatory effect on NOx and cGMP production by ETB agonist was inhibited by NO synthase inhibitor monomethyl-L-arginine; this effect was reversed by coaddition of L-arginine, but not D-arginine. NOx and cGMP production stimulated by BQ3020 was inhibited by pretreatment with pertussis toxin. ETB agonist-induced NOx production was blocked by a calmodulin inhibitor and an intracellular Ca2+ chelator, but not by an extracellular Ca2+ chelator or a Ca2+ channel blocker. These data suggest that endothelins stimulate ETB receptor-mediated phosphoinositide breakdown via pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein(s), which triggers release of intracellular Ca2+, thereby activating Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent NO synthase in EC.
Y Hirata, T Emori, S Eguchi, K Kanno, T Imai, K Ohta, F Marumo
It has been suggested that platelet-activating factor (PAF) plays a prominent role in the control of glomerular hemodynamics in various physiological and pathological conditions. We examined the direct effect of PAF on rabbit glomerular afferent arterioles (Af-Arts) microperfused in vitro and tested whether endothelium-derived relaxing factor/nitric oxide (EDNO) and cyclooxygenase products are involved in its actions. In nanomolar concentrations PAF caused dose-dependent constriction of Af-Arts, with the maximum constriction being 34 +/- 10% at 4 x 10(-8) M (n = 9, P < 0.001). The constriction was blunted by cyclooxygenase inhibition (11 +/- 6%, n = 7, P < 0.05) but augmented by EDNO inhibition (76 +/- 14%, n = 8, P < 0.005). To study a possible vasodilator effect of PAF, Af-Arts were preconstricted with norepinephrine and increasing concentrations of PAF added to the lumen. At picomolar concentrations (lower than those that caused constriction), PAF produced dose-dependent vasodilation that was unaffected by cyclooxygenase inhibition but was abolished by EDNO synthesis inhibition. Both PAF-induced constriction and dilation of Af-Arts were blocked by a PAF receptor antagonist. This study demonstrates that PAF has a receptor-mediated biphasic effect on rabbit Af-Arts, dilating them at low concentrations while constricting them at higher concentrations. Our results suggest that PAF's vasodilator action may be due to production of EDNO, while its constrictor action is mediated at least in part through cyclooxygenase products.
L A Juncos, Y L Ren, S Arima, S Ito
When rat hepatocytes were incubated with albumin complexed to the n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), rather than to oleic acid (OA), the secretion of newly synthesized apoprotein B100 (apoB100) or B48 (apoB48) was reduced, despite stimulation of cellular triglyceride synthesis by all three fatty acids. When pulse-chase studies of apoB synthesis and secretion were performed in the presence of OA, EPA, or DHA, there were no significant changes in the initial synthetic rates of either apoB species. However, during the chase period, the total recovery of labeled apoB100 and apoB48 from the cell and medium was less in the n-3 fatty acid groups, so that by 150 min, approximately half as much labeled apoB was recovered as in the OA group. Overall, the decreased accumulation in medium of labeled apoB in the presence of EPA and DHA could be quantitatively accounted for by increased degradation of intracellular apoB. Thus, in the primary hepatocyte, apoB degradation is not constitutive, but can be regulated by n-3 fatty acids.
H Wang, X Chen, E A Fisher
C Pirmez, M Yamamura, K Uyemura, M Paes-Oliveira, F Conceição-Silva, R L Modlin
Ca absorption is regulated by 1,25(OH)2D, and serum values vary inversely with Ca intake. In sarcoidosis, 1,25(OH)2D is produced by alveolar macrophages in response to gamma-interferon, and patients may develop hypercalcemia after prolonged exposure to sunlight and increased dermal production of vitamin D3. To determine if increased Ca intake suppresses serum 1,25(OH)2D in normocalcemic patients and to identify those at risk, 17 normal subjects and 11 patients were studied on a metabolic ward for two and one-half days while receiving first 400 and then 1,000 mg/d of Ca. On the low Ca intake, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), an index of disease activity, was higher in only three of the patients than in the controls, mean serum 1,25(OH)2D was higher in the patients, and mean serum total Ca, serum Ca++, and urinary Ca were not different in the two groups. On the higher Ca intake, mean urinary Ca increased in both groups, but mean serum 1,25(OH)2D was suppressed only in the normal subjects. Thus, 1,25(OH)2D production is abnormally regulated, indicating that (a) normocalcemic patients with sarcoidosis are at risk for developing abnormal Ca metabolism, and (b) a better index of disease activity is provided by the oral Ca suppression test than by serum ACE.
J N Basile, Y Liel, J Shary, N H Bell
We have identified a novel autoantibody reactive with all three classes of RNA polymerases, well-characterized nuclear enzymes, in sera from patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). After incubation with [35S]methionine-labeled HeLa cell extracts, 14 of 275 SSc sera immunoprecipitated 12 or 14 proteins with similar molecular weights as those of several subunit proteins of eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II, and III. Purified IgG from these two types of sera inhibited RNA transcription catalyzed by RNA polymerases I, II, and III in vitro. Immunoblot analysis using RNA polymerase-enriched fraction showed that the majority of these sera reacted with 42- or 25-kD protein. Anti-RNA polymerase antibody was highly specific to SSc, especially to diffuse cutaneous SSc. Clinical features associated with this antibody included a high frequency of heart and kidney involvement and a poor survival rate at 5 yr after first visit. These findings indicate that the autoantibody to three classes of RNA polymerases is a new marker for a unique subset of diffuse cutaneous SSc.
M Kuwana, J Kaburaki, T Mimori, T Tojo, M Homma
A thrombin receptor (TR) demonstrating a unique activation mechanism has recently been isolated from a megakaryocytic (Dami) cell line. To further study determinants of peptide ligand-mediated activation phenomenon, we have isolated, cloned, and stably expressed the identical receptor from a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) library. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing a functional TR (CHO-TR), platelets, and HUVECs were then used to specifically characterize alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced activation responses using two different antibodies: anti-TR34-52 directed against a 20-amino acid peptide spanning the thrombin cleavage site, and anti-TR1-160 generated against the NH2-terminal 160 amino acids of the TR expressed as a chimeric protein in Escherichia coli. Activation-dependent responses to both alpha-thrombin (10 nM) and peptide ligand (20 microM) were studied using fura 2-loaded cells and microspectrofluorimetry. Whereas preincubation of CHO-TR with anti-TR34-52 abolished only alpha-thrombin-induced [Ca2+]i transients, preincubation with anti-TR1-160 abrogated both alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced responses. This latter inhibitory effect was dose dependent and similar for both agonists, with an EC50 of approximately 90 micrograms/ml. Anti-TR1-160 similarly abolished peptide ligand-induced [Ca2+]i transients in platelets and HUVECs, whereas qualitatively different responses characterized by delayed but sustained elevations in [Ca2+]i transients were evident using alpha-thrombin. Platelet aggregation to low concentrations of both ligands was nearly abolished by anti-TR1-160, although some shape change remained; anti-TR34-52 only inhibited alpha-thrombin-induced aggregation. These data establish that a critical recognition sequence for peptide ligand-mediated receptor activation is contained on the NH2-terminal portion of the receptor, upstream from the first transmembrane domain. Furthermore, alpha-thrombin-induced activation of HUVECs and platelets may be partially mediated by an alternative mechanism(s) or receptor(s).
W F Bahou, B S Coller, C L Potter, K J Norton, J L Kutok, M S Goligorsky
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in yearly epidemics, which result from the ability of the virus to alter the antigenicity of its envelope proteins. Despite the rapid replication of this virus and its ability to infect a wide variety of cell types, viremia is rare and the infection is generally limited to the upper respiratory tract. The preimmune host defense response against IAV is generally, therefore, successful. We have previously provided (and summarized) evidence that neutrophils contribute to defense against IAV, although neutrophil dysfunction and local tissue damage may be less salutory byproducts of this response. Here we provide evidence that the serum lectin mannose-binding protein directly inhibits hemagglutinin activity and infectivity of several strains of IAV. In addition mannose-binding protein acts as an opsonin, enhancing neutrophil reactivity against IAV. Opsonization of IAV by mannose-binding protein also protects the neutrophil from IAV-induced dysfunction. These effects are observed with physiologically relevant concentrations of mannose-binding protein. Two different allelic forms of recombinant mannose-binding protein are found to have similar effects. We believe, on the basis of these data, that mannose-binding protein alone and in conjunction with phagocytic cells is an important constituent of natural immunity (i.e., preimmune defense) against IAV.
K L Hartshorn, K Sastry, M R White, E M Anders, M Super, R A Ezekowitz, A I Tauber
Neutrophil-derived hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular injury and pulmonary edema. H2O2 time- and dose-dependently increased the hydraulic conductivity and decreased the selectivity of an endothelial cell monolayer derived from porcine pulmonary arteries. Effects of H2O2 on endothelial permeability were completely inhibited by adenylate cyclase activation with 10(-12) M cholera toxin or 0.1 microM forskolin. 10(-8) M Sp-cAMPS, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A agonist, was similarly effective. The phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors motapizone (10(-4) M), rolipram (10(-6) M), and zardaverine (10(-8) M), which specifically inhibit PDE-isoenzymes III, IV, and III/IV potently blocked H2O2-induced endothelial permeability when combined with 10(-6) M prostaglandin E1. Overall cellular cAMP content and inhibition of H2O2 effects on endothelial permeability were poorly correlated. H2O2 exposure resulted in a rapid and substantial decrease in endothelial cAMP content. The analysis of the PDE isoenzyme spectrum showed high activities of isoenzymes II, III, and IV in porcine pulmonary endothelial cells. The data suggest that adenylate cyclase activation/PDE inhibition is a powerful approach to block H2O2-induced increase in endothelial permeability. This concept appears especially valuable when endothelial PDE isoenzyme pattern and PDE inhibitor profile are matched optimally.
