Prostacyclin (PGI2) plays an integral role in O2 mediation of pulmonary vasomotor tone in the fetus and newborn. We hypothesized that O2 modulates PGI2 synthesis in vitro in ovine fetal intrapulmonary arteries, with decreasing O2 causing attenuated synthesis. A decline in PO2 from 680 to 40 mmHg caused a 26% fall in basal PGI2 synthesis. PGI2 synthesis maximally stimulated by bradykinin, A23187, and arachidonic acid were also attenuated at low PO2, by 35%, 33%, and 35%, respectively. PGE2 synthesis was equally affected. In contrast, varying O2 did not alter PGI2 synthesis with exogenous PGH2, which is the product of cyclooxygenase and the substrate for prostacyclin synthetase. Prostaglandin-mediated effects of O2 on cAMP production were also examined. Decreasing PO2 to 40 mmHg caused complete inhibition of basal cAMP production, whereas cAMP production stimulated by exogenous PGI2 was not affected. In parallel studies of mesenteric arteries, PGI2 synthesis and cAMP production were enhanced at low O2. Thus, PGI2 synthesis in fetal intrapulmonary arteries is modulated by changes in O2, with decreasing O2 causing attenuated synthesis. This process is due to an effect on cyclooxygenase activity, it causes marked parallel alterations in cAMP production, and it is specific to the pulmonary circulation.
P W Shaul, W B Campbell, M A Farrar, R R Magness
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHCM) is an autosomal dominant disease affecting primarily the myocardium. The gene responsible for FHCM has been localized to chromosome 14 in some families and several mutations have been described in the beta-myosin heavy chain (beta MHC), a candidate gene for the disease. We recently identified a family with HCM in whom we did not detect any of the known mutations in the beta MHC gene (the alpha/beta MHC hybrid gene and the missense mutation in exons 13 and 9). However, we did observe a novel 9.5-kb BamHI restriction fragment length polymorphism detected by a beta MHC probe on Southern blots of DNA from the proband of this family. Similarly, a novel 3.8-kb TaqI polymorphism and a novel 4.3-kb HindIII polymorphism were detected on Southern blots of DNA from the same proband. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the segment of the beta MHC that was detected by pSC14 probe. PCR amplification of the distal 3'-end of the beta MHC gene yielded an additional product in the DNA template from the proband which was subsequently cloned and sequenced. The sequence analysis showed a 2.4-kb nucleotide deletion involving one allele of the beta MHC gene. The deletion includes part of the intron 39, exon 40 including the 3'-untranslated region and the polyadenylation signal, and part of the beta-alpha MHC intergenic region. This deletion was inherited in Mendelian fashion in an additional three members of this small family of which only the proband has developed clinically diagnosed HCM at a very late onset (age 59 yr), the other three family members are younger and have not developed the disease at the ages of 10, 32, and 33 yr.
A J Marian, Q T Yu, A Mares Jr, R Hill, R Roberts, M B Perryman
Suramin, a synthetic polysulfonated anionic compound, is known to abrogate the activity of a variety of growth factors that serve as ligands for receptor-class protein-tyrosine kinases. Based on this information, we initially hypothesized that suramin treatment would be associated with decreased tyrosine phosphorylation. Upon testing this hypothesis in prostate cancer cell lines, we found that the most conspicuous effect of suramin was to increase the tyrosine phosphorylation of several distinct proteins. Further analyses indicate that suramin-induced increases in tyrosine phosphorylation represent a generalized, but not universal, phenomenon found in cell lines derived from a variety of human tissues. These rapid and specific suramin-induced alterations represent a novel finding for a non-polypeptide pharmaceutical agent and question the hypothesis that suramin exerts its antitumor action simply by abrogation of growth factor action.
O Sartor, C A McLellan, C E Myers, M M Borner
The existence of lipolytic beta-adrenoceptor (BAR) resistance was investigated in vivo and in isolated abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes in 65 healthy and drug-free subjects. The concentration of isoprenaline (nonselective BAR agonist) causing half-maximum lipolysis effect (ED50) varied bimodally and 10(6)-fold between individuals but was almost constant in the same subject when measured two times at rest or before and 30 min after exercise. The subjects were categorized as having either high or low isoprenaline sensitivity. The former group had a 50% reduced in vivo lipolytic response to exercise and mental stress, despite a 50% increased plasma noradrenaline response (P < 0.01) and a 350% increased plasma adrenaline response (P < 0.02). In fat cells the lipolytic ED50 values for noradrenaline and terbutaline (BAR2 agonist) were 10 times lower (P < 0.001) in low-sensitive subjects, but the maximum lipolytic actions of these agents (and of isoprenaline) were similar in both groups. The action on lipolysis of dobutamine (BAR1 agonist), forskolin (stimulating adenylate cyclase), dibutyryl cyclic AMP (activating protein kinase), clonidine (alpha 2-adrenergic agonist), or phenyl isopropyladenosine (adenosine receptor agonist) were almost identical in high- and low-sensitivity subjects. ED50 for isoprenaline correlated with ED50 for terbutaline (r = 0.75), but not with ED50 for dobutamine. In high-sensitivity subjects the number of BAR2 was almost three-fold increased (P < 0.002) and the steady-state adipocyte mRNA level for BAR2 was sixfold increased (P < 0.005). BAR2 affinity as well as BAR1 number, affinity and mRNA expression were similar in both groups. In 11 cholecystectomy patients (otherwise healthy) lipolytic ED50 for beta agonists correlated in omental and subcutaneous fat cells (r = 0.85 for isoprenaline; r = 0.95 for terbutaline). In conclusion, lipolytic resistance to catecholamines is present in vivo in apparently healthy subjects due to reduced expression of BAR2 in adipocytes.
F Lönnqvist, H Wahrenberg, L Hellström, S Reynisdottir, P Arner
Pyocyanin, a secretory product of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has the capacity to undergo redox cycling under aerobic conditions with resulting generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. By using spin trapping techniques in conjunction with electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry (EPR), superoxide was detected during the aerobic reduction of pyocyanin by NADH or porcine endothelial cells. No evidence of hydroxyl radical formation was detected. Chromium oxalate eliminated the EPR spectrum of the superoxide-derived spin adduct resulting from endothelial cell exposure to pyocyanin, suggesting superoxide formation close to the endothelial cell plasma membrane. We have previously reported that iron bound to the P. aeruginosa siderophore pyochelin (ferripyochelin) catalyzes the formation of hydroxyl free radical from superoxide and hydrogen peroxide via the Haber-Weiss reaction. In the present study, spin trap evidence of hydroxyl radical formation was detected when NADH and pyocyanin were allowed to react in the presence of ferripyochelin. Similarly, endothelial cell exposure to pyocyanin and ferripyochelin also resulted in hydroxyl radical production which appeared to occur in close proximity to the cell surface. As assessed by 51Cr release, endothelial cells which were treated with pyocyanin or ferripyochelin alone demonstrated minimal injury. However, endothelial cell exposure to the combination of pyochelin and pyocyanin resulted in 55% specific 51Cr release. Injury was not observed with the substitution of iron-free pyochelin and was diminished by the presence of catalase or dimethyl thiourea. These data suggest the possibility that the P. aeruginosa secretory products pyocyanin and pyochelin may act synergistically via the generation of hydroxyl radical to damage local tissues at sites of pseudomonas infection.
