D G Harrison
The mechanisms of Na+ transport across cell membranes were investigated in the in vitro microperfused hamster ascending thin limb (ATL) of Henle's loop using a fluorescent Na+ indicator sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate. The intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) of the ATL cells was 17.1 +/- 1.7 mM (n = 22) when the ATL was microperfused in vitro with Hepes-buffered solution containing 204 mM Na+. Elimination of metabolites such as glucose and alanine from the basolateral solution increased [Na+]i. Applying either 5 mM cyanide or 5 mM iodoacetic acid to the bath also increased [Na+]i. The elimination of K+ and the addition of 10(-4) M ouabain in the bath increased [Na+]i by 25.0 +/- 5.0 mM (n = 5) in 3 min and by 10.7 +/- 2.4 mM (n = 4), respectively. The elimination of luminal and basolateral Na+ resulted in a decrease in [Na+]i, indicating Na+ permeability of both the luminal and basolateral cell membranes. The luminal Na+ permeability was not affected by furosemide. The presence of luminal Na+ permeability and the basolateral Na+/K+ ATPase suggests the presence of net active reabsorption of Na+, which is not a physiologically important amount, in our estimation.
Y Kondo, K Abe, Y Igarashi, K Kudo, K Tada, K Yoshinaga
The mechanisms responsible for skin lesions during acute graft-vs.-host disease (aGVHD) after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are poorly understood. The exact role of various effector cell populations and "major" (particularly HLA-DP) or "minor" antigens as target molecules is not known. To investigate the nature of cells responsible for tissue injury, we cultured T cells from skin biopsy first with interleukin 2 (IL-2) alone and then in polyclonal activation conditions to avoid in vitro antigenic sensitization before specificity testing. We applied this method to two biopsies performed during aGVHD after semiallogeneic BMT and obtained cytotoxic T cells against four graft mismatches: CD8+ T cells against HLA-A2.2 and HLA-B27 and CD4+ T cells against HLA-DP101 and HLA-DP401. This demonstrates that T cells with documented specificity can be obtained from an aGVHD lesion without antigenic selection. Moreover, these data directly implicate DP as a potential target antigen for aGVHD.
J Gaschet, B Mahé, N Milpied, M C Devilder, B Dréno, J D Bignon, F Davodeau, M M Hallet, M Bonneville, H Vié
To characterize the sodium transport defect responsible for salt wasting in obstructive nephropathy, the major sodium transporters in the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL), the apical Na-K-2Cl cotransporter and the basolateral Na-K-ATPase, were studied in fresh suspensions of mTAL cells and outer medulla plasma membranes prepared from obstructed and untreated kidneys. Oxygen consumption (QO2) studies in intact cells revealed marked reductions in the inhibitory effects of both furosemide and ouabain on QO2 in cells from obstructed, as compared with control animals, indicating a reduction in activities of both the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter and the Na-K-ATPase. Saturable [3H]bumetanide binding was reduced in membranes isolated from obstructed kidneys, but the Kd for [3H]bumetanide was unchanged, indicating a decrease in the number of functional luminal Na-K-2Cl cotransporters in obstructed mTAL. Ouabain sensitive Na-K-ATPase activity in plasma membranes was also reduced, and immunoblots using specific monoclonal antibodies directed against the alpha and beta subunits of rabbit Na-K-ATPase showed decreased amounts of both subunits in outer medullas of obstructed kidney. A significant decrease in [3H]bumetanide binding was detected after 4 h of ureteral obstruction, whereas Na-K-ATPase activity at this time was still not different from control. We conclude that ureteral obstruction reduces the amounts of both luminal Na-K-2Cl cotransporter and basolateral Na-K-ATPase in mTAL of obstructed kidney and that these reductions contribute to the salt wasting observed after release of obstruction.
S J Hwang, M Haas, H W Harris Jr, P Silva, S Yalla, M R Sullivan, G Otuechere, M Kashgarian, M L Zeidel
We examined whether coronary risk factors and atherosclerotic lesions in the study artery were associated with impaired endothelium-dependent dilation of coronary resistance arteries. Acetylcholine (ACH) at graded doses (1, 3, 10 and 30 micrograms/min) and papaverine (10 mg) were selectively infused into the left anterior descending coronary artery of 28 patients, in whom the study artery was angiographically normal (n = 16) or with mild stenosis < or = 40% (n = 12). Coronary blood flow (CBF) was estimated from the product of mean CBF velocity measured by an intracoronary Doppler catheter and the arterial cross-sectional area of the study artery determined by quantitative arteriography. ACH increased CBF in a dose-dependent manner. However, the maximum CBF response to ACH varied widely among patients (from 50% to 660%). By multivariate analysis, the presence of atherosclerotic lesions in the study artery was an independent predictor for impaired CBF response to ACH (P < 0.01). Hypertension (P < 0.001), hypercholesterolemia (r = -0.52, P < 0.005), age > or = 50 yr (P < 0.01) and total number of coronary risk factors (r = -0.62, P < 0.001) were associated with the impaired increase in CBF with ACH by univariate analysis. The percent increase in CBF evoked with papaverine did not correlate with these risk factors. The results suggest that mild atherosclerotic lesions in the study artery and coronary risk factors are accompanied by impaired endothelium-dependent dilation of coronary resistance arteries evoked with ACH. Endothelial dysfunction of coronary resistance arteries may result in altered regulation of myocardial perfusion in patients with mild coronary atherosclerosis and coronary risk factors.
K Egashira, T Inou, Y Hirooka, A Yamada, Y Maruoka, H Kai, M Sugimachi, S Suzuki, A Takeshita
Myeloperoxidase, in the presence of noncytotoxic concentrations of H2O2, was used to induce cytotoxicity to the lung epithelial cell line, AKD. When the cationic aminoglycosides, tobramycin and gentamicin were added to the cells in the presence of myeloperoxidase and H2O2, cytotoxicity was completely inhibited. In addition, tobramycin prevented cytotoxicity induced by cystic fibrosis sputum and H2O2. Protection against myeloperoxidase and H2O2 was also observed with the thioether-containing antibiotics, ticarcillin and ceftazidime, but at higher concentrations than with the aminoglycosides. Analysis of spectral properties, dimethylsulfoxide-mediated reduction, and ethyl acetate/NaCl partitioning, demonstrated that aminoglycosides converted HOCl to hydrophilic noncytotoxic chloramines, but were unable to prevent the oxidation of sulfhydryls and methionine by HOCl. In contrast, ticarcillin and ceftazidime were highly effective inhibitors of HOCl-mediated sulfhydryl and methionine oxidation. These results suggest that aminoglycosides protect lung epithelial cells against myeloperoxidase-dependent oxidant injury by binding to anionic cell surfaces and converting HOCl to hydrophilic noncytotoxic chloramines, whereas penicillins and cephalosporins are potent HOCl scavengers capable of protecting critical extracellular molecules against oxidation.
A Cantin, D E Woods
Free radical generation by hyperoxic endothelial cells was studied using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). Studies were performed to determine the radical species produced, whether mitochondrial electron transport was involved, and the effect of the radical generation on cell mortality. Sheep pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell suspensions exposed to 100% O2 for 30 min exhibited prominent DMPO-OH and, occasionally, additional smaller DMPO-R signals thought to arise from the trapping of superoxide anion (O2-.), hydroxyl (.OH), and alkyl (.R) radicals. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) quenched both signals suggesting that the observed radicals were derived from O2-.. Studies with deferoxamine suggested that the generation of .R occurred secondary to the formation of .OH from O2-. via an iron-mediated Fenton reaction. Blocking mitochondrial electron transport with rotenone (20 microM) markedly decreased radical generation. Cell mortality increased slightly in oxygen-exposed cells. This increase was not significantly altered by SOD or deferoxamine, nor was it different from the mortality observed in air-exposed cells. These results suggest that endothelial cells exposed to hyperoxia for 30 min produce free radicals via mitochondrial electron transport, but under the conditions of these experiments, this radical generation did not appear cause cell death.
S P Sanders, J L Zweier, P Kuppusamy, S J Harrison, D J Bassett, E W Gabrielson, J T Sylvester
Activation of the tyrosine kinase of the c-src gene product, pp60c-src, has been shown to occur in nearly every primary colorectal carcinoma, and is found as early as in polyps of high malignant potential. However, no studies have addressed potential pp60c-src changes which occur during progression. To examine this question, we have studied kinase activity and protein levels in 7 colonic polyps, 19 primary lesions, and 19 liver metastases relative to normal colonic mucosa. Significant increases in tyrosine kinase activity were seen as early as in colonic polyps of high malignant potential. Further increases were observed in activity and level in primary tumors. However, the greatest increases in activity and protein levels were observed in liver metastases. Additionally, six metastatic lesions were obtained in which synchronous primary tumor was resected. In each of these liver metastases, pp60c-src activity and level were significantly increased relative to the corresponding primary tumor, as well as to normal colonic mucosa. Our results demonstrate that progression of colon primary tumors to liver metastases correlates with increased pp60c-src kinase activity and protein level.