N Suttorp, U Weber, T Welsch, C Schudt
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is homologous upregulation of arterial alpha-adrenergic responsiveness during suppression of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity in humans. 10 subjects (19-28 yr) were studied during placebo and when SNS activity was suppressed by guanadrel. Changes in forearm blood flow (FABF) mediated by the intraarterial infusion of norepinephrine (NE), angiotensin II (AII), and phentolamine were measured by plethysmography. During guanadrel compared with placebo, plasma NE levels (1.28 +/- 0.09-0.85 +/- 0.06 nM; P = 0.0001) and the extra vascular NE release rate derived from [3H]NE kinetics were lower (7.1 +/- 0.7-4.0 +/- 0.2 nmol/min per m2; P = 0.0004), suggesting suppression of SNS activity. During guanadrel, there was increased sensitivity in the FABF response to NE (analysis of variance P = 0.03). In contrast, there was no difference in the FABF response to AII (analysis of variance P = 0.81), suggesting that the upregulation observed to NE was homologous. The increase in FABF during phentolamine was similar during guanadrel compared with placebo (guanadrel: 141 +/- 37 vs. placebo; 187 +/- 27% increase; P = 0.33), suggesting that there was at least partial compensation to maintain constant endogenous arterial alpha-adrenergic tone. We conclude that there is homologous upregulation of arterial alpha-adrenergic responsiveness in humans when SNS activity is suppressed by guanadrel.
R V Hogikyan, M A Supiano
Variegate porphyria (VP) is characterized by photocutaneous lesions and acute neuropsychiatric attacks. Decreased protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity results in accumulation of protoporphyrin (ogen) IX and coproporphyrin (ogen) III. During acute attacks delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen also increase, suggesting that porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) may be rate limiting. We have examined the effects of porphyrinogens accumulating in VP on PBG-D activity in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblast sonicates from 12 VP and 12 control subjects. Protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity was decreased and protoporphyrin increased in VP lymphoblasts. PBG-D in control lymphoblasts obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Vmax 28.7 +/- 1.8 pmol/mg per h, Hill coefficient 0.83 +/- 0.07). VP sonicates yielded sigmoidal substrate-velocity curves that did not obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Vmax was decreased (21.2 +/- 2.0 pmol/mg per h) and the Hill coefficient was 1.78 +/- 0.17. Addition of protoporphyrinogen IX and coproporphyrinogen III to control sonicates yielded sigmoidal PBG-D substrate-velocity curves and decreased PBG-D Vmax. Addition of porphyrins or uroporphyrinogen III did not affect PBG-D activity. Removal of endogenous porphyrin (ogens) from VP sonicates restored normal PBG-D kinetics. Purified human erythrocyte PBG-D obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Vmax 249 +/- 36 nmol/mg per h, Km 8.9 +/- 1.5 microM, Hill coefficient 0.93 +/- 0.14). Addition of protoporphyrinogen yielded a sigmoidal curve with decreased Vmax. The Hill coefficient approached 4. These findings provide a rational explanation for the increased delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen during acute attacks of VP.
P Meissner, P Adams, R Kirsch
Apo A-IMilano is a mutant form of apo A-I in which cysteine is substituted for arginine at amino acid 173. Subjects with apo A-IMilano are characterized by having low levels of plasma HDL cholesterol and apo A-I. To determine the kinetic etiology of the decreased plasma levels of the apo A-I in these individuals, normal and mutant apo A-I were isolated, radiolabeled with either 125I or 131I, and both types of apo A-I were simultaneously injected into two normal control subjects and two subjects heterozygous for apo A-IMilano. In the normal subjects, apo A-IMilano was catabolized more rapidly than the normal apo A-I (mean residence times of 5.11 d for normal apo A-I vs. 3.91 d for apo A-IMilano), clearly establishing that apo A-IMilano is kinetically abnormal and that it has a shortened residence time in plasma. In the two apo A-IMilano subjects, both types of apo A-I were catabolized more rapidly than normal (residence times ranging from 2.63 to 3.70 d) with normal total apo A-I production rates (mean of 10.3 vs. 10.4 mg/kg per d in the normal subjects). Therefore, in the subjects with apo A-IMilano, the decreased apo A-I levels are caused by rapid catabolism of apo A-I and not to a decreased production rate, and the abnormal apo A-IMilano leads to the rapid catabolism of both the normal and mutant forms of apo A-I in the affected subjects.
P Roma, R E Gregg, M S Meng, R Ronan, L A Zech, G Franceschini, C R Sirtori, H B Brewer Jr
To investigate the mechanism by which angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition attenuates atherogenesis, we have studied the effects of a non-sulfhydryl ACE inhibitor, enalapril, and an angiotensin receptor antagonist, SC-51316, in cholesterol-fed rabbits. After 3 mo of enalapril treatment (10 mg/kg per d, p.o.) the percent plaque areas in the thoracic aortas of treated animals were significantly reduced (controls: 86.8 +/- 3.5%; treated: 31.1 +/- 8%, P < 0.001). Aortic cholesterol content was also reduced (controls: 31.4 +/- 3.2 mg/g tissue; treated: 7.4 +/- 1.8 mg/g, P < 0.001). Enalapril had no significant effect on plasma lipid levels or conscious blood pressure. In a second study, the angiotensin II receptor antagonist SC-51316 was administered at a dose equivalent to enalapril at blocking angiotensin pressor effects in vivo (30 mg/kg per d, p.o.). Evaluation after 3 mo indicated no significant attenuation of aortic atherosclerosis. These results demonstrate that: (a) enalapril attenuates atherogenesis without affecting either blood pressure or plasma lipid levels; (b) antioxidant activity, found with sulfhydryl-containing ACE inhibitors, is not necessary for reducing plaque formation; and (c) the attenuation of atherogenesis by ACE inhibition may not be due to blockade of the renin-angiotensin system. Alternatively, one must consider the multiple effects of ACE inhibition on other hormone systems, such as bradykinin, or the possibility that alternate angiotensin II receptors may be involved in atherosclerosis.
J R Schuh, D J Blehm, G E Frierdich, E G McMahon, E H Blaine
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha), both by direct action and by trafficking cells of the immune system, is implicated in cardiopulmonary derangements and PMN-mediated microvascular injury associated with gram-negative sepsis. We examined the effects of pretreatment with a monoclonal antibody to TNF alpha on PMN function, hemodynamic derangements, and alveolar capillary membrane damage in a septic porcine model. Anti-TNF alpha profoundly improved hemodynamic consequences in this model. Reduction in PMN CD11/18 receptor expression, lung myeloperoxidase activity, and attenuation of peripheral neutropenia (all P < 0.05) indicate that pretreatment significantly reduced lung sequestration of PMNs seen in septic controls. In contrast, PMN oxygen radical (O2-) generation was not significantly different from unprotected septic animals. Despite the presence of circulating PMNs primed for O2- burst, alveolar capillary membrane damage, assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage protein content and arterial PO2 was markedly attenuated in the treatment group (P < 0.05). We conclude that anti-TNF alpha suppresses systemic hemodynamic actions of TNF alpha. Further, it prevents upregulation of PMN adhesion receptors inhibiting PMN/endothelial cell interaction. This prevents formation of a "microenvironment," protected from circulating oxidant scavengers, into which sepsis-activated PMNs release their toxic products. Pretreatment with anti-TNF alpha monoclonal antibody thus affords global protection in porcine Gram-negative sepsis.
A C Windsor, C J Walsh, P G Mullen, D J Cook, B J Fisher, C R Blocher, S K Leeper-Woodford, H J Sugerman, A A Fowler 3rd
We evaluated the proliferative activity of human atherosclerotic lesions associated with active symptoms of ischemia, by assessing the expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). We confirmed in vitro that PCNA, an essential component of the DNA synthesis machinery, is selectively expressed in proliferating human vascular smooth muscle cells. 37 atherosclerotic lesions (18 primary and 19 restenotic) retrieved by directional atherectomy from either coronary or peripheral arteries were then studied for the expression of PCNA, using in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry. Among plaques studied by in situ hybridization, 7 out of 11 primary and 11 out of 11 restenotic lesions contained PCNA-positive cells. The mean rate of proliferation (percent of PCNA-positive cells) was 7.2 +/- 10.8% in primary lesions and 20.6 +/- 18.2% in restenotic lesions (P < 0.05). Among specimens studied by immunohistochemistry, five out of seven primary and eight out of eight restenotic lesions contained proliferating cells. The mean rate of proliferation was again higher in the restenotic (15.2 +/- 13.6%) than primary (3.6 +/- 3.5%) lesions (P < 0.05). Proliferating cells were detected as late as 1 yr after angioplasty. We conclude that cellular proliferation is a feature of atherosclerotic lesions which are associated with symptoms of ischemia, but that it is more prominent in restenosis compared to primary lesions. These findings have implications for therapies aimed at limiting lesion growth, particularly after percutaneous revascularization.