B E Britigan, T L Roeder, G T Rasmussen, D M Shasby, M L McCormick, C D Cox
Accumulated sequence analyses of the antibody repertoire have revealed that most autoantibodies and developmentally regulated antibodies share a small set of germline Ig-variable region (V) genes. The findings have prompted speculation that certain autoantibodies are of developmental importance and may be instrumental in maintaining homeostasis of the adult antibody repertoire. In order to evaluate this hypothesis critically, it is first necessary to determine the V gene usage in human antibodies against foreign substances. Unfortunately, only a few such antibodies have had their heavy and light chains characterized. To rectify the situation, we adapted the anchored polymerase chain reaction to clone and analyze rapidly the expressed V genes for three anti-virus IgG antibodies. The results show that all three heavy chain V (Vh) genes are highly homologous to the known autoantibody-related Vh genes. In contrast, two light chain V (VL) genes of the V lambda 1 subgroup are similar to a non-autoantibody-related germline V lambda 1 gene. Taken together with the reported Vh and VL sequences of several antibodies against viruses and bacteria, the data show that many antipathogen antibodies may use the same small set of Vh genes that encode autoantibodies, but diverse VL genes that are distinct from autoantibody-related VL genes. Thus, only a small portion of the potentially functional germline Vh genes are used recurrently to generate most antibodies in a normal antibody repertoire, regardless of their reactivities with either self or non-self.
D F Huang, T Olee, Y Masuho, Y Matsumoto, D A Carson, P P Chen
A plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) has been shown to regulate the response of rabbit peritoneal macrophages and human blood monocytes to endotoxin (LPS). We investigated whether LBP is present in lung fluids and the effects of LBP on the response of lung macrophages to LPS. Immunoreactive LBP was detectable in the lavage fluids of patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting, and also by specific immunoassay. In rabbits, the LBP appeared to originate outside of the lungs, inasmuch as mRNA transcripts for LBP were identified in total cellular RNA from liver, but not from lung homogenates or alveolar macrophages. Purified LBP enhanced the response of human and rabbit alveolar macrophages to both smooth form LPS (Escherichia coli O111B:4) and rough form LPS (Salmonella minnesota Re595). In the presence of LBP and LPS, the onset of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) production occurred earlier and at an LPS threshold dose that was as much as 1,000-fold lower for both types of LPS. In rabbit alveolar macrophages treated with LBP and LPS, TNF alpha mRNA appeared earlier, reached higher levels, and had a prolonged half-life as compared with LPS treatment alone. Neither LPS nor LPS and LBP affected pHi or [Cai++] in alveolar macrophages. Specific monoclonal antibodies to CD14, a receptor that binds LPS/LBP complexes, inhibited TNF alpha production by human alveolar macrophages stimulated with LPS alone or with LPS/LBP complexes, indicating the importance of CD14 in mediating the effects of LPS on alveolar macrophages. Thus, immunoreactive LBP accumulates in lung lavage fluids in patients with lung injury and enhances LPS-stimulated TNF alpha gene expression in alveolar macrophages by a pathway that depends on the CD14 receptor. LBP may play an important role in augmenting TNF alpha expression by alveolar macrophages within the lungs.
T R Martin, J C Mathison, P S Tobias, D J Letúrcq, A M Moriarty, R J Maunder, R J Ulevitch
Endogeneous retroviral expression in beta cells is a feature of prediabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The purpose of this study was to characterize the class-specific pattern of retroviral gene expression in NOD/Lt beta cells versus a related, but diabetes-resistant strain, NON/Lt. Electron microscopic comparison of beta cells from both strains indicated low constitutive expression of the intracisternal type A (IAP) retroviral class. However, NOD beta cells, in contrast to NON beta cells, expressed an additional intracisternal retroviral form resembling a type C particle. Antibodies against both IAP and type C were detected in NOD, with the humoral response to type C, but not IAP, preceding decline in beta cell function. RNA was extracted from freshly isolated islets from NOD and NON males. Comparative Northern blot analysis of total type C retroviral gene expression using a gag-pol DNA probe corroborated expression of endogenous type C proviruses in both NOD and NON islet cells and thymus. Use of class-specific retroviral probes identified the class of expressed endogenous retrovirus distinguishing the two inbred strains. The single ecotropic provirus present in both the NOD and NON genome (Emv-30) was not expressed in islets or thymus of either strain. Comparison of endogenous xenotropic provirus content by Southern blot analysis revealed two unique xenotropic loci (Xmv-65, -66) in NOD; 8.4 and 3.0 kb xenotropic envelope (env) RNA transcripts were detected in NOD, but not NON islets and thymus. NON contained three xenotropic loci common to other inbred strains (Xmv-21, -25, and -28). Both strains were partially characterized for content of recombinant (polytropic and modified polytropic) proviruses. IAP RNA expression was common to both NOD and NON islets and hence could not be specifically associated with the unique intracisternal type C particle found in NOD, but not NON beta cells. In conclusion, this study shows that expression of xenotropic type C but not IAP distinguishes retroviral activity in NOD/Lt versus NON/Lt beta cells. The potential pathogenic role of retroviral gene expression in NOD beta cells is discussed.
H R Gaskins, M Prochazka, K Hamaguchi, D V Serreze, E H Leiter
Dexamethasone negatively regulates insulin gene expression in HIT-15 cells. In vivo, however, an excess of glucocorticoids results in an increase in insulin biosynthesis and peripheral hyperinsulinemia. To resolve this contradiction, we have studied the effects of dexamethasone in primary rat islet cells. We show here that dexamethasone decreases insulin mRNA levels in single islet cells, as in HIT-15 cells, but does not affect these levels in reaggregated islet cells and increases them in intact islets of Langerhans. Because cAMP is an important regulator of insulin gene expression and intracellular cAMP content may be decreased in single beta cells, we investigated whether cAMP could prevent the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on insulin mRNA levels. In the presence of cAMP analogues, the inhibitory action of dexamethasone was not only prevented, but insulin mRNA increased to levels comparable to those observed when cAMP analogues were used alone. We conclude that the insulin gene is negatively regulated by dexamethasone in single islet cells, but that other factors such as cAMP prevent this effect when the native environment of islet cells is preserved. Our results indicate that insulin gene regulation is influenced by cell to cell contacts within the islet, and that intracellular cAMP levels might be influential in this regulation.