M S Talamonti, M S Roh, S A Curley, G E Gallick
The hypotension and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in bacteremia is thought to be mediated by the combined actions of cytokines, prostaglandins, and complement. The contact system, via the release of bradykinin and the activation of Factor XI, has been postulated to be contributing to the observed hypotension and DIC. Using a mAb to Factor XII (C6B7), we blocked the activation of the contact system in an established experimental baboon model in which Escherichia coli was infused to produce lethal bacteremia with hypotension. The untreated group (n = 5) displayed contact activation, manifested by a significant decrease in high molecular weight kininogen (HK) and a significant increase in alpha 2 macroglobulin-kallikrein complexes (alpha 2M-Kal). The C6B7-treated group (n = 5) showed an inactivation of Factor XII and the changes in HK and alpha 2M-Kal complexes were prevented. Both groups developed DIC manifested by a decrease in platelet, fibrinogen, and Factor V levels. The untreated group developed irreversible hypotension. The treated group experienced an initial hypotension that was reversed and extended the life of the animals. This study suggests that irreversible hypotension correlates with prolonged activation of the contact system, and specific antibody therapy can modulate both the pathophysiological and biochemical changes.
R A Pixley, R De La Cadena, J D Page, N Kaufman, E G Wyshock, A Chang, F B Taylor Jr, R W Colman
Adjuvant intravesical Mycobacterium bovis BCG is the treatment of choice for recurrent superficial bladder cancer. Fibronectin (FN) was previously demonstrated to be necessary for the retention of BCG within the bladder and for the expression of antitumor activity. Recent studies have demonstrated that BCG attach and are ingested by bladder epithelial cells, suggesting the existence of a second bacterial attachment mechanism. We report the characterization of the molecules involved in BCG attachment and internalization by the human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell line T-24. Pretreatment of T-24 cells with monoclonal antibodies to either alpha 5 or beta 1 integrin subunits significantly inhibited both BCG attachment and ingestion. Exogenous FN was observed to enhance both attachment and ingestion of BCG, and anti-FN was observed to inhibit both phenomena. Latex beads precoated with either FN or laminin (LN) but not BSA were ingested by T-24 cells, but only FN-coated beads inhibited BCG attachment and ingestion. Pretreatment of BCG with FN augmented both attachment and ingestion. The role of bacterial FN binding proteins was evaluated. A monoclonal antibody to a 55-kD FN-binding protein was observed to abrogate attachment and ingestion. These results demonstrate that attachment and ingestion of BCG are mediated in part by the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin receptor and are dependent on FN. These studies demonstrate a mechanism of entrance of mycobacteria into epithelial cells and suggest a second role for FN in the adjuvant antitumor effect of BCG.
K Kuroda, E J Brown, W B Telle, D G Russell, T L Ratliff
Multiple protein 4.1 isoforms are expressed in a variety of tissues through complex alternative pre-mRNA splicing events, one function of which is to regulate use of two alternative translation initiation signals. Late erythroid cells express mainly the downstream initiation site for synthesis of prototypical 80-kD isoforms; nonerythroid cells in addition use an upstream site to encode higher molecular mass isoform(s). In this study, we examined the effects of a 5' gene rearrangement in a family with hereditary elliptocytosis and complete deficiency of erythrocyte 4.1 protein on 4.1 isoform expression in erythroid vs. nonerythroid cells. Patient 4.1 mRNAs from reticulocytes, fibroblasts, and B lymphocytes were amplified by reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction techniques and shown to exhibit a 318-nucleotide deletion that encompasses the downstream AUG, but leaves intact the upstream AUG. Immunoblot analysis revealed a total deficiency of 4.1 in patient red cells and a selective deficiency of 80-kD isoform(s) but not high molecular weight 4.1 in patient nonerythroid cells. Thus, the 4.1 gene mutation in this family produces an isoform-specific deficiency that is manifested clinically in tissue-specific fashion, such that red cells are affected but other cell types are unaffected because of tissue-specific differences in RNA splicing and translation initiation.
J G Conboy, J A Chasis, R Winardi, G Tchernia, Y W Kan, N Mohandas
Products of intracellular mevalonate metabolism are essential for cell growth and proliferation. Lovastatin, an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, blocks the formation of mevalonate and its metabolites, and has been shown to inhibit proliferation of several cell types. In vivo, lovastatin has reduced mesangial cellularity and glomerular injury in experimental renal disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of lovastatin on DNA replication and proliferation in rat glomerular mesangial cells. Growth-arrested mesangial cells were exposed to medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum to stimulate mitogenesis. Lovastatin (1-20 microM) caused a significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent reduction in DNA synthesis ([3H]thymidine incorporation) which was completely prevented in the presence of exogenous mevalonate (100 microM). Lovastatin (1 microM) inhibited cell proliferation by 90% over a 5-d period, and this was largely overcome by added mevalonate. Exogenous low density lipoprotein (100 micrograms/ml) did not prevent lovastatin inhibition of DNA synthesis. The isoprenoid end product isopentenyl adenine (5 or 50 microM) had little effect on DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in lovastatin-blocked cells. By contrast, the isoprenoid farnesol (5 microM) largely prevented lovastatin inhibition of DNA synthesis. We conclude that mevalonate metabolism is essential for mesangial cell proliferation, possibly through the production of the isoprenoid farnesol. Moreover, the action of lovastatin to reduce experimental glomerular injury may involve a direct effect on mesangial cells.
M P O'Donnell, B L Kasiske, Y Kim, D Atluru, W F Keane
Previously, Puri et al. (Puri, R. K., M. Ogata, P. Leland, G. M. Feldman, D. Fitzgerald, and I. Pastan. 1991. Cancer Res. 51:3011-3017) have demonstrated that murine sarcoma and colon adenocarcinoma cells express high affinity interleukin-4 receptors (IL-4R) which are internalized after binding to a chimeric ligand consisting of IL-4 and Pseudomonas exotoxin. In the present study, we have tested primary cultures of human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells, generated from tumor specimens obtained after nephrectomy, for the expression of IL-4R and their modulation by IL-4. By using iodinated IL-4 in a receptor binding assay, we observed that renal cell carcinoma cells expressed a single class of high affinity IL-4R ranging from 1,425 +/- 207 (mean +/- SEM) to 3,831 +/- 299 (mean +/- SEM) IL-4R molecules/cell with a Kd ranging from 112 +/- 11 pM to 283 +/- 71 pM. Northern blot analysis for IL-4R gene expression, performed with a cDNA probe to IL-4R, revealed that all RCC cells exhibited a single mRNA species of 4 kb. IL-4 downregulated the surface expression of IL-4R on one RCC tumor cell line. The function of IL-4R expression on RCC tumor cells was further determined by investigating the effect of IL-4 on tumor cell growth in vitro and comparing it with IL-4 effect on growth of normal fibroblast and endothelial cell lines. Tumor cell growth, as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation, was inhibited by IL-4 from 20 to 68% in a dose-dependent manner. A neutralizing antibody to human IL-4 was able to reverse the growth inhibitory effect of IL-4. Normal human fibroblast and endothelial cell lines also expressed high affinity IL-4R, however, IL-4 did not inhibit their growth in vitro. In fact, IL-4 caused modest stimulation of their growth. Taken together, our findings can help develop strategies for the treatment of RCC in which IL-4R may be used as a target for IL-4 itself, for IL-4 toxin therapy or, alternatively, in gene therapy.
N I Obiri, G G Hillman, G P Haas, S Sud, R K Puri
Thrombin has been implicated in the stimulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation that contributes to post angioplasty restenosis. The present studies demonstrated that human alpha-thrombin was a potent and efficacious mitogen for cultured rat aortic SMC, stimulating an increase in 3H-thymidine incorporation, as well as an increase in cell number at 1 to 10 nM concentration. gamma-Thrombin, which is enzymatically active but lacks fibrinogen clotting activity, stimulated SMC mitogenesis but was approximately 10-fold less potent than alpha-thrombin. In contrast, D-phenylalanyl-L-propyl-L-arginyl-chloromethyl ketone-alpha-thrombin, which lacked enzymatic activity, had no mitogenic effect. Diisopropylfluorophosphate-alpha-thrombin failed to stimulate mitogenesis except at concentrations having equivalent enzymatic activity as that of alpha-thrombin at its threshold for mitogenesis. Thus, thrombin-induced proliferation was dependent on enzymatic activity. A 14-residue peptide (SFLLRNPNDKYEPF) corresponding to amino acids 42 through 55 of the human thrombin receptor (Vu, T. K., D. T. Hung, V. I. Wheaton, and S. R. Coughlin, 1991. Cell. 64:1057-1068) had full efficacy in stimulating SMC proliferation. Reversing the first two amino acids of this peptide abolished mitogenic activity. Northern analysis demonstrated that SMC expressed a single mRNA species that hybridized to a labeled thrombin receptor cDNA probe. These findings indicate that alpha-thrombin stimulates SMC proliferation via the proteolytic activation of a receptor very similar or identical to that previously identified.
