J Peters, K Münter, M Bader, E Hackenthal, J J Mullins, D Ganten
The metabolism of chylomicron remnants and VLDL was studied in healthy controls and normo- (NTG) and hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients with coronary artery disease after intake of an oral fat load. Specific determination of apo B-48 and B-100 enabled separation of the respective contribution of the two lipoprotein species. The postprandial plasma levels of small (Sf 20-60) and large (Sf 60-400) chylomicron remnants increased in controls and NTG patients. In contrast, only large chylomicron remnants increased in the HTG patients. An increase of large VLDL was seen in response to the oral fat load in all groups, whereas small VLDL were either unchanged in the controls and the NTG patients, or decreased in the HTG patient group. The whole plasma concentration of C apolipoproteins was essentially uninfluenced by the oral fat load, whereas the content in large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins paralleled the apo B elevations in controls and NTG patients. An even more prominent increase of apo B in large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the HTG group was not accompanied by an increase of C apolipoproteins. These findings indicate that chylomicrons compete with VLDL for removal of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase and that the postprandial metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is severely defective in hypertriglyceridemia.
F Karpe, G Steiner, T Olivecrona, L A Carlson, A Hamsten
Infection with HIV results in an incremental loss of T helper cell (TH) function, which can occur years before CD4 cell numbers are critically reduced and AIDS is diagnosed. All TH function is not affected, however, because B cell activation and hypergammaglobulinema are also characteristic of this period. Recently, in a murine model of AIDS an early loss in production of the CD4 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-gamma was correlated with an increase in the B cell stimulatory cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10. We therefore assessed the production of IL-4 generated by PBL from HIV-seropositive (HIV+) individuals who did not have AIDS, yet who exhibited different TH functional categories based on their IL-2 production profiles. We observed that the decreases in recall antigen-stimulated IL-2 production were accompanied by an increase in IL-4 production. The loss of recall antigen-stimulated responses in HIV+ individuals could be reversed in vitro by anti-IL-4 antibody. Our results suggest that the TH functions assessed by IL-4 production replace the normally dominant TH function of antigen-stimulated IL-2 production in the progression toward AIDS, and raise the possibility of cytokine cross-regulation in AIDS therapy.
M Clerici, F T Hakim, D J Venzon, S Blatt, C W Hendrix, T A Wynn, G M Shearer
Nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN) is characterized by a marked increase in glomerular eicosanoid synthesis, which appears to play an important role in the pathophysiology of this disease model. In this study, we investigated the biochemical and cellular basis of this metabolic change. By examining the enzymatic conversion of exogenous substrates by intact glomeruli, we found that cyclooxygenase, TX synthase, and 5-lipoxygenase activities increased 4-, 8-, and 100-fold, respectively, in acute NTN. PGH2-PGE2 isomerase and leukotriene A4 hydrolase activities did not change. The cellular basis of these changes was examined using dissociated glomerular cells in vitro and by depleting platelets in vivo. Dissociated glomerular cells from nephritic glomeruli (largely mesangial cells and leukocytes) exhibited an enhanced arachidonate metabolism similar to intact nephritic glomeruli. Depletion of neutrophils (PMNs) from these cell preparations by 90% commensurately decreased 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activity but had little effect on TX synthase activity. The recovered PMN fraction, however, did exhibit TX synthase activity. Immunocytochemical analysis of dissociated cells using an antiplatelet antibody demonstrated the presence of platelets, both adherent to cells and noncell associated. Depletion of platelets in vivo using this antibody substantially attenuated the increase in glomerular eicosanoid synthesis that accompanied NTN. Platelet depletion also decreased the influx of PMNs into the glomerulus by 50%. These data show that PMNs and platelets colocalize to the glomerulus in acute NTN and are coordinately essential to the increase in glomerular arachidonate metabolism.
X Wu, J Pippin, J B Lefkowith
Angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and renin constitute the components of the renin-angiotensin system. The mammalian renal proximal tubule contains angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and angiotensin receptors. Previous immunohistochemical studies describing the presence of renin in the proximal tubule could not distinguish synthesized renin from renin trapped from the glomerular filtrate. In the present study, we examined the presence of renin activity and mRNA in rabbit proximal tubule cells in primary culture and renin mRNA in microdissected proximal tubules. Renin activity was present in lysates of proximal tubule cells in primary culture. Cellular renin content in cultured proximal tubule cells was increased by incubation with 10(-5) M isoproterenol and 10(-5) M forskolin by 150 and 110%, respectively. In addition, renin transcripts were detected in poly(A)+ RNA from cultured proximal tubule cells by RNA blots under high stringency conditions. In microdissected tubules from normal rats, renin mRNA was not detectable with reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. However, in tubules from rats administered the angiotensinogen-converting-enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, renin was easily detected in the S2 segment of the proximal tubule. We postulate the existence of a local renin-angiotensin system that enables the proximal tubule to generate angiotensin II, thereby providing an autocrine system that could locally modulate NaHCO3 and NaCl absorption.
O W Moe, K Ujiie, R A Star, R T Miller, J Widell, R J Alpern, W L Henrich
In islet transplantation, nonimmunological factors such as limited growth capacity or increased death rate could reduce the beta cell mass in the graft and lead to failure of the transplant. We studied the evolution of beta cell replication and mass after transplantation of insufficient, minimally sufficient, or excessive islet tissue. Streptozocin diabetic C57BL/6 mice received 150 or 300 syngeneic islets under the kidney capsule and normal mice received 300 islets. In streptozocin diabetic mice 300 islets restored normoglycemia; beta cell replication in transplanted islets was similar to replication in normal pancreas and beta cell mass in the graft remained constant. In contrast, 150 islets were insufficient to achieve normoglycemia; beta cell replication was increased initially but not by 18 or 30 d despite persistent hyperglycemia, and beta cell mass fell progressively. When islets were transplanted into normal recipients, beta cell replication remained normal but beta cells underwent atrophy and mass in the graft was substantially reduced. Therefore, with a successful islet transplant, in diabetic mice beta cell replication and mass remain constant. In contrast, when insufficient islet tissue is transplanted an initial increase in beta cell replication can not compensate for a decline in beta cell mass. When excessive islet tissue is transplanted, beta cell mass is reduced despite normal beta cell replication.
E Montaña, S Bonner-Weir, G C Weir
Haemophilus influenzae b polysaccharide (Hib PS)-protein conjugate vaccines differ chemically and immunologically. To determine whether anti-Hib PS variable region expression might differ according to vaccine formulation, infants were vaccinated at 2, 4, and 6 mo of age with Hib PS coupled to either meningococcal outer membrane protein complex (Hib PS-OMPC) or tetanus toxoid (Hib PS-T), or Hib PS oligomers coupled to a mutant diphtheria toxin (Oligo-CRM). Two anti-Hib PS idiotypes were measured in sera obtained after the third injection: HibId-1, expressed by anti-Hib PS antibodies having the kappa II-A2 variable region, and HibId-2, a newly defined cross-reactive idiotype associated with a subset of anti-Hib PS antibodies having lambda VII variable regions. HibId-1 was present in 33, 68, and 64% of infants given either Hib PS-OMPC, Oligo-CRM, or Hib PS-T, respectively (P < 0.001). The respective values for HibId-2 were 47, 18, and 10% (P = 0.001). Subjects who were vaccinated with Hib PS-OMPC or Hib PS-T and who produced detectable HibId-1-positive antibody, had significantly higher mean antibody avidity than subjects who did not produce HibId-1 positive antibodies. In contrast, Oligo-CRM evoked high avidity anti-Hib PS antibodies, irrespective of the idiotypic profile. These findings indicate fundamental differences in both variable region content and antibody quality elicited by different Hib PS conjugate vaccines.
D M Granoff, P G Shackelford, S J Holmes, A H Lucas
Glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and related glycosphingolipids have been implicated as causal elements in both the growth of cells and in the regulation of hormonal signaling. We therefore studied whether the renal hypertrophy induced by diabetes was associated with enhanced synthesis of glycosphingolipids. 16 d after the induction of diabetes, increases in renal size and concentration of glucocerebroside and ganglioside GM3 were observed paralleling an increase in UDP-Glc concentration. GlcCer synthase and beta-glucosidase-specific activities were no different between control and diabetic kidneys. The apparent Km of the GlcCer synthase with respect to UDP-Glc was 250 microM and was unchanged in the diabetic kidneys. The observed concentrations of UDP-Glc were 149 and 237 microM in control and diabetic kidneys, respectively. The UDP-Glc level is thus rate limiting with regard to GlcCer synthesis. To determine whether the changes in glycolipid content were functionally significant, diabetic and control groups were treated with the GlcCer synthase inhibitor, D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoyl-amino-3-morpholino-1- propanol, 2 wk after the induction of diabetes. Kidney weights in the diabetic rats treated with D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol were no different than the control groups. Morphometric analysis of glomerular volumes paralleled changes in renal growth. Glycosphingolipid formation may therefore represent a significant pathway for glucose utilization in early diabetic nephropathy.
I Z Zador, G D Deshmukh, R Kunkel, K Johnson, N S Radin, J A Shayman
The eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS) has been associated with ingestion of L-tryptophan (L-TRP) produced by a single manufacturer. Epidemiological data implicated 1,1'-ethylidenebis (L-tryptophan) (EBT) (peak 97 or peak E) as a possible etiologic agent. We showed previously that Lewis rats treated with the L-TRP implicated in EMS develop fasciitis and perimyositis similar to those seen in human EMS. We now report the pathology associated with the treatment of Lewis rats with synthetic EBT and/or L-TRP. All animals treated for 6 wk with case-associated L-TRP or EBT developed significant myofascial thickening, compared with animals in the vehicle control and control L-TRP groups. However, even those animals receiving the control L-TRP showed a mild but significant increase in the thickness of the myofascia, compared with vehicle-treated control animals. All animals except vehicle controls also exhibited significant pancreatic pathology, including fibrosis and acinar changes. Only animals treated with case-associated L-TRP for 6 wk showed evidence of immune activation with increased frequency of CD8, Ia, and IL-2 receptor-positive cells in the peripheral blood. Animals receiving L-TRP or EBT for < 6 wk did not show significant differences in myofascial thickness, although these animals did show pancreatic acinar changes. Although these results demonstrate for the first time the pathological effects of EBT, they do not rule out the possibility that other impurities in the EMS-case-associated L-TRP may also contribute to some of the features of EMS.
