Administration of attenuated, activated autoimmune T lymphocytes to syngeneic mice and rats has been shown to prevent or induce remission of experimental autoimmune diseases specific for the autoimmune T cells. The process has been termed "T cell vaccination." In a recent study, T cell vaccination was done using T cells sensitized to rat alloantigens. The procedure produced a significant reduction of the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) against allogeneic cells. The reduction in MLR was not specific: Vaccination with T cells specific for stimulator cells of one allotype led to a reduced MLR stimulated by cells of another allotype. The present study was undertaken to examine whether T cell vaccination can induce tolerance to transplantation antigens in vivo. We used the model of heterotopic cardiac transplantation in rats. We now report that vaccinating rats with syngeneic, activated, alloantigen-primed T lymphocytes significantly prolonged survival of rat cardiac allografts. The effect of T cell vaccination was most evident when the T cells had been obtained from rats specifically sensitized against the donor rats: Brown-Norway (BN) allografts in control Wistar rats survived 8.5 +/- 0.4 d while BN allografts survived 29.2 +/- 7.1 d in Wistar rats that had been vaccinated with Wistar anti-BN cells. Vaccination of Wistar rats with Wistar anti-hooded T cells prolonged survival of BN heart allografts to a lesser but significant degree (13.0 +/- 1.1 d). Thus, T cell vaccination of recipients can prolong survival of allografts.
O M Shapira, E Mor, T Reshef, R A Pfeffermann, I R Cohen
The use of growth hormone (GH) as an anabolic agent is limited by its tendency to cause hyperglycemia and by its inability to reverse nitrogen wasting in some catabolic conditions. In a previous study comparing the anabolic actions of GH and IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor I), we observed that intravenous infusions of IGF-I (12 micrograms/kg ideal body wt [IBW]/h) attenuated nitrogen wasting to a degree comparable to GH given subcutaneously at a standard dose of 0.05 mg/kg IBW per d. IGF-I, however, had a tendency to cause hypoglycemia. In the present study, we treated seven calorically restricted (20 kcal/kg IBW per d) normal volunteers with a combination of GH and IGF-I (using the same doses as in the previous study) and compared its effects on anabolism and carbohydrate metabolism to treatment with IGF-I alone. The GH/IGF-I combination caused significantly greater nitrogen retention (262 +/- 43 mmol/d, mean +/- SD) compared to IGF-I alone (108 +/- 29 mmol/d; P < 0.001). GH/IGF-I treatment resulted in substantial urinary potassium conservation (34 +/- 3 mmol/d, mean +/- SE; P < 0.001), suggesting that most protein accretion occurred in muscle and connective tissue. GH attenuated the hypoglycemia induced by IGF-I as indicated by fewer hypoglycemic episodes and higher capillary blood glucose concentrations on GH/IGF-I (4.3 +/- 1.0 mmol/liter, mean +/- SD) compared to IGF-I alone (3.8 +/- 0.8 mmol/liter; P < 0.001). IGF-I caused a marked decline in C-peptide (1,165 +/- 341 pmol/liter; mean +/- SD) compared to the GH/IGF-I combination (2,280 +/- 612 pmol/liter; P < 0.001), suggesting maintenance of normal carbohydrate metabolism with the latter regimen. GH/IGF-I produced higher serum IGF-I concentrations (1,854 +/- 708 micrograms/liter; mean +/- SD) compared to IGF-I only treatment (1,092 +/- 503 micrograms/liter; P < 0.001). This observation was associated with increased concentrations of IGF binding protein 3 and acid-labile subunit on GH/IGF-I treatment and decreased concentrations on IGF-I alone. These results suggest that the combination of GH and IGF-I treatment is substantially more anabolic than either IGF-I or GH alone. GH/IGF-I treatment also attenuates the hypoglycemia caused by IGF-I alone. GH/IGF-I treatment could have important applications in diseases associated with catabolism.
S R Kupfer, L E Underwood, R C Baxter, D R Clemmons
Patients with terminal renal insufficiency suffer from an increased incidence of atherosclerotic diseases. Elevated plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] have been established as a genetically controlled risk factor for these diseases. Variable alleles at the apo(a) gene locus determine to a large extent the Lp(a) concentration in the general population. In addition, other genetic and nongenetic factors also contribute to the plasma concentrations of Lp(a). We therefore investigated Apo(a) phenotypes and Lp(a) plasma concentrations in a large group of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and in a control group. Lp(a) concentrations were significantly elevated in ESRD patients (20.1 +/- 20.3 mg/dl) as compared with the controls (12.1 +/- 15.5 mg/dl, P < 0.001). However, no difference was found in apo(a) isoform frequency between the ESRD group and the controls. Interestingly, only patients with large size apo(a) isoforms exhibited two- to fourfold elevated levels of Lp(a), whereas the small-size isoforms had similar concentrations in ESRD patients and controls. Beside elevated Lp(a) concentrations, ESRD patients had lower levels of plasma cholesterol and apolipoprotein B. These results show that elevated Lp(a) plasma levels might significantly contribute to the risk for atherosclerotic diseases in ESRD. They further indicate that nongenetic factors related to renal insufficiency or other genes beside the apo(a) structural gene locus must be responsible for the high Lp(a) levels.
H Dieplinger, C Lackner, F Kronenberg, C Sandholzer, K Lhotta, F Hoppichler, H Graf, P König
To examine the influence of variable region sequences on the capacity of individual lupus autoantibodies (autoAb) to form glomerular immune deposits, the complete VH and VL region sequences of three anti-DNA mAb that produced morphologically similar immune deposits after administration to normal mice were determined. The Ig were independently derived from 1-mo-old (H238, IgM), 3-mo-old (H8, IgG2a), and 6-mo-old (H161, IgG3) MRL-lpr/lpr mice, and they all produced subendothelial and mesangial immune deposits after passive transfer to normal mice. In addition, H238 and H161 produced granular deposits in small extraglomerular vessels. The mAb had nearly identical VH gene sequences; H8 differed from H238 and H161 by a single nucleotide in FR1 that resulted in a histidine for glutamine substitution. This VH gene sequence was also > 99% homologous to another anti-DNA Ab (termed H241), that we previously reported to produce glomerular immune deposits in a similar morphologic pattern. H161 and H238 were encoded by DFL16 and JH2 genes, whereas H8 was encoded by a JH4 gene. Different Vk family genes were used to encode the three mAb, however H161 and H238 both used a Jk5 gene. The results indicate that an identical or highly related VH gene is used to encode a subgroup of murine lupus autoAb that share immune deposit forming properties. Furthermore, they raise the possibility that amino acid residues independent from those encoded by VH genes may be influential in immune deposit formation at extraglomerular sites.
M S Katz, M H Foster, M P Madaio
We recently reported a novel intracellular mechanism of renal Na-K-ATPase regulation by agents that increase cell cAMP, which involves protein kinase A-phospholipase A2 and is mediated by one or more arachidonic acid metabolites (Satoh, T., H. T. Cohen, and A. I. Katz. 1992. J. Clin. Invest. 89:1496). The present studies were, therefore, designed to assess the role of eicosanoids in the modulation of Na-K-ATPase activity in the rat cortical collecting duct. The effect of various cAMP agonists (dopamine, fenoldopam, vasopressin, forskolin, and dibutyryl cAMP), which inhibited the pump to a similar extent (approximately 50%), was independent of altered Na entry as it was elicited in the presence of amiloride or nystatin, or when NaCl was replaced with choline Cl. This effect was completely blocked by SKF 525A or ethoxyresorufin, two inhibitors of the cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase pathway, or by pretreating the animals with CoCl2, which depletes cytochrome P450. Equimolar concentrations (10(-7) M) of the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin or meclofenamate caused only a partial inhibition of the cAMP agonists' effect on the pump, whereas nordihydroguaiaretic acid or A 63162, two inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway, were without effect. Furthermore, two products of this pathway, leukotriene B4 and leukotriene D4, had no effect on Na-K-ATPase activity, and ICI 198615, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, did not alter pump inhibition by cAMP agonists. Several P450 monoxygenase arachidonic acid metabolites (5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid; 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid; 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid; and 12(R)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) as well as PGE2 inhibited the Na:K pump in dose-dependent manner, but the effect of PGE2 was blocked when Na availability was altered, whereas that of 12(R)-HETE remained unchanged. We conclude that the cytochrome P450-monooxygenase pathway of the arachidonic acid cascade plays a major role in the modulation of Na:K pump activity by eicosanoids in the rat cortical collecting duct, and that products of the cyclooxygenase pathway may contribute to pump inhibition indirectly, by decreasing intracellular Na.