J Philippe, E Giordano, A Gjinovci, P Meda
Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance cause vascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dietary treatment alone often fails and oral drugs or insulin enhance hyperinsulinemia. In previous studies, an intravenous bolus of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) caused normoglycemia in insulin-resistant diabetics whereas rhIGF-I infusions lowered insulin and lipid levels in healthy humans, suggesting that rhIGF-I is effective in insulin-resistant states. Thus, eight type 2 diabetics on a diet received on five treatment days subcutaneous rhIGF-I (2 x 120 micrograms/kg) after five control days. Fasting and postprandial glucose, insulin, C-peptide, proinsulin, glucagon, triglyceride, insulin-like growth factor-I and -II, and growth hormone levels were determined. RhIGF-I administration increased total IGF-I serum levels 5.3-fold above control. During the control period mean (+/- SD) fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and total triglyceride levels were 11.0 +/- 4.3 mmol/liter, 108 +/- 50 pmol/liter, 793 +/- 250 pmol/liter, and 3.1 +/- 2.7 mmol/liter, respectively, and decreased during treatment to a nadir of 6.6 +/- 2.5 mmol/liter, 47 +/- 18 pmol/liter, 311 +/- 165 pmol/liter, and 1.6 +/- 0.8 mmol/liter (P < 0.01), respectively. Postprandial areas under the glucose, insulin, and C-peptide curve decreased to 77 +/- 13 (P < 0.02), 52 +/- 11, and 60 +/- 9% (P < 0.01) of control, respectively. RhIGF-I decreased the proinsulin/insulin ratio whereas glucagon levels remained unchanged. The magnitude of the effects of rhIGF-I correlated with the respective control levels. Since rhIGF-I appears to improve insulin sensitivity directly and/or indirectly, it may become an interesting tool in type 2 diabetes and other states associated with insulin resistance.
P D Zenobi, S E Jaeggi-Groisman, W F Riesen, M E Røder, E R Froesch
The association of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) with certain HLA alleles is well documented in pediatric patients. Whether a similar association is found in adult-on-set IDDM is not clear, although the disease occurs after the age of 20 in 50% of cases. HLA class II DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1 alleles were studied in 402 type I diabetics and 405 healthy controls (all Caucasian) using oligonucleotide typing after gene amplification. Alleles DRB1*03, DRB1*04, DQB1*0201, DQB1*0302, DQA1*0301, and DQA1*0501 were indeed enriched in diabetics and the highest relative risk was observed in patients carrying both the DRB1*03-DQB1*0201 and the DRB1*0402 or DRB1*0405-DQB1*0302 haplotypes. However none of these alleles, or specific residues, could alone account for the susceptibility to IDDM. Furthermore, there were major differences in HLA class II gene profiles according to the age of onset. Patients with onset after 15 yr (n = 290) showed a significantly higher percentage of non-DR3/non-DR4 genotypes than those with childhood onset (n = 112) and a lower percentage of DR3/4 genotypes. These non-DR3/non-DR4 patients, although presenting clinically as IDDM type 1 patients, showed a lower frequency of islet cell antibodies at diagnosis and a significantly milder initial insulin deficiency. These subjects probably represent a particular subset of IDDM patients in whom frequency increases with age. The data confirm the genetic heterogeneity of IDDM and call for caution in extrapolating to adult patients the genetic concepts derived from childhood IDDM.
S Caillat-Zucman, H J Garchon, J Timsit, R Assan, C Boitard, I Djilali-Saiah, P Bougnères, J F Bach
Entactin is an integral component of basement membranes that plays a major role in basement membrane assembly through its ability to bind avidly to both laminin and type IV collagen. Because neutrophil (PMN) interactions with entactin have not been examined, we investigated the ability of natural and recombinant entactin to mediate PMN adhesion and chemotaxis. With both forms of entactin, we observed that entactin-coated surfaces promoted PMN adhesion and that entactin stimulated PMN chemotaxis. The increase in adhesion to entactin over control was two to threefold whereas the chemotactic response to 15 ng/ml (1 x 10(-10) M) entactin was equivalent to the chemotactic response elicited with 1 x 10(-8) M formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). HL-60 cells, after differentiation with dimethylsulfoxide, also demonstrated adhesion and chemotaxis to entactin. A synthetic peptide of the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) domain in entactin, SIGFRGDGQTC (S-RGD), mediated PMN adhesion and chemotaxis, and preexposure of PMN to S-RGD blocked PMN adhesion and chemotaxis induced by entactin without diminishing the adhesive and chemotactic activities of fMLP. In contrast, preexposure to peptides SIGFRGEGQTCA or SIGFKGDGQTCA had no effect. The findings with synthetic peptides were confirmed with a recombinant entactin mutant in which aspartic acid at residue 674 was replaced with glutamic acid, thus converting the RGD sequence of entactin to RGE. RGE-entactin was neither adhesive nor chemotactic for neutrophils. Monoclonal antibodies to the leukocyte response integrin (LRI) and the integrin-associated protein blocked entactin-mediated adhesion and chemotaxis whereas monoclonal antibodies to beta 1 and beta 2 integrins had no effect and PMN from an individual with leukocyte-adhesion deficiency adhered normally to entactin-coated surfaces. These data demonstrate that entactin mediates biologically and pathologically important functions of PMN through its RGD domain and that LRI, which has been shown previously to mediate RGD-stimulated phagocytosis, is also capable of mediating RGD-stimulated PMN adhesion and chemotaxis.
R M Senior, H D Gresham, G L Griffin, E J Brown, A E Chung
By transfecting the full-length cDNA for human von Willebrand factor (vWf) into a line of Chinese hamster ovary cells with a defect in carbohydrate metabolism, we have prepared recombinant vWf specifically lacking O-linked carbohydrates. We have compared this under-glycosylated protein to fully glycosylated recombinant vWf with respect to several structural and binding properties. vWf deficient in O-linked glycans was synthesized, assembled into multimers, and secreted in an apparently normal manner and was not prone to degradation in the extracellular milieu. It did not differ from fully glycosylated vWf in ability to bind to heparin or to collagen type I but did interact less well with glycoprotein 1b on formalin-fixed platelets. This decreased interaction was evidenced in both a lessened overall binding to platelets and in diminished capacity to promote platelet agglutination, in the presence of ristocetin. In contrast, no difference was seen in platelet binding in the presence of botrocetin. These data indicate a possible role for O-linked carbohydrates in the vWf-glycoprotein 1b interaction promoted by ristocetin and suggest that abnormalities in carbohydrate modification might contribute to the altered ristocetin-dependent reactivity between vWf and platelets described for some variant forms of von Willebrand disease.
J A Carew, S M Quinn, J H Stoddart, D C Lynch
Changes in the structure of the proteoglycan aggrecan (PG) of articular cartilage were determined immunochemically by RIA and gel chromatography and related to cartilage degeneration documented histologically by the Mankin grading system. Monoclonal antibodies to glycosaminoglycan epitopes were used. In all cartilages, three chondroitin sulfate (CS)-rich populations of large size were observed in addition to a smaller keratan sulfate (KS)-rich population. In grades 7-13 OA cartilages (phase II), molecules were significantly larger than the equivalent molecules of grades 2-6 (phase I). CS chain lengths remained unchanged. In most OA cartilages, a CS epitope 846 was elevated in content, this being most marked in phase II (mean: fivefold). Loss of uronic acid, KS, and hyaluronic acid were only pronounced in phase II OA because of variations in normal contents. Aggregation of PG was unchanged (50-60%) or reduced in OA cartilages, but molecules bearing epitope 846 exhibited almost complete aggregation in normal cartilages. This study provides evidence for the capacity of OA cartilage to synthesize new aggrecan molecules to replace those damaged and lost by disease-related changes. It also defines two phases of PG change in OA: an early predominantly degenerate phase I followed by a net reparative phase II accompanied by net loss of these molecules.