J G Pickering, L Weir, J Jekanowski, M A Kearney, J M Isner
IL-2 gene transcription is affected by several nuclear proteins. We asked whether dexamethasone (Dex) and cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibit IL-2 gene transcription by interfering with the activity of nuclear proteins that bind to the IL-2 promoter. Nuclear extracts from primary human T lymphocytes were analyzed by electrophoretic DNA mobility shift assays. Both Dex and CsA inhibited the binding of transcription factors AP-1 and NF-AT, but not of NF-kB and OCT-1/OAF, to their corresponding sites on the IL-2 gene promoter. To correlate changes in nuclear factor binding in vitro with transcriptional activity in vivo and define the structural requirements for IL-2 promoter repression, we used transient DNA transfections. Jurkat cells were transfected with plasmids containing either the intact IL-2 promoter or its AP-1, NF-AT, and NF-kB motifs. Dex inhibited the IL-2 promoter and the AP-1, but not the NF-AT and NF-kB plasmids. In contrast, CsA inhibited the IL-2 promoter and the NF-AT, but not the AP-1 and NF-kB plasmids. These results suggest that in human T lymphocytes both Dex and CsA inhibited IL-2 gene transcription through interference with transcription factors AP-1 and NF-AT. We propose that, while maximum inhibition may involve interaction with both transcription factors, AP-1 is the primary target of Dex.
F Paliogianni, A Raptis, S S Ahuja, S M Najjar, D T Boumpas
Recently we demonstrated that the nonadherent (to plastic) fraction of human PBMC could be activated by IL-2 to inhibit Cryptococcus neoformans growth. Here we characterize the antifungal effector cells. Depletion by panning of natural killer (NK) (CD16+, CD56+) cells from nylon wool-treated, IL-2-activated PBMC markedly decreased lytic activity against a tumor cell target (K562) but did not affect antifungal activity. Panning out T (CD3+, CD5+) cells enhanced activity against tumor cells but partially abrogated activity against C. neoformans. IL-2-activated T cells of 95% purity, obtained by panning out NK cells from PBMC forming rosettes with sheep erythrocytes, had excellent antifungal activity but suboptimal antitumor activity. The nonrosetted cells (which were virtually free of T cells and enriched for NK cells) had both antitumor and antifungal activity, even if cultured without IL-2. CD4+, CD8+, and CD56+ cells, purified by positive selection by panning, directly inhibited cryptococcal growth. Conjugate formation between fungi and both CD56+ and CD5+ effector cells was demonstrated by videomicroscopy and immunoperoxidase staining. Thus, IL-2-activated T cells and NK cells form conjugates with and directly inhibit the growth of C. neoformans. To our knowledge, these data are the first demonstration of human T cells directly inhibiting growth of a microbial target.
S M Levitz, M P Dupont
The oxidative modification of LDL seems a key event in atherogenesis and may participate in inflammatory tissue injury. Our previous studies suggested that the process of LDL oxidation by activated human monocytes/macrophages required O2- and activity of intracellular lipoxygenase. Herein, we studied the mechanisms involved in this oxidative modification of LDL. In this study, we used the human monocytoid cell line U937 to examine the role of Ca2+ in U937 cell-mediated lipid peroxidation of LDL. U937 cells were activated by opsonized zymosan. Removal of Ca2+ from cell culture medium by EGTA inhibited U937 cell-mediated peroxidation of LDL lipids. Therefore, Ca2+ influx and mobilization were examined for their influence on U937 cell-mediated LDL lipid peroxidation. Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine and verapamil blocked both Ca2+ influx and LDL lipid peroxidation by activated U937 cells. The inhibitory effects of nifedipine and verapamil were dose dependent. TMB-8 and ryanodine, agents known to prevent Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, also caused a dose-dependent inhibition of LDL lipid peroxidation by activated U937 cells while exhibiting no effect on Ca2+ influx. Thus, both Ca2+ influx through functional calcium channels and Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores participate in the oxidative modification of LDL by activated U937 cells. 45Ca2+ uptake experiments revealed profound Ca2+ influx during the early stages of U937 cell activation, however, the Ca2+ ionophore 4-bromo A23187 was unable to induce activation of U937 cells and peroxidation of LDL lipids. Release of intracellular Ca2+ by thapsigargin only caused a suboptimal peroxidation of LDL lipids. Our results indicate that although increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels provided by both influx and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization are required, other intracellular signals may be involved for optimal peroxidation of LDL lipids by activated human monocytes.
Q Li, A Tallant, M K Cathcart
We assessed the role of leukotrienes (LTs) in Munich-Wistar rats with passive Heymann nephritis (PHN), an animal model of human membranous nephropathy. 10 d after injection of anti-Fx1A antibody, urinary protein excretion rate (Upr) in PHN was significantly higher than that of control. Micropuncture studies demonstrated reduced single nephron plasma flow and glomerular filtration rates, increased transcapillary hydraulic pressure difference, pre- and postglomerular resistances, and decreased ultrafiltration coefficient in PHN rats. Glomerular LTB4 generation from PHN rats was increased. Administration of the 5-LO activating protein inhibitor MK886 for 10 d markedly blunted proteinuria and normalized glomerular hemodynamic abnormalities in PHN rats. An LTD4 receptor antagonist SK&F 104353 led to an immediate reduction in Upr and to reversal of glomerular hemodynamic impairment. Ia(+) cells/glomerulus were increased in PHN rats. In x-irradiated PHN rats, which developed glomerular macrophage depletion, augmented glomerular LT synthesis was abolished. Thus, in the autologous phase of PHN, LTD4 mediates glomerular hemodynamic abnormalities and a hemodynamic component of the accompanying proteinuria. The synthesis of LTD4 likely occurs directly from macrophages or from macrophage-derived LTA4, through LTC4 synthase in glomerular cells.
T Katoh, E A Lianos, M Fukunaga, K Takahashi, K F Badr
Angiotensin II (Ang II) resets the baroreflex control of heart rate to a higher blood pressure. This action is apparently mediated via Ang II receptors in the area postrema, but it is not known if these are of the AT1 or AT2 subtype. In the present study the effects of losartan, a selective AT1 receptor antagonist, and PD 123319, a selective AT2 antagonist, on the cardiac baroreflex response to Ang II were investigated in conscious rabbits with chronically implanted arterial and venous catheters. Baroreflex curves were generated with intravenous infusions of phenylephrine and nitroprusside (2.6-25 micrograms/kg per min) and analyzed using a four-parameter logistic model to yield their upper and lower plateaus, arterial pressure at the midpoint of the heart rate range (BP50), and slope coefficient. From these four parameters, the gain and range of the baroreflex were calculated. Background intravenous infusion of Ang II at 10 ng/kg per min increased mean arterial pressure by 17 mmHg but did not change heart rate. Ang II shifted the baroreflex curve to the right as indicated by an increase in BP50 from 70.9 +/- 2.0 to 89.3 +/- 2.7 mmHg (P < 0.05), but did not change baroreflex gain significantly. Ang II did not alter the upper plateau of the baroreflex, but decreased the lower plateau from 119.4 +/- 10.3 to 73.6 +/- 11.5 beats per minute (bpm) (P < 0.05), extending the heart rate range by 52.5 bpm. Pretreatment with losartan completely abolished the pressor and cardiac baroreflex responses to Ang II. In contrast, PD 123319 had no effect on these responses. Administration of losartan alone to block endogenous Ang II shifted the baroreflex curve to the left as indicated by a decrease in BP50 from 71.2 +/- 2.7 to 64.7 +/- 2.5 mmHg (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that the resetting of the baroreflex control of heart rate by Ang II is mediated by AT1 receptors, and that basal levels of endogenous Ang II exert a tonic action on the cardiac baroreflex to increase the setpoint around which the baroreflex regulates heart rate.
J Wong, L Chou, I A Reid
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) potentiates reperfusion-associated ventricular fibrillation. To study the mechanism responsible, patch-clamp techniques were used to evaluate transmembrane ionic currents during "reperfusion" after a CN(-)-induced metabolic surrogate for ischemia in isolated myocytes from a feline model of experimental LVH. Reperfusion caused the generation of early afterdepolarizations (EADs) from an average take-off potential of -33 mV in LVH cells but not in cells from normal hearts. 10 min after initiating reperfusion of normal cells, action potential duration (APD) at 50% repolarization (APD50) lengthened from 198 +/- 41 to 233 +/- 57 ms whereas in LVH cells APD50 lengthened from 262 +/- 84 to 349 +/- 131 ms (P < 0.05). Among the LVH cells, APD50 lengthening was significantly greater in the cells that had developed EADs. During reperfusion, steady state outward current in the voltage range of the action potential plateau (between -20 and +20 mV) was reduced from the control values in LVH cells but not in normal cells. Reperfusion-related reduction of steady state outward current in LVH cells was abolished under experimental conditions in which L-type Ca2+ current was isolated from other classes of currents whereas it was still observed under the condition in which pure K+ currents could be recorded. Thus, reduction of steady state outward current due to the reduction of outward K+ current over the action potential plateau voltage range appears to be responsible for an excessive prolongation of APD, leading to the development of EADs.
T Furukawa, A L Bassett, N Furukawa, S Kimura, R J Myerburg
Cysteine proteinases are hypothesized to be important virulence factors of Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amebic dysentery and liver abscesses. The release of a histolytic cysteine proteinase from E. histolytica correlates with the pathogenicity of both axenic strains and recent clinical isolates as determined by clinical history of invasive disease, zymodeme analysis, and cytopathic effect. We now show that pathogenic isolates have a unique cysteine proteinase gene (ACP1). Two other cysteine proteinase genes (ACP2, ACP3) are 85% identical to each other and are present in both pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates. ACP1 is only 35 and 45% identical in sequence to the two genes found in all isolates and is present on a distinct chromosome-size DNA fragment. Presence of the ACP1 gene correlates with increased proteinase expression and activity in pathogenic isolates as well as cytopathic effect on a fibroblast monolayer, an in vitro assay of virulence. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of the ACP1 proteinase gene reveals homology with cysteine proteinases released by activated macrophages and invasive cancer cells, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of tissue invasion. The observation that a histolytic cysteine proteinase gene is present only in pathogenic isolates of E. histolytica suggests that this aspect of virulence in amebiasis is genetically predetermined.