T Satoh, H T Cohen, A I Katz
We have previously reported that inhibition of human CFU-erythroid (E) colony formation by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is an indirect effect mediated by a soluble factor released from a fraction of marrow accessory cells which are predominantly stromal elements (Means, R. T., Jr., E. N. Dessypris, and S. B. Krantz. 1990. J. Clin. Invest. 86:538-541). Further studies reported here identify a mediator of this effect. The inhibitory effect of recombinant TNF on marrow CFU-E is ablated by neutralizing antibodies to human beta IFN, but not by antibodies to gamma IFN or IL-1. Anti-beta IFN also neutralizes the inhibitory effect of conditioned medium prepared from marrow cells exposed to TNF. Human beta IFN inhibits colony formation by unpurified marrow CFU-E as well as highly purified CFU-E generated from peripheral blood progenitors, and limiting dilution analysis shows that this is a direct inhibitory effect. TNF has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the anemia of chronic diseases since blood TNF levels are elevated in many patients with this syndrome, and since exposure to TNF produces a similar anemia in either humans or mice. The present study demonstrates that beta IFN is a required mediator of this inhibitory effect on erythropoiesis.
R T Means Jr, S B Krantz
In hemodialysis patients, erythropoietin increases hemoglobin, but often the corresponding increase in peak oxygen uptake is low. The disproportionality may be caused by impaired energy metabolism. 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to study muscle energy metabolism in 11 hemodialysis patients, 11 renal transplant recipients, and 9 controls. Measurements were obtained during rest, static hand-grip, and rhythmic hand-grip; recoveries were followed to baseline. During static hand-grip, there were no between-group differences in phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), or PCr/(PCr + Pi), although intracellular pH was higher in hemodialysis patients than transplant recipients. During rhythmic hand-grip, hemodialysis patients exhibited greater fatigue than transplant recipients or controls, and more reduction in PCr/(PCr + Pi) than transplant recipients. Intracellular pH was higher in controls than either hemodialysis patients or transplant recipients. Recoveries from both exercises were similar in all groups, indicating that subnormal oxidative metabolism was not caused by inability to make ATP. The rhythmic data suggest transplantation normalizes PCr/(PCr + Pi), but not pH. In hemodialysis patients, subnormal oxidative metabolism is apparently caused by limited exchange of metabolites between blood and muscle, rather than intrinsic oxidative defects in skeletal muscle.
G E Moore, L A Bertocci, P L Painter
Fetal lung development progresses in a sex-specific manner with male fetuses exhibiting delayed maturation. Androgens, both exogenous and endogenous, inhibit while epidermal growth factor (EGF) enhances fetal lung development. We hypothesized that one mechanism responsible for the delay in male fetal lung development is an androgen-induced delay in EGF receptor binding activity. We measured EGF binding in sex-specific fetal rabbit lung plasma membranes isolated from control fetuses (days 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, and 30 of gestation) and from androgen-treated fetuses (days 21, 23, and 27 of gestation) that had been continuously exposed in vivo to exogenous 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone from day 12 through 27 of gestation. Specific binding of EGF was significantly lower in male than in female fetal lung tissue isolated from controls at day 21 of gestation. Scatchard analysis revealed that this decrease in EGF binding was associated with decreased EGF receptor density without any significant change in affinity. Prenatal exogenous androgen treatment led to decreased EGF binding in fetal rabbit lung tissue from both sexes secondary to a decrease in EGF receptor density. These findings suggest that one mechanism responsible for the delay in male fetal lung maturation is an androgen-induced delay in EGF receptor binding activity during fetal lung development.
J M Klein, H C Nielsen
When pancreatic islets isolated from rats infused for 48-72 h with a hypertonic solution of D-glucose were incubated for two successive periods of 10 min each, in the presence first of 16.7 mM and then 2.8 mM D-[U-14C]glucose, the total output of L-lactic acid during the second incubation was as high as that recorded during the first incubation, while the specific radioactivity of L-lactic acid dramatically decreased during the second incubation. In islets from normoglycemic rats, however, the total output of L-lactic acid decreased and its specific radioactivity modestly increased as the concentration of D-glucose was lowered from 16.7 to 2.8 mM. Such contrasting results indicate that in the glycogen-rich islets isolated from glucose-infused rats, the fall in extracellular D-glucose concentration was not accompanied by a parallel fall in glycolytic flux, the decreased utilization of exogenous D-[U-14C]glucose coinciding with stimulation of glycogenolysis. This unusual metabolic situation also coincided with a transient and paradoxical stimulation of insulin release in response to the decrease in extracellular D-glucose concentration. It is proposed, therefore, that the interference of glycogenolysis with glycolysis in pancreatic islets from glucose-infused rats participates in the paradoxical changes in insulin output which represent a typical feature of B-cell glucotoxicity.
W J Malaisse, C Maggetto, V Leclercq-Meyer, A Sener
Relaxation of the trabecular smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum (the erectile tissue) of the penis is mediated by nitric oxide released by the nerves and endothelium. We have investigated the physiological role of oxygen tension in the regulation of trabecular smooth muscle tone. In human subjects, measurement of intracavernosal PO2 in blood drawn from corpus cavernosum in the flaccid state was comparable to that of venous blood (25-43 mmHg). Vasodilatation of the resistance arteries and trabecular smooth muscle relaxation by intracavernosal injection of papaverine and phentolamine caused oxygen tension to rise rapidly to arterial levels (PO2 approximately 100 mmHg). Isolated human and rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue strips in organ baths, exposed to arterial-like PO2 relaxed to the endothelium-dependent dilator acetylcholine and to electrical stimulation of the autonomic dilator nerves. These nitric oxide-mediated responses were progressively inhibited as a function of decreasing PO2 to levels measured in the flaccid penis. Reverting to normoxic conditions readily restored endothelium-dependent and neurogenic relaxation. Relaxation to exogenous nitric oxide was not impaired in low PO2. In rabbit corpus cavernosum, low PO2 reduced basal levels of cGMP and prevented cGMP accumulation induced by stimulation of dilator nerves. Furthermore, low PO2 inhibited nitric oxide synthase activity in corpus cavernosum cytosol. It is concluded that physiological concentrations of oxygen modulate penile erection by regulating nitric oxide synthesis in corpus cavernosum tissue.
N Kim, Y Vardi, H Padma-Nathan, J Daley, I Goldstein, I Saenz de Tejada
Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an atherogenic lipoprotein which is similar in structure to, but metabolically distinct from, LDL. Factors regulating plasma concentrations of Lp(a) are poorly understood. Apo(a), the protein that distinguishes Lp(a) from LDL, is highly polymorphic, and apo(a) size is inversely correlated with plasma Lp(a) level. Even within the same apo(a) isoform class, however, plasma Lp(a) concentrations vary widely. A series of in vivo kinetic studies were performed using purified radiolabeled Lp(a) in individuals with the same apo(a) isoform but different Lp(a) levels. In a group of seven subjects with a single S4-apo(a) isoform and Lp(a) levels ranging from 1 to 13.2 mg/dl, the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of 131I-labeled S2-Lp(a) (mean 0.328 day-1) was not correlated with the plasma Lp(a) level (r = -0.346, P = 0.45). In two S4-apo(a) subjects with a 10-fold difference in Lp(a) level, the FCR's of 125I-labeled S4-Lp(a) were very similar in both subjects and not substantially different from the FCRs of 131I-S2-Lp(a) in the same subjects. In four subjects with a single S2-apo(a) isoform and Lp(a) levels ranging from 9.4 to 91 mg/dl, Lp(a) concentration was highly correlated with Lp(a) production rate (r = 0.993, P = 0.007), but poorly correlated with Lp(a) FCR (mean 0.304 day-1). Analysis of Lp(a) kinetic parameters in all 11 subjects revealed no significant correlation of Lp(a) level with Lp(a) FCR (r = -0.53, P = 0.09) and a strong correlation with Lp(a) production rate (r = 0.99, P < 0.0001). We conclude that the substantial variation in Lp(a) levels among individuals with the same apo(a) phenotype is caused primarily by differences in Lp(a) production rate.