G Rizkalla, A Reiner, E Bogoch, A R Poole
PTH is a major regulator of renal proximal tubule 1,25(OH)2D3 biosynthesis. However, the intracellular pathways involved in PTH activation of the mitochondrial 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase (1-OHase) remain unknown. PTH can activate both the adenylate cyclase/protein kinase A (PKA) and the plasma membrane phospholipase C/protein kinase C (PKC) pathways. The present study was undertaken to determine whether PKC may mediate PTH activation of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity. Rat PTH 1-34 fragment in vitro translocated PKC activity from cytosolic to soluble membrane fraction from freshly prepared rat proximal tubules. Physiologic concentrations (10(-11)-10(-10) M) of rat PTH 1-34 fragment increased PKC translocation three- to fourfold while PKA activity ratio increased at PTH 10(-7) M. PTH stimulation of PKC and PKA was reduced in the presence of staurosporine (10 nM) by 41 and 29%, respectively. Sangivamycin (10 and 50 microM) also reduced PTH-stimulated PKC translocation, but did not alter PKA activity ratio. In vitro perifusion of renal proximal tubules with PTH (10(-11) M) increased 1,25(OH)2D3 steady-state secretion two- to fourfold. Sangivamycin at the same concentration that inhibited PKC translocation by 52% completely inhibited PTH-stimulated 1,25(OH)2D3 secretion. The present studies indicate that the phospholipase C/PKC pathway may mediate PTH stimulation of mammalian renal proximal tubule 1,25(OH)2D3 secretion.
M Janulis, V Tembe, M J Favus
A human pancreatic cDNA library was screened with the cDNA encoding rat "pancreatitis-associated protein" (PAP). The selected clone encoded a secretory protein structurally related to rat PAP. The protein had the same size as rat PAP and showed 71% amino acid identity, the six half-cystines being in identical positions. Domains of the proteins showing homologies with calcium-dependent lectins were also conserved. In addition, expression in pancreas of the genes encoding the human protein and rat PAP showed similar characteristics: both were expressed at very low levels in control tissue and overexpressed during the acute phase of pancreatitis, contrary to most secretory products. The human protein was therefore named human pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP-H). Antibodies raised to a synthetic peptide of PAP-H detected a single band with an M(r) compatible with PAP-H in Western blot analysis of proteins extracted from a pancreas presenting with acute pancreatitis. In that tissue, the protein could be immunolocalized to the apical regions of acinar cells. An immunoassay was also constructed to quantify the protein in serum. Elevated PAP-H levels were observed in patients with acute pancreatitis and in some patients with chronic pancreatitis. Values were close to background in healthy subjects and in patients with other abdominal diseases. These results confirm that PAP-H synthesis increases during inflammation and suggest a possible use of the protein as biological marker of acute pancreatitis.
B Orelle, V Keim, L Masciotra, J C Dagorn, J L Iovanna
The effect of heparin and poly-L-glutamate on the function of inhibitory M2 muscarinic autoreceptors on parasympathetic nerves in the lung was tested in antigen-challenged guinea pigs. After antigen challenge, M2 receptor function is decreased, thus increasing release of acetylcholine from the vagus and potentiating vagally induced bronchoconstriction. Guinea pigs were anesthetized, tracheostomized, vagotomized, paralyzed, and ventilated. Electrical stimulation of the vagi caused bronchoconstriction and bradycardia. In controls, pilocarpine attenuated vagally induced bronchoconstriction by stimulating neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors. Conversely, blocking these autoreceptors with gallamine potentiated vagally induced bronchoconstriction. In challenged animals the effects of both drugs were markedly reduced, confirming M2 receptor dysfunction. 20 min after heparin or poly-L-glutamate, the effects of both pilocarpine and gallamine on vagally induced bronchoconstriction were restored, demonstrating recovery of M2 receptor function. Neither heparin nor poly-L-glutamate affected vagally induced responses in control animals. Thus antigen-induced dysfunction of M2 receptors can be reversed by polyanionic polysaccharides (heparin) or polyanionic peptides (poly-L-glutamate). This suggests that a polycationic substance such as eosinophil major basic protein, cationic protein, or peroxidase may be responsible for antigen-induced pulmonary M2 receptor dysfunction.
A D Fryer, D B Jacoby
Discrete rearrangements of immunoglobulin genes are characteristic of lymphoproliferative diseases of B cells and provide direct evidence of their clonal nature. In addition, because leukemic transformation and growth may amplify B cell clones regardless of selection by antigen, analysis of rearranged Ig genes in leukemic clones may give insight into molecular events taking place during the ontogenesis of normal B cells. We have tested DNA samples from patients with chronic B cell leukemias in search for abnormal rearrangements of the Ig heavy chain gene region. By Southern blot analysis we found an unexpected break in the JH-C mu region in 7 out of 118 cases. Two of these cases were investigated in detail by constructing from each a phage genomic library and isolating the phage clones containing the break points. In both cases the JH-C mu separation was confirmed. Further analysis demonstrated that in both cases the abnormality was an inversion of the Ig heavy chain gene between C mu and one of the C gamma segments. This inversion structure strongly suggests that, as has been demonstrated in murine cell lines and in splenocytes stimulated in vitro, class switching in human B lymphocytes occurs in vivo via a loop-out deletion mechanism. The frequency of abnormal events may be as high as 15%. Our data indicate that a proportion of cases of chronic B cell leukemia arise from a cell which has attempted an Ig class switch.
M Laffan, L Luzzatto
The role of leukocytes and platelets and of leukocyte- and platelet-derived eicosanoids in mediating acute changes in renal and glomerular hemodynamics was assessed in a model of antibody-induced mesangial cell injury in the rat. After a single intravenous injection (6 mg/kg) of the monoclonal antibody (ER4) against the mesangial cell membrane antigen Thy 1, significant decrements in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal blood flow (RBF) were observed at 1 h, and were associated with increments in glomerular LC (+) leukocyte counts and in the synthesis of thromboxane (Tx)B2, leukotriene (LT)B4, and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE). In rats with immune leukopenia, the rise in glomerular LC (+) leukocytes and in eicosanoid synthesis were abolished and the fall in GFR and RBF after administration of ER4 were completely ameliorated. Likewise, pretreatment of rats with both a thromboxane synthase and a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor also blocked the fall in GFR and RBF and the rise in glomerular synthesis of TxB2 and LTB4 produced by ER4 without changing glomerular LC (+) leukocyte counts. Selective inhibition of thromboxane or 5-lipoxygenase alone only partially ameliorated the decrements in GFR and RBF produced by ER4. In animals with immune thrombocytopenia, the elevated glomerular synthesis of 12-HETE and fall in RBF but not GFR was ameliorated after administration of ER4. The ER4 antibody-induced fall in GFR was mainly caused by a marked decrement in the ultrafiltration coefficient, Kf, which was dependent on TxA2 and 5-lipoxygenase products, since pretreatment of animals with a thromboxane receptor antagonist or with a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor partially ameliorated this decrement. Structural changes such as infiltration of glomerular capillaries by leukocytes and endothelial cell damage may also have accounted for the fall in Kf. These observations indicate that in antibody-mediated mesangial cell injury, infiltrating leukocytes and platelets mediate the changes in renal hemodynamics via synthesis of thromboxane and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenation products.