C A McNamara, I J Sarembock, L W Gimple, J W Fenton 2nd, S R Coughlin, G K Owens
Human properdin deficiency is an X-linked disorder strongly predisposing to meningococcal disease which has been recorded in over 50 cases of various ethnic origins. Immunochemically, total deficiency (type I), partial deficiency (type II), and deficiency due to a dysfunctional molecule (type III) can be differentiated. It is therefore most likely that the causative molecular defects will show considerable genetic heterogeneity. Analysis of the properdin locus at Xp11.3-Xp11.23 has led to the characterization of two polymorphic (dC-dA)n.(dG-dT)n repeats located approximately 15 kb downstream from the structural gene. Three families (two Scottish Caucasoid, one Tunisian Sephardic) with seven deficient individuals were investigated immunochemically and using a nonradioisotopic polymerase chain reaction-based method for microsatellite detection. Probable and definite carriers frequently showed properdin levels which were in the normal range. No recombinants between the microsatellite loci and properdin deficiency were detected, thus allowing identification of the defective allele through the generations in all three pedigrees. Haplotyping for these highly polymorphic microsatellites in close physical linkage to the properdin gene can provide rapid and nonradioactive detection of carrier status and prenatal diagnosis without extensive sequencing analysis.
K Kölble, A J Cant, A C Fay, K Whaley, M Schlesinger, K B Reid
We determined the effect of sera enriched with the soluble complex of complement (SC5b-9), on hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of single pulmonary venules (diameter 20-30 microns). Sera free of anticoagulants and blood cells were prepared from rat and human blood. Lp were determined by our split drop technique in isolated, blood-perfused lungs prepared from anesthetized rats (2% halothane; Sprague Dawley, 500 g; n = 73). Zymosan-activated (ZAS) and control sera were used for Lp determinations. In ZAS prepared from human serum, SC5b-9 concentration was > 300 micrograms/ml (control: < 1 microgram/ml) as determined by ELISA. At baseline, Lp averaged 3.4 +/- .4 x 10(-7) ml/(cm2.s.cm H2O), but it increased by 217 +/- 32% with undiluted ZAS (P < 0.05). The Lp increase correlated significantly with different ZAS dilutions for rat serum and with SC5b-9 concentration for human serum. Lp did not increase significantly with ZAS prepared from heat-treated sera, C6- and C8-deficient sera; or with ZAS in which SC5b-9 had been depleted by immunoprecipitation. The ZAS-induced increase of Lp was blocked completely by venular preinfusion with the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) tripeptide (1 mg/ml, 10 min). We report for the first time that: (a) SC5b-9 increases lung endothelial Lp; and (b) the increase of Lp is attributable to an integrin-dependent mechanism.
S Ishikawa, H Tsukada, J Bhattacharya
Glucocorticoids have an important role in renal acidification; however, a direct effect of glucocorticoids on proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) acidification has not been directly demonstrated. In the present in vitro microperfusion study PCT from animals receiving dexamethasone (600 micrograms/kg twice daily for 2 d and 2 h before killing) had a significantly higher rate of bicarbonate absorption than did controls (92.0 +/- 13.3 vs 59.9 +/- 3.2 pmol/mm.min, P < 0.01). To examine if glucocorticoids had a direct epithelial action, dexamethasone was added to the bath of PCT perfused in vitro. After 3 h of incubation in paired experiments 10(-6) M and 10(-5) M dexamethasone resulted in an approximately 30% stimulation in the rate of bicarbonate absorption. 10(-7) M dexamethasone and 10(-6) M aldosterone had no effect on bicarbonate absorption. The stimulation of acidification by 10(-5) M dexamethasone was blocked by actinomycin D and cycloheximide. These data are consistent with a direct effect of glucocorticoids on PCT acidification, and this effect is dependent upon protein synthesis.
M Baum, R Quigley
Healthy volunteers supplemented their usual Western diets with Promega fish oil supplement (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], 0.28 g; docosahexaenoic acid [DCHA], 0.12 g; other n-3 fatty acids 0.10 g per capsule) using three protocols. Initial experiments (protocol 1 and 2) investigated the kinetics of incorporation of n-3 fatty acids into serum and neutrophil lipids after 10 capsules/d of Promega. EPA was rapidly detected in both serum and neutrophil lipids; the arachidonic acid (AA) to EPA ratio in neutrophil phospholipids showed a maximal reduction of 49:1 to 8:1 within 1 wk of beginning supplementation. EPA was preferentially incorporated into phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine but not phosphatidylinositol. Long-term supplementation for up to 7 wk did not influence the AA/EPA ratio or the distribution of EPA among neutrophil phospholipids in a manner that was not observed after the first week. Neutrophils produced similar quantities of platelet-activating factor and slightly lower quantities of leukotriene B4 during long-term supplementation when compared with presupplementation values. Experiments examining the influence of Promega dosage indicated that the AA/EPA ratio in neutrophil lipids decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Only when the dose was increased to 15 capsules/d was there a reduction in the AA/DCHA ratio in neutrophil lipids. The quantity of AA in neutrophil lipids remained relatively constant at all supplement doses. Taken together, the current study demonstrates the capacity of n-3 fatty acids provided with a Western diet to be rapidly incorporated into neutrophil lipids. However, dietary n-3 fatty acids appear not to significantly reduce arachidonate content within neutrophil phospholipids. Constant arachidonate levels may account for the lack of large reductions in the biosynthesis of lipid mediators by neutrophils after fish-oil supplementation.
F H Chilton, M Patel, A N Fonteh, W C Hubbard, M Triggiani
The immunologic consequences of prolonged infusions of rIL-2 in doses that produce physiologic serum concentrations of this cytokine were investigated. rIL-2 in doses of 0.5-6.0 x 10(6) U/m2 per d (3.3-40 micrograms/m2 per d) was administered by continuous intravenous infusion for 90 consecutive days to patients with advanced cancer. IL-2 concentrations (25 +/- 25 and 77 +/- 64 pM, respectively) that selectively saturate high-affinity IL-2 receptors (IL-2R) were achieved in the serum of patients receiving rIL-2 infusions of 10 micrograms/m2 per d and 30 micrograms/m2 per d. A gradual, progressive expansion of natural killer (NK) cells was seen in the peripheral blood of these patients with no evidence of a plateau effect during the 3 mo of therapy. A preferential expansion of CD56bright NK cells was consistently evident. NK cytotoxicity against tumor targets was only slightly enhanced at these dose levels. However, brief incubation of these expanded NK cells with IL-2 in vitro induced potent lysis of NK-sensitive, NK-resistant, and antibody-coated targets. Infusions of rIL-2 at 40 micrograms/m2 per d produced serum IL-2 levels (345 +/- 381 pM) sufficient to engage intermediate affinity IL-2R p75, which is constitutively expressed by human NK cells. This did not result in greater NK cell expansion compared to the lower dose levels, but did produce in vivo activation of NK cytotoxicity, as evidenced by lysis of NK-resistant targets. There was no consistent change in the numbers of CD56- CD3+ T cells, CD56+ CD3+ MHC-unrestricted T cells, or B cells during infusions of rIL-2 at any of the dosages used. This study demonstrates that prolonged infusions of rIL-2 in doses that saturate only high affinity IL-2R can selectively expand human NK cells for an extended period of time with only minimal toxicity. Further activation of NK cytolytic activity can also be achieved in vivo, but it requires concentrations of IL-2 that bind intermediate affinity IL-2R p75. Clinical trials are underway attempting to exploit the differing effects of various concentrations of IL-2 on human NK cells in vivo.