D J Rader, W Cain, L A Zech, D Usher, H B Brewer Jr
In 16 members of two Austrian families affected by a missense mutation at codon 188 of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene (8 heterozygous and 8 normal subjects), carrier status for the mutation as determined by DNA analysis was related to LPL activity in postheparin plasma, to the magnitude of postprandial lipemia, and to concentration, composition, and size of the major lipoprotein classes of postabsorptive plasma. Carriers exhibited clearly reduced LPL activity, normal fasting triglycerides, but pronounced postprandial lipemia. The carriers' impaired triglyceride tolerance, as evident in the postprandial state of challenge only, was associated with a fasting lipoprotein constellation characterized by (a) enrichment of HDL2 with triglycerides, (b) reduced HDL2-cholesterol, (c) enrichment of VLDL and intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) with cholesteryl esters, (d) elevated IDL levels, and (e) small-sized LDL. Within any given individual, the degrees of expression of these characteristics were quantitatively and continuously related with each other as well as with the magnitude of lipemia and with LPL activity.
G Miesenböck, B Hölzl, B Föger, E Brandstätter, B Paulweber, F Sandhofer, J R Patsch
The time course of oxidative stress and tissue damage in zonal liver ischemia-reperfusion in rat liver in vivo was evaluated. After 180 min of ischemia, surface chemiluminescence decreased to zero, state 3 mitochondrial respiration decreased by 70-80%, and xanthine oxidase activity increased by 26% without change in the water content and in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. After reperfusion, marked increases in oxyradical production and tissue damage were detected. Mitochondrial oxygen uptake in state 3 and respiratory control as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and the level of nonenzymatic antioxidants (evaluated by the hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence) were decreased. The severity of the post-reperfusion changes correlated with the time of ischemia. Morphologically, hepatocytes appeared swollen with zonal cord disarrangement which ranged from mild to severe for the tissue reperfused after 60-180 min of ischemia. Neutrophil infiltration was observed after 180 min of ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion. Mitochondria appear as the major source of hydrogen peroxide in control and in reperfused liver, as indicated by the almost complete inhibition of hydrogen peroxide production exerted by the uncoupler carbonylcyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone. Additionally, inhibition of mitochondrial electron transfer by antimycin in liver slices reproduced the inhibition of state 3 mitochondrial respiration and the increase in hydrogen peroxide steady-state concentration found in reperfused liver. Increased rates of oxyradical production by inhibited mitochondria appear as the initial cause of oxidative stress and liver damage during early reperfusion in rat liver.
B González-Flecha, J C Cutrin, A Boveris
Adaptation to stress requires coordinated interactions between the vascular and endocrine systems. Previously we demonstrated that restraint stress induces the expression of the major heat shock protein, HSP70, in the adrenal cortex of the rat. Here we demonstrate that restraint also induces expression of HSP70 in the vasculature. We further demonstrate that the adrenal and vascular responses are differentially regulated: the adrenal response is adrenocorticotropin dependent, whereas the vascular response is under adrenergic control. In addition, the adrenal response is restricted to members of the HSP70 gene family, whereas in vascular tissue the low molecular weight HSP, HSP27, is also induced by restraint. Further characterization of the vascular response revealed that HSP70 induction occurred in both the thoracic and abdominal aortas as well as in the vena cava. However, no HSP70 induction was apparent in the heart or in a wide variety of other tissues examined. In situ hybridization showed that the vascular expression was localized to the aortic smooth muscle cells with minimal expression in the endothelium. Induction of HSP70 mRNA in both the adrenal cortex and aorta was followed by an elevation in HSP70 protein. Maximum HSP70 protein levels were seen within 3-12 h after restraint, but declined thereafter. Stress induced HSP70 expression was dramatically reduced with age, which may explain, in part, the diminished tolerance to stress seen in elderly individuals.
R Udelsman, M J Blake, C A Stagg, D G Li, D J Putney, N J Holbrook
Severe infection is characterized by a translocation of amino acids from the periphery to the liver, an event that is mediated in part by cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). We investigated the activities of Na(+)-dependent transport systems A, ASC, and N in hepatic plasma membrane vesicles (HPMVs) prepared from rats treated with TNF in vivo. TNF did not alter sodium uptake but resulted in time- and dose-dependent fivefold and 50% maximal increases in system A and system N activity, respectively, in HPMVs secondary to an increase in the transport Vmax. Maximal increases in transport were observed 4 h after exposure to TNF and had returned to basal levels within 24 h. Similarly, system ASC activity was stimulated 80% in HPMVs from rats treated with TNF. Incubation of HPMVs from normal rats in vitro with TNF did not alter transport activity. Pretreatment of animals with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU 38486 attenuated the TNF-induced enhancement in transport activity by 50%. The marked increase in Na(+)-dependent amino acid transport activity by TNF is mediated in part by the glucocorticoid hormones and represents an important mechanism underlying the accelerated hepatic amino acid uptake that occurs during critical illness.
A J Pacitti, Y Inoue, W W Souba
Seven non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients participated in three clamp studies performed with [3-3H]- and [U-14C]glucose and indirect calorimetry: study I, euglycemic (5.2 +/- 0.1 mM) insulin (269 +/- 39 pM) clamp; study II, hyperglycemic (14.9 +/- 1.2 mM) insulin (259 +/- 19 pM) clamp; study III, euglycemic (5.5 +/- 0.3 mM) hyperinsulinemic (1650 +/- 529 pM) clamp. Seven control subjects received a euglycemic (5.1 +/- 0.2 mM) insulin (258 +/- 24 pM) clamp. Glycolysis and glucose oxidation were quantitated from the rate of appearance of 3H2O and 14CO2; glycogen synthesis was calculated as the difference between body glucose disposal and glycolysis. In study I, glucose uptake was decreased by 54% in NIDDM vs. controls. Glycolysis, glycogen synthesis, and glucose oxidation were reduced in NIDDM patients (P < 0.05-0.001). Nonoxidative glycolysis and lipid oxidation were higher. In studies II and III, glucose uptake in NIDDM was equal to controls (40.7 +/- 2.1 and 40.7 +/- 1.7 mumol/min.kg fat-free mass, respectively). In study II, glycolysis, but not glucose oxidation, was normal (P < 0.01 vs. controls). Nonoxidative glycolysis remained higher (P < 0.05). Glycogen deposition increased (P < 0.05 vs. study I), and lipid oxidation remained higher (P < 0.01). In study III, hyperinsulinemia normalized glycogen formation, glycolysis, and lipid oxidation but did not normalize the elevated nonoxidative glycolysis or the decreased glucose oxidation. Lipid oxidation and glycolysis (r = -0.65; P < 0.01), and glucose oxidation (r = -0.75; P < 0.01) were inversely correlated. In conclusion, in NIDDM: (a) insulin resistance involves glycolysis, glycogen synthesis, and glucose oxidation; (b) hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia can normalize total body glucose uptake; (c) marked hyperinsulinemia normalizes glycogen synthesis and total flux through glycolysis, but does not restore a normal distribution between oxidation and nonoxidative glycolysis; (d) hyperglycemia cannot overcome the defects in glucose oxidation and nonoxidative glycolysis; (e) lipid oxidation is elevated and is suppressed only with hyperinsulinemia.