S Reed, J Bouvier, A S Pollack, J C Engel, M Brown, K Hirata, X Que, A Eakin, P Hagblom, F Gillin
Differentiation of monocytic precursors often results in adhesive properties thought to be important in migration. In this study, the influence of cytokines, known to induce macrophage differentiation, on the adhesiveness of the monocytic cell line U937 was examined in vitro. Despite development of a macrophage morphology, < 5% of cytokine-stimulated U937 cells were adherent at 24 h. Addition of 1-10 nM urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) induced adherence in the presence of transforming growth factor type beta-1, 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, or tumor necrosis factor alpha. uPA-dependent adhesiveness was reversible after 24 h of stimulation with cytokines and uPA as adherence was prevented by the subsequent addition of anti-uPA antibodies. Adherence induced by diisopropylfluorophosphate-inactivated uPA was severalfold greater than that seen with active uPA. This difference was largely due to cell-surface turnover of active uPA complexed with plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI). These data indicate that cytokines prime monocyte progenitors for uPA receptor-mediated signals leading to adherence, continued uPA receptor occupancy is required for adherence, and PAI decreases adherence by promoting clearance of uPA/PAI complexes. Thus the interaction of uPA and PAI at the cell surface, known to affect extracellular matrix proteolysis and hence myeloid cell migration, also regulates adhesion. The coordinated regulation of these two uPA functions by PAI may enhance the migratory potential of monocytic cells.
D A Waltz, L Z Sailor, H A Chapman
Lymphocytes, especially CD4+ T cells, are essential for clearance of the yeast-like organism Cryptococcus neoformans from the infected host. The mechanism(s) by which the lymphocytes facilitate elimination of cryptococci has not been elucidated. It is generally thought, however, that lymphocytes reactive with C. neoformans indirectly function by production of lymphokines to enhance clearance of the organism by natural effector cells such as macrophages. In the present study, we assessed the ability of freshly isolated human lymphocytes to interact directly with C. neoformans and to limit the growth of the organism in vitro. We found that large granular lymphocytes (LGL) as well as T cells bound to cryptococcal cells when the lymphocytes were mixed with the cryptococcal cells at a 2:1 ratio. The physical binding interactions of the two lymphocyte populations were different. LGL attached to the cryptococcal cells by many microvilli; T lymphocytes associated with the yeast through broad areas of membrane attached to the cryptococcal cell surface. The two types of lymphocyte interactions did not result in phagocytosis but resulted in direct inhibition of cryptococcal growth, making these lymphocyte interactions with cryptococci distinctly different from interactions of monocytes with cryptococci. With the human natural killer (NK) cell line, NK 3.3, we confirmed that NK cells that were present in the LGL population were capable of limiting the growth of C. neoformans. Through immunoelectron microscopy, human CD3+ lymphocytes were seen attached to cryptococcal cells and by mass cytolysis, human CD3+ lymphocytes were shown to be responsible for inhibition of C. neoformans growth. The direct inhibitory interactions of NK cells and T lymphocytes with cryptococcal cells may be important means of host defense against this ubiquitous organism that frequently causes life-threatening disease in AIDS patients.
J W Murphy, M R Hidore, S C Wong
To develop a model for endogenous thyroid autoantigen presentation, we transfected EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines (EBV-LCL), established from patients with autoimmune thyroid disease and normal controls, with cDNA for the human thyroid autoantigen thyroid peroxidase (hTPO). hTPO-antigen presentation to patient peripheral blood T cells was demonstrated after stimulation in vitro for 7 d with irradiated hTPO-transfected or untransfected autologous EBV-LCL. Anti-hTPO-reactive T cells were subsequently cloned in the presence of irradiated, autologous hTPO-transfected EBV-LCL and IL-2.10 T cell-cloned lines exhibited specific hTPO-induced proliferation (stimulation indices of 2.1-7.9) towards autologous hTPO-transfected EBV-LCL, and were subjected to human T cell receptor (hTCR) V gene analysis, using the PCR for the detection of V alpha and V beta hTcR gene families. The results indicated a preferential use of hTCR V alpha 1 and/or V alpha 3 in 9 of the 10 lines. In contrast, hTCR V beta gene family use was more variable. These data demonstrate a model for the endogenous presentation of human thyroid peroxidase in the absence of other thyroid specific antigens. The high frequency of antigen-specific T cells obtained from PBMC using this technique will facilitate further studies at both the functional and hTCR V gene level.
A Martin, R P Magnusson, D L Kendler, E Concepcion, A Ben-Nun, T F Davies
Biological effects of cytokines are in part determined by their interactions in the regulation of cytokine production. This study analyzes the effects of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) on cytokine expression in different cell lineages. Recombinant human LIF increases levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-8 mRNA in human articular chondrocytes as demonstrated by Northern blotting. These cytokine mRNAs are detectable as early as 1.3 h after stimulation and reach their maximum after 5 h. The LIF effects are dose dependent and of similar magnitude to those of IL-1. By metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation it is shown that LIF induces synthesis and secretion of IL-6. IL-6 bioactivity in conditioned media, as measured by the B9 hybridoma proliferation assay, is increased by LIF. Effects of LIF on cytokine expression are not confined to connective tissue cells. By PCR it is shown that human blood monocytes express IL-6 mRNA after stimulation with LIF. An increase in IL-6 mRNA levels is detectable 2 h after stimulation, and this starts to decline by 5 h. The response is of shorter duration as compared with IL-1 beta. In addition to increased mRNA expression, LIF also stimulates release of biologically active IL-6 from blood monocytes. In synoviocytes and neuronal as well as epithelial cell lines, LIF increases IL-1 beta and IL-6 gene expression. In summary, LIF induces cytokine expression in a wide variety of tissues. These results suggest that through the induction of cytokines, LIF can modulate inflammation, immune responses, and connective tissue metabolism, and act as a pathogenetic mediator in different disease states.
P M Villiger, Y Geng, M Lotz
Recent evidence suggests that sulfhydryl species can react with oxides of nitrogen under physiologic conditions and thereby stabilize endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) activity, but the presence of a specific in vivo thiol carrier for nitric oxide (NO) remains controversial. The single free sulfhydryl of serum albumin is the most abundant thiol species in plasma (approximately 0.5 mM) and is particularly reactive towards NO. To examine the potential role of serum albumin in endogenous nitric oxide metabolism, we synthesized S-nitroso-BSA (S-NO-BSA), a model S-nitroso-protein, and examined its effects on platelet function and coronary and systemic vascular tone in 16 mongrel dogs. Intravenous bolus S-NO-BSA markedly reduced mean arterial pressure in a dose-dependent manner and proved seven and a half-fold less potent than intravenous nitroglycerin and 10-fold less potent than intravenous S-nitroso-cysteine (half-maximal response of 75 nmol/kg compared to 10 and 7.5 nmol/kg, respectively; P < 0.05); when given by intravenous infusion (half-maximal response = 10 nmol/kg per min), however, S-NO-BSA and nitroglycerin were equipotent. Intravenous bolus S-NO-BSA had a greater duration of action than either nitroglycerin or S-nitroso-cysteine and produced marked prolongation of the template bleeding time associated with dose-dependent inhibition of ex vivo platelet aggregation (half-maximal response approximately 70 nmol/kg). Intracoronary S-NO-BSA increased coronary blood flow (mean +/- SEM) less effectively than nitroprusside, acetylcholine, or S-nitroso-cysteine (165% +/- 24% vs. 315% +/- 82%, 483% +/- 55%, or 475% +/- 66%, respectively; P < 0.05) although with much longer duration of action. On a molar basis, S-nitroso-cysteine proved more effective than S-nitroso-BSA, nitroprusside, or acetylcholine as an epicardial coronary vasodilator. Thus, serum albumin reacts with oxides of nitrogen to form a stable S-nitroso-thiol with properties reminiscent of authentic EDRF supporting the view that protein associated thiol may participate in the action and metabolism of EDRF.
J F Keaney Jr, D I Simon, J S Stamler, O Jaraki, J Scharfstein, J A Vita, J Loscalzo
An understanding of the fluid and electrolyte transport properties of any epithelium requires knowledge of the direction, rate, and regulation of fluid transport and the composition of the fluid. Although human airway epithelial likely play a key role in controlling the quantity and composition of the respiratory tract fluid, evidence for such a role is not available. To obtain such knowledge, we measured fluid and electrolyte transport by cultured human nasal epithelia. Under basal conditions we found that epithelia absorbed Na+ and fluid; both processes were inhibited by addition of amiloride to the mucosal surface. These data suggest that active Na+ absorption is responsible for fluid absorption. Interestingly, Na+ absorption was not accompanied by the net absorption of Cl-; some other anion accompanied Na+. The combination of cAMP agonists and mucosal amiloride stimulated the secretion of NaCl-rich fluid. But surprisingly, the response to cAMP agonists in the absence of amiloride showed substantial intersubject variability: cAMP stimulated fluid secretion across some epithelia, for others, cAMP stimulated fluid absorption. The explanation for the differences in response is uncertain, but we speculate that the magnitude of apical membrane Na+ conductance may modulate the direction of fluid transport in response to cAMP. We also found that airway epithelial secrete H+ and absorb K+ under basal conditions; both processes were inhibited by cAMP agonists. Because the H+/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, SCH 28080, inhibited K+ absorption, an apical membrane H+/K(+)-ATPase may be at least partly responsible for K+ and H+ transport. However, H+/K+ exchange could not entirely account for the luminal acidification. The finding that cAMP agonists inhibited luminal acidification may be explained by the recent finding that cAMP increases apical HCO3- conductance. These results provide new insights into how the intact airway epithelium may modify the composition of the respiratory tract fluid.