L A Love, J I Rader, L J Crofford, R B Raybourne, M A Principato, S W Page, M W Trucksess, M J Smith, E M Dugan, M L Turner
Congenital hypothyroidism strongly affects myelination. To assess the role of thyroid hormone on myelin gene expression, we have studied the effect of hypothyroidism on the steady state levels of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and its mRNA in rat brain during the first postnatal month. As studied by immunoblot analysis of several brain regions, MAG increased from days 10-15 onwards, reaching constant levels by days 20-25. Hypothyroid samples showed a delay in the accumulation of MAG that was more severe in rostral regions, such as cortex and hippocampus. The effect of hypothyroidism on the accumulation of the protein correlated with mRNA levels. MAG mRNA started to accumulate in the cerebrum of normal animals by postnatal day 7, reaching maximal levels by day 20. Hypothyroid rats showed a delay of several days in the onset of mRNA expression, increasing thereafter at the same rate as in normal animals, and eventually reaching similar values. When individual brain regions were analyzed, we found strong regional differences in the effect of hypothyroidism. The cerebral cortex was most affected, with messenger levels lower than in normal animals at all ages. In more caudal regions differences between control and hypothyroid rats were evident only at the earlier stages of myelination, with spontaneous recovery at later ages. By run on analysis, we found no differences in transcriptional activities of the MAG gene in normal, hypothyroid, or T4-treated rats. Therefore, the effects of hypothyroidism on MAG mRNA and protein levels were most likely caused by decreased mRNA stability. We propose that thyroid hormone contributes to enhanced myelin gene expression by affecting the stability of newly transcribed mRNA in the early phases of myelination.
A Rodriguez-Peña, N Ibarrola, M A Iñiguez, A Muñoz, J Bernal
We hypothesize that in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), recent antecedent iatrogenic hypoglycemia is a major cause of hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure, a disorder distinct from classical diabetic autonomic neuropathy (CDAN), and that hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure, by reducing both symptoms of and defense against developing hypoglycemia, results in recurrent iatrogenic hypoglycemia, thus creating a vicious cycle. We used the hyperinsulinemic (12.0 pmol.kg-1.min-1) stepped hypoglycemic clamp technique to assess autonomic and symptomatic responses to hypoglycemia and the insulin infusion test (4.0 pmol.kg-1.min-1) to assess defense against hypoglycemia on mornings before and after clamped afternoon hypoglycemia (approximately 2.8 mmol/liter) and hyperglycemia (approximately 11.1 mmol/liter) in patients with IDDM. Compared with nondiabetic subjects, IDDM with or without CDAN exhibited reduced epinephrine (P = 0.0222 and 0.0040) and pancreatic polypeptide (P = 0.0083 and 0.0056) responses to hypoglycemia. After afternoon hypoglycemia, lower plasma glucose concentrations were required to elicit autonomic and symptomatic responses during morning hypoglycemic clamps in patients without CDAN. At the 2.8 mmol/liter step, mean (+/- SE) epinephrine levels were 1,160 +/- 270 and 2,040 +/- 270 pmol/liter (P = 0.0060), pancreatic and total symptom scores were 22 +/- 3 and 41 +/- 7 (P = 0.0475) after afternoon hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, respectively. During morning insulin infusion tests after afternoon hypoglycemia, nadir plasma glucose concentrations were 2.6 +/- 0.2 mmol/liter compared with 3.3 +/- 0.3 mmol/liter (P < 0.001) at the corresponding time points after afternoon hyperglycemia. Thus, we conclude: (a) elevated glycemic thresholds for autonomic responses to hypoglycemia are a feature of IDDM per se, not classical diabetic autonomic neuropathy; and (b) a single episode of afternoon hypoglycemia results in both elevated glycemic thresholds for autonomic and symptomatic responses to hypoglycemia and impaired physiological defense against hypoglycemia the next morning in IDDM.
S E Dagogo-Jack, S Craft, P E Cryer
Normal and osteoarthritic human articular cartilage was investigated by in situ hybridization for expression patterns of the fibrillar collagens type I, II, and III to evaluate phenotypic changes of articular chondrocytes related to the disease. In 11 out of 20 samples, a defined subset of chondrocytes in the superficial and upper middle zone of osteoarthritic cartilage showed significant levels of cytoplasmic alpha 1 (III) mRNA, whereas strong signals of alpha 1 (II) mRNA were found in the upper and lower middle zone, partially overlapping with the zone of alpha 1 (III) mRNA-expressing cells. The extent of type II and III collagen expression depended on the integrity of the extracellular matrix surrounding the chondrocytes, and the location within the articular cartilage. No alpha 1 (I) mRNA was detectable in osteoarthritic original articular cartilage. The alpha 1 (I) probe did, however, reveal signals in pannus-like tissue, osteophytes, and bone cells. In normal articular cartilage, no detectable levels of cytoplasmic mRNA for alpha 1(I), alpha 2 (I), or alpha 1 (III) were seen. Using specific mono- and polyclonal antibodies, we found deposition of type III collagen but hardly any of type I collagen in the superficial zone of osteoarthritic cartilage that is consistent with the in situ hybridization results. These results indicate a phenotypic alteration in a defined subset of chondrocytes in conditions of diseased cartilage, expressing and synthesizing collagen type III independently from type I collagen, but in part simultaneously with type II collagen.
T Aigner, W Bertling, H Stöss, G Weseloh, K von der Mark
A single point mutation in the growth hormone (GH) receptor gene generating a Phe-->Ser substitution in the extracellular binding domain of the receptor has been identified in one family with Laron type dwarfism. The mutation was introduced by site-directed mutagenesis into cDNAs encoding the full-length rabbit GH receptor and the extracellular domain or binding protein (BP) of the human and rabbit GH receptor, and also in cDNAs encoding the full length and the extracellular domain of the related rabbit prolactin (PRL) receptor. All constructs were transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. Both wild type and mutant full-length rabbit GH and PRL receptors, as well as GH and prolactin BPs (wild type and mutant), were detected by Western blot in cell membranes and concentrated culture media, respectively. Immunofluorescence studies showed that wild type and mutant full-length GH receptors had the same cell surface and intracellular distribution and were expressed with comparable intensities. In contrast, all mutant forms (full-length receptors or BPs), completely lost their modify the synthesis ligand. These results clearly demonstrate that this point mutation (patients with Laron syndrome) does not modify the synthesis or the intracellular pathway of receptor proteins, but rather abolishes ability of the receptor or BP to bind GH and is thus responsible for the extreme GH resistance in these patients.
M Edery, M Rozakis-Adcock, L Goujon, J Finidori, C Lévi-Meyrueis, J Paly, J Djiane, M C Postel-Vinay, P A Kelly
In situ hybridization was used to evaluate patterns of gene expression for glucose transporters 1-4 (GT1-4) in the rat uteroplacenta from the time of implantation through term, and in vivo regional placental glucose metabolism was measured by 14C-labeled 2-deoxyglucose uptake. GT1 mRNA was highly abundant and GT3 was barely detected in the postimplantation decidual reaction. GT1 and 3 mRNAs were colocalized in the labyrinthine syncitiotrophoblast layer of the chorioallantoic placenta, which forms the membranous barrier between maternal and fetal circulations. The level of labyrinthine GT3 mRNA showed no change from midgestation through term; however, the volume of the labyrinth and hence total GT 3 gene expression increased greatly during this period. Labyrinthine GT1 mRNA levels, in contrast, showed significant diminution near term. GT1 mRNA was also localized in the placental growth plate, or junctional zone, where it was most abundant during the period of rapid placental growth and was decreased at term. Placental glucose metabolism, as reflected by steady-state 2-deoxyglucose uptake, was highest in the junctional zone during the rapid growth phase during midgestation, and decreased significantly at term, in parallel with GT1 gene expression. These findings suggest that GT1 is responsible for supplying glucose for use as a placental fuel and that GT3 is important for glucose transfer to the embryo.
J Zhou, C A Bondy
The induction of genes of host cells stimulated by microbial products such as endotoxin and the tolerance of cells to endotoxin excitation play critical roles in the pathogenesis of microbial-induced acute disseminated inflammation with multiorgan failure (the sepsis syndrome). One gene that is induced in phagocytic cells by endotoxin and that appears to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of the sepsis syndrome is IL-1 beta. We report here that blood neutrophils (PMN) of patients with the sepsis syndrome (sepsis PMN) are consistently tolerant to endotoxin-induced expression of the IL-1 beta gene, as determined by decreased synthesis of the IL-1 beta protein and reductions in IL-1 beta mRNA. This down-regulation of the IL-1 beta gene in sepsis PMN occurs concomitant with an upregulation in the constitutive expression of the type 2 IL-1 receptor (IL-1R2). These phenotypic changes do not persist in PMN of patients recovering from the sepsis syndrome. Tolerance has stimulus and response specificity since sepsis PMN tolerant to endotoxin can respond normally to Staphylococcus aureus stimulation of IL-1 beta production and they normally secrete elastase. Uninfected patients with severe trauma or shock from causes are not tolerant to endotoxin and tolerance is not limited to patients infected with Gram-negative bacteria. The mechanism responsible for tolerance involves pretranslational events and is not due to loss of the CD14 surface protein, a receptor required for endotoxin induction of IL-1 beta in PMN. The physiological significance of the tolerance to endotoxin and increased expression of IL-1R2 on sepsis PMN is unknown, but may represent an attempt by the host to protect itself from the deleterious effects of disseminated inflammation.
C E McCall, L M Grosso-Wilmoth, K LaRue, R N Guzman, S L Cousart
One of the hallmarks in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the intense activation of the monocyte-macrophage system. In the present investigation, the modulation of blood monocyte activation was studied with regard to the secretion of cytokines and inflammatory mediators, and to the expression of cytokine receptors. Patients with severe active RA underwent repeated leukapheresis procedures that removed all circulating monocytes. Highly enriched monocyte preparations from the first and third leukapheresis were studied. There were striking differences between the two monocyte populations. Cells obtained from the first leukapheresis constitutively released large amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), neopterin, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). In particular, IL-1 beta and neopterin production were further enhanced by stimulation with either interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or TNF-alpha without a synergistic effect. In contrast, cells derived from the third leukapheresis procedure showed a close to normal activation status with only low levels of cytokine and mediator production as well as a reduced response to cytokine stimulation. The number of the receptors for IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha was not changed between first and third leukapheresis. However, TNF-binding capacity was only detectable upon acid treatment of freshly isolated monocytes. A further upregulation was noted upon 24 h in vitro culture, suggesting occupation of membrane receptors and receptor down-regulation by endogenously produced TNF-alpha. Northern blot analysis of cytokine gene expression was in good correlation with the amount of mediators determined on the protein level. These data indicate that cells of the monocyte-macrophage system are already highly activated in the peripheral blood in RA patients with active disease. These cells can be efficiently removed by repeated leukapheresis and are replenished by monocytes that have, with respect to cytokine and mediator production, a considerably lower activation status.
G Hahn, B Stuhlmüller, N Hain, J R Kalden, K Pfizenmaier, G R Burmester
Glucose stimulation of insulin release involves closure of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (K(+)-ATP channels), depolarization, and Ca2+ influx in B cells. However, by using diazoxide to open K(+)-ATP channels, and 30 mM K to depolarize the membrane, we could demonstrate that another mechanism exists, by which glucose can control insulin release independently from changes in K(+)-ATP channel activity and in membrane potential (Gembal et al. 1992. J. Clin. Invest. 89:1288-1295). A similar approach was followed here to investigate, with mouse islets, the nature of this newly identified mechanism. The membrane potential-independent increase in insulin release produced by glucose required metabolism of the sugar and was mimicked by other metabolized secretagogues. It also required elevated levels of cytoplasmic Cai2+, but was not due to further changes in Cai2+. It could not be ascribed to acceleration of phosphoinositide metabolism, or to activation of protein kinases A or C. Thus, glucose did not increase inositol phosphate levels and hardly affected cAMP levels. Moreover, increasing inositol phosphates by vasopressin or cAMP by forskolin, and activating protein kinase C by phorbol esters did not mimic the action of glucose on release, and down-regulation of protein kinase C did not prevent these effects. On the other hand, it correlated with an increase in the ATP/ADP ratio in islet cells. We suggest that the membrane potential-independent control of insulin release exerted by glucose involves changes in the energy state of B cells.