S Del Prato, R C Bonadonna, E Bonora, G Gulli, A Solini, M Shank, R A DeFronzo
We investigated the effects of glutathione (GSH), the major naturally occurring thiol, and a pharmacologic thiol precursor of GSH, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), on the expression of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) in primary cord blood and adult donor monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). HIV-1 infection of cord blood and adult MDM was accomplished after incubating 10-15-d-old cultures for 4 h with a monocyte-tropic strain of HIV-1 (Bal). After 1 wk in culture cell supernatants were tested for reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. MDM were exposed to 5, 10 and 20 mM concentrations of both GSH and NAC before infection, during infection, and after infection was established. GSH and NAC suppressed the replication of HIV-1 in both primary cord blood and adult donor MDM in a concentration dependent fashion. These suppressive effects were more pronounced in cord-derived cells than in adult-derived cells. In cells treated with GSH or NAC before infection, there was no significant rise in RT activity as compared with controls. Similarly, when cells were treated with GSH and NAC and simultaneously infected, there was also no significant rise in RT activity after 1 wk in culture. In cells treated after infection was established, RT values were suppressed 80-90% that of untreated controls. This effect persisted for 1-2 wk after exposure to GSH and NAC. Untreated controls demonstrated syncytium formation and lost characteristics of spreading and elongation 2 wk after HIV-1 infection, whereas most of the treated cells remained free of syncytium and retained cytoplasmic spreading, adherence, and elongation. These data are consistent with other studies of thiol suppression of HIV-1 replication and demonstrate a similar observation for primary cultured cord MDM. These results may offer new approaches toward cellular protection after infection with HIV-1.
J Lioy, W Z Ho, J R Cutilli, R A Polin, S D Douglas
Tolerance to hyperoxia usually requires an increase of lung antioxidant enzyme (AOE) activity. We used rats with different degrees of tolerance to > 95% O2 to evaluate the importance of individual AOEs for tolerance; we also explored the regulation of AOE gene expression. During exposure of adult rats to > 95% O2, lung manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity fell approximately 50% despite a threefold increase of MnSOD mRNA concentration; addition of a reducing agent to lung extracts from O2-exposed rats partially restored MnSOD activity. Endotoxin induced tolerance to O2 (a) without elevating Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase activity, (b) with increases of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity of the same magnitude as occurred in O2-saline rats, but (c) with MnSOD activity 1.5-1.9-fold higher than in air-saline rats and 1.4-3.6-fold higher than in O2-saline rats. Endotoxin elevated the concentration of MnSOD and GP mRNAs without increasing their stability. O2 elevated MnSOD mRNA concentration, and increased its stability. O2 plus endotoxin increased the concentration and stability of MnSOD, catalase, and GP mRNAs. These data suggest that in adult rats tolerance to hyperoxia requires increased MnSOD activity; the data show gene expression and regulation vary among the AOEs, and that increased stability of the AOEs' mRNAs plays an important role in AOE gene expression and in tolerance to hyperoxia.
L B Clerch, D Massaro
Insulin resistance in Pima Indians appears to result from a post-receptor impairment of insulin signal transduction that affects only some responses to insulin. To identify the primary lesion responsible for insulin resistance, we investigated the influence of insulin on ribosomal protein S6 kinase activities in skeletal muscle of insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant nondiabetic Pima Indians during a 2-h hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp. In sensitive subjects, S6 kinase activity was transiently activated fivefold over basal activity by 45 min of insulin infusion. Although basal activities in the two groups were similar, the response to insulin was delayed and restricted to about threefold over basal in subjects resistant to insulin. Two major S6 kinase activities in extracts of human muscle were resolved by chromatography on Mono Q. Peak 1, which accounted for basal activity owes to an enzyme antigenically related to the 90-kD S6 kinase II, a member of the rsk gene family. The major insulin-stimulated S6 kinase eluted as peak 2 and is antigenically related to a 70-kD S6 kinase. Our results show that insulin resistance impairs signaling to the 70-kD S6 kinase.
J Sommercorn, R Fields, I Raz, R Maeda
Transmembrane transport of neutral amino acids in skeletal muscle is mediated by at least four different systems (system A, ASC, L, and Nm), and may be an important target for insulin's effects on amino acid and protein metabolism. We have measured net amino acid exchanges and fractional rates of inward (k(in), min-1) and outward (kout, min-1) transmembrane transport of 2-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB, a nonmetabolizable amino acid analogue, specific for system A amino acid transport) in forearm deep tissues (skeletal muscle), by combining the forearm perfusion technique and a novel dual tracer ([1-H3]-D-mannitol and 2-[1-14C]-methylaminoisobutyric acid) approach for measuring in vivo the activity of system A amino acid transport. Seven healthy lean subjects were studied. After a baseline period, insulin was infused into the brachial artery to achieve local physiologic hyperinsulinemia (76 +/- 8 microU/ml vs 6.4 +/- 1.6 microU/ml in the basal period, P < 0.01) without affecting systemic hormone and substrate concentrations. Insulin switched forearm amino acid exchange from a net output (-2,630 +/- 1,100 nmol/min per kig of forearm tissue) to a net uptake (1,610 +/- 600 nmol/min per kg, P < 0.01 vs baseline). Phenylalanine and tyrosine balances simultaneously shifted from a net output (-146 +/- 47 and -173 +/- 34 nmol/min per kg, respectively) to a zero balance (16.3 +/- 51 for phenylalanine and 15.5 +/- 14.3 nmol/min per kg for tyrosine, P < 0.01 vs baseline for both), showing that protein synthesis and breakdown were in equilibrium during hyperinsulinemia. Net negative balances of alanine, methionine, glycine, threonine and asparagine (typical substrates for system A amino acid transport) also were decreased by insulin, whereas serine (another substrate for system A transport) shifted from a zero balance to net uptake. Insulin increased k(in) of MeAIB from a basal value of 11.8.10(-2) +/- 1.7.10(-2).min-1 to 13.7.10(-2) +/- 2.2.10(-2).min-1 (P < 0.02 vs the postabsorptive value), whereas kout was unchanged. We conclude that physiologic hyperinsulinemia stimulates the activity of system A amino acid transport in human skeletal muscle, and that this effect may play a role in determining the overall concomitant response of muscle amino acid/protein metabolism to insulin.
R C Bonadonna, M P Saccomani, C Cobelli, R A DeFronzo
A 48-yr-old Caucasian female of central European origin (subject IM) with low plasma cholesterol and normal plasma triglyceride (TG) had extremely low apo A-I (6 mg/dl), A-II (5 mg/dl), and HDL cholesterol (2 mg/dl) levels. She had most of the clinical symptoms typically associated with Tangier disease, including early corneal opacities, yellow-streaked tonsils, hepatomegaly, and variable degrees of peripheral neuropathy, but had no splenomegaly. She had a myocardial infarction at age 46. Since HDL are postulated to be involved in the transport of excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for degradation, and the ability of an HDL particle to promote cellular cholesterol efflux appears to be related to its density, size, and apo A-I and A-II contents, we isolated and characterized the HDL particles of this patient and all her first degree relatives (mother, a brother, and two children). The plasma A-I, A-II, and HDL cholesterol levels of all five relatives were either normal or high. Using anti-A-I and anti-A-II immunosorbents, we found three populations of particles in IM: one contained both apo A-I and A-II, Lp(AI w AII); one contained apo A-I but no A-II, Lp(AI w/o AII); and the third (an unusual one) contained apo A-II but no A-I, Lp(AII). Two-thirds of her plasma A-I and A-II existed in separate HDL particles, i.e., in Lp(AI w/o AII) and Lp(AII), respectively. Only Lp(AI w AII) and Lp(AI w/o AII) were present in the plasma of the relatives. All three populations of the patient's HDL particles had a normal core/surface lipid ratio, but the cores were enriched with TG. The apo A-I-containing particles, however, were considerably smaller and contained much less lipid than Lp(AII). Despite these unusual physicochemical characteristics, the apo A-I-containing particles and Lp(AII) were effective suppressors of intracellular cholesterol esterification in cholesterol-loaded human skin fibroblast. The patient's plasma apo D and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase levels were reduced, with an increased proportion located in non-HDL plasma fractions. These findings are discussed in light of Tangier disease and other known HDL-deficiency cases, and the role of HDL in the maintenance of cell cholesterol homeostasis.