J J Smith, M J Welsh
We studied dogs with unilateral papain-induced emphysema to answer two questions: (1) Do emphysema lung-apposed hemidiaphragm (DiE) and normal lung-apposed hemidiaphragm (DiN) have equal capacities for lowering lung surface pressure? and (2) Are side-to-side differences in intrathoracic pressure the result of unequal force outputs by DiE and DiN or are they caused by differences in their mechanical efficiency as pressure generators? After the airways of the emphysematous and normal lungs were intubated with a dual lumen endotracheal tube, both phrenic nerves were maximally stimulated at rates between 1 and 50 Hz and the changes in airway occlusion pressure (delta PaoE,N) and diaphragm length (sonomicrometry) were recorded. In all animals, delta PaoN exceeded delta PaoE. Differences in pressure ranged from 1.2 +/- 0.6 cm H2O during a twitch to 6.0 +/- 2.9 cm H2O during a 50-Hz tetanus. Midcostal bundles of DiE shortened less than corresponding bundles of DiN, but both reached the same active length relative to their optimal lengths, which were measured in vitro. There was no significant difference in fiber type distribution, fiber cross-sectional area, or maximal isometric tetanic tensions among midcostal regions of DiE and DiN. We conclude that unilateral hyperinflation impairs the mechanical efficiency of the apposing hemidiaphragm as a pressure generator.
R D Hubmayr, G A Farkas, H Y Tao, G C Sieck, S S Margulies
Betaine is one of the major compatible osmolytes accumulated by kidney derived Madin-Darby canine kidney cells cultured in hypertonic medium. Betaine is accumulated by Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent uptake from the medium. To gain insight into the mechanism by which hypertonicity evokes an increase in the Vmax of the betaine transporter in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, we measured the relative abundance of mRNA for the transporter in cells shifted to a hypertonic medium and found parallel increases in mRNA abundance and cotransporter activity. The increase in mRNA levels preceded the increase in transporter activity slightly. Transcription of the gene for the transporter rose rapidly and to the same relative extent as mRNA abundance in cells shifted to hypertonic medium, indicating that transcription of the gene for the cotransporter plays a major role in regulating the accumulation of betaine in response to hypertonicity.
S Uchida, A Yamauchi, A S Preston, H M Kwon, J S Handler
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a blistering skin disease in which autoantibodies develop to hemidesmosomal components of the epidermal basement membrane zone, including two major antigenic proteins of the 230-kD antigen (BPAG1) and the 180-kD antigen (BPAG2). The present study demonstrated the precise ultrastructural localization of the epitopes for autoantibodies against BPAG1 and BPAG2 in normal skin. Autoantibodies against either BPAG1 or BPAG2 were affinity-purified using nitrocellulose membrane, which was blotted with SDS-PAGE-fractionated antigens from human epidermal extract as the immunoabsorbent. Postembedding, immunogold electron microscopy was performed after skin was processed by rapid freezing and freeze substitution fixation without chemical fixatives. Purified autoantibodies against BPAG1 bound only to the intracellular domain of the hemidesmosome, and 80% of the gold labeling was within 40-140 nm from the plasma membrane (mean distance 91 nm inside). In contrast, the autoantibodies against BPAG2 bound along the plasma membrane of the hemidesmosome, and 80% of the gold labeling was within 10 nm outside to 50 nm inside the cells (mean distance 12 nm inside). These results suggest that the autoantibodies against BPAG1 and BPAG2 react with the epitopes localizing in distinct regions of the hemidesmosome complex, and may play different roles in the blister formation in patients with BP.
A Ishiko, H Shimizu, A Kikuchi, T Ebihara, T Hashimoto, T Nishikawa
Expression of Ig and Ig-related genes has been studied in bone marrow cells from two patients with severe form of X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Phenotypic analysis revealed the presence of pre-B cells, in the absence of mature B cell markers. The pre-B-specific genes, lambda-like and V pre-B, were normally transcribed. Sequence analysis of 48 distinct V-D-J cDNA clones directly derived from XLA bone marrow cells indicated that they had characteristics of an early fetal pre-B repertoire. All VH families were identified, with a strong bias in the gene usage: a few VH genes were largely overexpressed, either germline or slightly mutated; most genes had been located 3' of the VH locus and were also used in fetal liver (8-13 wk of gestation). Short D regions, (resulting from D-D fusion, making usage of all D genes in both orientations with utilization of the three reading frames), restricted N diversity, and a fetal JH usage pattern were also observed. Taken together, our data suggest that the XLA defect does not alter V-D-J rearrangements nor the expression of mu, lambda-like, and V pre-B transcripts and most likely results in a poor efficiency of some critical steps of the B cell maturation.
M Milili, F Le Deist, G de Saint-Basile, A Fischer, M Fougereau, C Schiff
Apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], an apolipoprotein unique to lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is highly polymorphic in size. Previous studies have indicated that the size of the apo(a) gene tends to be inversely correlated with the plasma level of Lp(a). However, several exceptions to this general trend have been identified. Individuals with apo(a) alleles of identical size do not always have similar plasma concentrations of Lp(a). To determine if these differences in plasma Lp(a) concentrations were due to sequence variations in the apo(a) gene, we examined the sequences of apo(a) alleles in 23 individuals homozygous for same-sized apo(a) alleles. We identified four single-strand DNA conformation polymorphisms (SSCPs) in the apo(a) gene. Of the 23 homozygotes, 21 (91%) were heterozygous for at least one of the SSCPs. Analysis of a family in which a parent was homozygous for the same-sized apo(a) allele revealed that each allele, though identical size, segregated with different plasma concentrations of Lp(a). These studies indicate that the apo(a) gene is even more polymorphic in sequence than was previously appreciated, and that sequence variations at the apo(a) locus, other than the number of kringle 4 repeats, contribute to the plasma concentration of Lp(a).
J C Cohen, G Chiesa, H H Hobbs
The molecular defect in the abnormal fibrinogen Dusart (Paris V) that is associated with thrombophilia was determined by sequence analysis of genomic DNA that had been amplified using the polymerase chain reaction. The propositus was heterozygous for a single base change (C-->T) in the A alpha-chain gene, resulting in the amino acid substitution A alpha 554 Arg-->Cys. Restriction analysis of the amplified DNA derived from the family members showed that his father and his two sons were also heterozygous. Electron microscopic studies on fibrin formed from purified fibrinogen Dusart demonstrated fibers that were much thinner than in normal fibrin. In contrast to the previously observed defective binding of plasminogen, the binding of thrombospondin to immobilized fibrinogen Dusart was similar to that of normal fibrinogen. Immunoblot analysis of plasma fibrinogen demonstrated that a substantial part of the fibrinogen Dusart molecules were disulfide-linked to albumin. The plasma of the affected family members also contained fibrinogen-albumin complexes. Furthermore, small amounts of high molecular weight complexes containing fibrinogen were detected in all the heterozygous individuals. These data indicate that the molecular abnormality in fibrinogen Dusart (A alpha 554 Arg-->Cys) results in defective lateral association of the fibrin fibers and disulfide-linked complex formation with albumin, and is associated with a family history of recurrent thrombosis in the affected individuals.
J Koopman, F Haverkate, J Grimbergen, S T Lord, M W Mosesson, J P DiOrio, K S Siebenlist, C Legrand, J Soria, C Soria
C L Karp, S H el-Safi, T A Wynn, M M Satti, A M Kordofani, F A Hashim, M Hag-Ali, F A Neva, T B Nutman, D L Sacks
The activation of human neutrophils by monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals is believed to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of arthritides such as acute gout and pseudogout, respectively. In this study, we investigated the potential involvement of tyrosine phosphorylation in microcrystal-mediated activation of human neutrophils. Immunoblot analysis with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies demonstrated that triclinic monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals stimulated a time- and concentration-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of at least five proteins (pp130, 118, 80, 70, and 60). While phosphoprotein (pp) 118 and pp70 were the major phosphorylated substrates, pp70 was the dominant one in reactivity with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies. When the temporal patterns, as well as the levels of tyrosine phosphorylation for both types of crystals were compared, monosodium urate crystals were found to be more potent activators than calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals. The tyrosine phosphorylation patterns induced by microcrystals differed from those stimulated by other soluble (FMLP, C5a, or leukotriene B4) or particulate (unopsonized latex beads or zymosan) agonists which stimulated preferentially the tyrosine phosphorylation of pp118. The ratio of the intensities of pp118 and pp70 were specific of the stimulation with microcrystals when compared to those observed with the other soluble or particulate agonists. Colchicine, a drug used specifically in the treatment of gout and pseudogout, inhibited microcrystal-induced tyrosine phosphorylation, while beta- and gamma-lumicolchicine were without effect. On the other hand, colchicine failed to inhibit FMLP-induced tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, while colchicine inhibited the activation of the NADPH oxidase by microcrystals, it, on the other hand, enhanced the production of superoxide anions by FMLP. Taken together, these results (a) demonstrate that tyrosine phosphorylation is involved in the mechanism of activation of human neutrophils induced by microcrystals; and (b) suggest, on the basis of the characteristics of the observed patterns of tyrosine phosphorylation, that this response may be specific to the microcrystals and relevant to their phlogistic properties.