M Gembal, P Detimary, P Gilon, Z Y Gao, J C Henquin
The degradation of leukotrienes by beta-oxidation from the omega-end proceeds in peroxisomes (Jedlitschky et al. J. Biol. Chem. 1991. 266:24763-24772). Peroxisomal degradation of leukotrienes was studied in humans by analyses of endogenous leukotrienes in urines from eight patients with biochemically established peroxisome deficiency disorder and eight age- and sex-matched healthy infant controls. Leukotriene metabolites were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography, quantified by radioimmunoassays, and identified as well as quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Urinary leukotriene E4 (LTE4) and N-acetyl-LTE4 excretions, relative to creatinine, were increased > 10-fold in the patients in comparison to healthy infants. The beta-oxidation product omega-carboxy-tetranor-LTE3 averaged 0.05 mumol/mol creatinine in the controls but was not detectable in the patients. However, omega-carboxy-LTE4 (median 13.6 mumol/mol creatinine) was significantly increased in the patients' urine, whereas LTB4 (median 0.07 mumol/mol creatinine) and omega-carboxy-LTB4 were detected exclusively in the urines of the patients. These data indicate an impairment of the inactivation and degradation of both LTE4 and LTB4 in patients with peroxisomal deficiency. The increased levels of the biologically active, proinflammatory mediators LTE4 and LTB4 might be of pathophysiological significance in peroxisome deficiency disorders. This is the first and so far only condition with a pronounced urinary excretion of omega-carboxy-LTE4, omega-carboxy-LTB4, and LTB4. This impaired catabolism of leukotrienes and the altered pattern of metabolites may be of diagnostic value. These findings underline the essential role of peroxisomes in the catabolism of leukotrienes in humans.
E Mayatepek, W D Lehmann, J Fauler, D Tsikas, J C Frölich, R B Schutgens, R J Wanders, D Keppler
Alveolar macrophages (AM) from smokers contain a much higher quantity of intracellular iron than AM from nonsmokers. Since some forms of iron will catalyze the formation of hydroxyl radical (.OH) from superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, the ability of AM derived from smokers and nonsmokers to generate .OH was assessed. No detectable .OH was produced by AM from either source, suggesting that iron sequestration by AM may limit the potential for .OH-mediated lung injury. Consistent with this hypothesis, the ability of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) from smokers and nonsmokers to act as an .OH catalyst decreased after exposure to AM. We found that, like AM, human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) have the ability to acquire large quantities of iron from small low molecular weight iron chelates as well as decrease the ability of BAL to act as a .OH catalyst. When MDM or AM were exposed to the iron chelates or BAL they were then able to generate .OH after phorbol myristate acetate stimulation. However, when acutely iron-loaded or BAL-exposed MDM were placed in culture, their ability to produce .OH decreased with time to the level of non-iron-exposed controls. This process correlated with iron translocation from the plasma membrane to the cytosol as well as a 3-9-fold increase in cellular ferritin. No increase in antioxidant enzyme levels or induction of the heat shock response was observed. Iron sequestration by macrophages may protect nearby cells from exposure to potentially cytotoxic iron-catalyzed oxidants such as .OH.
O Olakanmi, S E McGowan, M B Hayek, B E Britigan
Analysis of cell-mediated lympholysis in long-term liver allograft recipients indicated that there was a donor-specific unresponsiveness that could not be reversed by the addition of rIL-2 and/or mixed lymphocyte culture supernatant or by nonspecific stimulation of the cultures with PHA. Stimulation of recipient cells with semisyngeneic cells having both donor and third-party HLA antigens failed to reveal the presence of cytotoxic T cells (CTL) specific to the donor, whereas the CTL response to third-party antigens remained normal. Removal of B lymphocytes from the responding cell population did not influence the responses. Furthermore, limiting dilution analysis showed that the liver transplant recipients did not have detectable levels of CTL precursors (CTLp) reactive to the donor antigens, whereas their CTLp to third-party antigens remained normal. Donor-specific CTLp were present before and during the early post-transplant period; these cells were eliminated from the peripheral circulation by 10 mo after transplantation. Taken together, these results indicate that there is a deletion of CTLp specific to donor MHC antigens in the peripheral circulation of long-term liver allograft recipients that may account in part for the success of liver transplantation across MHC barriers.
J M Mathew, J W Marsh, B Susskind, T Mohanakumar
The development of pacing-induced heart failure was studied in chronically instrumented, conscious dogs paced at a rate of 240 beats/min for 1 d (n = 6), 1 wk (n = 6), and 3-4 wk (n = 7). Left ventricular (LV) dP/dt was decreased (P < 0.0125) at 1 d, LV end-diastolic pressure and heart rate were increased (P < 0.0125) at 1 wk, but clinical signs of heart failure were only observed after 3-4 wk of pacing. Plasma norepinephrine rose (P < 0.0125) after 1 d of pacing, whereas LV norepinephrine was reduced (P < 0.0125) only after 3-4 wk of pacing. Both the fraction of beta-adrenergic receptors binding agonist with high affinity and adenylyl cyclase activity decreased (P < 0.0125) after 1 d of pacing. Total beta-adrenergic receptor density was not changed at any time point, but beta 1-adrenergic receptor density was decreased (P < 0.0125) after 1 wk. The functional activity of the guanine nucleotide binding protein, Gs, was not reduced, but the Gi alpha 2 isoform of the alpha subunit of the GTP-inhibitory protein rose after 3-4 wk of pacing. Thus, myocardial beta-adrenergic signal transduction undergoes change shortly (1d) after the initiation of pacing, before heart failure develops. The mechanism of beta-adrenergic receptor dysfunction in pacing-induced heart failure is characterized initially by elevated plasma levels of catecholamines, uncoupling of beta-adrenergic receptors, and a defect in the adenylyl cyclase catalytic unit. Selective down-regulation of beta 1-adrenergic receptors, increases in Gi alpha 2, and decreases in myocardial catecholamine levels occur as later events.
K Kiuchi, R P Shannon, K Komamura, D J Cohen, C Bianchi, C J Homcy, S F Vatner, D E Vatner
Available information supports the dominance of the proximal intestine in inorganic phosphate (Pi) absorption. However, there is no strategy for analyzing segmental Pi absorption from a spontaneously propelled meal in an intact animal. We propose a solution using compartmental analysis. After intragastric administration of a 32P-labeled Pi liquid meal containing a nonabsorbable marker, [14C]polyethylene glycol (PEG), rats were killed at 2, 10, 20, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min. The gastrointestinal tract was removed and divided into seven segments, from which 32P and [14C]PEG were recovered. Data was expressed as a percentage of the dose fed, i.e., (32P[in segment] divided by 32P[fed]) and [14C]PEG[in segment] divided by [14C]PEG[fed]), respectively. A compartmental model was constructed and the rate constants for intersegmental transit and segmental absorption were estimated. The "goodness of fit" between the simulated model and the actual data indicates the estimated rate constants reflect in vivo events. The duodenum, with the highest transit and absorption rates, accounted for a third of the total absorption. However, the terminal ileum, with a lower absorption rate but a longer transit time, absorbed an equal amount of Pi. This approach allows the analysis of the mechanism and the regulation of Pi absorption under more authentic in vivo conditions.
L H Kayne, D Z D'Argenio, J H Meyer, M S Hu, N Jamgotchian, D B Lee
Our aim was to identify and quantitate cholesterol pools and transport pathways in blood and liver. By studying bile fistula subjects, using several types of isotopic preparations, simultaneous labeling of separate cholesterol pools and sampling all components of blood and bile at frequent intervals, we developed a comprehensive multicompartmental model for cholesterol within the rapidly miscible pool. Data in six components (bile acids, esterified cholesterol in whole plasma, and free cholesterol in blood cells, bile, alpha lipoproteins, and beta lipoproteins) were modeled simultaneously with the SAAM program. The analysis revealed extensive exchange of free cholesterol between HDL and liver, blood cells, and other tissues. There was net free cholesterol transport from HDL to the liver in most subjects. The major organ that removed esterified cholesterol from blood was the liver. A large portion (4,211 mumol) of total hepatic cholesterol comprised a pool that turned over rapidly (t1/2 of 72 min) by exchanging mainly with plasma HDL and was the major source of bile acids and biliary cholesterol. Only 6% of hepatic newly synthesized cholesterol was used directly for bile acid synthesis: the analysis showed that 94% of newly synthesized cholesterol was partitioned into the large hepatic pool (putative plasma membrane free cholesterol) which exchanged rapidly with plasma lipoproteins. Bile acid synthetic rate correlated directly with the size of the large hepatic pool. In conclusion, hepatic and blood cholesterol pools and transports have been quantitated. HDL plays a central role in free cholesterol exchange/transport between all tissues and plasma. In humans, the metabolically active pool comprises a large portion of total hepatic cholesterol that, in part, regulates bile acid synthesis.
C C Schwartz, L A Zech, J M VandenBroek, P S Cooper
The extent to which congestive heart failure (CHF) is dependent upon increased levels of the cardiac inhibitory GTP-binding protein (Gi), and the impact of CHF on the cardiac stimulatory GTP-binding protein (Gs) and mechanisms by which Gs may change remain unexplored. We have addressed these unsettled issues using pacing-induced CHF in pigs to examine physiological, biochemical, and molecular features of the right atrium (RA) and left ventricle (LV). CHF was associated with an 85 +/- 20% decrease in LV segment shortening (P < 0.001) and a 3.5-fold increase (P = 0.006) in the ED50 for isoproterenol-stimulated heart rate responsiveness. Myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor number was decreased 54% in RA (P = 0.004) and 57% in LV (P < 0.001), and multiple measures of adenylyl cyclase activity were depressed 49 +/- 8% in RA (P < 0.005), and 44 +/- 9% in LV (P < 0.001). Quantitative immunoblotting established that Gi and Gs were decreased in RA (Gi: 59% reduction; P < 0.0001; Gs: 28% reduction; P < 0.007) and LV (Gi: 35% reduction; P < 0.008; Gs: 28% reduction; P < 0.01) after onset of CHF. Reduced levels of Gi and Gs were confirmed by ADP ribosylation studies, and diminished function of Gs was established in reconstitution studies. Steady state levels for Gs alpha mRNA were increased in RA and unchanged in LV, and significantly more GS alpha was found in the supernatant (presumably cytosolic) fraction in RA and LV membrane homogenates after CHF, suggesting that increased Gs degradation, rather than decreased Gs synthesis, is the mechanism by which Gs is downregulated. We conclude that cardiac Gi content poorly predicts adrenergic responsiveness or contractile function, that decreased Gs is caused by increased degradation rather than decreased synthesis, and that alterations in beta-adrenergic receptors, adenylyl cyclase, and GTP-binding proteins are uniform in RA and LV in this model of congestive heart failure.