M C Cheung, A J Mendez, A C Wolf, R H Knopp
To determine whether the expression of the type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1) gene is developmentally regulated and whether the regulation is tissue specific, AT1 mRNA levels were determined by Northern blot analysis in livers and kidneys from fetal, newborn, and adult rats, using a 1133-bp rat AT1 cDNA. In the liver, AT1 mRNA levels increased fivefold from 15 d gestation to 5 d of age. Liver AT1 mRNA levels at 5 d of age were similar to those of adult rats. In the kidney, AT1 mRNA levels were higher in immature than in adult animals. The intrarenal distribution of AT1 mRNA was assessed by in situ hybridization to a 35S-labeled 24 residues oligonucleotide complementary to rat AT1 mRNA. In the adult, AT1 mRNA was present in glomeruli, arteries, and vasa recta, whereas in the newborn AT1 mRNA was observed also over the nephrogenic area of the cortex. We conclude that: (a) fetal kidney and liver express the AT1 gene; (b) the AT1 gene expression is developmentally regulated in a tissue-specific manner; (c) during maturation, localization of AT1 mRNA in the kidney shifts from a widespread distribution in the nephrogenic cortex to specific sites in glomeruli, arteries, and vasa recta, suggesting a role for the angiotensin receptor in nephron growth and development.
A Tufro-McReddie, J K Harrison, A D Everett, R A Gomez
We have examined the c-erbA beta thyroid hormone receptor gene in a kindred, G.H., with a member, patient G.H., who had a severe form of selective pituitary resistance to thyroid hormones (PRTH). This patient manifested inappropriately normal thyrotropin-stimulating hormone, markedly elevated serum free thyroxine (T4) and total triiodothyronine (T3), and clinical hyperthyroidism. The complete c-erbA beta 1 coding sequence was examined by a combination of genomic and cDNA cloning for patient G.H. and her unaffected father. A single mutation, a guanine to adenine transition at nucleotide 1,232, was found in one allele of both these members, altering codon 311 from arginine to histidine. In addition, a half-sister of patient G.H. also harbored this mutant allele and, like the father, was clinically normal. The G.H. receptor, synthesized with reticulocyte lysate, had significantly defective T3-binding activity with a Ka of approximately 5 x 10(8) M-1. RNA phenotyping using leukocytes and fibroblasts demonstrated an equal level of expression of wild-type and mutant alleles in patient G.H. and her unaffected father. Finally, the G.H. receptor had no detectable dominant negative activity in a transfection assay. Thus, in contrast to the many other beta-receptor mutants responsible for the generalized form of thyroid hormone resistance, the G.H. receptor appeared unable to antagonize normal receptor function. These results suggest that the arginine at codon 311 in c-erbA beta is crucial for the structural integrity required for dominant negative function. The ARG-311-HIS mutation may contribute to PRTH in patient G.H. by inactivating a beta-receptor allele, but it cannot be the sole cause of the disease.
M E Geffner, F Su, N S Ross, J M Hershman, C Van Dop, J B Menke, E Hao, R K Stanzak, T Eaton, H H Samuels
Tissue factor (TF) is a low molecular weight glycoprotein that initiates the clotting cascade and is considered to be a major regulator of coagulation, hemostasis, and thrombosis. TF is not expressed in the intima or media of normal adult blood vessels. Accordingly, it has been hypothesized that the initiation of intravascular coagulation may require the "induced" expression of TF in the vessel wall. We report that TF mRNA and protein are rapidly and markedly induced in early and late passaged vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) by growth factors (serum, platelet-derived growth factor, epidermal growth factor), vasoactive agonists (angiotensin II), and a clotting factor (alpha-thrombin). The induction of TF mRNA by these agents is dependent upon mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ and is blocked by Ca2+ chelation. In contrast to other growth factor-responsive genes, such as KC and c-fos, downregulation of protein kinase C activity by prolonged treatment with phorbol esters fails to block agonist-mediated TF induction. This raises the possibility that protein kinase C activation may not be necessary for TF mRNA induction in VSMC. VSMC may play a role in the generation or propagation of thrombus through the induction of TF, particularly in settings, such as those associated with acute vessel injury, where the endothelium is denuded and the VSMC are exposed to circulating blood.
M B Taubman, J D Marmur, C L Rosenfield, A Guha, S Nichtberger, Y Nemerson
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 and PDGF-B-like factors have been implicated in the pathobiology of RA and animal models of this disease. Since the receptors for FGF-1 and PDGF are tyrosine kinases, we examined the expression of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins (phosphotyrosine, P-Tyr) in synovial tissues from patients with RA and osteoarthritis (OA), and rats with streptococcal cell wall (SCW) and adjuvant arthritis (AA). Synovia from patients with RA and LEW/N rats with SCW and AA arthritis, in contrast to controls, stained intensely with anti-P-Tyr antibody. The staining colocalized with PDGF-B and FGF-1 staining. Comparative immunoblot analysis showed markedly enhanced expression of a 45-kD P-Tyr protein in the inflamed synovia. Treatment with physiological concentrations of dexamethasone suppressed both arthritis and P-Tyr expression in AA. P-Tyr was only transiently expressed in athymic nude Lewis rats and was not detected in relatively arthritis-resistant F344/N rats. These data suggest that (a) FGF-1 and PDGF-B-like factors are upregulated and may induce tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in vivo in inflammatory joint diseases, (b) persistent high level P-Tyr expression is T lymphocyte dependent, correlates with disease severity, and is strain dependent in rats, (c) corticosteroids, in physiological concentrations, downregulate P-Tyr expression in these lesions.
H Sano, K Engleka, P Mathern, T Hla, L J Crofford, E F Remmers, C L Jelsema, E Goldmuntz, T Maciag, R L Wilder
GM-CSF has been shown to be important for the survival and function of cells of dendritic cell/Langerhans cell (LC) lineage in vitro. Since these cells have been demonstrated to infiltrate human lung and some lung carcinomas, we hypothesized that the production of GM-CSF in the lung could be important in their recruitment and differentiation. Using both immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we have shown that: (a) GM-CSF was produced by normal bronchiolar epithelium, the only site were CD1a+ LC are observed in the normal lung, whereas neither GM-CSF production nor LC were identified in normal alveolar epithelium. (b) In inflamed pulmonary tissue, hyperplastic alveolar cells produced GM-CSF, and CD1a+ LC accumulated adjacent to these cells. (c) Some, but not all, lung carcinomas produced this cytokine, and a close correlation was found between the production of GM-CSF and the number of CD1a+ LC infiltrating these tumors. Since GM-CSF was produced at all sites where CD1a+ LC are known to accumulate, but not at other locations within the lung, these data suggest that the local production of GM-CSF by certain lung cells may play an important role in determining the distribution and differentiated state of dendritic cell/LC in the human lung.
A Tazi, F Bouchonnet, M Grandsaigne, L Boumsell, A J Hance, P Soler
Requirements for leukocyte adhesion molecules as well as cytokines have been determined in the rat model of acute nephrotoxic nephritis. Proteinuria (at 24 h) and neutrophil accumulation in renal glomeruli (at 6 h) have been used as the endpoints. For full accumulation in glomeruli of neutrophils as well as full development of proteinuria, requirements have been demonstrated for TNF alpha, (but not IL-1), CD11b (but not CD11a), very late arising-4 (CD49d/CD29), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 but not endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin). By immunohistochemical approaches, infusion of antibody to glomerular basement membrane induced glomerular upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1, and vascular adhesion molecule-1. Treatment of rats with anti-TNF alpha or soluble recombinant human TNF receptor-1 blocked this expression. Renal arterial infusion of TNF alpha induced glomerular expression of all three endothelial adhesion molecules, but infusion of IL-1 beta did not. These data suggest that, in neutrophil and complement-dependent anti-glomerular basement membrane-induced acute nephritis in rats, there are selective requirements for cytokines, beta 1 and beta 2 integrins, and endothelial adhesion molecules. These requirements contrast with those found in other vascular beds in which complement and neutrophil-induced vascular injury has been induced by deposition of immune complexes.