M Gaudry, C J Roberge, R de Médicis, A Lussier, P E Poubelle, P H Naccache
The interstices of the mammalian stratum corneum contain lipids in a system of continuous membrane bilayers critical for the epidermal permeability barrier. During the transition from inner to outer stratum corneum, the content of polar lipids including glucosylceramides, decreases while ceramide content increases. We investigated whether inhibition of glucosylceramide hydrolysis would alter epidermal permeability barrier function. Daily topical applications of bromoconduritol B epoxide (BrCBE) to intact murine skin selectively inhibited beta-glucocerebrosidase, increased glucosylceramide content of stratum corneum with ceramide content remaining largely unchanged, and caused a progressive, reversible decrease in barrier function. Histochemistry of inhibitor-treated epidermis revealed persistence of periodic acid-Schiff-positive staining in stratum corneum cell membranes, consistent with retention of hexose moieties. Electron microscopy of inhibitor-treated samples revealed no evidence of toxicity or changes in the epidermal lipid delivery system. However, immature membrane structures persisted in the intercellular spaces throughout the stratum corneum, with reappearance of mature membrane structures progressing outward from the lower stratum corneum upon termination of BrCBE. Finally, the induced barrier abnormality was not reversed by coapplications of ceramide. These data demonstrate that glucosylceramide hydrolysis is important in the formation of the epidermal permeability barrier, and suggest that accumulation of glucosylceramides in stratum corneum intercellular membrane domains leads to abnormal barrier function.
W M Holleran, Y Takagi, G K Menon, G Legler, K R Feingold, P M Elias
In humans, diets high in saturated fat and cholesterol raise HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. To explore the mechanism, we have devised a mouse model that mimics the human situation. In this model, HuAITg and control mice were studied on low fat (9% cal)-low cholesterol (57 mg/1,000 kcal) (chow) and high fat (41% cal)-high cholesterol (437 mg/1,000 kcal) (milk-fat based) diets. The mice responded to increased dietary fat by increasing both HDL-C and apo A-I levels, with a greater increase in HDL-C levels. This was compatible with an increase in HDL size observed by nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Turnover studies with doubly labeled HDL showed that dietary fat both increase the transport rate (TR) and decreased the fractional catabolic rate of HDL cholesterol ester (CE) and apo A-I, with the largest effect on HDL CE TR. The latter suggested that dietary fat increases reverse cholesterol transport through the HDL pathway, perhaps as an adaptation to the metabolic load of a high fat diet. The increase in apo A-I TR by dietary fat was confirmed by experiments showing increased apo A-I secretion from primary hepatocytes isolated from animals on the high fat diet. The increased apo A-I production was not associated with any increase in hepatic or intestinal apo A-I mRNA, suggesting that the mechanism of the dietary fat effect was posttranscriptional, involving either increased translatability of the apo A-I mRNA or less intracellular apo A-I degradation. The dietary fat-induced decrease in HDL CE and apo A-I fractional catabolic rate may have been caused by the increase in HDL particle size, as was suggested by our previous studies in humans. In summary, a mouse model has been developed and experiments performed to better understand the paradoxical HDL-raising effect of a high fat diet.
T Hayek, Y Ito, N Azrolan, R B Verdery, K Aalto-Setälä, A Walsh, J L Breslow
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies of 20 patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA) were used in immunoaffinity assays with surface-radioiodinated human red blood cells (RBCs), and detergent-solubilized products were analyzed by SDS-PAGE/autoradiography. Four membrane proteins were identified as candidate autoantigens: a nonglycosylated polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 34 kD (p34) that was expressed in all available RBC phenotypes except Rhnull but differed consistently in apparent molecular mass from the 32-kD Rh(D) polypeptide co-isolated by IgG allo-anti-D; a heterogenous 37-55-kD glycoprotein, also deficient in Rhnull RBCs, which disappeared after deglycosylation by N-glycanase, with the appearance of a sharp, new approximately 31-kD band distinct from p34 and from Rh(D) polypeptide; a approximately 100-kD major membrane glycoprotein identified by immunoblotting as the band 3 anion transporter; and glycophorin A (GPA), also confirmed by immunoblotting. GP37-55 was not seen in the absence of p34, and both proteins are likely to be members of the Rh family. Indeed, a 34-kD polypeptide band and 37-55-kD poly-disperse "smear," isolated concurrently from the same labeled RBCs by IgG allo-anti-e, were indistinguishable from their autoantibody-isolated counterparts and may well be the same protein identified at different epitopes by the auto- and allo-antibodies. Individual AHA patients' autoantibodies isolated p34 and gp37-55, alone or in combination with band 3 (nine cases); strong band 3 alone (five cases); and combinations of band 3 with GPA (six cases). The autoantibodies of three additional patients whose AHA had been induced by alpha-methyldopa also isolated p34 and gp37-55.
J P Leddy, J L Falany, G E Kissel, S T Passador, S I Rosenfeld
The fourth component of the human complement system (C4) is coded for by two genes, C4A and C4B, located within the MHC. Null alleles of C4 (C4Q0) are defined by the absence of C4 protein in plasma. These null alleles are due either to large gene deletions or to nonexpression of the respective genes. In a previous study, evidence was obtained for nonexpressed defective genes at the C4A locus, and for gene conversion at the C4B locus. To further characterize the molecular basis of these non-expressed C4A genes, we selected nine pairs of PCR primers from flanking genomic intron sequences to amplify all 41 exons from individuals with a defective C4A gene. The amplified products were subjected to single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis to detect possible mutations. PCR products exhibiting a variation in the SSCP pattern were sequenced directly. In 10 of 12 individuals studied, we detected a 2-bp insertion in exon 29 leading to nonexpression due to the creation of a termination codon, which was observed in linkage to the haplotype HLA-B60-DR6 in seven cases. In one of the other two individuals without this mutation, evidence was obtained for gene conversion to the C4B isotype. The genetic basis of C4A nonexpression in the second individual is not yet known and will be subject to further analysis.
G Barba, C Rittner, P M Schneider
Autoantibodies reacting with chromatin and its components, histones and DNA, are characteristic of the human autoimmune disease SLE and drug-induced lupus, but the mechanisms of their induction remain unknown. Serial serum samples collected over short intervals from lupus-prone MRL/MP-lpr/lpr and BXSB mice were tested by ELISA on chromatin and its substructures to characterize the initial autoimmune response to these antigens. Direct binding studies demonstrated that the early autoantibodies recognized discontinuous epitopes on native chromatin and the (H2A-H2B)-DNA subnucleosome. As the immune response progressed, native DNA and other chromatin constituents generally became antigenic. Based on adsorption studies and IgG subclass restriction, antibodies to native DNA were more related to chromatin than to denatured DNA. The kinetics of autoantibody appearance and the Ig class distribution were similar to the kinetics and distribution seen in antibodies induced by immunization with an exogenous T-dependent antigen. These results are most consistent with the view that autoantibodies reacting with chromatin are generated by autoimmunization with chromatin, and antibodies to native DNA are a subset of the wide spectrum of antichromatin autoantibodies.
R W Burlingame, R L Rubin, R S Balderas, A N Theofilopoulos
Doxorubicin is a highly effective cancer chemotherapeutic agent that produces a dose-dependent cardiomyopathy that limits its clinical usefulness. Clinical and animal studies of morphological changes during the early stages of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy have suggested that the sarcoplasmic reticulum, the intracellular membrane system responsible for myoplasmic calcium regulation in adult mammalian heart, may be the early target of doxorubicin. To detect changes in the calcium pump protein or the calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor) of the sarcoplasmic reticulum during chronic doxorubicin treatment, rabbits were treated with intravenous doxorubicin (1 mg/kg) twice weekly for 12 to 18 doses. Pair-fed controls received intravenous normal saline. The severity of cardiomyopathy was scored by light and electron microscopy of left ventricular papillary muscles. Developed tension was measured in isolated atrial strips. In subcellular fractions from heart, [3H]ryanodine binding was decreased in doxorubicin-treated rabbits (0.33 +/- 0.03 pmol/mg) compared with control rabbits (0.66 +/- 0.02 pmol/mg; P < 0.0001). The magnitude of the decrease in [3H]ryanodine binding correlated with both the severity of the cardiomyopathy graded by pathology score (light and electron microscopy) and the decrease in developed tension in isolated atrial strips. Bmax for [3H]ryanodine binding and the amount of immunoreactive ryanodine receptor by Western blot analysis using sequence-specific antibody were both decreased, consistent with a decrease in the amount of calcium release channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum in doxorubicin-treated rabbits. In contrast, there was no decrease in the amount or the activity of the calcium pump protein of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in doxorubicin-treated rabbits. Doxorubicin treatment did not decrease [3H]ryanodine binding or the amount of immunoreactive calcium release channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle. Since the sarcoplasmic reticulum regulates muscle contraction by the cyclic uptake and release of a large internal calcium pool, altered function of the calcium release channel could lead to the abnormalities of contraction and relaxation observed in the doxorubicin cardiomyopathy.
D A Dodd, J B Atkinson, R D Olson, S Buck, B J Cusack, S Fleischer, R J Boucek Jr
While red cells from individuals with beta thalassemias are characterized by evidence of elevated in vivo oxidation, it has not been possible to directly examine the relationship between excess alpha-hemoglobin chains and the observed oxidant damage. To investigate the oxidative effects of unpaired alpha-hemoglobin chains, purified alpha-hemoglobin chains were entrapped within normal erythrocytes. These "model" beta-thalassemic cells generated significantly (P < 0.001) greater amounts of methemoglobin and intracellular hydrogen peroxide than did control cells. This resulted in significant time-dependent decreases in the protein concentrations and reduced thiol content of spectrin and ankyrin. These abnormalities correlated with the rate of alpha-hemoglobin chain autoxidation and appearance of membrane-bound globin. In addition, alpha-hemoglobin chain loading resulted in a direct decrease (38.5%) in catalase activity. In the absence of exogenous oxidants, membrane peroxidation and vitamin E levels were unaltered. However, when challenged with an external oxidant, lipid peroxidation and vitamin E oxidation were significantly (P < 0.001) enhanced in the alpha-hemoglobin chain-loaded cells. Membrane bound heme and iron were also significantly elevated (P < 0.001) in the alpha-hemoglobin chain-loaded cells and lipid peroxidation could be partially inhibited by entrapment of an iron chelator. In contrast, chemical inhibition of cellular catalase activity enhanced the detrimental effects of entrapped alpha-hemoglobin chains. In summary, entrapment of purified alpha-hemoglobin chains within normal erythrocytes significantly enhanced cellular oxidant stress and resulted in pathological changes characteristic of thalassemic cells in vivo. This model provides a means by which the pathophysiological effects of excess alpha-hemoglobin chains can be examined.