D A Roth, K Urasawa, G A Helmer, H K Hammond
In normal human pregnancy, invasion of the uterus and its arterial system by cytotrophoblasts extends through the entire decidua and the adjacent third of the myometrium. Our previous work showed that during the first trimester of pregnancy, invasion is accompanied by a marked change in the expression of cell adhesion molecules by invasive cytotrophoblasts. In the pregnancy disorder preeclampsia, cytotrophoblast invasion is limited to the superficial decidua, and few arterioles are breached. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cytotrophoblast expression of adhesion molecules in this disorder is also abnormal. Placental bed biopsy specimens from normal pregnancies and those complicated by preeclampsia were stained with anti-integrin antibodies. The results showed that adhesion molecule switching by invasive cytotrophoblasts is abnormal in preeclampsia, which suggests that this subpopulation of trophoblast cells fails to differentiate properly. A likely result is that the delicate balance of adhesive interactions that normally permit cytotrophoblast invasion is tipped in favor of those which restrain this process, with the net effect of shallow uterine invasion.
Y Zhou, C H Damsky, K Chiu, J M Roberts, S J Fisher
CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) clones with specificity for herpes simplex virus (HSV) were derived from two donors with genital HSV-2 infection. These CTL clones specifically lysed HSV-infected autologous B lymphoblastoid cells, but not HSV-infected fibroblasts. Exogenous peptide loading sensitized both cell types to lysis by an HSV-specific CTL clone of known specificity. HSV infection rendered fibroblasts refractory to peptide sensitization. HSV infection also rendered fibroblasts and keratinocytes insensitive to lysis by allospecific CD8+ CTL clones. Lysis of B lymphoblastoid cells in this system was only slightly reduced by HSV infection. Reduction of fibroblast allospecific lysis was dose and time dependent and was blocked by acyclovir, indicating the involvement of a late HSV gene product. HSV caused a reduction of fibroblast cell surface HLA class I antigen, at least in part due to reduction of synthesis of heavy chain-beta 2 microglobulin heterodimers. These results suggest that HSV-induced blockade of antigen presentation by cutaneous cells to CD8+ CTL may be a mechanism by which HSV limits or evades the immune response of the host.
D M Koelle, M A Tigges, R L Burke, F W Symington, S R Riddell, H Abbo, L Corey
We have investigated the regulation of key human iron binding proteins in mononuclear phagocytes by IFN gamma and iron transferrin. In a previous study, we demonstrated that IFN gamma downregulates the expression on human monocytes of transferrin receptors, the major source of iron for the cell. In the present study, we show that IFN gamma also downregulates the intracellular concentration of ferritin, the major iron storage protein in the cell. By radioimmunoassay, the mean ferritin content of nonactivated monocytes was 361 +/- 107 fg/monocyte (mean +/- SEM) whereas the mean ferritin content of IFN gamma-activated monocytes was 64 +/- 13 fg/monocyte, an 82% reduction with activation (P < 0.01, t test). Consistent with its downregulating effect on these iron proteins, IFN gamma treatment also results in decreased iron incorporation. IFN gamma-activated monocytes incorporated 33% less iron from 59Fe-transferrin than nonactivated monocytes (P < 0.05, t test). Gel filtration chromatography revealed that incorporated iron is located primarily in ferritin in both nonactivated and IFN gamma-activated monocytes. Ferritin in IFN gamma-activated monocytes is saturated with approximately three times as much 59Fe as ferritin in nonactivated monocytes. We have also explored the effect of iron transferrin on transferrin receptor expression and intracellular ferritin content in human monocytes. We have found that iron transferrin markedly upregulates both transferrin receptor expression and intracellular ferritin content in both nonactivated (2.3- and 1.3-fold, respectively) and IFN gamma-activated (3.4- and 2.9-fold, respectively) monocytes. This study demonstrates that transferrin receptor expression and intracellular ferritin content in human monocytes is unidirectionally and coordinately upregulated by iron transferrin and unidirectionally and coordinately downregulated by IFN gamma.
T F Byrd, M A Horwitz
Angiogenesis is an important process in chronic inflammatory diseases. We observed that sera from patients with systemic vasculitis stimulated angiogenesis in an in vitro model using human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured on a basement membrane (Matrigel) substrate. After 40% ammonium sulfate precipitation, angiogenic activity remained in the low molecular weight fraction and could be inactivated by heat. SDS-page of serum FPLC fractions exhibiting maximal angiogenic activity demonstrated two prominent species of 45 and 16-20 kD in patients' sera. These bands were much less apparent in sera obtained from control subjects. Amino-terminal sequencing of the 45-kD protein demonstrated that it was haptoglobin. Purified haptoglobin stimulated angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The angiogenic activity of vasculitis patients' sera was partially inhibited by an antihaptoglobin antibody. Furthermore, serum haptoglobin levels in vasculitis patients correlated both with disease and angiogenic activity. Haptoglobin angiogenic activity was confirmed in two in vivo models using an implanted disc and a subcutaneous injection of basement membrane. Stimulation of angiogenesis is a newly recognized biological function of haptoglobin. The increased levels of haptoglobin found in chronic inflammatory conditions may play an important role in tissue repair. In systemic vasculitis, haptoglobin might also compensate for ischemia by promoting development of collateral vessels.
M C Cid, D S Grant, G S Hoffman, R Auerbach, A S Fauci, H K Kleinman
The ability of circulating white blood cells to enter inflamed tissues is mediated by specific cell adhesion molecules thought to be expressed in a programmed and sequential manner to form an "adhesion cascade." Because of the complexity of this process, it is becoming increasingly important to develop in vivo models. Two major problems have limited the utility of current animal models. The first is the inability of many of the antibodies developed against cell adhesion molecules in human cell culture models to cross-react in animals. The second is the uncertainty in extrapolating animal (particularly rodent) findings to humans. To circumvent these problems, full thickness human skin grafts were transplanted onto immunodeficient (severe combined immunodeficient) mice. After 4-6 wk, the transplanted skin grafts closely resembled normal skin histologically and maintained their human vasculature as determined by immunohistochemical staining with human-specific endothelial cell markers. Intradermal injection of tumor necrosis factor-alpha resulted in the reversible upregulation of the leukocyte-endothelial adhesion molecules E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and in an active inflammatory reaction with migration of murine leukocytes into cytokine-injected areas. These results indicate that the severe combined immunodeficient mouse/human skin transplant model provides a useful in vivo system in which to study human endothelium during the process of inflammation.
H C Yan, I Juhasz, J Pilewski, G F Murphy, M Herlyn, S M Albelda
Gap junctions allow direct intercellular coupling between many cells including those in the blood vessel wall. They are formed by a group of related proteins called connexins, containing conserved transmembrane and extracellular domains, but unique cytoplasmic regions that may confer connexin-specific physiological properties. We used polymerase chain reaction amplification and cDNA library screening to clone DNA encoding a human gap junction protein, connexin37 (Cx37). The derived human Cx37 polypeptide contains 333 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass of 37,238 D. RNA blots demonstrate that Cx37 is expressed in multiple organs and tissues (including heart, uterus, ovary, and blood vessel endothelium) and in primary cultures of vascular endothelial cells. Cx37 mRNA is coexpressed with connexin43 at similar levels in some endothelial cells, but at much lower levels in others. To demonstrate that Cx37 could form functional channels, we stably transfected communication-deficient Neuro2A cells with the Cx37 cDNA. The induced intercellular channels were studied by the double whole cell patch clamp technique. These channels were reversibly inhibited by the uncoupling agent, heptanol (2 mM). The expressed Cx37 channels exhibited multiple conductance levels and showed a pronounced voltage dependence. These electrophysiological characteristics are similar to, but distinct from, those of previously characterized connexins.
K E Reed, E M Westphale, D M Larson, H Z Wang, R D Veenstra, E C Beyer
To characterize the nature of the local cytokine response to cancer, we chose to investigate cytokine patterns in biopsy specimens of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). We hypothesized that a distinct pattern of local cytokine production may be characteristic of BCC, a neoplasia of epidermis, in comparison to the pattern of seborrheic keratosis (SK), a benign growth of epidermis. We analyzed cytokine mRNAs in BCC versus SK by performing polymerase chain reaction on mRNA derived from biopsy specimens. The mRNAs encoding cytokines for IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor were strongly expressed in BCC lesions and weakly expressed in SK lesions. Conversely, IL-2, IFN-gamma, and lymphotoxin mRNAs were strongly expressed in SK lesions and weakly expressed in BCC lesions. The response to malignancy, BCC, was typified by cytokines characteristic of murine TH2 cells. This cytokine pattern favors humoral immunity with concomitant immunosuppression of cell-mediated immune responses. In comparison, the response to the benign growth, SK, was typified by cytokines characteristic of murine TH1 cells that favor cell-mediated immune reactions. The findings of a distinct cytokine pattern in skin cancer provide a framework to develop strategies for immunologic intervention.
M Yamamura, R L Modlin, J D Ohmen, R L Moy
We studied the metabolism of lipoprotein-proteoglycan complexes by macrophage-derived foam cells. Foam cells were isolated from atherosclerotic rabbit aortas. ApoB-lipoprotein-proteoglycan complex was isolated from human aorta fibrous plaque lesions and LDL-proteoglycan complex was formed in vitro. Both in vitro and in vivo complexes stimulated cholesteryl ester synthesis in foam cells by a dose-dependent, saturable process that resulted in the intracellular accumulation of cholesteryl ester. Stimulation of cholesteryl ester synthesis was linear with time over a 32-h period. Polyinosinic acid inhibited the stimulation of cholesteryl ester synthesis by the complexes by 32-37%, whereas cytochalasin D only produced a 6-16% inhibition. Foam cells degraded 125I-LDL-proteoglycan complex and 125I-acetyl LDL in a saturable, dose-dependent manner. Excess unlabeled acetyl-LDL inhibited the degradation of 125I-LDL-proteoglycan complex by 52%, while LDL had no effect. Similarly, excess unlabeled complex suppressed the degradation of 125I-acetyl-LDL by 48%. Foam cells degraded 125I-methyl-LDL-proteoglycan complex to the same extent as 125I-LDL-proteoglycan complex. These results show that foam cells from atherosclerotic lesions metabolize lipoprotein-proteoglycan complexes predominantly via receptor-mediated endocytosis and consequently continue to accumulate intracellular cholesteryl ester.