B A Bresnahan, S Wu, F J Fenoy, R J Roman, E A Lianos
Rotaviruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis in human infants. In vivo, rotavirus displays striking cell tropism with viral replication generally restricted to the villus tip enterocytes of the small intestine. We studied a panel of cell lines that vary significantly in their permissivity to rotavirus infection. L cells and HEp2 cells were relatively resistant to rotavirus infection compared with permissive Ma104 cells and HT29 cells. RNA transcription among the cell lines was proportional to antigen synthesis making a translational or posttranslational block an unlikely source of observed differences in susceptibility. All of the cell lines bound and internalized radiolabeled virus equally well, as measured by escape from surface protease treatment. Analysis of the escape of cell bound virus from neutralizing monoclonal antibody revealed that rotavirus did not immediately enter an eclipse phase in nonpermissive cells, but was internalized in an infectious form for several hours, possibly sequestered within endocytic vacuoles. L cells and HEp2 cells were as permissive as Ma104 and HT29 cells when rotavirus infection was mediated by transfection of single- or double-shelled rotavirus particles with cationic liposomes (Lipofectin). Rotavirus cell tropism in tissue culture cells is determined by the ability of infecting virions to traverse the plasma membrane of the cells into the cytoplasmic compartment.
D M Bass, M R Baylor, C Chen, E M Mackow, M Bremont, H B Greenberg
Transport systems involved in uptake and biliary secretion of bile salts have been extensively studied in rat liver; however, little is known about these systems in the human liver. In this study, we investigated taurocholate (TC) transport in canalicular and basolateral plasma membrane vesicles isolated from 15 human livers (donor age 6-64 yr). ATP stimulated the uptake of TC into both canalicular and basolateral human liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM and blLPM, respectively). Considerable interindividual variations in the transport velocity were observed in the different membrane preparations used: 9.0 +/- 1.3 (mean +/- SEM, n = 17; range 1.6-18.0) and 9.3 +/- 2.0 (range 1.1-29.8) pmol TC.mg protein-1.min-1 at 1.0 microM TC for cLPM and blLPM, respectively. TC transport was temperature sensitive and showed saturation kinetics with a high affinity for TC (Km 4.2 +/- 0.7 microM and 3.7 +/- 0.5 microM for cLPM and blLPM, respectively). Transport was dependent on the ATP concentration and saturable (Km 0.25 +/- 0.03 mM, n = 3). Neither nitrate, which reduces membrane potential, nor the protonophore FCCP strongly inhibited ATP-dependent TC transport, indicating that membrane potential and proton gradient are not involved in this process. TC transport was significantly inhibited by the classical anion transport inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (250 microM) and the glutathione conjugate S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione (100 microM). In conclusion, high affinity ATP-dependent TC transport is present in human liver at both the canalicular and the basolateral sides of the hepatocyte.
H Wolters, F Kuipers, M J Slooff, R J Vonk
It is hypothesized that membrane-associated iron in the sickle red cell is of pathophysiologic importance, but the actual existence of such iron in the intact cell has been questioned. Using a strategy whereby membrane iron can be detected through its bioavailability for catalyzing peroxidation, we used phospholipid exchange protein to load membranes of intact erythrocytes (RBC) with approximately 2% phosphatidylethanolamine hydroperoxide (PEOOH) and monitored the development of peroxidation by-products during subsequent incubation. Normal RBC loaded with PEOOH developed very little peroxidation, but vitamin E-replete sickle RBC showed an exuberant peroxidation response that was not seen in cells loaded with control nonoxidized phosphatidylethanolamine. Ancillary studies of sickle RBC revealed that the catalytic iron included both heme iron and free iron located at the bilayer inner leaflet. Significantly, these studies also revealed that peroxidation after PEOOH loading is promoted by cellular dehydration and inhibited by hydration, thus identifying a dynamic interaction between hemoglobin (sickle >> normal) and membrane lipid. High-reticulocyte control RBC and sickle trait RBC behaved exactly like normal RBC, while HbCC RBC and RBC having membranes gilded with hemoglobin iron because of prior exposure to acetylphenylhydrazine showed an abnormal peroxidation response like that of sickle RBC. Indeed, the peroxidation response of RBC loaded with PEOOH paralleled amounts of iron measured on inside-out membranes prepared from them (r = 0.783, P < 0.01). These studies corroborate existence of membrane-associated heme and free iron in the intact sickle cell, and they document its bioavailability for participation in injurious peroxidative processes. That association of cytosolic sickle hemoglobin with membrane lipid is modulated by cell hydration status provides a mechanism that may help explain increased development of oxidative membrane lesions in abnormally dehydrated sickle RBC regardless of the mechanism underlying their formation.
T Sugihara, T Repka, R P Hebbel
Tissue injury that accompanies hypoxemia/reoxygenation shares features with the host response in inflammation, suggesting that cytokines, such as IL-1, may act as mediators in this setting. Human endothelial cells (ECs) subjected to hypoxia (PO2 approximately 12-14 Torr) elaborated IL-1 activity into conditioned media in a time-dependent manner; this activity was completely neutralized by an antibody to IL-1 alpha. Production of IL-1 activity by hypoxic ECs was associated with an increase in the level of mRNA for IL-1 alpha, and was followed by induction of endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 and enhanced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) during reoxygenation. During reoxygenation there was a three- to five-fold increased adherence of leukocytes, partly blocked by antibodies to endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 and ICAM-1. Suppressing endothelial-derived IL-1, using either antibodies to IL-1 alpha, specific antisense oligonucleotides or the IL-1 receptor antagonist, decreased leukocyte adherence to reoxygenated ECs, emphasizing the integral role of IL-1 in the adherence phenomenon. Mice subjected to hypoxia (PO2 approximately 30-40 Torr) displayed increased plasma levels of IL-1 alpha, induction of IL-1 alpha mRNA in the lung, and enhanced expression of ICAM-1 in pulmonary tissue compared with normoxic controls. These data suggest that hypoxia is a stimulus which induces EC synthesis and release of IL-1 alpha, resulting in an autocrine enhancement in the expression of adhesion molecules.