M D Scott, J J van den Berg, T Repka, P Rouyer-Fessard, R P Hebbel, Y Beuzard, B H Lubin
Infection with the Ad5-SVR4 virus was used to introduce the large T antigen encoding region of the SV40 virus into bovine and human corneal endothelial cells. Expression of large T antigen occurred in 40% of bovine corneal endothelial cells after a 24-h incubation time versus 12% after 8 h of incubation. By 48 h after infection, almost all (92.8%) bovine corneal endothelial cells expressed large T antigen. Bovine and human corneal endothelial cells which expressed large T antigen proliferated and the characteristic morphologic features of corneal endothelium were maintained. This method may enable growth of enough corneal endothelium to perform studies to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms involved in regulating endothelial cell function.
S T Feldman, R Gjerset, D Gately, K R Chien, J R Feramisco
Thromboembolism is a prominent but poorly understood feature of eosinophilic, or Loeffler's endocarditis. Eosinophil (EO) specific granule proteins, in particular major basic protein (MBP), accumulate on endocardial surfaces in the course of this disease. We hypothesized that these unusually cationic proteins promote thrombosis by binding to the anionic endothelial protein thrombomodulin (TM) and impairing its anticoagulant activities. We find that MBP potently (IC50 of 1-2 microM) inhibits the capacity of endothelial cell surface TM to generate the natural anticoagulant activated protein C (APC). MBP also inhibits APC generation by purified soluble rabbit TM with an IC50 of 100 nM without altering its apparent Kd for thrombin or Km for protein C. This inhibition is reversed by polyanions such as chondroitin sulfate E and heparin. A TM polypeptide fragment comprising the extracellular domain that includes its naturally occurring anionic glycosaminoglycan (GAG) moiety (TMD-105) is strongly inhibited by MBP, whereas its counterpart lacking the GAG moiety (TMD-75) is not. MBP also curtails the capacity of TMD-105 but not TMD-75 to prolong the thrombin clotting time. Thus, EO cationic proteins potently inhibit anticoagulant activities of the glycosylated form of TM, thereby suggesting a potential mechanism for thromboembolism in hypereosinophilic heart disease.
A Slungaard, G M Vercellotti, T Tran, G J Gleich, N S Key
IL-1-induced osteoblast IL-6 production represents one possible mechanism by which IL-1 augments bone resorption. In this report, we show that the murine osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) expresses type 1 IL-1 receptors based on 125I-HrIL1 alpha binding, blocked by type 1 IL-1R antibodies (35F5), and analysis of MC3T3 RNA by reverse transcription (RT)-DNA amplification and Northern analysis. MC3T3 cells do not express detectable type 2 IL-1R mRNA by RT-DNA amplification. IL-1 induces (IL-1 ED50, 0.1 pM) IL-6 production through the type 1 IL-1R as 35F5 antibodies block IL-1-stimulated IL-6 production. Vitamin D3 increases IL-1R expression dose- and metabolite-dependently, with 1,25-(OH)2D3 having the greatest potency, and also enhances IL-1's capacity to stimulate IL-6 production at low IL-1 levels. Both IL-1 and 1,25-(OH)2D3 induce type 1 IL-1R and not type 2 IL-1R upregulation based on ligand binding and RT-DNA amplification. Increased IL-1R expression requires a 5-7-h treatment and is protein/RNA synthesis dependent. These observations imply that IL-1-induced IL-6 production in osteoblasts is mediated by type 1 IL-1Rs and that increased IL-1R expression could play a role in mediating IL-1-induced skeletal responses.
D L Lacey, L E Grosso, S A Moser, J Erdmann, H L Tan, R Pacifici, D T Villareal
Plasma levels of HDL apo A-I are reduced in individuals with low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations as a result of increased fractional catabolic rates (FCRs). To determine the basis for the high apo A-I FCRs, seven subjects with low HDL-C levels (31.0 +/- 4.3 mg/dl) were compared with three subjects with high HDL-C levels (72.0 +/- 4.5 mg/dl). Each subject received autologous HDL that was labeled directly by the iodine-monochloride method (whole-labeled) and autologous HDL that was labeled by exchange with homologous radiolabeled apo A-I (exchange-labeled). Blood was obtained for 2 wk, specific activities determined, and FCRs (d-1 +/- SD) estimated. In every subject, whether in the low or high HDL-C group, the exchange-labeled FCR was greater than the whole-labeled FCR. The exchange-labeled FCR was higher in the low HDL-C group (0.339 +/- 0.043) versus the high HDL-C group (0.234 +/- 0.047; P < 0.009). The whole-labeled FCR was also greater in the low HDL-C group (0.239 +/- 0.023) versus the high HDL-C group (0.161 +/- 0.064; P < 0.02). In addition, in both low and high HDL groups ultracentrifugation resulted in more radioactivity in d > 1.210 (as percentage of total plasma counts per minute) with the exchange-labeled tracer than with the whole-labeled tracer (12.55 +/- 4.95% vs. 1.02 +/- 0.38%; P < 0.003). With both HDL tracers, more radioactivity was found in d > 1.210 in the low versus the high HDL-C groups. When apo A-I catabolism was studied by perfusing isolated rabbit kidneys with whole-labeled HDL, there was twice as much accumulation (cpm/g cortex) of HDL apo A-I isolated from subjects with low HDL-C than from subjects with high HDL-C (P < 0.0025). Finally, HDL that had been isolated from subjects with high levels of HDL-C was triglyceride enriched and exposed to partially purified lipases before perfusion through kidneys. Threefold more apo A-I from modified HDL accumulated in the cortex compared with the unmodified preparation (P < 0.007). The results of these in vivo and ex vivo studies indicate that individuals with low HDL-C levels have more loosely bound, easily exchanged apo A-I and that this exchangeable apo A-I is more readily cleared by the kidney.
B S Horowitz, I J Goldberg, J Merab, T M Vanni, R Ramakrishnan, H N Ginsberg
The p53 gene was analyzed in tumor specimens obtained from 52 patients with various types of carcinoma of the thyroid gland by a combined molecular and immunocytochemical approach. The histologic types included 37 well-differentiated papillary and follicular carcinomas, 8 poorly differentiated, and 7 undifferentiated carcinomas. The p53 gene was shown to be unaffected in all differentiated tumors by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. However, in two out of eight (25%) of poorly differentiated carcinomas and five out of seven (71%) undifferentiated carcinomas, p53 mutations were identified and subsequently characterized by DNA sequencing. One undifferentiated carcinoma displayed two areas with varying degrees of differentiation. The comparative analysis of the p53 gene, in both the more and the less differentiated area of this tumor, clearly showed that the p53 mutation was confined to the latter component of the tumor specimen. These results indicate that mutations of the p53 gene are associated with the most aggressive histologic types of thyroid tumors, such as the undifferentiated carcinoma and, to a certain extent, the poorly differentiated carcinoma, and that the alterations of this gene represent a late genetic event in human thyroid carcinogenesis.
R Donghi, A Longoni, S Pilotti, P Michieli, G Della Porta, M A Pierotti
G Ferland, J A Sadowski, M E O'Brien
P Szulc, M C Chapuy, P J Meunier, P D Delmas
The levels and expression of the proteins CD63 and granulophysin in platelets from control and from a Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome subject (a condition characterized by dense granule and lysosomal deficiencies and the accumulation of ceroid-like material in reticuloendothelial cells) were examined. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that anti-CD63 and anti-granulophysin antibodies recognized similar numbers of granules; coapplication of antibodies did not identify more granules than the individual antibodies. Significantly fewer granules were recognized in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome platelets than in control using either antibody. Immunoblotting studies demonstrated that anti-CD63 and anti-granulophysin antibodies apparently recognize the same protein, which was deficient in Hermansky-Pudlak platelets. Analysis by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) showed biphasic expression of CD63 and granulophysin after thrombin stimulation of control but not Hermansky-Pudlak platelets. Anti-CD63 effectively blocked detection of the protein by anti-granulophysin using immunofluorescence, ELISA, immunoblotting, and FACS analysis. Amino-terminal sequencing over the first 37 amino acids revealed that granulophysin was homologous to CD63, melanoma antigen ME491, and pltgp40. These results suggest that granulophysin and CD63 are possibly identical proteins. This is the first report of a protein present in platelet dense granules, lysosomes, and melanocytes, but deficient in a patient with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome.
M Nishibori, B Cham, A McNicol, A Shalev, N Jain, J M Gerrard
Effects of growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion on somatostatin-(SRIH) and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) were studied by in situ hybridization and receptor autoradiography in rats bearing a GH-secreting tumor. 6 and 18 wk after tumor induction, animals displayed a sharp increase in body weight and GH plasma levels; pituitary GH content was reduced by 47 and 55%, while that of prolactin and thyrotropin was unchanged. At 18 wk, hypothalamic GHRH and SRIH levels had fallen by 84 and 52%, respectively. In parallel, the density of GHRH mRNA per arcuate neuron was reduced by 52 and 50% at 6 and 18 wk, while SRIH mRNA levels increased by 71 and 83% in the periventricular nucleus (with no alteration in the hilus of the dentate gyrus). The numbers of GHRH- and SRIH-synthetizing neurons in the hypothalamus were not altered in GH-hypersecreting rats. Resection of the tumor restored hypothalamic GHRH and SRIH mRNAs to control levels. GH hypersecretion did not modify 125I-SRIH binding sites on GHRH neurons. Thus, chronic GH hypersecretion affects the expression of the genes encoding for GHRH and SRIH. The effect is long lasting, not desensitizable and reversible.