M S Mulligan, K J Johnson, R F Todd 3rd, T B Issekutz, M Miyasaka, T Tamatani, C W Smith, D C Anderson, P A Ward
Vascular remodeling in adult atherosclerotic pulmonary arteries is characterized by discrete areas of neointimal extracellular matrix gene expression, suggesting regulation by local factors. Though the factors responsible for inducing matrix gene expression in atherosclerotic lesions are largely unknown, several observations suggest macrophages may be a focal source of those factors. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of macrophages in the neointima of atherosclerotic elastic pulmonary arteries from patients with unexplained pulmonary hypertension. Areas of neointima containing dense clusters of macrophages were separated by sparsely populated areas. Foamy macrophages resided more deeply within the neointima than nonfoamy macrophages, which were found more often subjacent to the endothelium or within the lumenal one-third of the neointima. Combined immunohistochemistry-in situ hybridization indicated neointimal fibronectin and type I procollagen gene expression was intimately associated only with nonfoamy neointimal macrophages. These observations suggest that: (a) nonfoamy neointimal macrophages participate in the local regulation of extracellular matrix gene expression in atherosclerotic pulmonary arteries; (b) foamy macrophages, which are not associated with matrix gene expression, have undergone modulation of their secretory phenotype.
M J Liptay, W C Parks, R P Mecham, J Roby, L R Kaiser, J D Cooper, M D Botney
Classical stimulus-secretion theory suggests that each individual cell responds to a given stimulus. We tested this theory by determining the response of single bovine parathyroid cells to calcium with the reverse hemolytic plaque assay (RHPA), an assay that measures hormone release from individual cells. As calcium concentrations decreased, the amount of parathyroid hormone (PTH) released per cell increased, and cells were recruited to release PTH. To confirm that adequate stores of PTH were present, immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization were performed. To test if cells that did not release PTH were capable of secretion, we performed a sequential RHPA; 47.8% of cells did not release PTH after the first stimulus. After the second exposure to low concentrations of calcium, 26.5% of these "nonsecretory" cells were able to release PTH. We conclude that parathyroid cells are homogeneous for PTH content and synthetic capability. Parathyroid cells respond to changes in extracellular calcium heterogeneously in that more PTH per cell is released, and individual parathyroid cells are "recruited" to release PTH at low calcium concentrations. In addition, parathyroid cells can be induced to secrete suggesting that cells are viable but in a depressed secretory state. Parathyroid cells may exist in an "on" or "off" secretory state.
F Sun, C K Ritchie, C Hassager, P Maercklein, L A Fitzpatrick
S Takei, Y K Arora, S M Walker
T R Cummins, C Jiang, G G Haddad
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which myelin proteins have been implicated as autoantigens recognized by pathogenic autoreactive T cells. To study the relationship between human myelin basic protein (hMBP) and HLA alleles associated to MS susceptibility, such as DRB1*1501, the binding of synthetic peptides spanning the entire hMBP sequence to 10 purified HLA-DR molecules was determined. All the hMBP peptides tested showed binding affinity for at least one of the DR molecules analyzed, but three hMBP peptides, included in sequences 13-32, 84-103, and 144-163 were found capable of binding to three or more DR molecules. The hMBP peptide 84-103 was the most degenerate in binding, in that it bound to 9 out of 10 DR molecules tested. Interestingly, it bound with highest affinity to DRB1*1501 molecules. To correlate the binding pattern of hMBP peptides to HLA class II molecules with their recognition by T cells, 61 hMBP-specific T cell lines (TCL) were established from the peripheral blood of 20 MS patients, who were homozygous, heterozygous, or negative for DRB1*1501. Analysis of hMBP epitopes recognized by these TCL and their HLA restriction demonstrated a very good correlation between binding data and T cell proliferation to hMBP peptides. Although virtually all hMBP peptides tested could be recognized by at least one TCL from MS patients, three immunodominant T cell epitopes were apparent among the TCL examined, corresponding exactly to the hMBP peptides capable of binding to several DR molecules. No major difference could be detected in the recognition of immunodominant hMBP peptides by TCL from DRB1*1501 positive or negative MS patients. These results have implications for the role of hMBP as relevant autoantigen, and of DRB1*1501 as susceptibility allele in MS.
A Valli, A Sette, L Kappos, C Oseroff, J Sidney, G Miescher, M Hochberger, E D Albert, L Adorini
The discovery of a specific high-affinity growth hormone (GH) binding protein (GH-BP) in plasma adds complexity to the dynamics of GH secretion and clearance. Intuitive predictions are that such a protein would damp sharp oscillations in GH concentrations otherwise caused by bursts of GH secretion into the blood volume, prolong the apparent half-life of circulating GH, and contribute a reservoir function. To test these implicit considerations, we formulated an explicit mathematical model of pulsatile GH secretion and clearance in the presence of absence of a specific high-affinity GH-BP. Simulation experiments revealed that the pulsatile mode of physiological GH secretion creates a highly dynamic (nonequilibrium) system, in which the half-life of free GH, its instantaneous secretion rate, and the GH-BP affinity and capacity all contribute to defining momentary levels of free, bound, and total GH, the percentage of GH bound to protein, and the percentage occupancy of GH-BP [corrected]. In contrast, the amount of free GH at equilibrium is specified only by the GH distribution volume and secretion rate and the half-life of free hormone. We conclude that the in vivo dynamics of GH secretion, trapping, and clearance from the circulation offer a variety of regulatory loci at which the time structure of free, bound, and total GH delivery to target tissues can be controlled physiologically.
J D Veldhuis, M L Johnson, L M Faunt, M Mercado, G Baumann
Previous studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in regulation of renal vascular tone and sodium handling. We questioned whether the effects of NO synthase inhibition on renal function are direct or due to increased renal perfusion pressure (RPP) and whether stimulation of endogenous NO activity plays a role in adaptation to increased dietary salt intake. Intrarenal arterial infusion of the NO synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) in control rats resulted in decreased glomerular filtration rate, renal vasoconstriction, natriuresis, and proteinuria. When RPP was held at basal levels with suprarenal aortic snare, L-NMMA had similar hemodynamic effects but decreased sodium excretion and did not induce proteinuria. Exposure of rats to high salt intake (1% NaCl drinking water) for 2 wk induced increased serum concentration and urinary excretion of the NO decomposition products, NO2 + NO3. Urinary NO2 + NO3 and sodium excretion were significantly correlated. Compared with controls, chronically salt-loaded rats also demonstrated enhanced renal hemodynamic responses to NO synthase inhibition. We conclude that the endogenous NO system directly modulates renal hemodynamics and sodium handling and participates in the renal adaptation to increased dietary salt intake. Enhanced NO synthesis in response to increased salt intake may facilitate sodium excretion and allow maintenance of normal blood pressure.