R Shreeniwas, S Koga, M Karakurum, D Pinsky, E Kaiser, J Brett, B A Wolitzky, C Norton, J Plocinski, W Benjamin
Coagulation Factor V is an essential component of the prothrombinase complex, which activates the zymogen prothrombin to thrombin. A patient was described who developed a Factor V inhibitor that neutralized the procoagulant activity of Factor V and resulted in a fatal hemorrhagic diathesis (Coots, M. C., A. F. Muhleman, and H. I. Glueck. 1978. Am. J. Hematol. 4:193-206). This inhibitor was shown to be an IgG antibody that bound to the light chain of Factor V. Using a series of light chain deletion mutants, we have found that this antibody binds to the second C-type domain of the light chain. Both inhibitor IgG and Fab fragments rapidly neutralized the procoagulant activity of Factor Va, implying that the neutralization resulted from specific binding to the C2 domain. We have previously demonstrated that deletion of the C2 domain results in loss of procoagulant activity, as well as loss of phosphatidylserine-specific binding. Confirming these results, both inhibitor IgG and Fab fragments interfered with phosphatidylserine-specific binding of Factor V. Conversely, preincubation of Factor Va with procoagulant phospholipids protected the cofactor from inactivation by the inhibitor. Our results suggest that this inhibitor neutralizes the procoagulant activity of Factor Va by interfering with the C2-mediated interaction with phospholipid surfaces, thereby disrupting formation of the prothrombinase complex.
T L Ortel, M A Quinn-Allen, L A Charles, D Devore-Carter, W H Kane
Physiologic increases of insulin promote net amino acid uptake and protein anabolism in forearm skeletal muscle by restraining protein degradation. The sensitivity of this process to insulin is not known. Using the forearm perfusion method, we infused insulin locally in the brachial artery at rates of 0.00 (saline control), 0.01, 0.02, 0.035, or 0.05 mU/min per kg for 150 min to increase local forearm plasma insulin concentration by 0, approximately 20, approximately 35, approximately 60, and approximately 120 microU/ml (n = 35). L-[ring-2,6-3H]phenylalanine and L-[1-14C]leucine were infused systemically, and the net forearm balance, rate of appearance (Ra) and rate of disposal (R(d)) of phenylalanine and leucine, and forearm glucose balance were measured basally and in response to insulin infusion. Compared to saline, increasing rates of insulin infusion progressively increased net forearm glucose uptake from 0.9 mumol/min per 100 ml (saline) to 1.0, 1.8, 2.4, and 4.7 mumol/min per 100 ml forearm, respectively. Net forearm balance for phenylalanine and leucine was significantly less negative than basal (P < 0.01 for each) in response to the lowest dose insulin infusion, 0.01 mU/min per kg, and all higher rates of insulin infusion. Phenylalanine and leucine R(a) declined by approximately 38 and 40% with the lowest dose insulin infusion. Higher doses of insulin produced no greater effect (decline in R(a) varied between 26 and 42% for phenylalanine and 30-50% for leucine). In contrast, R(d) for phenylalanine and leucine did not change with insulin. We conclude that even modest increases of plasma insulin can markedly suppress proteolysis, measured by phenylalanine R(a), in human forearm skeletal muscle. Further increments of insulin within the physiologic range augment glucose uptake but have little additional effect on phenylalanine R(a) or balance. These results suggest that proteolysis in human skeletal muscle is more sensitive than glucose uptake to physiologic increments in insulin.
R J Louard, D A Fryburg, R A Gelfand, E J Barrett
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a granulomatous vasculitis affecting persons over 50 years of age. The inflammatory infiltrate, which is targeted at the aorta and its proximal branches, includes activated CD4+ helper T cells, histiocytes, and giant cells. To investigate whether the genetic polymorphism of the HLA-DRB1 genes contributes to the local accumulation of activated T cells, we have analyzed both HLA-DRB1 alleles in a cohort of 42 patients with biopsy-proven GCA. The majority of patients (60%) expressed the B1*0401 or B1*0404/8 variant of the HLA-DR4 haplotype, both of which also represent the major genetic factors underlying the disease association in RA. GCA patients negative for the disease-linked HLA-DR4 alleles were characterized by a nonrandom distribution of HLA-DRB1 alleles. Sequence comparison among the allelic products identified in the GCA cohort demonstrated heterogeneity for the sequence polymorphism of the third hypervariable region (HVR), but homology for the polymorphic residues within the HVR2 of the HLA-DRB1 gene. The GCA patients shared a sequence motif spanning amino acid positions 28-31 of the HLA-DR beta 1 chain. In the structural model for HLA-DR molecules, this sequence motif can be mapped to the antigen-binding site of the HLA complex, suggesting a crucial role of antigen selection and presentation in GCA. In contrast, the sequence polymorphism linked to RA has been mapped to the HVR3 of the HLA-DRB1 gene and translates into a distinct domain of the HLA-DR molecule, the alpha-helical loop surrounding the antigen-binding groove. A consecutive case series study demonstrated that GCA and RA rarely co-occurred, supporting the interpretation that distinct functional domains of the HLA-DR molecule are implicated in the pathomechanisms of these two autoimmune diseases.
C M Weyand, K C Hicok, G G Hunder, J J Goronzy
Mesangial injury and cell proliferation are frequent findings in various glomerular diseases in man. Previous studies have demonstrated that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a potent mesangial cell mitogen in vitro. To further elucidate the role of bFGF in rat mesangial cell (RMC) proliferation, we examined whether RMC synthesize bFGF in vitro and whether bFGF is involved in mesangial proliferation in vivo. Cultured RMC expressed bFGF protein (23, 21.5, and 18 kD forms) and bFGF mRNA, and released biologically active bFGF into the culture medium after antibody- and complement-mediated injury. Normal rat glomeruli in vivo contained no detectable bFGF mRNA, but bFGF protein (23 and 21.5 kD) could be demonstrated, which immunolocalized to the mesangium. Glomerular bFGF decreased markedly during the acute phase of glomerulonephritis induced by anti-Thy 1.1 antibody, compatible with mesangial bFGF release after complement-mediated mesangiolysis. During the subsequent mesangial proliferative phase, glomerular bFGF protein and mRNA increased above normal. Intrarenal infusion of heparin did not affect the bFGF immunostaining of glomeruli at this stage, indicating a predominantly intracellular localization of the bFGF. The capability of bFGF to mediate proliferation in the anti-Thy 1.1 model was further supported by experiments in which intravenous bFGF given 24 h after a subnephritogenic dose of anti-Thy 1.1 antibody led to a 4.9- to 5.1-fold increase in glomerular cell proliferation (with > 60% of the cells identified as mesangial cells by double immunolabeling). No such increase was observed in normal rats injected with bFGF. These data show that mesangial cells produce and release bFGF after injury and that bFGF is mitogenic for injured mesangial cells in vivo. Release of mesangial cell bFGF thus may be an important mechanism involved in the initiation of mesangial cell proliferation in vivo.