J Bertherat, J Timsit, M T Bluet-Pajot, J J Mercadier, D Gourdji, C Kordon, J Epelbaum
Mesothelial cells play a critical role in the remodeling process that follows serosal injury. Although mesothelial cells are known to synthesize a variety of extracellular matrix components including types I, III, and IV collagens, their potential to participate in matrix degradation has not been explored. We now report that human pleural and peritoneal mesothelial cells express interstitial collagenase, 72- and 92-kD gelatinases (type IV collagenases), and the counterregulatory tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP). Our initial characterization of the mesothelial cell metalloenzymes and TIMP has revealed: (a) they are likely identical to corresponding molecules secreted by other human cells; (b) they are secreted rather than stored in an intracellular pool; (c) a primary site of regulation occurs at a pretranslational level; (d) phorbol myristate acetate, via activation of protein kinase C, upregulates expression of collagenase, 92-kD gelatinase, and TIMP, but has no effect on expression of 72-kD gelatinase; and (e) lipopolysaccharide fails to upregulate the biosynthesis of either metalloproteinases or TIMP. Of particular interest is the observation that the state of cellular differentiation has a striking influence on the expression of metalloenzymes and TIMP, such that epitheloid cells display a more matrix-degradative phenotype (increased 92-kD gelatinase and decreased TIMP) than their fibroblastoid counterparts. We speculate that mesothelial cells directly participate in the extracellular matrix turnover that follows serosal injury via elaboration of metalloproteinases and TIMP. Additionally, the reactive cuboidal mesothelium which is characteristic of the early response to serosal injury may manifest a matrix-degenerative phenotype favoring normal repair rather than fibrosis.
B C Marshall, A Santana, Q P Xu, M J Petersen, E J Campbell, J R Hoidal, H G Welgus
Artery wall calcification associated with atherosclerosis frequently contains fully formed bone tissue including marrow. The cellular origin is not known. In this study, bone morphogenetic protein-2a, a potent factor for osteoblastic differentiation, was found to be expressed in calcified human atherosclerotic plaque. In addition, cells cultured from the aortic wall formed calcified nodules similar to those found in bone cell cultures and expressed bone morphogenetic protein-2a with prolonged culture. The predominant cells in these nodules had immunocytochemical features characteristic of microvascular pericytes that are capable of osteoblastic differentiation. Pericyte-like cells were also found by immunohistochemistry in the intima of bovine and human aorta. These findings suggest that arterial calcification is a regulated process similar to bone formation, possibly mediated by pericyte-like cells.
K Boström, K E Watson, S Horn, C Wortham, I M Herman, L L Demer
In situ hybridization was used to map cellular patterns of gene expression for facilitative glucose transporters (GTs) 1-5 in the developing and adult rat kidney. GT3 was not detected. GT1 mRNA was present in the proximal straight tubule (PST), distal nephron and collecting duct. GT2 mRNA was localized in both proximal convoluted and PST, while GT5 mRNA was detected only in the PST. GT4 mRNA and immunoreactivity were focally localized in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and were coexpressed with IGF-I. Thus, each of the four different isoforms demonstrated a distinct renal distribution, with GTs 1, 2, and 5 coexpressed in the PST. Renal GT1 and GT5 gene expression were unchanged throughout development, while GT2 was most abundant before weaning and GT4 was first detected after weaning. Only GT4 appeared to be hormonally regulated: It was decreased after hypophysectomy and increased after vasopressin treatment, but was not affected by 1 or 4 d of insulinopenic diabetes mellitus. The coexpression of GT4 and IGF-I in the thick ascending limb segment of the nephron suggests a novel autocrine/paracrine mechanism by which cells may control local fuel economy independently from that of the larger structure to which they belong and from the systemic hormonal milieu.
E Chin, J Zhou, C Bondy
Two Norwegian patients with chronic tyrosinemia type I showed > 50% residual fumarylacetoacetase activity in liver samples obtained during liver transplantation. The enzyme characteristics of both patients were comparable with those of a normal control. Immunohistochemistry on liver sections from these patients and from three other Norwegian tyrosinemia patients revealed a mosaicism of fumarylacetoacetase immunoreactivity corresponding completely or partly to some of the regenerating nodules. This appearance of enzyme protein is presumably induced by the disease process. The mechanism involved remains unclear and could be caused by a genetic alteration, regained translation of messenger RNA, or to enhanced stability of an abnormal enzyme.
E A Kvittingen, H Rootwelt, P Brandtzaeg, A Bergan, R Berger
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B chain induces cell proliferation in vitro and is associated with arterial lesions that cause cardiovascular disease. However, it has been difficult to document the biological response to PDGF B gene expression in arteries in vivo. To determine the biologic effects of this growth factor in vivo, we have introduced an eukaryotic expression vector plasmid encoding recombinant PDGF B by direct gene transfer into porcine iliofemoral arteries using DNA liposome complexes. The presence of PDGF B plasmid DNA and expression of recombinant mRNA were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis, and recombinant PDGF protein was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. Intimal thickening was observed in porcine arteries 21 days following transfection with the recombinant PDGF B gene compared with arteries transduced with a control gene, E. coli beta-galactosidase. An eightfold increase in intimal to medial ratio was present in PDGF B gene transfected arteries compared with control transfected arteries (P = 0.001). This study suggests that expression of a recombinant PDGF B gene in vivo can play a role in the induction of intimal hyperplasia, which can lead to cardiovascular diseases.
E G Nabel, Z Yang, S Liptay, H San, D Gordon, C C Haudenschild, G J Nabel
The aim of this experiment was to investigate whether the anorectic effect of apolipoprotein A-IV (apo A-IV) after lipid feeding is mediated via the central nervous system. Infusion of 0.5 micrograms of apo A-IV into the third ventricle failed to suppress food intake. Higher doses (1 micrograms or higher) of apo A-IV infused into the third ventricle inhibited food intake in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, when apo A-I was infused into the third ventricle it had no effect on food intake. To further test the hypothesis that apo A-IV is an important factor controlling food intake, we administered goat anti-rat apo A-IV serum into the third ventricle of rats that were allowed food and water and lib. In all rats tested, this treatment resulted in enhanced food intake. In contrast, infusion of goat anti-rat apo A-IV serum failed to elicit such a response. Lastly, we determined the apo A-IV concentration in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid before and during active lipid absorption. Apo A-IV concentration in cerebrospinal fluid was about 1/20 that of plasma. Both serum and cerebrospinal fluid apo A-IV increased markedly as a result of feeding of lipid. In conclusion, we propose that apo A-IV may act centrally to control food intake.
K Fujimoto, K Fukagawa, T Sakata, P Tso
P Fishman, E Falach-Vaknine, R Zigelman, R Bakimer, B Sredni, M Djaldetti, Y Shoenfeld
12 rearranged human VH6 immunoglobulin heavy chain genes arising from the same rearrangement were isolated without preselection from the RNA of a fragment of human spleen. The 12 clones were isolated from a pool of 31 unique VH6 clones arising from 18 unique rearrangements. 2 of the 12 related clones were expressed with IgM, 2 with IgG, and 8 with IgA1. All the clones, including those expressing IgM, showed extensive somatic mutation of germline bases (5.6%), which was consistent with antigen-driven activation of these VH6-expressing clones with recruitment into the immune repertoire. On the basis of significant sharing of somatic mutations between the IgM clones and clones expressing the other isotypes (six mutations shared with IgG clones and eight mutations shared with IgA clones), it was apparent that the IgM-expressing precursor in this diversified family had undergone extensive antigen-driven somatic mutation prior to isotype switching. This family of related clones suggests that a germinal centerlike event had been sampled. The highly mutated IgM clones suggest that there may exist memory B cells capable of further somatic mutation and differential isotype-switching depending on the specific antigenic stimulus.
W S Varade, R A Insel
A retroviral vector (BAG) was used to transfer human prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS-1) gene into a human endothelial cell line for enhancement of PGI2 synthesis. Cells infected with BAG containing PGHS-1 cDNA in the sense orientation relative to the retroviral promoter (PGHS(S)) expressed a 30-fold increase in mRNA but, due to a reading frame shift, did not show an increase in PGHS protein or in PGI2 synthesis, while those with PGHS-1 in reverse orientation relative to the viral promoter (PGHS(R)), produced a > 10-fold increase in PGHS mRNA over the control (169 +/- 22 vs 14.8 +/- 1.2 amol/micrograms RNA) with a concordant increase in PGHS protein (5.82 +/- 1.07 vs 0.23 +/- 0.04 ng/mg protein) and enzyme activity. Primer extension analysis of PGHS(R) revealed two transcription start sites located in the SV40 late promoter region adjacent to PGHS-1 cDNA. PGHS(R) cells produced a high basal PGI2 level which was increased by several-fold in response to stimulation by ionophore, arachidonic acid, and thrombin. Kinetic analysis revealed the PGI2 synthetic rate to be 14 ng/min-1 per million cells and t1/2 of PGI2 synthesis, 13.3 min. These findings indicate that transfer of PGHS-1 gene into vascular cells enhances PGI2 synthesis and may be a useful strategy for restoring thromboprotective property of damaged blood vessels.
X M Xu, K Ohashi, S K Sanduja, K H Ruan, L H Wang, K K Wu