P Vijayagopal, S R Srinivasan, J H Xu, E R Dalferes Jr, B Radhakrishnamurthy, G S Berenson
Dysregulation of TGF beta 2, a modulator of cell growth and differentiation, can result in uncontrolled growth and tumor formation. Our comparative studies on the expression of TGF beta 2 mRNA and protein indicate that TGF beta 2 may primarily be a regulator of epithelial differentiation during tooth development (between 13 and 20 gestational wk) and tumorigenesis of odontogenic neoplasms. A paracrine mode of action for TGF beta 2 in early human tooth germ (cap/early bell stage) is suggested by location of mRNA in the mesenchyme surrounding the tooth germ, whereas protein is found in the epithelial dental lamina and enamel organ. During the late bell stage, TGF beta 2 gene expression shifted from the mesenchyme to the odontogenic epithelium and was colocalized with protein, suggesting an autocrine role for the terminal differentiation of ameloblasts. In odontogenic tumors of epithelial origin (ameloblastomas) and epithelial-ectomesencymal origin (ameloblastic fibromas), TGF beta 2 mRNA was mostly located in the mesenchymal tumor component and protein in the epithelial tumor component. Odontogenic ectomesenchymal tumors (myxomas) were not associated with TGF beta 2 mRNA and protein expression. The results imply that TGF beta 2 may play an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in human tooth morphogenesis and development of odontogenic tumors.
K Heikinheimo, R P Happonen, P J Miettinen, O Ritvos
The hypertriglyceridemia of infection was traditionally thought to represent the mobilization of substrate to fuel the body's response to the infectious challenge. However, we have previously shown that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins can protect against endotoxin-induced lethality. The current studies examine the mechanism by which this protection occurs. Rats infused with a lethal dose of endotoxin preincubated with chylomicrons had a reduced mortality compared with rats infused with endotoxin alone (15 vs. 76%, P < 0.001). Preincubation with chylomicrons increased the rate of clearance of endotoxin from plasma and doubled the amount of endotoxin cleared by the liver (30 +/- 1 vs. 14 +/- 2% of the total infused radiolabel, P < 0.001). In addition, autoradiographic studies showed that chylomicrons directed more of the endotoxin to hepatocytes and away from hepatic macrophages. Rats infused with endotoxin plus chylomicrons also showed reduced peak serum levels of tumor necrosis factor as compared with controls (14.2 +/- 3.3 vs. 44.9 +/- 9.5 ng/ml, mean +/- SEM, P = 0.014). In separate experiments, chylomicrons (1,000 mg triglyceride/kg) or saline were infused 10 min before the infusion of endotoxin. Chylomicron pretreatment resulted in a reduced mortality compared with rats infused with endotoxin alone (22 vs. 78%, P < 0.005). Therefore, chylomicrons can protect against endotoxin-induced lethality with and without preincubation with endotoxin. The mechanism by which chylomicrons protect against endotoxin appears to involve the shunting of endotoxin to hepatocytes and away from macrophages, thereby decreasing macrophage activation and the secretion of cytokines.
H W Harris, C Grunfeld, K R Feingold, T E Read, J P Kane, A L Jones, E B Eichbaum, G F Bland, J H Rapp
Proteolytic inactivation of serine protease inhibitors (serpins) by neutrophil elastase (HNE) is presumed to contribute to the deregulation of plasma cascade systems in septic shock. Here, we report a supplementary approach to construct serpins, in our case C1 inhibitor, that are resistant to catalytic inactivation by HNE. Instead of shifting the specificity of alpha 1-antitrypsin towards the proteases of the contact activation and complement systems, we attempted to obtain a C1 inhibitor species which resists proteolytic inactivation by HNE. 12 recombinant C1 inhibitor variants were produced with mainly conservative substitutions at the cleavage sites for HNE, 440-Ile and/or 442-Val. Three variants significantly resisted proteolytic inactivation, both by purified HNE, as well as by activated neutrophils. The increase in functional half-life in the presence of FMLP-stimulated cells was found to be 18-fold for the 440-Leu/442-Ala variant. Inhibitory function of these variants was relatively unimpaired, as examined by the formation of stable complexes with C1s, beta-Factor XIIa, kallikrein, and plasmin, and as determined by kinetic analysis. The calculated association rate constants (k(on)) were reduced twofold at most for C1s, and appeared unaffected for beta-Factor XIIa. The effect on the k(on) with kallikrein was more pronounced, ranging from a significant ninefold reduction to an unmodified rate. The results show that the reactive centre loop of C1 inhibitor can be modified towards decreased sensitivity for nontarget proteases without loss of specificity for target proteases. We conclude that this approach extends the possibilities of applying recombinant serpin variants for therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases.
E Eldering, C C Huijbregts, J H Nuijens, A J Verhoeven, C E Hack
The radiation sensitivity of primary clonogenic blasts from 44 children with newly diagnosed B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was analyzed using leukemic progenitor cell (LPC) colony assays. The derived values for SF2 (surviving fraction at 200 cGy) and alpha (initial slope of radiation survival curves constructed according to the linear quadratic model) indicated a marked interpatient heterogeneity in intrinsic radiation sensitivity of LPC populations. The SF2 values ranged from 0.01 to 1.00 (median = 0.430; mean +/- SE = 0.47 +/- 0.04), and the alpha values ranged from 0.000 to 3.272 Gy-1 (median = 0.280 Gy-1; mean +/- SE = 0.430 +/- 0.093 Gy-1). When CD19+ CD34+ versus CD19+ CD34- immunophenotypes were compared, a trend toward higher SF2 and lower alpha values were observed in LPC from CD34+ patients, consistent with greater radiation resistance. When patients were divided into three approximately equal groups based on increasing levels of CD34 expression, a clear ordering effect was observed indicating that increased CD34 expression levels are associated with significantly higher radiation resistance at the level of B-lineage LPC. The highest CD34 expression group (> or = 75% positivity) had 1.4-fold higher SF2 (P = 0.05) and twofold lower alpha values (P = 0.06) than the lowest group (< 30% positivity). Furthermore, the CD34 positivity of radiation resistant (alpha < or = 0.2 and SF2 > or = 0.5) B-cell precursor ALL cases was greater than the CD34 positivity of radiation sensitive (alpha > 0.2 and/or SF2 < 0.5) cases (56 +/- 9% versus 34 +/- 9%, P = 0.09). Whereas only 6 of 16 (38%) of radiation sensitive cases were CD34+, 11 of 15 (73%) of radiation resistant cases expressed CD34 (P = 0.04). Our results offer new insights into the inherent and/or acquired radiation resistance of primary clonogenic blasts from B-cell precursor ALL patients.
F M Uckun, W Jaszcz, M Chandan-Langlie, K G Waddick, K Gajl-Peczalska, C W Song
Intraerythrocytic malaria parasites degrade hemoglobin as a principal source of amino acids for parasite protein synthesis. We have previously identified a Plasmodium falciparum trophozoite cysteine proteinase as a putative hemoglobinase and shown that specific inhibitors of this proteinase block the hydrolysis of globin and the development of cultured parasites. We now show that the murine malaria parasite Plasmodium vinckei has an analogous cysteine proteinase with similar biochemical properties to the P. falciparum proteinase, including an acid pH optimum, a preference for the peptide proteolytic substrate benzyloxycarbonyl (Z)-Phe-Arg-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin, and nonomolar inhibition by seven peptide fluoromethyl ketone proteinase inhibitors. Thus, P. vinckei offers a model system for the in vivo testing of the antimalarial properties of cysteine proteinase inhibitors. One of the proteinase inhibitors studied, morpholine urea (Mu)-Phe-Homophenylalanine (HPhe)-CH2F strongly inhibited the P. vinckei cysteine proteinase in vitro and rapidly blocked parasite cysteine proteinase activity in vivo. When administered four times a day for 4 d to P. vinckei-infected mice, Mu-Phe-HPhe-CH2F elicited long-term cures in 80% of the treated animals. These results show that peptide proteinase inhibitors can be effective antimalarial compounds in vivo and suggest that the P. falciparum cysteine proteinase is a promising target for chemotherapy.
P J Rosenthal, G K Lee, R E Smith
We used a dual-isotope method (oral [1-14C]glucose and intravenous [6-3H]glucose) to examine whether the oral glucose intolerance of cirrhosis is due to (a) a greater input of glucose into the systemic circulation (owing to a lower first-pass hepatic uptake of ingested glucose, or to impaired inhibition of hepatic glucose output), (b) a lower rate of glucose removal, or (c) a combination of these mechanisms. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure oxidative and nonoxidative metabolism. Basal plasma glucose levels (cirrhotics, 5.6 +/- 0.4[SE], controls, 5.1 +/- 0.2 mmol/liter), and rates of glucose appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd) were similar in the two groups. After 75 g of oral glucose, plasma glucose levels were higher in cirrhotics than controls, the curves diverging for 80 min despite markedly higher insulin levels in cirrhotics. During the first 20 min, there was very little change in glucose Rd and the greater initial increase in plasma glucose in cirrhotics resulted from a higher Ra of ingested [1-14C]glucose into the systemic circulation, suggesting a reduced first-pass hepatic uptake of portal venous glucose. The continuing divergence of the plasma glucose curves was due to a lower glucose Rd between 30 and 80 min (cirrhotics 236 +/- 17 mg/kg in 50 min, controls 280 +/- 17 mg/kg in 50 min, P < 0.05, one-tailed test). Glucose metabolic clearance rate rose more slowly in cirrhotics and was significantly lower than in controls during the first 2 h after glucose ingestion (2.24 +/- 0.17 vs 3.30 +/- 0.23 ml/kg per min, P < 0.005), in keeping with their known insulin insensitivity. Despite the higher initial glucose Ra in cirrhotics, during the entire 4-h period the quantity of total glucose and of ingested glucose (cirrhotics 54 +/- 2 g [72% of oral load], controls 54 +/- 3 g) appearing in the systemic circulation were similar. Overall glucose Rd (cirrhotics 72.5 +/- 3.8 g/4 h, controls 77.2 +/- 2.2 g/4h) and percent suppression of hepatic glucose output over 4 h (cirrhotics, 53 +/- 10%, controls 49 +/- 8%) were also similar. After glucose ingestion much of the extra glucose utilized was oxidized to provide energy that in the basal state was derived from lipid fuels. Glucose oxidation after glucose ingestion was similar in both groups and accounted for approximately two-thirds of glucose Rd. The reduction in overall nonoxidative glucose disposal did not reach significance (21 +/- 5 vs. 29 +/- 3 g/4 h, 0.05 < P < 0.1). Although our data would be compatible with an impairment of tissue glycogen deposition after oral glucose, glucose storage as glycogen probably plays a small part part in overall glucose disposal. Our results suggest that the higher glucose levels seen in cirrhotics after oral glucose are due initially to an increase in the amount of ingested glucose appearing in the systemic circulation, and subsequently to an impairment in glucose uptake by tissues due to insulin insensitivity. Impaired suppression of hepatic glucose output does not contribute to oral glucose intolerance.