J Floege, E Eng, V Lindner, C E Alpers, B A Young, M A Reidy, R J Johnson
In human peripheral interstitial fluid, esterification of cholesterol by lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) was found to occur at a rate of only 10% of that in plasma (5.6 +/- 1.8 compared with 55.6 +/- 7.8 nmol/ml per h). Measurement of cholesterol esterification in the presence of excess reconstituted apoA-I HDL (rA-I HDL) revealed an LCAT activity in interstitial fluid of 24% of that in plasma, indicating that the low rate of esterification could not be caused by limiting mass of LCAT enzyme. When plasma was diluted to the same concentration as in interstitial fluid, the percent cholesterol esterification rate was the same as undiluted plasma and significantly higher than that of interstitial fluid. These findings led us to postulate that poor activation of LCAT in interstitial fluid may result from a change in conformation in apoA-I. To test this hypothesis, a monoclonal antibody AI-11 that inhibits apoA-I activation of LCAT was used to measure apoA-I in interstitial fluid and plasma. Antibody AI-11 recognized interstitial fluid apoA-I poorly, whereas a polyclonal antibody recognized interstitial fluid apoA-I normally. Incubation of antibody AI-11 with high density lipoprotein or rA-I HDL inhibited apoA-I activation of LCAT. We conclude that the altered conformation of apoA-I in interstitial fluid may render it a poor activator of LCAT.
L Wong, L K Curtiss, J Huang, C J Mann, B Maldonado, P S Roheim
Respiratory insufficiency patients who need only partial ventilatory support are, nevertheless, intubated and connected to a respirator. In search of a partial respiratory assistance method we evaluated the gas exchange, mechanisms, and hemodynamic effects of intratracheal insufflation (ITI) via a narrow (0.2-cm) catheter. The effects of flow rate (0.05-0.2 liter/min per kg), catheter tip position (carina, bronchus, and trachea), and superimposed chest vibration at 22 Hz were studied in seven anesthetized and partially paralyzed dogs. ITI in the carina induced CO2 removal (VCO2) of 48 +/- 16 ml/min in the periods between breaths, which was 39% of the control VCO2. CO2 removal rates between breaths with ITI in a bronchus and in the trachea were 63 and 28% of control, respectively (P < 0.05). ITI at 0.15-0.2 liter/min per kg augmented total VCO2 by > 50% over control (P < 0.05) and decreased PaCO2 by 10% (P < 0.05) despite a 28% fall in VE and 32% lower work of breathing (P < 0.05). Adding vibration to ITI at 0.15 liter/min per kg induced VCO2 of 162 +/- 34 ml/min, which was significantly greater than control, while PaCO2 fell from 69 +/- 24 to 47 +/- 6 mmHg (P < 0.05), despite complete cessation of spontaneous breathing. ITI with or without vibration did not cause any hemodynamic changes, except for a fall in the shunt fraction from 14.6 +/- 9.9% to 5.8 +/- 2.8% with vibration. Thus, ITI at low flow rates can support respiration with no hemodynamic side effects. Adding chest vibration further enhances gas exchange and can provide total ventilation.
N Gavriely, D Eckmann, J B Grotberg
Nitric oxide has recently been implicated as the effector molecule that mediates IL-1 beta-induced inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and beta-cell specific destruction. The pancreatic islet represents a heterogeneous cell population containing both endocrine cells (beta-[insulin], alpha-]glucagon], gamma[somatostatin], and PP-[polypeptide] secreting cells) and non-endocrine cells (fibroblast, macrophage, endothelial, and dendritic cells). The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the beta-cell, which is selectively destroyed during insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, is both a source of IL-1 beta-induced nitric oxide production and also a site of action of this free radical. Pretreatment of beta-cells, purified by FACS with IL-1 beta results in a 40% inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion that is prevented by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA). IL-1 beta induces the formation of nitric oxide by purified beta-cells as evidenced by the accumulation of cGMP, which is blocked by NMMA. IL-1 beta also induces the accumulation of cGMP by the insulinoma cell line Rin-m5F, and both NMMA as well as the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide prevent this cGMP accumulation. Iron-sulfur proteins appear to be intracellular targets of nitric oxide. IL-1 beta induces the formation of an iron-dinitrosyl complex by Rin-m5F cells indicating that nitric oxide mediates the destruction of iron-sulfur clusters of iron containing enzymes. This is further demonstrated by IL-1 beta-induced inhibition of glucose oxidation by purified beta-cells, mitochondrial aconitase activity of dispersed islet cells, and mitochondrial aconitase activity of Rin-m5F cells, all of which are prevented by NMMA. IL-1 beta does not appear to affect FACS-purified alpha-cell metabolic activity or intracellular cGMP levels, suggesting that IL-1 beta does not exert any effect on alpha-cells. These results demonstrate that the islet beta-cell is a source of IL-1 beta-induced nitric oxide production, and that beta-cell mitochondrial iron-sulfur containing enzymes are one site of action of nitric oxide.
J A Corbett, J L Wang, M A Sweetland, J R Lancaster Jr, M L McDaniel
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) along with several related peptide growth factors has been shown both in vivo and in vitro to accelerate events associated with epidermal wound repair. EGF and transforming growth factor alpha act by binding to a common EGF receptor tyrosine kinase thereby initiating a series of events which ultimately regulate cell proliferation. This study examined the immunohistochemical localization of EGF receptor (EGF-R) in burn wound margins, adjacent proliferating epithelium, and closely associated sweat ducts, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles. Tissue specimens removed during surgical debridement were obtained from full and partial thickness burn wounds in 32 patients with total body surface area burns ranging from 2 to 88%. In the early postburn period (days 2-4), prominent staining for EGF-R was found in undifferentiated, marginal keratinocytes, adjacent proliferating, hypertrophic epithelium, and both marginal and nonmarginal hair follicles, sweat ducts, and sebaceous glands. During the late postburn period (days 5-16), EGF-R was depleted along leading epithelial margins; however, immunoreactive EGF-R remained intensely positive in the hypertrophic epithelium and all skin appendages. Increased detection of immunoreactive EGF-R and the presence of [125I]EGF binding in the hypertrophic epithelium correlated positively with proliferating cell nuclear antigen distributions. Thus, the presence of EGF-R in the appropriate keratinocyte populations suggests a functional role for this receptor during wound repair. Dynamic modulation in EGF receptor distribution during the temporal sequence of repair provides further evidence that an EGF/transforming growth factor alpha/EGF-R-mediated pathway is activated during human wound repair.
B A Wenczak, J B Lynch, L B Nanney
We have recently presented a model of human adrenal medullary histogenesis that incorporates all neural crest-derived lineages (chromaffin, sustentacular, and ganglionic) known to compose this tissue. To determine if neuroblastomas correspond to the arrested maturation of embryonal adrenal medullary cells, we evaluated the expression of adrenal medullary developmental markers in 81 neuroblastoma tumors. We found that patterns of chromaffin-related gene expression in these tumors correlated exactly with the patterns observed during maturation of adrenal medullary cells (P2 < 10(-5). In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis of developmental marker expression and other well-recognized prognostic variables, evidence of maturation along a fetal ganglionic lineage, as monitored by HNK-1 immunoreactivity (relative risk of 6.42, P2 = 0.0001), and age at diagnosis (relative risk of 5.05, P2 = 0.0042) were independent and significant prognostic indicators of patient survival. These studies demonstrate that neuroblastomas correspond to embryonal adrenal medullary cells arrested at recognizable stages during development, and that evidence of maturation along a fetal ganglionic lineage appears to have major importance in predicting patient survival.