M A Caligiuri, C Murray, M J Robertson, E Wang, K Cochran, C Cameron, P Schow, M E Ross, T R Klumpp, R J Soiffer
We previously showed that BALB/c mice sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) by brief daily inhalations of antigen over 10 consecutive days exhibit elevated antigen-specific serum IgE antibody levels and increased airways responsiveness. For the first time, we now show that animals sensitized in this fashion to either OVA or ragweed (RGW) develop immediate hypersensitivity skin test reactions when challenged 2 d after completion of the sensitization protocol. Skin testing, performed by direct assessment of wheal formation after intradermal injection of allergen, was sensitive and specific, since animals exposed to RGW by inhalation only responded to RGW, and OVA-sensitized animals responded only to OVA. Positive reactions were associated with mast cell degranulation, whereas control injections were not. Since only sensitized IgE high responder BALB/c mice but neither nonsensitized BALB/c mice nor OVA-sensitized IgE low responder SJL/J mice exhibited wheal responses, induction of OVA-specific IgE appeared to be essential for the mediation of OVA-specific immediate hypersensitivity reactions of the skin in this model. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) testing confirmed the presence of antigen-specific IgE in the serum. Mice that developed IgG (predominantly IgG2b) anti-OVA antibodies did not respond to OVA injection, indicating that OVA-specific IgG was not involved in this system. Further support for the role of IgE in the immediate hypersensitivity response included the wheal response to intradermal injection of anti-IgE antibody that occurred in OVA- and RGW-sensitized mice at 10-fold lower concentrations than in nonsensitized BALB/c mice and not in sensitized SJL/J mice. After transfer of mononuclear cells from peribronchial lymph nodes of OVA- or RGW-sensitized BALB/c mice, naive, syngeneic recipients developed antigen-specific IgE and specific immediate hypersensitivity responses, indicating that the local lymphoid tissue at the site of sensitization can transfer responsiveness to these allergens. These results demonstrate for the first time the ability to elicit and study IgE-mediated immediate skin hypersensitivity responses in the mouse and illustrate the association of increased antigen-specific and total serum IgE levels, airways hyperresponsiveness, and antigen-specific immediate cutaneous reactivity after sensitization to allergen via the airways.
J Saloga, H Renz, G Lack, K L Bradley, J L Greenstein, G Larsen, E W Gelfand
Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF-1) lowers blood glucose in humans but its effect on counterregulatory responses has not been established. We therefore compared infusions of rhIGF-1 (0.7 micrograms/kg per min) and insulin (0.8 mU/kg.min) for 120 min in 10 healthy volunteers (glucose allowed to fall freely). With both, glucose fell rapidly because of stimulation of glucose uptake and suppression of hepatic glucose production. Despite similar plasma glucose nadirs (2.6 +/- 0.1 vs. 2.7 +/- 0.1 mM), the glucagon response was absent (P < 0.005), growth hormone release was attenuated (P < 0.03), and norepinephrine levels were increased (P < 0.05) by rhIGF-1 compared with insulin. Absent glucagon responses were associated with a blunting of the rebound increase in glucose production (P < 0.05 vs. insulin). After stopping the infusions, glucose recovery was delayed with rhIGF-1 (P < 0.001 vs. insulin). To further evaluate the effects of rhIGF-1 during a standard hypoglycemic stimulus, eight additional healthy subjects received rhIGF-1 or insulin while glucose was clamped at 2.8 mM. Again the rise in glucagon during insulin-induced hypoglycemia was totally abolished by rhIGF-1. Growth hormone responses were delayed, whereas increases in norepinephrine, heart rate, and symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia were greater with rhIGF-1 compared with insulin (P < 0.05). It was concluded that rhIGF-1 suppression of glucagon release during hypoglycemia impairs glucose recovery. Paradoxically, awareness of hypoglycemia is enhanced with rhIGF-1 in part due to stimulation of the sympathetic activity.
D Kerr, W V Tamborlane, F Rife, R S Sherwin
Mast cell development in mice is critically regulated by stem cell factor (SCF), the term used here to designate a product of fibroblasts and other cell types that is a ligand for the tyrosine kinase receptor protein encoded by the proto-oncogene c-kit. However, the factors which regulate the size of mast cell populations in primates are poorly understood. Here we report that the subcutaneous administration of recombinant human SCF (rhSCF) to baboons (Papio cynocephalus) or cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) produced a striking expansion of mast cell populations in many anatomical sites, with numbers of mast cells in some organs of rhSCF-treated monkeys exceeding the corresponding values in control monkeys by more than 100-fold. Animals treated with rhSCF did not exhibit clinical evidence of mast cell activation, and discontinuation of treatment with rhSCF resulted in a rapid decline of mast cell numbers nearly to baseline levels. These findings are the first to demonstrate that a specific cytokine can regulate mast cell development in primates in vivo. They also provide the first evidence, in any mammalian species, to indicate that the cytokine-dependent expansion of tissue mast cell populations can be reversed when administration of the cytokine is discontinued.
S J Galli, A Iemura, D S Garlick, C Gamba-Vitalo, K M Zsebo, R G Andrews
Expression of the vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGPF) gene was investigated in human central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms and normal brain. Adsorption of capillary permeability activity from human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell conditioned medium and GBM cyst fluids by anti-VEGPF antibodies demonstrated that VEGPF is secreted by GBM cells and is present in sufficient quantities in vivo to induce vascular permeability. Cloning and sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified GBM and normal brain cDNA demonstrated three forms of the VEGPF coding region (567, 495, and 363 nucleotides), corresponding to mature polypeptides of 189, 165, and 121 amino acids, respectively. VEGPF mRNA levels in CNS tumors vs. normal brain were investigated by the RNase protection assay. Significant elevation of VEGPF gene expression was observed in 81% (22/27) of the highly vascular and edema-associated CNS neoplasms (6/8 GBM, 8/8 capillary hemangioblastomas, 6/7 meningiomas, and 2/4 cerebral metastases). In contrast, only 13% (2/15) of those CNS tumors that are not commonly associated with significant neovascularity or cerebral edema (2/10 pituitary adenomas and 0/5 nonastrocytic gliomas) had significantly increased levels of VEGPF mRNA. The relative abundance of the forms of VEGPF mRNA was consistent in tumor and normal brain: VEGPF495 > VEGPF363 > VEGPF567. In situ hybridization confirmed the presence of VEGPF mRNA in tumor cells and its increased abundance in capillary hemangioblastomas. Our results suggest a significant role for VEGPF in the development of CNS tumor neovascularity and peritumoral edema.
R A Berkman, M J Merrill, W C Reinhold, W T Monacci, A Saxena, W C Clark, J T Robertson, I U Ali, E H Oldfield
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a mitogen with a specificity for endothelial cells in vitro and an angiogenic inducer in vivo. We tested the hypothesis that VEGF may confer on expressing cells a growth advantage in vivo. Dihydrofolatereductase--Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with expression vectors which direct the constitutive synthesis of VEGF. Neither the expression nor the exogenous administration of VEGF stimulated anchorage-dependent or anchorage-independent growth of Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro. However, VEGF-expressing clones, unlike control cells, demonstrated an ability to proliferate in nude mice. Histologic examination revealed that the proliferative lesions were compact, well vascularized, and nonedematous. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that capillaries within the lesions were of the continuous type. These findings indicate that the expression of VEGF may confer on cells the ability to grow in vivo in the absence of transformation by purely paracrine mechanisms. Since VEGF is a widely distributed protein, this property may have relevance for a variety of physiological and pathological proliferative processes.
N Ferrara, J Winer, T Burton, A Rowland, M Siegel, H S Phillips, T Terrell, G A Keller, A D Levinson
To delineate how gene rearrangement influences the expressed human gamma delta T cell repertoire, we generated T cell receptor gamma (TCR gamma) V domain-specific cDNA libraries from the peripheral lymphocytes of eight donors and sequenced a total of 232 TCR gamma gene transcripts. The libraries consisted of both in-frame and out-of-frame rearranged TCR gamma genes. The in-frame TCR gamma gene transcripts were used to determine the diversity of functional T cells, whereas the out-of-frame transcripts, primarily derived from alpha beta T cells, were used to assess the frequencies of TCR V gamma-J gamma rearrangements in progenitor T lymphocytes. The results showed that both sets of transcripts exhibited strikingly restricted V gamma-J gamma combinations. Only 11 of 40 potential V gamma-J gamma rearrangements were common ( > or = 3% of total). The pattern of gene usage in the functional and nonfunctional transcripts was similar and did not differ markedly among donors. The only exception was the predominance of V gamma 9-JP in potentially functional transcripts from seven of eight individuals. These results show that V gamma-J gamma rearrangement is nonrandom and suggest that the diversity of TCR gamma genes in the functional gamma delta T cell repertoire partly depends upon preferentially rearranged V gamma-J gamma gene combinations. However, the expansion of V gamma 9/V gamma 2 T cells in adult peripheral blood can only be explained by antigenic selection of relatively rare V gamma 9-JP recombinants.