P J Shultz, J P Tolins
Earlier studies demonstrated that dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation attenuates the chemotactic response of neutrophils and the generation of leukotriene (LT) B4 by neutrophils stimulated with calcium ionophore; however, the mechanisms and relationship of these effects were not examined. Neutrophils and monocytes from eight healthy individuals were examined before and after 3 and 10 wk of dietary supplementation with 20 g SuperEPA daily, which provides 9.4 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 5 g docosahexaenoic acid. The maximal neutrophil chemotactic response to LTB4, assessed in Boyden microchambers, decreased by 69% after 3 wk and by 93% after 10 wk from prediet values. The formation of [3H]inositol tris-phosphate (IP3) by [3H]inositol-labeled neutrophils stimulated by LTB4 decreased by 71% after 3 wk (0.033 +/- 0.013% [3H] release, mean +/- SEM) and by 90% after 10 wk (0.011 +/- 0.011%) from predict values (0.114 +/- 0.030%) as quantitated by beta-scintillation counting after resolution on HPLC. LTB4-stimulated neutrophil chemotaxis and IP3 formation correlated significantly (P < 0.0001); each response correlated closely and negatively with the EPA content of the neutrophil phosphatidylinositol (PI) pool (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.0005, respectively). Neither the affinities and densities of the high and low affinity LTB4 receptors on neutrophils nor LTB4-mediated diglyceride formation changed appreciably during the study. Similar results were observed in neutrophils activated with platelet-activating factor (PAF). The summed formation of LTB4 plus LTB5 was selectively inhibited in calcium ionophore-stimulated neutrophils and was also inhibited in zymosan-stimulated neutrophils. The inhibition of the summed formation of LTB4 plus LTB5 in calcium ionophore-stimulated neutrophils and in zymosan-stimulated neutrophils did not correlate significantly with the EPA content of the PI pool. The data indicate that dietary omega-3 PUFA supplementation inhibits the autoamplification of the neutrophil inflammatory response by decreasing LTB4 formation through the inactivation of the LTA epoxide hydrolase and independently by inhibiting LTB4- (and PAF) stimulated chemotaxis by attenuating the formation of IP3 by the PI-selective phospholipase C. This is the initial demonstration that dietary omega-3 PUFA supplementation can suppress signal transduction at the level of the PI-specific phospholipase C in humans.
R I Sperling, A I Benincaso, C T Knoell, J K Larkin, K F Austen, D R Robinson
In humans, familial or idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) is a common cause of hypercalciuria and predisposes to calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Intestinal calcium hyperabsorption is a constant feature of IH and may be due to either a vitamin D-independent process in the intestine, a primary overproduction of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], or a defect in renal tubular calcium reabsorption. Selective breeding of spontaneously hypercalciuric male and female Sprague-Dawley rats resulted in offspring with hypercalciuria, increased intestinal calcium absorption, and normal serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels. The role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the regulation of intestinal calcium absorption was explored in 10th generation male genetic IH rats and normocalciuric controls. Urine calcium excretion was greater in IH rats than controls (2.9 +/- 0.3 vs. 0.7 +/- 0.2 mg/24 h, P < 0.001). IH rat intestine contained twice the abundance of VDR compared with normocalciuric controls (536 +/- 73 vs. 243 +/- 42 nmol/mg protein, P < 0.001), with no difference in the affinity of the receptor for its ligand. Comparable migration of IH and normal intestinal VDR on Western blots and of intestinal VDR mRNA by Northern analysis suggests that the VDR in IH rat intestine is not due to large deletion or addition mutations of the wild-type VDR. IH rat intestine contained greater concentrations of vitamin D-dependent calbindin 9-kD protein. The present studies strongly suggest that increased intestinal VDR number and normal levels of circulating 1,25(OH)2D3 result in increased functional VDR-1,25(OH)2D3 complexes, which exert biological actions in enterocytes to increase intestinal calcium transport. Intestinal calcium hyperabsorption in the IH rat may be the first example of a genetic disorder resulting from a pathologic increase in VDR.
X Q Li, V Tembe, G M Horwitz, D A Bushinsky, M J Favus
We report the results of feeding oleate- or linoleate-enriched diets for 8 wk to mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects and the resulting alterations in composition and functional properties of their plasma LDL and HDL. LDL isolated from subjects on oleate-enriched diets was less susceptible to copper-mediated oxidation, as measured by conjugated diene and lipid peroxide formation, and less susceptible to LDL-protein modification, as evidenced by reduced LDL macrophage degradation after copper- or endothelial cell-induced oxidation. For all subjects, the percentage of 18:2 in LDL correlated strongly with the extent of conjugated diene formation (r = 0.89, P < 0.01) and macrophage degradation (r = 0.71, P < 0.01). Oxidation of LDL led to initial rapid depletion of unsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids followed by extensive loss of unsaturated fatty acids in cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Changes in HDL fatty acid composition also occurred. However, HDL from both dietary groups retained its ability to inhibit oxidative modification of LDL. This study demonstrates that alterations in dietary fatty acid composition can effectively alter the fatty acid distribution of LDL and HDL in hypercholesterolemic subjects and that susceptibility to LDL oxidation is altered by these changes. Substitution of monounsaturated (rather than polyunsaturated) fatty acids for saturated fatty acids in the diet might be preferable for the prevention of atherosclerosis.
P Reaven, S Parthasarathy, B J Grasse, E Miller, D Steinberg, J L Witztum
The presence of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency in six probands from five families originating from four different countries was confirmed by the absence or near absence of LCAT activity. Also, other invariate symptoms of LCAT deficiency, a significant increase of unesterified cholesterol in plasma lipoproteins and the reduction of plasma HDL-cholesterol to levels below one-tenth of normal, were present in all probands. In the probands from two families, no mass was detectable, while in others reduced amounts of LCAT mass indicated the presence of a functionally inactive protein. Sequence analysis identified homozygous missense or nonsense mutations in four probands. Two probands from one family both were found to be compound heterozygotes for a missense mutation and for a single base insertion causing a reading frame-shift. Subsequent family analyses were carried out using mutagenic primers for carrier identification. LCAT activity and LCAT mass in 23 genotypic heterozygotes were approximately half normal and clearly distinct from those of 20 unaffected family members. In the homozygous patients no obvious relationship between residual LCAT activity and the clinical phenotype was seen. The observation that the molecular defects in LCAT deficiency are dispersed in different regions of the enzyme suggests the existence of several functionally important structural domains in this enzyme.
H Funke, A von Eckardstein, P H Pritchard, A E Hornby, H Wiebusch, C Motti, M R Hayden, C Dachet, B Jacotot, U Gerdes
The lack of HLA class I antigen expression by the melanoma cell line SK-MEL-33 is caused by a unique lesion in beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-mu). Sequencing of beta 2-mu mRNA detected a guanosine deletion at position 323 in codon 76 that causes a frameshift with a subsequent introduction of a stop codon at a position 54 base upstream of the normal position of the stop codon in the message. The loss of 18 amino acids and the change of 6 amino acids, including a cysteine at position 80 in the carboxy terminus of beta 2-mu, are likely to cause marked changes in the structure of the polypeptide. The latter may account for the inability of beta 2-mu to associate with HLA class I heavy chains and for its lack of reactivity with the anti-beta 2-mu mAb tested. HLA class I antigen expression on SK-MEL-33 cells was reconstituted after transfection with a wild-type B2m gene, therefore indicating that the abnormality of endogenous B2m gene is the only mechanism underlying lack of HLA class I antigen expression by SK-MEL-33 cells. The guanosine deletion in B2m gene was detected also in the melanoma tissue from which SK-MEL-33 cells had originated. Therefore, the molecular lesion identified in the SK-MEL-33 melanoma cell line is not caused by a mutation acquired during growth in vitro but is likely to reflect a somatic mutation during tumor progression.
Z Wang, Y Cao, A P Albino, R A Zeff, A Houghton, S Ferrone
We demonstrated recently that isoproterenol enhanced the cardiac voltage-dependent sodium currents (INa) in rabbit ventricular myocytes through dual G-protein regulatory pathways. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that isoproterenol reverses the sodium channel blocking effects of class I antiarrhythmic drugs through modulation of INa. The experiments were performed in rabbit ventricular myocytes using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Reversal of lidocaine suppression of INa by isoproterenol (1 microM) was significant at various concentrations of lidocaine (20, 65, and 100 microM, P < 0.05). The effects of isoproterenol were voltage dependent, showing reversal of INa suppression by lidocaine at normal and hyperpolarized potentials (negative to -80 mV) but not at depolarized potentials. Isoproterenol enhanced sodium channel availability but did not alter the steady state activation or inactivation of INa nor did it improve sodium channel recovery in the presence of lidocaine. The physiological significance of the single cell INa findings were corroborated by measurements of conduction velocities using an epicardial mapping system in isolated rabbit hearts. Lidocaine (10 microM) significantly suppressed epicardial impulse conduction in both longitudinal (theta L, 0.430 +/- 0.024 vs. 0.585 +/- 0.001 m/s at baseline, n = 7, P < 0.001) and transverse (theta T, 0.206 +/- 0.012 vs. 0.257 +/- 0.014 m/s at baseline, n = 8, P < 0.001) directions. Isoproterenol (0.05 microM) significantly reversed the lidocaine effects with theta L of 0.503 +/- 0.027 m/s and theta T of 0.234 +/- 0.015 m/s (P = 0.014 and 0.004 compared with the respective lidocaine measurements). These results suggest that enhancement of INa is an important mechanism by which isoproterenol reverses the effects of class I antiarrhythmic drugs.