Y T Kruszynska, A Meyer-Alber, F Darakhshan, P D Home, N McIntyre
We have studied the peripheral T cell repertoire of two patients with severe combined immunodeficiency who were successfully treated with human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched fetal liver stem cell transplantation. The patients presented a split chimerism. T cells were of donor origin, whereas the B cells/monocytes were of the host phenotype. Interestingly, the natural killer (NK) cells in one patient were donor derived and in the other patient of host origin. The NK cells were functional but did not have antihost or donor reactivity. Despite the HLA mismatch between donor and host cells, complete tolerance was achieved in vivo, and a specific unresponsiveness of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from both patients toward the host cells was demonstrated in vitro. Nevertheless, we could isolate T cell receptor (TCR)alpha beta, CD4+ or CD8+, T cell clones specifically reacting with HLA class I and II molecules of the host. The CD4+ host-reactive T cell clones from both patients produced interleukins 2 and 5, interferon-gamma, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor but are specifically defective in interleukin 4 production. The frequencies of CD8+ host-reactive T cells were high, and were in the same range as those observed for CD8+ alloreactive T cells. In contrast, no donor-reactive CD8+ T cells or host or donor-reactive TCR gamma delta + T cells were detected. These data indicate that, after fetal stem cell transplantation, donor-reactive, but not host-reactive cells, are deleted from the T cell repertoire. Therefore, a peripheral mechanism of suppression or clonal anergy, rather than clonal deletion, is involved in maintaining in vivo tolerance toward the host.
R Bacchetta, B A Vandekerckhove, J L Touraine, M Bigler, S Martino, L Gebuhrer, J E de Vries, H Spits, M G Roncarolo
We examined the basis for the absence in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients of opsonic antibodies to the mucoid exopolysaccharide (MEP) antigen surrounding Pseudomonas aeruginosa that infect these patients. Opsonic antibodies to MEP are found in sera of the minority of CF patients that remain noncolonized into the second to fourth decades of life and protect rodents from chronic P. aeruginosa endobronchial infections. High titers of nonopsonic antibodies to MEP are found in P. aeruginosa-infected CF patients. Immunization of mice with doses of MEP that provoke only nonopsonic antibodies elicited CD3+, CD8+, T cell receptor alpha beta receptor+, major histocompatibility complex-unrestricted cytotoxic lymphocytes specific for hybridoma cells producing opsonic but not nonopsonic antibodies. Cytotoxicity was dependent on immune complexes on the surface of the T cells. Normal murine T cells could be activated by concanavalin A and sensitized with immune complexes for cytotoxic killing of hybridoma targets. CF patients infected with P. aeruginosa had serum immune complexes that sensitized concanavalin A-activated human T cells to kill murine hybridoma cells producing opsonic but not nonopsonic antibody. These results could explain the absence in infected CF patients of MEP-specific opsonins, an occurrence that accompanies the persistence of this infectious state.
G B Pier, S Takeda, M Grout, R B Markham
Using isolated rat kidneys perfused at controlled pressure, we examined a potential role of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) in the pressure control of renin secretion. We found that stimulation of EDRF release by acetylcholine (1 mumol/liter) increased mean perfusate flow rates from 15.0 +/- 0.5 to 18.0 +/- 0.5 ml/min per g and average renin secretion rates from 3.5 +/- 0.5 to 16.0 +/- 2.0 ng angiotensin I/h per min per g at a perfusion pressure of 100 mmHg (mean +/- SEM, n = 6). Those effects of acetylcholine were significantly reduced during inhibition of EDRF formation with NG-nitro-L-arginine (100 mumol/liter), but they were not affected with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10 mumol/liter). Lowering of the perfusion pressure from 100 mmHg to 40 mmHg resulted in an increase of average renin secretion rates from 3.5 +/- 0.5 to 79 +/- 12 ng AngI/h per min per g under control conditions (n = 8), and to 171 +/- 20 ng AngI/h per min per g in the presence of 10 mumol/liter acetylcholine (n = 3). The rise of renin secretion in response to a reduction of the renal artery pressure was markedly attenuated with inhibitors of EDRF formation such as NG-nitro-L-arginine (100 mumol/liter) and related compounds. During inhibition of EDRF formation, addition of sodium nitroprusside (10 mumol/liter) increased mean perfusate flow rates from 12.0 +/- 0.5 to 23.0 +/- 2.0 ml/min per g and average renin secretion rates from 2.0 +/- 0.5 to 18.0 +/- 1.5 ng AngI/h per min per g at 100 mmHg (n = 5). Lowering of the perfusion pressure from 100 mmHg to 40 mmHg under those conditions increased average renin secretion rates to 220 +/- 14 ng AngI/h per min per g (n = 5). Taken together, our findings suggest that EDRF and related activators of soluble guanylate cyclase stimulate renin secretion from isolated kidneys, predominantly at lower perfusion pressure. Moreover, pressure control of renin secretion appears to require the tonical stimulation by intrarenal EDRF.
H Scholz, A Kurtz
The Wolfram syndrome (MIM 222300) is a disease of unknown origin consisting of diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness. Here we report on a generalized deficiency of the mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities in skeletal muscle and lymphocyte homogenate of a girl suffering from the Wolfram syndrome. In addition, we provide evidence for a 7.6-kilobase pair heteroplasmic deletion (spanning nucleotides 6465-14135) of the mitochondrial DNA in the two tissues and show that directly repeated sequences (11 bp) were present in the wild-type mitochondrial genome at the boundaries of the deletion. Neither of the patient's parents was found to bear rearranged molecules. This study supports the view that a respiratory chain defect can present with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus as the onset symptom. It also suggests that a defect of oxidative phosphorylation should be considered when investigating other cases of Wolfram syndrome, especially because this syndrome fulfills the criteria for a genetic defect of the mitochondrial energy supply: (a) an unexplained association of symptoms (b) with early onset and rapidly progressive course, (c) involving seemingly unrelated organs and tissues.
A Rötig, V Cormier, P Chatelain, R Francois, J M Saudubray, P Rustin, A Munnich
A rat colony with mucopolysaccharidosis VI was established and the clinical, pathological, and biochemical features were characterized. Affected rats had facial dysmorphia, dysostosis multiplex, and increased urinary excretion of glucosaminoglycans (GAGs). Ultrastructural studies revealed storage of GAGs throughout the reticuloendothelial cells, cartilage, and other connective tissues, but no deposition was observed in the nervous system. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that the excreted GAG was dermatan sulfate and the activity of hepatic arylsulfatase B was < 5% of the normal mean value. Pedigree analysis showed that the phenotype was inherited as an autosomal recessive single trait. The availability of a rat model of human mucopolysaccharidosis VI should permit the development and evaluation of various strategies to treat the human disease.
M Yoshida, J Noguchi, H Ikadai, M Takahashi, S Nagase
We have characterized the molecular defect causing androgen resistance in two 46,XY siblings with complete testicular feminization. Although binding studies in genital skin fibroblasts showed a reduced Bmax, an increased dissociation rate of ligand, and an 8S peak of dihydrotestosterone binding on sucrose density gradient centrifugation, no immunoreactive androgen receptor (AR) was detected in immunoblots using anti-NH2-terminal antibodies, suggesting an abnormal amino terminus. Sequence analysis of the AR gene revealed a point mutation CAG-->TAG (Gln-->Stop) at nucleotide 340. In vitro mutagenesis studies suggest the synthesis of the mutant AR is initiated downstream of the termination codon at reduced levels and that each molecule is functionally impaired. These results define a novel mechanism causing androgen resistance: the combination of decreased amount and functional impairment of AR caused by an abnormality within the amino terminus of the receptor. These findings suggest that domains important to the in vivo function of the receptor reside within the amino terminus and that disruption of these domains can occur with only subtle effects on receptor binding. Identification of this mutation made it possible to identify the mutant allele within the family and to ascertain antenatally that it was not present in a 46,XY fetal sibling of the proband at 9 wk gestation.
S Zoppi, C M Wilson, M D Harbison, J E Griffin, J D Wilson, M J McPhaul, M Marcelli
To determine the molecular events responsible for the disproportionate accumulation of myocardial fibrillar collagens during sustained hypertension, we examined the in vivo rate of procollagen synthesis, collagen accumulation, and intracellular procollagen degradation 1-16 wk after abdominal aortic banding in young rats. These measurements were correlated with tissue mRNA levels for type I and type III procollagen polypeptides. Banded animals developed moderate, sustained hypertension and mild left ventricular hypertrophy. Increased type III procollagen mRNA levels were detected early after banding and persisted for the entire observation period. Disproportionate collagen accumulation without histological evidence of fibrosis was noted within 1 wk after hypertension induction. Fibrillar collagen accumulation at this time point resulted not from a major increase in procollagen synthesis, but rather a marked decrease in the rate of intracellular procollagen degradation. Interstitial fibrosis, however, was observed 16 wk after banding. Type I procollagen mRNA levels were increased six-fold, but only after 16 wk of hypertension. These results correlated well with the results of in vivo procollagen synthesis experiments at 16 wk, which demonstrated a threefold increase in left ventricular procollagen biosynthesis. We conclude that pretranslational as well as posttranslational mechanisms regulate fibrillar collagen deposition in the myocardial extracellular matrix during sustained hypertension.
E G Eleftheriades, J B Durand, A G Ferguson, G L Engelmann, S B Jones, A M Samarel
We have identified different members of one family affected by androgen insensitivity syndrome who have deletions of different exons of the X-linked androgen receptor (AR) gene. Two affected (XY) siblings have a deletion of exon E of the AR gene and their affected (XY) aunt has a normal exon E, but a deletion of exons F and G of the same gene. The mother and maternal grandmother of the children both carry the exon E deletion, but not the exon F, G deletion. Both deletions are 5 kb in length and have one breakpoint within a 200-bp region in intron 5; however, they extend in opposite directions. The probability that these two different deletions have arisen at random is extremely low, but the cause of this intriguing phenomenon remains to be found.
H E MacLean, S Chu, G L Warne, J D Zajac
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) is a 24-26-kD protein expressed by a variety of cell types in vivo and in vitro. Treatment of normal adult human fibroblasts with 10 nM insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) for 24 h resulted in an 85% decrease in endogenous IGFBP-4, as assessed by Western ligand blot analysis of the conditioned medium. Incubation of human fibroblast-conditioned medium (HFCM) with IGF-II under cell-free conditions led to a similar loss of IGFBP-4. This posttranslationally regulated decrease in IGFBP-4 appeared to be due to a protease in HFCM: (a) It could be prevented with specific protease inhibitors or incubation at 4 degrees C; (b) proteolysis of recombinant human (rh) IGFBP-4 required HFCM; (c) immunoblotting and radiolabeling confirmed cleavage of IGFBP-4 into 18- and 14-kD IGFBP-4 fragments. The protease was specific for IGFBP-4, and was strictly dependent on IGFs for activation. IGF-II was the most effective of the natural and mutant IGFs tested, inducing complete hydrolysis of rhIGFBP-4 at a molar ratio of 0.25:1 (IGF/IGFBP-4). Simian virus 40-transformed adult human fibroblasts also expressed IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-4 protease, as well as an inhibitor of IGFBP-4 proteolysis. In biological studies, intact rhIGFBP-4 potently inhibited IGF-I-stimulated [3H]aminoisobutyric acid uptake, whereas proteolyzed rhIGFBP-4 had no inhibitory effect. In conclusion, these data provide evidence for a novel IGF-dependent IGFBP-4-specific protease that modifies IGFBP-4 structure and function, and indicate a preferential role for IGF-II in its activation. Posttranslational regulation of IGFBP-4 may provide a means for cooperative control of local cell growth by IGF-I and IGF-II.