H Kohsaka, P P Chen, A Taniguchi, W E Ollier, D A Carson
The development and progression of thyroid tumors is signaled by phenotype-specific mutations of genes involved in growth control. Molecular events associated with undifferentiated thyroid cancer are not known. We examined normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissue for structural abnormalities of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Mutations were detected by single-strand conformation polymorphisms of PCR-amplified DNA, using primers bracketing the known hot spots on either exons 5, 6, 7, or 8. The prevalence of mutations was as follows: normal thyroid 0/6; follicular adenomas 0/31; papillary carcinomas 0/37; medullary carcinomas 0/2; follicular carcinomas 1/11; anaplastic carcinomas 5/6; thyroid carcinoma cell lines 3/4. Positive cases were confirmed by direct sequencing of the PCR products. All five anaplastic carcinoma tissues and the anaplastic carcinoma cell line ARO had G:C to A:T transitions leading to an Arg to His substitution at codon 273. In both tumors and cell lines, examples of heterozygous and homozygous p53 mutations were identified. The only thyroid carcinoma cell line in which p53 mutations were not detected in exons 5-8 had markedly decreased p53 mRNA levels, suggesting the presence of a structural abnormality of either p53 itself or of some factor controlling its expression. The presence of p53 mutations almost exclusively in poorly differentiated thyroid tumors and thyroid cancer cell lines suggests that inactivation of p53 may confer these neoplasms with aggressive properties, and further loss of differentiated function.
J A Fagin, K Matsuo, A Karmakar, D L Chen, S H Tang, H P Koeffler
Despite the widespread clinical use of oxytocin (OT) as a potent and specific stimulant of labor, previous research data have not supported a role for OT in the physiology of normal human parturition. We have demonstrated synthesis of OT mRNA in amnion, chorion, and decidua using Northern blot analysis, ribonuclease protection assays, and in situ hybridization. Probes directed towards both the 3' and 5' ends of the gene have been used. Levels were highest in decidua with considerably less in chorion and amnion and very low levels in placenta. The transcript size in decidua appears to be 60-80 nucleotides smaller than the transcripts in amnion and chorion. OT gene expression in chorio-decidual tissues increased three- to fourfold around the time of labor onset. Estradiol stimulated synthesis of OT mRNA during in vitro incubation. These results support the hypothesis of a paracrine system involving OT and sex steroids within intrauterine tissues wherein significant changes could occur without being reflected in the maternal circulation. Such a paracrine system could rationalize a long-sought role for oxytocin in the physiology of human labor. These data may lead to novel approaches towards prevention or treatment or preterm labor.
R Chibbar, F D Miller, B F Mitchell
Recent data indicate that megakaryocyte/platelet alpha-granule fibrinogen is endocytosed from plasma. Because fibrinogen is the major platelet protein present in high concentrations in alpha-granules, fibrinogen uptake into alpha-granules may occur via specific receptors. In that cells of the megakaryocyte/platelet lineage contain two integrins--alpha IIb beta 3 (GP IIb-IIIa) and the vitronectin receptor (alpha v beta 3)--that can bind fibrinogen, one or both of these receptors may mediate the endocytic uptake of fibrinogen. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of Kistrin, an RGD-containing protein purified from the venom of Agkistrodon rhodostoma that inhibits fibrinogen binding to human platelet receptors, on endocytosis of fibrinogen by megakaryocytes and platelets. Continuous intravenous infusion of kistrin into guinea pigs (200 micrograms/h) over a 24-h period inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation. When biotinylated fibrinogen was injected intravenously into animals receiving Kistrin, megakaryocytes failed to endocytose the labeled fibrinogen. Endocytosis of fibrinogen into platelets was also inhibited in these animals. In contrast, platelets and megakaryocytes obtained from sham-infused control animals contained the injected biotinylated fibrinogen. We conclude that, in addition to the well-known extracellular function of cell adhesion, integrins can also act as receptors that mediate endocytosis of exogenous proteins and incorporate them into regulated secretory granules.
P Handagama, D F Bainton, Y Jacques, M T Conn, R A Lazarus, M A Shuman
Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes generate superoxide in response to various agonists in an enzymatic reaction similar to that which occurs in stimulated phagocytes. We generated transformed B lymphoblast cell lines from controls, from four patients with p47-phox-deficient chronic granulomatous disease, and from three parents. The cells from controls and from the parents generated 7.0-35 nmol of O2-/10(7) cells per 30 min in response to phorbol myristate acetate. None of the patient cell lines generated any detectable superoxide. Both p47-phox and p67-phox were detected by immunoblot in the cytosol of control and parent cell lines and, as in neutrophils, these proteins had affinity for GTP-agarose. The patients' cell lines contained no detectable p47-phox by immunoblot. mRNA for both cytosolic proteins was detected in all cell lines. We generated cDNA and obtained multiple clones from two patients by polymerase chain reaction. One patient was a compound heterozygote with each allele resulting in an early stop codon. Clones derived from the other patient demonstrated only a GT deletion at base 75. The cDNA for p47-phox was inserted into an EBV-expression vector and stably transfected cell lines were obtained using hygromycin B selection. Transfected cell lines from a p47-phox-deficient patient generated normal levels of superoxide and had readily detectable cytosolic p47-phox. Thus, B lymphoblasts provide an excellent model system for studies of the NADPH oxidase, for expression of functional recombinant forms of oxidase components, and for initial experimental approaches to genetic reconstitution in CGD.
B D Volpp, Y Lin
Band 3 aggregation in the plane of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane is postulated to be important in the pathophysiology of hemolysis of dense sickle and normal RBCs. We used the fluorescence photobleaching recovery and polarized fluorescence depletion techniques to measure the lateral and rotational mobility of band 3, glycophorins, and phospholipid analogues in membranes of density-separated intact RBCs from seven patients with sickle cell disease and eight normal controls. The fractions of laterally mobile band 3 and glycophorin decreased progressively as sickle RBC density increased. Normal RBCs also showed a progressive decrease in band 3 fractional mobility with increasing buoyant density. Rapidly rotating, slowly rotating, and rotationally immobile forms of band 3 were observed in both sickle and normal RBC membranes. The fraction of rapidly rotating band 3 progressively decreased and the fraction of rotationally immobile band 3 progressively increased with increasing sickle RBC density. Changes in the fraction of rotationally immobile band 3 were not reversible upon hypotonic swelling of dense sickle RBCs, and normal RBCs osmotically shrunken in sucrose buffers failed to manifest band 3 immobilization at median cell hemoglobin concentration values characteristic of dense sickle RBCs. We conclude that dense sickle and normal RBCs acquire irreversible membrane abnormalities that cause transmembrane protein immobilization and band 3 aggregation. Band 3 aggregates could serve as cell surface sites of autologous antibody binding and thereby lead to removal of dense sickle and normal (senescent) RBCs from the circulation.
J D Corbett, D E Golan
We designed the N-methylanthranilic-desferrioxamine (MA-DFO) as a fluorescent iron (III) chelator with improved membrane permeation properties. Upon binding of iron (III), MA-DFO fluorescence is quenched, thus allowing traceability of drug-iron (III) interactions. MA-DFO is well tolerated by mammalian cells in culture. Its antimalarial activity is pronounced: IC50 values on in vitro (24-h) growth of Plasmodium falciparum were 3 +/- 1 microM for MA-DFO compared with 30 +/- 8 for DFO. The onset of growth inhibition of rings or trophozoites occurs 2-4 h after exposure to 13 microM MA-DFO. This effect is commensurate with MA-DFO permeation into infected cells. In a 24-h exposure to MA-DFO or DFO, trophozoites take up either compound to approximately 10% of the external concentration, rings to 5%, and noninfected cells to < 1%. Red cells encapsulated with millimolar concentrations of DFO or MA-DFO fully support parasite invasion and growth. We conclude that extracellular MA-DFO and DFO gain selective access into parasites by bypassing the host. The rate-limiting step is permeation through the parasite membrane, which MA-DFO accomplishes faster than DFO, in accordance with its higher hydrophobicity. These views are consistent with the proposed duct, which apparently provides parasitized cells with a window to the external medium.