H C Lee, J J Matsuda, S I Reynertson, J B Martins, E F Shibata
Iron-dependent free radical reactions and renal ischemia are believed to be critical mediators of myohemoglobinuric acute renal failure. Thus, this study assessed whether catalytic iron exacerbates O2 deprivation-induced proximal tubular injury, thereby providing an insight into this form of renal failure. Isolated rat proximal tubular segments (PTS) were subjected to either hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R: 27:15 min), "chemical anoxia" (antimycin A; 7.5 microM x 45 min), or continuous oxygenated incubation +/- ferrous (Fe2+) or ferric (Fe3+) iron addition. Cell injury (% lactic dehydrogenase [LDH] release), lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, [MDA]), and ATP depletion were assessed. Under oxygenated conditions, Fe2+ and Fe3+ each raised MDA (approximately 7-10x) and decreased ATP (approximately 25%). Fe2+, but not Fe3+, caused LDH release (31 +/- 2%). During hypoxia, Fe2+ and Fe3+ worsened ATP depletion; however, each decreased LDH release (approximately 31 to approximately 22%; P < 0.01). Fe(2+)-mediated protection was negated during reoxygenation because Fe2+ exerted its intrinsic cytotoxic effect (LDH release: Fe2+ alone, 31 +/- 2%; H/R 36 +/- 2%; H/R + Fe2+, 41 +/- 2%). However, Fe(3+)-mediated protection persisted throughout reoxygenation because it induced no direct cytotoxicity (H/R, 39 +/- 2%; H/R + Fe3+, 25 +/- 2%; P < 0.002). Fe3+ also decreased antimycin toxicity (41 +/- 4 vs. 25 +/- 3%; P < 0.001) despite inducing marked lipid peroxidation and without affecting ATP. These results indicate that catalytic iron can mitigate, rather than exacerbate, O2 deprivation/reoxygenation PTS injury.
R A Zager, B A Schimpf, C R Bredl, D J Gmur
A line of transgenic mice was prepared that expressed moderate levels of an internally deleted human gene for the pro alpha 1(I) chain of type I procollagen. The gene construct was modeled after a sporadic in-frame deletion of the human gene that produced a lethal variant of osteogenesis imperfecta by causing biosynthesis of shortened pro alpha 1(I) chains. 89 transgenic mice from the line were examined. About 6% had a lethal phenotype with extensive fractures at birth, and 33% had fractures but were viable. The remaining 61% of the transgenic mice had no apparent fractures as assessed by x ray examination on the day of birth. Brother-sister matings produced eight litters in which approximately 40% of the mice had the lethal phenotype, an observation indicating that expression of the exogenous gene was more lethal in putative homozygous mice from the line. Examination of femurs from the transgenic mice indicated that the bones were significantly shorter in length and had a decrease in wet weight, mineral content, and collagen content. However, there was no statistically significant change in the mineral to collagen ratio. Biomechanical measurements on femurs from the mice at 6 wk indicated a decrease in force and energy to failure. There was also a decrease in strain to failure and an increase in Young's modulus of elasticity, observations indicating increased brittleness of bone matrix. The results suggested that the transgenic mice may be an appropriate model for testing potential therapies for osteogenesis imperfecta. They may also be a useful model for studying osteoporosis.
R Pereira, J S Khillan, H J Helminen, E L Hume, D J Prockop
We have examined the capacity of the major cytoplasmic membrane protein (MCMP) of Legionella pneumophila, a genus common antigen and member of the hsp 60 family of heat shock proteins, to induce protective immunity in a guinea pig model of Legionnaires' disease. We purified MCMP to homogeneity from L. pneumophila by buffer extraction, ion-exchange chromatography, and molecular sieve chromatography. Guinea pigs immunized with MCMP developed a strong cell-mediated immune response to the immunogen manifest by marked cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity. Guinea pigs immunized with MCMP and then challenged with a lethal aerosol dose of L. pneumophila exhibited a high level of protective immunity. Altogether, in four independent experiments, 55 of 64 (86%) animals immunized three times with 0.6-40 micrograms MCMP including 11 of 11 (100%) animals immunized three times with 40 micrograms MCMP survived aerosol challenge with L. pneumophila compared with 1 of 29 (3%) sham-immunized control animals (P < 0.0001, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel X2 statistic for pooled data). To our knowledge, MCMP is the first member of the hsp 60 family of proteins shown to induce protective immunity to a microbial pathogen. MCMP has potential as a vaccine against Legionnaires' disease. Since MCMP is a genus common antigen, vaccination with a combination of MCMPs derived from different Legionella species has the potential of inducing protective immunity against all the major Legionella species causing human disease.
S J Blander, M A Horwitz
Smooth muscle cell proliferation in the intima of arteries is a principal event associated with vascular narrowing after balloon angioplasty and bypass surgery. Techniques for limiting smooth muscle cell proliferation, however, have not as yet yielded any therapeutic benefit for these conditions. This may reflect the present lack of sufficiently potent and specific inhibitors of smooth muscle cell proliferation. DAB389 EGF is a genetically engineered fusion protein in which the receptor-binding domain of diphtheria toxin has been replaced by human epidermal growth factor. We evaluated the effect of this fusion toxin on human vascular smooth muscle cells in culture. Incubation of proliferating cells with DAB389 EGF yielded a dose-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis, as assessed by uptake of [3H]leucine, with an IC50 of 40 pM. The cytotoxic effect was inhibited in the presence of excess EGF or with monoclonal antibody to the EGF receptor. We further studied the effect of the fusion toxin on smooth muscle cell outgrowth from human atherosclerotic plaque. Outgrowth was markedly inhibited after as little as 1 h of exposure to the fusion protein. Furthermore, complete inhibition of proliferation of cells within the plaque could be attained. These results demonstrate that DAB389 EGF is highly cytotoxic to human smooth muscle cells proliferating in culture and can prevent smooth muscle cell outgrowth from "growth-stimulated" human atherosclerotic plaque. DAB389 EGF may therefore be of therapeutic value in vascular diseases characterized by smooth muscle cell accumulation.
J G Pickering, P A Bacha, L Weir, J Jekanowski, J C Nichols, J M Isner
Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) has profound effects on the renal vasculature, the glomerular mesangium, and also affects renal salt excretion. EDRF stimulates guanylyl cyclases, which are thought to be heterodimers comprised of alpha and beta subunits. Two alpha and two beta isoforms have been identified thus far. However, the molecular composition of in vivo guanylyl cyclase-linked EDRF receptors is unknown. We used polymerase chain reaction to clone a portion of the rat alpha 2 subunit. Guanylyl cyclase-linked EDRF receptor mRNA was detected in microdissected renal structures using a reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction assay. The interlobular artery/afferent arteriole contained mRNA for the alpha 1, alpha 2, and beta 1 subunits; a faint beta 2 band was found in 29% of experiments. In contrast, the cortical collecting duct contained mRNA only for alpha 1 and beta 2 subunits. We conclude that guanylyl cyclase-linked EDRF receptor subunit isoforms are independently and heterogeneously expressed in the renal vasculature and cortical collecting duct, suggesting that several different EDRF receptors exist in vivo. These data suggest that the tubule receptor is composed of alpha 1/beta 2. The vasculature may contain at least two different EDRF receptors (alpha 1/beta 1 and alpha 2/beta 1). Some beta 2 may also be expressed, allowing for even greater heterogeneity.
K Ujiie, J G Drewett, P S Yuen, R A Star