C A Conover, M C Kiefer, J Zapf
Female patients (n = 20) with osteoporosis, aged 66 +/- 5 yr were studied during a 24-h infusion of parathyroid hormone (PTH [1-34]) at a rate of 0.5 IU equivalents/kg.h, and then during a 28-d period of subcutaneous injections, at a dose of 800 IU equivalents per day. Thereafter half the patients received subcutaneous injections of calcitonin, 75 U/d for 42 d, and all patients were followed to the end of a 90-d cycle. Biochemical markers of bone formation (serum alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and the carboxy-terminal extension peptide of pro-collagen 1) and bone resorption (fasting urine calcium, hydroxyproline, and deoxypyridinoline) were compared during treatment by the intravenous and subcutaneous route of PTH administration, and subsequently during calcitonin therapy. During intravenous PTH infusion there were significant reductions in all three bone formation markers, despite expected rises in urinary calcium and hydroxyproline. By contrast, the circulating markers of bone formation increased rapidly by > 100% of baseline values during daily PTH injections (P < 0.001). Significant increases in bone resorption markers were only seen at the end of the 28 d of injections, but were < 100% over baseline values, (P < 0.05). Quantitative bone histomorphometry from biopsies obtained after 28 d of PTH treatment confirmed that bone formation at both the cellular and tissue levels were two to five times higher than similar indices measured in a control group of biopsies from untreated osteoporotic women. Subsequent treatment of these patients with calcitonin showed no significant changes in the biochemical markers of bone formation and only a modest attenuation of bone resorption. Thus, PTH infusion may inhibit bone formation, as judged by circulating biochemical markers, whereas daily injections confirm the potent anabolic actions of the hormone. Sequential calcitonin therapy does not appear to act synergistically with PTH in cyclical therapeutic protocols.
A B Hodsman, L J Fraher, T Ostbye, J D Adachi, B M Steer
Endothelin-1, initially identified as potent vasoconstrictor secreted by vascular endothelial cells, was subsequently found to have many effects on both vascular and nonvascular tissues. We have identified from a human placenta cDNA library a clone (cDNA-2) which corresponds to a novel 5'-extended preproendothelin 1 (preproET-1) mRNA. Comparison with the known preproET-1 mRNA (cDNA-1), showed that the two molecules share the same coding sequence but differ in the 5'-untranslated region. Interestingly, cDNA-2 extends upstream of promoter regions previously shown to be essential for full preproET-1 expression. Primer extension and PCR analysis of human placenta RNA demonstrated the presence of additional transcription initiation sites located upstream of the previously identified preproET-1 CAP site. Moreover, the two mRNAs show different pattern of expression. To elucidate the mechanisms controlling the production of alternative transcripts we transfected COS-1 cells with a series of preproET-1 promoter deletion mutants. This analysis revealed that the human preproET-1 gene can be transcribed from a proximal and a distal promoter element which has hitherto been undetected. In addition, we demonstrate the presence of a region in the down-epithelial specific expression.
L Benatti, L Bonecchi, L Cozzi, P Sarmientos
A series of synthetic oligosaccharides based on sialyl Lewis x (sLex; Neu5Ac alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-4[Fuc alpha 1-3]GlcNAc) and sialyl Lewis a (sLea; Neu5Ac alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-3[Fuc alpha 1-4]GlcNAc) was used to study the binding interactions of selectins. E-selectin-immunoglobulin fusion protein (E-selectin-Ig) bound to immobilized bovine serum albumin (BSA)-neoglycoproteins containing sLex or sLea in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Solution-phase sLex tetrasaccharide blocked this interaction by 50% at a concentration of 750 +/- 20 microM (IC50). sLea was more effective (IC50 = 220 +/- 20 microM), while nonsialylated, nonfucosylated derivatives showed little or no activity at concentrations up to 1 mM. Attachment of an 8-methoxycarbonyloctyl aglycone in a beta linkage to the anomeric carbon of the GlcNAc of sLex or sLea increased their blocking activity nearly twofold. Finally, replacement of the 2-N-acetyl substituent of the GlcNAc by an azido or amino group resulted in substantial increases in activity, with the most potent inhibitor being amino substituted sLea, which was 36-fold more active (IC50 = 21 +/- 3 microM) than the reducing tetrasaccharide sLex. In contrast to results obtained with E-selectin-Ig, P-selectin-Ig binding to immobilized BSA-sLea was blocked modestly by most oligosaccharides at 1 mM, with no substantial differences among them. IC50 values of soluble oligosaccharides determined in competitive binding studies accurately predicted blocking of leukocyte adhesion to recombinant E-selectin-Ig and to cytokine-activated endothelium.
R M Nelson, S Dolich, A Aruffo, O Cecconi, M P Bevilacqua
The properties of control and 370Asn-->Ser glucocerebrosidase, the frequently encountered mutated form of the enzyme in type 1 Gaucher disease, were studied in vitro as well as in situ. The catalytic properties of purified 370Asn-->Ser glucocerebrosidase were highly dependent on the assay conditions. The enzyme was deficient in activity towards substrate and in reactivity with the irreversible inhibitor conduritol B-epoxide (CBE) when activated by the bile salt taurocholate. In the presence of more physiological activators, the lysosomal activator protein saposin C and phosphatidylserine, the 370Asn-->Ser enzyme was near normal in kinetic properties at pH values approximately 5, but not at higher pH. In intact fibroblasts, the enzymic activity of the 370Asn-->Ser glucocerebrosidase and its reactivity with CBE were found to be clearly deficient. However, in intact lymphoblasts from the same patients, the behavior of the mutant enzyme was near normal. The catalytic efficiency of 370Asn-->Ser glucocerebrosidase in situ was also found to be highly pH dependent. When intact lymphoblasts were cultured in the presence of permeant weak bases, which increase the pH of acidic intracellular compartments, the catalytic efficiency of the mutant enzyme, as assessed by its reactivity with CBE, became markedly impaired. Our findings indicate that the intralysosomal pH in the intact cell can be expected to have a critical influence on the activation state of 370Asn-->Ser glucocerebrosidase and its ability to hydrolyse substrate. This phenomenon may partly underly the marked heterogeneity in clinical manifestation of Gaucher disease among patients with this mutated form of glucocerebrosidase.
S van Weely, M van den Berg, J A Barranger, M C Sa Miranda, J M Tager, J M Aerts
Mast cell-deficient mutant mice and their normal littermates were used to determine whether activation of mast cells by anti-IgE enhances airway responsiveness to bronchoactive agonists in vivo. Pulmonary conductance was used as an index of airway response as the mice were challenged with increasing intravenous doses of methacholine (Mch) or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Mast cell activation with anti-IgE enhanced pulmonary responsiveness to Mch in both types of normal mice (P < 0.0001 by analysis of variance) but not in either genotype of mast cell-deficient mouse. Additionally, anti-IgE pretreatment of genetically mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice whose mast cell deficiency had been repaired by infusion of freshly obtained bone marrow cells or bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells from congenic normal mice led to significant (P < 0.0001) enhancement of Mch responsiveness. 5-HT responsiveness was not significantly influenced by anti-IgE pretreatment in any of the mice studied. The data support the hypothesis that IgE-mediated activation of mast cells enhances pulmonary responsiveness to cholinergic stimulation.
T R Martin, T Takeishi, H R Katz, K F Austen, J M Drazen, S J Galli
Malignant melanomas are often infiltrated by T lymphocytes. It is postulated that the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) reflects ongoing immune responses against transformed cells. Such "responses" appear generally inefficient with the potential exception of infrequent clinical situations characterized by spontaneous tumor regression. We have characterized here the molecular structure of the T cell receptor beta chain expressed by TILs in a case of regressive melanoma. Advantage was taken of the PCR technology to study T lymphocytes directly without cell culture. Experimentally validated V beta subfamily specific primers were used to evaluate the V beta usage in TILs and control samples. Our results reveal that clonal T cell populations, precisely defined by their V-D-J junctional sequences, are amplified at the tumor site. The existence of such local antigen-driven selections support the hypothesis that antitumor responses may indeed take place in regressive melanoma.
L Ferradini, A Mackensen, C Genevée, J Bosq, P Duvillard, M F Avril, T Hercend
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), such as basic FGF, have been implicated in the growth of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cells in vitro. In the evaluation of the expression of the various genes of the different members of the FGF family and their receptors in fresh KS tissue specimens, int-2 was found to be expressed in more than half of the KS tumors examined. Using reverse transcription PCR, the expression of int-2 was detected in 21 of 38 (55.2%) fresh KS biopsy specimens. In contrast, int-2 mRNA transcripts were not found in normal appearing skin from the same patients except in one sample which was obtained from an AIDS patient with disseminated KS lesions. Sequence data confirmed that the amplified sequences were derived from int-2 mRNA with proper splicing. In addition, 12 nucleic acid alterations were identified in eight out of nine KS tumor samples sequenced. Using immunohistochemical methods, int-2 protein was detected in some of the spindle-shaped tumor cells surrounding the abnormal endothelial-lined vascular slits histologically characteristic of KS. Int-2 specific immunostaining was shown to be present in both the nuclei and cytoplasm of these spindle cells but was more pronounced in the nuclei. Neither amplification nor gross rearrangement of the int-2 gene was detected in KS lesions by Southern blot analysis. These results suggest that the expression of int-2 may play a role in the pathogenesis KS by stimulating local angiogenesis and cell proliferation.
Y Q Huang, J J Li, D Moscatelli, C Basilico, A Nicolaides, W G Zhang, B J Poiesz, A E Friedman-Kien
We and others have previously shown that a 67-kD cell surface elastin/laminin-binding protein (EBP) is responsible for cell adhesion to elastin and laminin and for mediating the process of elastin fiber assembly, but the nature of this protein was unknown. In this report we provide evidence that a 67-kD catalytically inactive form of beta-galactosidase produced by alternative splicing demonstrates immunological and functional similarity and sequence homology to the 67-kD EBP, suggesting that the two might be the same. Antibody prepared to a synthetic peptide, N-Ac-GSPSAQDEASPL, corresponding to a frame-shift-generated sequence unique to the alternatively spliced form of human beta-galactosidase, also recognized sheep EBP both on Western blotting and in aortic tissue. Furthermore, this synthetic peptide (S-GAL) binds to elastin and laminin, but not to fibronectin, collagen I, or collagen III. Moreover, both tropoelastin and laminin which bind to S-GAL peptide affinity columns can be specifically eluted from them with an excess of free S-GAL peptides. In addition, sequence homology among this splice variant of human beta-galactosidase, sheep EBP, and NH2-terminal sequences of some elastases suggests that these proteins share a common ligand-binding motif that has not been previously recognized.
A Hinek, M Rabinovitch, F Keeley, Y Okamura-Oho, J Callahan
Infection with hepatitis B virus leads to a wide spectrum of liver injury, including self-limited acute hepatitis, fulminant hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis with progression to cirrhosis or acute exacerbation to liver failure, as well as an asymptomatic chronic carrier state. Several studies have suggested that the hepatitis B core antigen could be an immunological target of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. To investigate the reason why the extreme immunological attack occurred in fulminant hepatitis and severe exacerbation patients, the entire precore and core region of hepatitis B virus DNA was sequenced in 24 subjects (5 fulminant, 10 severe fatal exacerbation, and 9 self-limited acute hepatitis patients). No significant change in the nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid residue was noted in the nine self-limited acute hepatitis patients. In contrast, clustering changes in a small segment of 16 amino acids (codon 84-99 from the start of the core gene) in all seven adr subtype infected fulminant and severe exacerbation patients was found. A different segment with clustering substitutions (codon 48-60) was also found in seven of eight adw subtype infected fulminant and severe exacerbation patients. Of the 15 patients, 2 lacked precore stop mutation which was previously reported to be associated with fulminant hepatitis. These data suggest that these core regions with mutations may play an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B viral disease, and such mutations are related to severe liver damage.