M Loyevsky, S D Lytton, B Mester, J Libman, A Shanzer, Z I Cabantchik
A variety of pulmonary disorders, including cystic fibrosis, are potentially amenable to treatment in which a therapeutic gene is directly transferred to the bronchial epithelium. This is difficult to accomplish because the majority of airway epithelial cells replicate slowly and/or are terminally differentiated. Adenovirus vectors may circumvent this problem, since they do not require target cell proliferation to express exogenous genes. To evaluate the diversity of airway epithelial cell targets for in vivo adenovirus-directed gene transfer, a replication deficient recombinant adenovirus containing the Escherichia coli lacZ (beta-galactosidase [beta-gal]) gene (Ad.RSV beta gal) was used to infect lungs of cotton rats. In contrast to uninfected animals, intratracheal Ad.RSV beta gal administration resulted in beta-gal activity in lung lysate and cytochemical staining in all cell types forming the airway epithelium. The expression of the exogenous gene was dose-dependent, and the distribution of the beta-gal positive airway epithelial cells in Ad.RSV beta gal-infected animals was similar to the normal cell differential of the control animals. Thus, a replication deficient recombinant adenovirus can transfer an exogenous gene to all major categories of airway epithelial cells in vivo, suggesting that adenovirus vectors may be an efficient strategy for in vivo gene transfer in airway disorders such as cystic fibrosis.
A Mastrangeli, C Danel, M A Rosenfeld, L Stratford-Perricaudet, M Perricaudet, A Pavirani, J P Lecocq, R G Crystal
The effects of enzyme inhibitors on vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-induced decreases in airway opening pressure (PaO) and VIP-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI) recovery were studied in isolated tracheal superfused guinea pig lungs. In the absence of inhibitors, VIP 0.38 (95% CI 0.33-0.54) nmol/kg animal, resulted in a 50% decrease in PaO and 33% of a 1 nmol/kg VIP dose was recovered as intact VIP. In the presence of two combinations of enzyme inhibitors, SCH 32615 (S, 10 microM) and aprotinin (A, 500 tyrpsin inhibitor units [TIU]/kg) or S and soybean trypsin inhibitor (T, 500 TIU/kg), VIP caused a significantly greater decrease in PaO and greater quantities of VIP were recovered from lung effluent (both P < 0.001). The addition of captopril, (3 microM), leupeptin (4 microM), or bestatin (1 microM) failed to further increase pulmonary relaxation or recovery of VIP-LI. When given singly, A, T, and S did not augment the effects or recovery of VIP. The efficacy of S (a specific inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase [NEP]) and A and T (serine protease inhibitors) thus implicated NEP and at least one serine protease as primary modulators of VIP activity in the guinea pig lung. We sought to corroborate this finding by characterizing the predominant amino acid sites at which VIP is hydrolized in the lung. When [mono(125I)iodo-Tyr10]VIP was offered to the lung, in the presence and absence of the active inhibitors, cleavage products consistent with activity by NEP and a tryptic enzyme were recovered. These data demonstrate that NEP and a peptidase with an inhibitor profile and cleavage pattern compatible with a tryptic enzyme inactivate VIP in a physiologically competitive manner.
C M Lilly, M A Martins, J M Drazen
Somatostatin messenger RNA in the antrum and corpus of rat stomach was quantified by Northern and slot blotting using a probe generated by the polymerase chain reaction. Fasting for 48 h enhanced the abundance of somatostatin mRNA in the pyloric antral region, but not in the acid-secreting region of the stomach. In fasted rats, somatostatin mRNA in antrum, but not corpus, was decreased by inhibition of acid secretion with omeprazole. In contrast, in rats treated with capsaicin to lesion small diameter afferents there was a significant decrease in somatostatin mRNA abundance in the corpus but not antrum. The effects of capsaicin cannot be attributed to nonspecific changes in gastric endocrine cell gene expression, since the abundance of histidine decarboxylase mRNA (which is a functionally regulated marker for a different gastric endocrine cell type) did not change with capsaicin. Gastric capsaicin-sensitive afferents are rich in calcitonin gene-related peptide, and in rats with antibodies to this peptide there was reduced corpus somatostatin mRNA. Moreover, infusion of calcitonin gene-related peptide in control rats produced a significant increase in somatostatin mRNA in the gastric corpus. The results indicate that somatostatin mRNA abundance is controlled by the gastric luminal contents and the extrinsic afferent innervation, but the relative importance of these factors differs in antrum and corpus: luminal contents are relatively more important in antrum and primary afferents using calcitonin gene-related peptide in the corpus.
A K Sandvik, R Dimaline, E R Forster, D Evans, G J Dockray
The aim of this study was to examine whether altered plasma viscosity could contribute to the inappropriately low production rate of erythropoietin (EPO) observed in patients suffering from hypergammaglobulinemias associated with multiple myeloma or Waldenström's disease. We found that the EPO formation in response to anemia in these patients was inversely related to plasma viscosity. A similar inverse relationship between plasma viscosity and EPO production was seen in rats in which EPO formation had been stimulated by exchange transfusion and the plasma viscosity of which was thereby altered by using exchange solutions of different composition to alter plasma viscosity and thus whole blood viscosity independently from hematocrit. Raising the gammaglobulin concentration to approximately 40 mg/ml plasma in the rats almost totally blunted the rise in serum EPO levels despite a fall of the hematocrit to 20%. Determination of renal EPO mRNA levels by RNase protection revealed that the reductions in serum EPO levels at higher plasma viscosities were paralleled by reductions in renal EPO mRNA levels. Taken together, our findings suggest that plasma viscosity may be a significant inhibitory modulator of anemia-induced EPO formation. The increased plasma viscosity in patients with hypergammaglobulinemias may therefore contribute to the inappropriate EPO production, which is a major reason for the anemia developing in these patients.
A Singh, K U Eckardt, A Zimmermann, K H Götz, M Hamann, P J Ratcliffe, A Kurtz, W H Reinhart
The mechanism of action of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in osteoclast development was examined in a co-culture system of mouse osteoblastic cells and spleen cells. In this co-culture, osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (MNCs) were formed within 6 d in response to 10 nM 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 added only for the final 2 d of culture. Simultaneously adding hydroxyurea for the final 2 d completely inhibited proliferation of cultured cells without affecting 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3-stimulated MNC formation. Autoradiographic examination using [3H]-thymidine revealed that osteoclast progenitors primarily proliferated during the first 4 d, whereas their differentiation into MNCs occurred predominantly during the final 2 d of culture in response to 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3. When anti-M-CSF antibody or anti-M-CSF receptor antibody was added either for the first 4 d or for the final 2 d, the MNC formation was similarly inhibited. In co-cultures of normal spleen cells and osteoblastic cells obtained from op/op mice, which cannot produce functionally active M-CSF, the lack of M-CSF either for the first 4 d or for the final 2 d failed to form MNCs in response to 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 added for the last 2 d. These results clearly indicate that M-CSF is indispensable for both proliferation of osteoclast progenitors and their differentiation into mature osteoclasts.
S Tanaka, N Takahashi, N Udagawa, T Tamura, T Akatsu, E R Stanley, T Kurokawa, T Suda
Beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta-ARs) expression in the thick ascending limb of rat kidney was studied at the level of mRNA and receptor coupling to adenylyl cyclase. Absolute quantitation of beta 1- and beta 2-AR mRNAs in microdissected nephron segments was performed with an assay based on reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction, using in vitro transcribed mutant RNAs as internal standards. In the cortical thick ascending limb (CTAL), the number of mRNA molecules/mm of tubular length was 2,806 +/- 328 (n = 12) for beta 1-AR and 159 +/- 26 for beta 2-AR (P < 0.01). Lower levels were obtained in the medullary thick ascending, beta 1-AR mRNA still being predominant. The pharmacological properties of beta-ARS was also studied in the CTAL. Cyclic AMP accumulation was stimulated by beta-agonist with a rank order of potency of isoproterenol > norepinephrine > epinephrine. This observation, and the higher efficiency of a beta 1 than of a beta 2 antagonist to inhibit isoproterenol-induced cAMP accumulation, establish the typical beta 1-AR sensitivity of the CTAL. No detectable contribution of atypical or beta 3-ARs to adenylyl cyclase stimulation could be found. In conclusion, this study, which shows markedly different levels of beta 1- and beta 2-AR mRNAS in the CTAL, provides a molecular basis for the predominant expression of the beta 1 receptor subtype in this nephron segment.
J M Elalouf, J M Buhler, C Tessiot, A C Bellanger, I Dublineau, C de Rouffignac
We developed a monoclonal antibody, 1C1E7, against vWf that increases ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner and lowers the threshold concentration of ristocetin needed to obtain a full aggregatory response. The platelet aggregatory effect of asialo vWf (ASvWf) also is enhanced by 1C1E7, in the presence or absence of glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonism. In the presence of ristocetin, both intact 1C1E7 and its Fab fragments enhance specific binding of 125I-vWf to platelets. With 1C1E7, the intermediate and higher molecular weight multimers of vWf are preferentially bound to both GP Ib and GP IIb/IIIa. Thrombin-induced 125I-vWf binding to GP IIb/IIIa also is increased by 1C1E7. Maximal binding of 1C1E7 to vWf corresponds to 0.97 mol/mol vWf monomer with a Kd of 4.7 x 10(-10) M. 1C1E7 reacts with a 34/36-kD tryptic fragment (III-T4) and a 34-kD plasmic fragment (P34), which localizes the epitope between amino acid residues 1 and 272; this was confirmed by NH2-terminal amino acid sequencing. Finally, platelet aggregation by ASvWf was associated with a sharp rise in intracellular Ca2+ only in the presence of 1C1E7. An antibody-mediated conformational change of vWf may result in an improved presentation of the GP Ib- and GP IIb/IIIa-binding domains of mainly the larger multimers; the increased density of vWf on the platelet surface leads to platelet activation. The antibody may thus recognize a domain of relevance for vWf physiology.
I Tornai, J Arnout, H Deckmyn, K Peerlinck, J Vermylen
Rhesus lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) binds less efficiently than human Lp(a) to lysine-Sepharose and to cultured U937 cells. Studies using elastase-derived plasminogen fragments indicated that neither kringle 5 nor the protease domain of Lp(a) are required in these interactions pointing at an involvement of the K4 region. Comparative structural analyses of both the human and simian apo(a) K4 domain, together with molecular modeling studies, supported the conclusion that K4(37) plays a dominant role in the lysine binding function of apo(a) and that the presence of arginine 72 rather than tryptophan in this kringle can account for the functional deficiency observed with rhesus Lp(a). These in vitro results suggest that rhesus Lp(a) may be less thrombogenic than human Lp(a).
A M Scanu, L A Miles, G M Fless, D Pfaffinger, J Eisenbart, E Jackson, J L Hoover-Plow, T Brunck, E F Plow
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas in involved tissues. To investigate a potential role for gamma/delta T cells in the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis, we studied lung and blood T cells from patients for preferential expression of particular gamma/delta T cell receptors. An abnormally high percentage of gamma/delta cells was found in the blood of some patients. However, the increased percentage did not reflect an increase in absolute number, and appeared to be secondary to a decrease in T cells expressing alpha/beta receptors. Furthermore, as in normals, the circulating gamma/delta cells in patients predominantly expressed V gamma 9/V delta 2 receptors, a subset that was not enriched at the site of disease. In contrast, in the lung, an increased percentage of gamma/delta cells expressing V delta 1 was found in a subset of patients. Importantly, these cells demonstrated evidence of prior activation by selectively expanding in vitro in the presence of interleukin 2. Furthermore, an analysis of junctional region sequences revealed their clonal nature. These clonal expansions of V delta 1+ cells in pulmonary sarcoidosis provide evidence for a disease process that involves specific recognition of a local antigen by T cells, and contributes new information regarding the nature of the as yet undefined antigenic stimulus.
J M Forrester, L S Newman, Y Wang, T E King Jr, B L Kotzin
In type-2 diabetes, the overall incretin effect is reduced. The present investigation was designed to compare insulinotropic actions of exogenous incretin hormones (gastric inhibitory peptide [GIP] and glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1] [7-36 amide]) in nine type-2 diabetic patients (fasting plasma glucose 7.8 mmol/liter; hemoglobin A1c 6.3 +/- 0.6%) and in nine age- and weight-matched normal subjects. Synthetic human GIP (0.8 and 2.4 pmol/kg.min over 1 h each), GLP-1 [7-36 amide] (0.4 and 1.2 pmol/kg.min over 1 h each), and placebo were administered under hyperglycemic clamp conditions (8.75 mmol/liter) in separate experiments. Plasma GIP and GLP-1 [7-36 amide] concentrations (radioimmunoassay) were comparable to those after oral glucose with the low, and clearly supraphysiological with the high infusion rates. Both GIP and GLP-1 [7-36 amide] dose-dependently augmented insulin secretion (insulin, C-peptide) in both groups (P < 0.05). With GIP, the maximum effect in type-2 diabetic patients was significantly lower (by 54%; P < 0.05) than in normal subjects. With GLP-1 [7-36 amide] type-2 diabetic patients reached 71% of the increments in C-peptide of normal subjects (difference not significant). Glucagon was lowered during hyperglycemic clamps in normal subjects, but not in type-2 diabetic patients, and further by GLP-1 [7-36 amide] in both groups (P < 0.05), but not by GIP. In conclusion, in mild type-2 diabetes, GLP-1 [7-36 amide], in contrast to GIP, retains much of its insulinotropic activity. It also lowers glucagon concentrations.
M A Nauck, M M Heimesaat, C Orskov, J J Holst, R Ebert, W Creutzfeldt
Elevated levels of homocysteine are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The reactivity of the sulfhydryl group of homocysteine has been implicated in molecular mechanisms underlying this increased risk. There is also increasingly compelling evidence that thiols react in the presence of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) to form S-nitrosothiols, compounds with potent vasodilatory and antiplatelet effects. We, therefore, hypothesized that S-nitrosation of homocysteine would confer these beneficial bioactivities to the thiol, and at the same time attenuate its pathogenicity. We found that prolonged (> 3 h) exposure of endothelial cells to homocysteine results in impaired EDRF responses. By contrast, brief (15 min) exposure of endothelial cells, stimulated to secrete EDRF, to homocysteine results in the formation of S-NO-homocysteine, a potent antiplatelet agent and vasodilator. In contrast to homocysteine, S-NO-homocysteine does not support H2O2 generation and does not undergo conversion to homocysteine thiolactone, reaction products believed to contribute to endothelial toxicity. These results suggest that the normal endothelium modulates the potential, adverse effects of homocysteine by releasing EDRF and forming the adduct S-NO-homocysteine. The adverse vascular properties of homocysteine may result from an inability to sustain S-NO formation owing to a progressive imbalance between the production of NO by progressively dysfunctional endothelial cells and the levels of homocysteine.
J S Stamler, J A Osborne, O Jaraki, L E Rabbani, M Mullins, D Singel, J Loscalzo
This study examines the conductive properties of the plasma membrane of cells isolated from the intrahepatic portion of bile ducts. Membrane Cl- conductance was measured in single cells using whole-cell patch clamp recording techniques and in cells in short-term culture using 36Cl and 125I efflux. Separate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-dependent Cl- currents were identified. Ca(2+)-dependent Cl- currents showed outward rectification of the current-voltage relation, time-dependent activation at depolarizing potentials, and reversal near the equilibrium potential for Cl-. Ionomycin (2 microM) increased this current from 357 +/- 72 pA to 1,192 +/- 414 pA (at +80 mV) in 5:7 cells, and stimulated efflux of 125I > 36Cl in 15:15 studies. Ionomycin-stimulated efflux was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulfonic acid (DIDS) (150 microM). A separate cAMP-activated Cl- current showed linear current-voltage relations and no time dependence. Forskolin (10 microM) or cpt-cAMP (500 microM) increased this current from 189 +/- 50 pA to 784 +/- 196 pA (at +80 mV) in 11:16 cells, and stimulated efflux of 36Cl > 125I in 16:16 studies. cAMP-stimulated efflux was unaffected by DIDS. Because the cAMP-stimulated Cl- conductance resembles that associated with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a putative Cl- channel protein, the presence of CFTR in rat liver was examined by immunoblot analyses. CFTR was detected as a 150-165-kD protein in specimens with increased numbers of duct cells. Immunoperoxidase staining confirmed localization of CFTR to bile duct cells but not hepatocytes. These findings suggest that Ca(2+)- and cAMP-regulated Cl- channels may participate in control of fluid and electrolyte secretion by intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells, and that the cAMP-regulated conductance is associated with endogenous expression of CFTR. Abnormal ductular secretion may contribute to the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver disease in cystic fibrosis.
J G Fitz, S Basavappa, J McGill, O Melhus, J A Cohn
Erythroid differentiation is accompanied by dramatic alterations in morphology and membrane mechanical properties resulting, in large part, from reorganization of the membrane skeletal protein network. The 80-kD protein 4.1 is an important organizational component of this membrane skeleton. Recently, it has been recognized that multiple structural isoforms of 4.1 are encoded by a single gene via alternative pre-mRNA splicing, and that an upstream ATG can be spliced in and used for translation of high molecular weight 4.1. We are exploring the hypothesis that differentiation-associated switches in protein 4.1 structure play an important role in membrane reorganization. To study changes in 4.1 gene expression during normal human differentiation, we analyzed 4.1 protein and mRNA structure at various developmental stages. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we observed high molecular weight 4.1 isoforms in preproerythroblasts producing punctate, predominantly cytoplasmic staining with a perinuclear area of intense fluorescence, while mature red cells expressed very little high molecular weight 4.1. Isoforms containing an alternatively expressed 102-nucleotide exon near the COOH terminus were abundant in both preproerythroblasts and mature cells but produced a punctate distribution of fluorescence over the entire preproerythroblast and intense membrane-associated fluorescence in the erythrocyte. Characterization of RNA by polymerase chain reaction and nuclease protection assays revealed a differentiation-associated switch in pre-mRNA splicing in the spectrin-actin binding domain. Since this domain plays a critical role in regulating membrane material properties, we speculate that this switch may be crucial to reorganization of the skeletal network during erythropoiesis. We conclude that 4.1 isoforms are differentially expressed and differentially localized during erythropoiesis, and that this isoform family is likely to have diverse functions during terminal differentiation.