T Ehata, M Omata, W L Chuang, O Yokosuka, Y Ito, K Hosoda, M Ohto
We studied the radiosensitivity of granulocyte macrophage colony-forming units (GM-CFU) in patients with a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Three patients lacking both mature T and B cells showed a twofold higher GM-CFU radiosensitivity calculated as the DO value (dose required to reduce survival to 37%), and an identical observation was made with fibroblasts from one of these patients. A patient with an SCID with hypereosinophilia, i.e., Omenn's syndrome characterized by extremely restricted T cell heterogeneity and a lack of B cells, also showed abnormal GM-CFU radiosensitivity. In contrast, GM-CFU from a patient lacking only T cells (X-linked form of SCID) showed normal GM-CFU radiosensitivity. These data further support the similarity between human T(-) B(-) SCID and the murine acid mutation characterized by a defect in T cell receptor and immunoglobulin gene rearrangement, and by an abnormal double-strand DNA break repair function. In addition, they strongly suggest that the Omenn's immunodeficiency syndrome may be a leaky T(-)B(-) SCID phenotype as previously indicated by the coexistence of the two phenotypes in siblings.
M Cavazzana-Calvo, F Le Deist, G De Saint Basile, D Papadopoulo, J P De Villartay, A Fischer
alpha 2-Macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha 2M-R/LRP) is a broad specificity receptor that may function in lipoprotein metabolism, proteinase regulation, and growth factor regulation. In this study, we demonstrated that alpha 2M-R/LRP expression in macrophages can be markedly decreased by LPS and by IFN-gamma. Regulation of alpha 2M-R/LRP in RAW 264.7 cells was demonstrated at the mRNA, antigen, and receptor-function levels. In receptor-function studies, the decrease in alpha 2M-R/LRP expression was detected as a 90% decrease in the Bmax or maximum receptor binding capacity for activated alpha 2M after treatment with LPS or IFN-gamma. Western blot analysis of whole cell lysates demonstrated significant loss of alpha 2M-R/LRP heavy-chain. Northern blot analysis of poly(A)+ RNA revealed a marked decrease in alpha 2M-R/LRP mRNA after treatment with LPS (79% decrease) or IFN-gamma (70% decrease). Other cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta-1, and interleukin-6 did not regulate alpha 2M-R/LRP. The ability of LPS and IFN-gamma to regulate alpha 2M-R/LRP was confirmed in experiments with primary cultures of murine bone marrow macrophages. These studies demonstrate that macrophage alpha 2M-R/LRP is subject to significant downregulation by physiologically significant cytokines and signaling macromolecules.
J LaMarre, B B Wolf, E L Kittler, P J Quesenberry, S L Gonias
Addition of leumedin, N-[9H-(2,7-dimethylfluorenyl-9-methoxy) carbon]-L-leucine at 30-60 microM together with LDL almost completely prevented the induction of monocyte chemotactic protein mRNA, reduced monocyte chemotactic protein 1 levels by 84%, and inhibited monocyte migration into the subendothelial space of cocultures of human aortic wall cells by < or = 98%. LDL incubated with leumedin formed a stable complex that remained intact even after refloating in an ultracentrifuge. Leumedin at 50 microM did not change conjugated diene formation during coculture modification of LDL or Cu++ catalyzed oxidation of LDL. Unlike LDL from control rabbits, LDL isolated from rabbits that were injected with 20 mg/kg leumedin was remarkably resistant to modification by the coculture and did not induce monocyte migration to a significant degree. Moreover, HDL isolated from rabbits injected with leumedin was far more effective in protecting against LDL modification by the artery wall cocultures than HDL from control rabbits. We conclude that leumedins can associate with lipoproteins in vivo, rendering LDL resistant to biological modification and markedly amplifying the protective capacity of HDL against in vitro LDL oxidation by artery wall cells.
M Navab, S Y Hama, B J Van Lenten, D C Drinkwater, H Laks, A M Fogelman
The pathogenesis of myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy is though to involve autoimmunological processes and myocardial calcium overload. Serum containing antiheart antibodies associated with a murine model of myocarditis increased [Ca2+]i in guinea pig ventricular myocytes only in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. The antiheart antibody-positive serum activated Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels that were insensitive to dihydropyridines and membrane stretch. The permeability sequence was Ba2+ > Ca2+ > Na+ approximately K+, and the single-channel conductance to Ba2+ was 12 pS. The channel was activated by extracellular application of the serum during on-cell recording, which suggests that a soluble intracellular messenger may be involved. The antibody-positive serum did not alter voltage-gated Ca2+ currents. We propose that excess Ca entry in myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy results from activation of a Ca(2+)-permeable cationic channel by the autoantibodies.
M Tominaga, A Matsumori, M Horie, H Yoshida, Y Okada
Recent evidence has implicated endothelin-1 (ET-1) as an autocrine inhibitor of inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) sodium and water transport. The regulators of IMCD ET-1 production are, however, largely unknown. Because of the unique hypertonic environment of the IMCD, the effect of varying extracellular tonicity on IMCD ET-1 production was evaluated. Increasing media osmolality from 300 to 450 mosmol with NaCl or mannitol but not urea caused a marked dose- and time-dependent reduction in ET-1 release by and ET-1 mRNA in cultured rat IMCD cells. In contrast, increasing osmolality had no effect on ET-1 production by rat endothelial or mesangial cells. To see if ET-1 varies in a similar manner in vivo, ET-1 production was assessed in volume expanded (lower medullary tonicity) or volume depleted (high medullary tonicity) rats. Urinary ET-1 excretion and inner medulla ET-1 mRNA were significantly reduced in volume depleted as compared to volume expanded animals. These results indicate that extracellular sodium concentration inhibits ET-1 production specifically in IMCD cells. We speculate that extracellular sodium concentration, via regulation of ET-1 production, provides a link between volume status and IMCD sodium and water reabsorption.
D E Kohan, E Padilla
A soluble DNA carrier system consisting of an asialoglycoprotein covalently linked to poly-L-lysine was used to bind DNA and deliver hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA constructs to asialoglycoprotein receptor-positive human hepatoma cells. 4 d after transfection with surface or core gene expression constructs, HBsAg and HBeAg in the media were measured to be 16 ng/ml and 32 U/ml per 10(7) cells, respectively. Antigen production was completely inhibited by the addition of an excess of asialoorosomucoid. On the other hand, asialoglycoprotein receptor-negative human hepatoma cells, SK-Hep1, did not produce any viral antigens under identical conditions after incubation with HBV DNA complexed to a conjugate composed of asialoorosomucoid and poly-L-lysine. Using a complete HBV genome construct, HBsAg and HBeAg levels reached 16 ng/ml and 16 U/ml per 10(7) cells, respectively. Northern blots revealed characteristic HBV RNA transcripts including 3.5-, 2.4-, and 2.1-kb fragments. Intracellular and extracellular HBV DNA sequences including relaxed circular, linear and single stranded forms were detected by Southern blot hybridization. Finally, 42-nm Dane particles purified from the spent cultures medium were visualized by electron microscopy. This study demonstrates that a targetable DNA carrier system can transfect HBV DNA in vitro resulting in the production of complete HBV virions.
T J Liang, W J Makdisi, S Sun, K Hasegawa, Y Zhang, J R Wands, C H Wu, G Y Wu
Deficiency of the enzymes of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and related carnitine dependent steps have been shown to be one of the causes of the fasting-induced hypoketotic hypoglycemia. We describe here carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency in a neonate who died eight days after birth. The proband showed severe fasting-induced hypoketotic hypoglycemia, high plasma creatine kinase, heartbeat disorder, hypothermia, and hyperammonemia. The plasma-free carnitine on day three was only 3 microM, and 92% of the total carnitine (37 microM) was present as acylcarnitine. Treatments with intravenous glucose, carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides had been tried without improvements. Measurements in fibroblasts confirmed deficient oxidation of palmitate and showed normal activities of the carnitine palmitoyltransferases I and II and of the three acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. A total deficiency of the carnitine-acyl-carnitine translocase was found in fibroblasts using the carnitine acetylation assay (1986. Biochem. J. 236:143-148). This assay has been further simplified by seeking conditions permitting application to permeabilized fibroblasts and lymphocytes.
S V Pande, M Brivet, A Slama, F Demaugre, C Aufrant, J M Saudubray
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by a defect in cAMP-regulated chloride channels in epithelial cells. The CF gene product CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is expressed in the apical membrane of pancreatic duct cells, and mutant CFTR accounts for the pathology in the CF pancreas. PANC 1, a pancreatic duct cell line, has not been considered a good model for studying CFTR and pancreatic chloride transport because CFTR mRNA and protein are undetectable using standard methods. Using electronic cell sizing and cell volume reduction under isotonic conditions, PANC 1 cells were found to possess both cAMP and calcium-activated chloride conductances. Using CFTR antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, the cAMP-activated conductance could be specifically inhibited in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that PANC 1 cells express CFTR and a CFTR-independent calcium-activated chloride channel. With electronic cell sizing and CFTR antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, PANC 1 cells can provide an ideal system for the study of pancreatic duct cell physiology and pathophysiology with respect to the role of CFTR in the pancreas. These findings also suggest that antisense oligodeoxynucleotides may provide a more sensitive yet highly specific means of detecting low levels of expression of CFTR than currently available.
H Kopelman, C Gauthier, M Bornstein
To ascertain the mechanism for decreased synthesis of C1 inhibitor (C1 INH) in certain patients with the autosomal dominant disorder hereditary angioneurotic edema, we studied expression of C1 INH in fibroblasts in which the mutant and wild type mRNA and protein could be distinguished because of deletion of exon 7 (delta Ex7). In the HANE delta Ex7 cells, the amount of wild type mRNA (2.1 kb) was expressed at 52 +/- 2% (n = 5) of normal, whereas the mutant mRNA was 17 +/- 1% (n = 5) of normal. Rates of synthesis of both wild type and mutant proteins (11 +/- 3 and 3 +/- 1% of normal, respectively) were lower than predicted from the mRNA levels. There was no evidence of increased C1 INH protein catabolism. These data indicate that there are multiple levels of control of C1 INH synthesis in type I hereditary angioneurotic edema. Pretranslational regulation results in < 50% of the mutant truncated 1.9-kb mRNA. In addition, translational regulation results in decreased synthesis of both wild type and mutatn C1 INH proteins. These data suggest a transinhibition of wild type C1 INH translation by mutant mRNA and/or protein.
J Kramer, F S Rosen, H R Colten, K Rajczy, R C Strunk