J A Chasis, L Coulombel, J Conboy, S McGee, K Andrews, Y W Kan, N Mohandas
The severe adverse effects of gonococcal infection on human fertility suggests that Neisseria gonorrhoeae would exert powerful selection for the development of a protective immune response in humans. N. gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen and must persist in humans to survive. Since it is an ecologically successful organism, it must have evolved strategies to evade any human immune response it elicits. In a longitudinal study among 243 women working as prostitutes and experiencing frequent gonococcal infection, younger women, women with HIV infection, and women with antibody to the gonococcal outer membrane protein 3 (Rmp) were at increased risk of infection (adjusted odds ratio 3.4, CI95% 1.1-10.4, P < 0.05). Rmp is highly conserved in N. gonorrhoeae and the blocking of mucosal defences may be one of its functions. As similar proteins occur in many gram negative mucosal pathogens, the enhancing effect of such proteins may be a general strategy whereby bacteria evade human immune responses.
F A Plummer, H Chubb, J N Simonsen, M Bosire, L Slaney, I Maclean, J O Ndinya-Achola, P Waiyaki, R C Brunham
Expression of mRNA for beta 1-, beta 2-, and beta 3-adrenergic receptors (beta 1-, beta 2-, and beta 3-AR) was investigated in human tissues. beta 1- and beta 2-AR mRNA distribution correlated with that of the cognate receptors established by pharmacological studies. beta 3-AR transcripts were abundant in infant perirenal brown adipose tissue, characterized by the presence of uncoupling protein (UCP) mRNA. In adult whole adipose tissues, beta 3-AR mRNA levels were high in deep deposits such as perirenal and omental, and lower in subcutaneous. In these deposits, UCP mRNA levels paralleled those of beta 3-AR. However, isolated omental and subcutaneous adipose cells, enriched in white adipocytes, expressed beta 3-AR but no UCP transcripts. beta 3-AR mRNA was highly expressed in gallbladder, and to a much lower extent in colon, independently of UCP mRNA. Quadriceps or abdominal muscles, heart, liver, lung, kidney, thyroid, and lymphocytes did not express intrinsic beta 3-AR mRNA. This study demonstrates that substantial amounts of brown adipocytes exist throughout life in adipose deposits, which are generally classified as white. These deposits are the main sites of beta 3-AR expression, which also occurs in gallbladder and colon. beta 3-AR may thus be involved in the control of lipid metabolism, possibly from fat assimilation in the digestive tract, to triglyceride storage and mobilization in adipose tissues.
S Krief, F Lönnqvist, S Raimbault, B Baude, A Van Spronsen, P Arner, A D Strosberg, D Ricquier, L J Emorine
Individuals with or at risk for insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD) frequently have autoantibodies against an islet cell cytoplasmic (ICA) antigen thought to be a sialoglycolipid. However, we now report that preabsorption of ICA-positive sera with recombinant glutamate decarboxylase (human GAD 65 and/or GAD 67) reduced or blocked the ICA reactivity of 5/18 (27%) new-onset IDD patients and 7/18 (39%) prediabetics. Interestingly, nondiabetic subjects with ICA of > or = 5 yr in duration had GAD-reactive ICA significantly more often (16/24, 67%, P < 0.04) than the diabetic groups. ICA reactivity to GAD was not related to serum ICA titer nor the age of the individual, and in all cases tested was blocked by GAD 65 or GAD 67 with equivalent efficiency. The ICA observed in 21/25 (84%) IDD patients with ICA long after clinical onset of disease (9-42 yr) was reactive to GAD. A natural history analysis of three individuals showed conversions from ICA which was reactive to GAD to a non-GAD-reactive ICA nearer to their clinical onsets of IDD. This study further defines the autoantigens reactive to ICA, and suggests that, whereas ICA that are not reactive to GAD may identify an advanced and more prognostic lesion, GAD-reactive ICA may typify the early or inductive lesion that may or may not progress to clinically significant beta cell injury.
M A Atkinson, D L Kaufman, D Newman, A J Tobin, N K Maclaren
Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EHK) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by hyperkeratosis and blistering of the skin. Histopathology demonstrates suprabasilar blister formation with aggregation of tonofilaments. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the EHK phenotype is linked to one of the suprabasilar keratins (KRT10 or KRT1) present in the types I and II keratin gene clusters in chromosomes 17q and 12q, respectively. For this purpose, Southern hybridizations were performed with DNA from a large kindred with EHK, consisting of 11 affected individuals in three generations. Segregation analysis with markers flanking the keratin gene clusters demonstrated linkage (Z = 3.61 at theta = 0) to a locus on 12q, while markers on 17q were excluded. These data implicate KRT1, the type II keratin expressed in suprabasilar keratinocytes, as a candidate gene in this family with EHK.
L Pulkkinen, A M Christiano, R G Knowlton, J Uitto
Craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD) is a rare craniotubular bone dysplasia transmitted in autosomal dominant or recessive form. This disease is characterized by cranial bone hyperostosis and deformity of the metaphyses of the long bones. Using osteoclast-like cells formed from patient bone marrow cells, we investigated the pathophysiology of CMD in a 3-yr-old patient. Untreated bone marrow cells from the patient differentiated into osteoclast-like cells in vitro. These cells were shown to have vitronectin beta-receptors using a specific monoclonal antibody, i.e., 23C6 (CD51), which reacts with osteoclasts in human bone biopsy samples. However, the number of these osteoclast-like cells formed from the patient's bone marrow was only 40% of the normal controls. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3, bovine 1-34 parathyroid hormone, recombinant human interleukin-1 beta, recombinant human interleukin-6, or recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor significantly increased, while salmon calcitonin significantly inhibited, the number of osteoclast-like cells. However, these cells could not resorb sperm whale dentin slices and lacked the osteoclast-reactive vacuolar proton pump as evidenced by a monoclonal antibody (E11). Western blot analysis using a monoclonal antibody to pp60c-src (327) revealed that protooncogene c-src expression by the platelets of the CMD patient was comparable to the normal control. These data suggest that: (a) the hyperostosis and the metaphyseal long bone deformity in the present CMD patient might be explained by osteoclast dysfunction due to impaired expression of the osteoclast-reactive vacuolar proton pump; and (b) a protooncogene c-src was not associated with the pathogenesis of the present CMD patient.
T Yamamoto, N Kurihara, K Yamaoka, K Ozono, M Okada, K Yamamoto, S Matsumoto, T Michigami, J Ono, S Okada
At and before onset, most insulin-dependent diabetics (IDDM) have islet GAD65 autoantibodies (GAD65Ab). Since IDDM also occurs in older patients where non-insulin-dependent diabetes is common, we studied GAD65Ab at onset to classify diabetes type. Our quantitative immunoprecipitation assay uses recombinant human islet GAD65 stably expressed in hamster fibroblasts. Electrophoretic mobility was identical to native islet GAD65. Like native antigen, recombinant GAD65 migrated as two bands during electrophoresis, but converted to one under stronger reduction. Immunoprecipitation was linear with respect to antibody or antigen concentration. In 120 population-based diabetic patients of all ages grouped by treatment at onset and after 18 mo, GAD65Ab were present in 70% on insulin (n = 37), 10% on oral agent (n = 62, P < 0.0001), 69% changing from oral agent to insulin (n = 16, P < 0.001), and 1 of 33 controls. 65% with GAD65Ab, versus 8% without, changed from oral agent to insulin (P < 0.01). The GAD65Ab quantitative index was remarkably stable, and only 2 of 32 patients changed antibody status during follow-up. Concordance between GAD65Ab and islet cell antibodies was 93%. Quantitative correlation was approximate but significant. This highly sensitive, quantitative, high capacity assay for GAD65Ab reveals treatment requirements better than clinical criteria, perhaps guiding immunomodulatory therapy.
W A Hagopian, A E Karlsen, A Gottsäter, M Landin-Olsson, C E Grubin, G Sundkvist, J S Petersen, E Boel, T Dyrberg, A Lernmark