M J Cooper, S M Steinberg, J Chatten, A E Evans, M A Israel
This study was designed to determine whether transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) protects rat gastric mucosa against ethanol- and aspirin-induced injury. Systemic administration of TGF alpha dose-dependently decreased 100% ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury; a dose of 50 micrograms/kg delivered intraperitoneally 15 min before ethanol decreased macroscopic mucosal injury by > 90%. At the microscopic level, TGF alpha prevented deep gastric necrotic lesions and reduced disruption of surface epithelium. Pretreatment with orogastric TGF alpha (200 micrograms/kg) only partially (40%) decreased macroscopic ethanol damage. Intraperitoneal administration of TGF alpha at a dose of 10 micrograms/kg, which does not significantly inhibit gastric acid secretion, decreased aspirin-induced macroscopic damage by > 80%. TGF alpha protection does not seem to be mediated by prostaglandin, glutathione, or ornithine decarboxylase-related events, as evidenced by lack of influence of the inhibition of their production. Pretreatment with the sulfhydryl blocking agent N-ethylmaleimide partially abolished (40%) the protective effect of TGF alpha. In addition, systemic administration of TGF alpha resulted in a two-fold increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 and in a time- and dose-dependent increase in levels of immunoreactive insoluble gastric mucin; these events occurred in a time frame consistent with their participation in the protective effect of TGF alpha.
M Romano, W H Polk, J A Awad, C L Arteaga, L B Nanney, M J Wargovich, E R Kraus, C R Boland, R J Coffey
Six different substitution mutations were identified in four different amino acid residues of antithrombin strand 1C and the polypeptide leading into strand 4B (F402S, F402C, F402L, A404T, N405K, and P407T), and are responsible for functional antithrombin deficiency in seven independently ascertained kindreds (Rosny, Torino, Maisons-Laffitte, Paris 3, La Rochelle, Budapest 5, and Oslo) affected by venous thromboembolic disease. In all seven families, variant antithrombins with heparin-binding abnormalities were detected by crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and in six of the kindreds there was a reduced antigen concentration of plasma antithrombin. Two of the variant antithrombins, Rosny and Torino, were purified by heparin-Sepharose and immunoaffinity chromatography, and shown to have greatly reduced heparin cofactor and progressive inhibitor activities in vitro. The defective interactions of these mutants with thrombin may result from proximity of s1C to the reactive site, while reduced circulating levels may be related to s1C proximity to highly conserved internal beta strands, which contain elements proposed to influence serpin turnover and intracellular degradation. In contrast, s1C is spatially distant to the positively charged surface which forms the heparin binding site of antithrombin; altered heparin binding properties of s1C variants may therefore reflect conformational linkage between the reactive site and heparin binding regions of the molecule. This work demonstrates that point mutations in and immediately adjacent to strand 1C have multiple, or pleiotropic, effects on this serpin, leading ultimately to failure of its regulatory function.
D A Lane, R J Olds, J Conard, M Boisclair, S C Bock, M Hultin, U Abildgaard, H Ireland, E Thompson, G Sas
The expression of the PTH and calcitonin genes is dramatically decreased by 1,25(OH)2D3 in vivo, and the PTH gene expression is increased by hypocalcemia. We have now studied the effect of estrogens on the expression of these genes in vivo. 17 beta-Estradiol, given to ovariectomized rats, led to a fourfold increase in PTH mRNA and calcitonin mRNA levels. These effects occurred 24 h after single injections of 37-145 nmol estradiol, or after constant infusions of 12 pmol/d for 1 or 2 wk, where there was no effect on serum calcium levels. The estrogen receptor mRNA was demonstrated in the thyroparathyroid tissue by polymerase chain reaction. The estrogen binding was localized to the parathyroid and C cells by immunohistochemistry. Uterus weight was increased by repeated larger doses (73 nmol/d x 7) of estradiol, but not by the small doses (12 pmol/d for 1 or 2 wk) which were effective on the PTH and calcitonin genes, suggesting a sensitive endocrine effect. These results confirm that the parathyroid and C cells are target organs for estrogen, leading to an increased expression of PTH and calcitonin, which by their combined anabolic effect on bone would help prevent osteoporosis.
T Naveh-Many, G Almogi, N Livni, J Silver
Genetic analysis of a heterozygous protein C-deficient patient revealed a novel deletion of a single guanine residue (8857G) among four consecutive guanine nucleotides [380Trp(TGG)-381Gly(GGT)] in exon IX, which encodes the carboxyl-terminal region of protein C. This deletion results in a frameshift mutation and substitution of the last 39 amino acids (381Gly-419Pro) with 81 abnormal amino acid residues, and we have designated this elongated variant as Protein C-Nagoya. A mutagenic primer was designed which replaced the third guanine residue upstream from the deletion with cytosine, thereby creating a new AvaI site in an otherwise normal allele. Analysis of the polymerase chain reaction products derived from this mutagenic primer showed that the abnormal allele has been inherited in this family. To elucidate how this molecular abnormality leads to protein C deficiency, an expression plasmid containing this mutation was transfected into COS 7, BHK, and psi-2 cells, and the secretory process of the expressed Protein C-Nagoya was analyzed. ELISA and immunoprecipitation analysis with [35S]methionine labeling indicated that the mutant protein C, which was larger in size than normal, was mostly retained within the cells, and only a small portion of it was secreted into the medium. These results suggest that most of Protein C-Nagoya undergoes degradation within the producing cells, and this frameshift mutation apparently leads to protein C deficiency by impairment of secretion of the elongated protein C into plasma.
K Yamamoto, M Tanimoto, N Emi, T Matsushita, J Takamatsu, H Saito
To characterize the cellular immune response in an autoimmune lesion, we investigated the accumulation of specific T cells in the central nervous system in actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats, using a limiting dilution analysis (LDA) assay for T cells that proliferate in response to antigens. Lymphocytes isolated from the spinal cord infiltrate were compared with cells from the popliteal lymph nodes with respect to frequency of cells responding to basic protein (BP), mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT), the 65-kD heat shock protein (hsp65), allogeneic brown norway spleen cells, and concanavalin A. Additionally, we compared the BP frequency in acute EAE of cells from the spinal cord, peripheral blood, spleen and lymph nodes, and the spinal cord and lymph node after recovery from EAE. We found that acute EAE was associated with marked enrichment of BP-reactive T cells in the spinal cord relative to their frequency in the lymphoid organs and peripheral blood. The infiltrate was also enriched for T cells responding to hsp65; alloreactive T cells, in contrast, were not enriched. The frequency of BP reactive T cells in the spinal cord was highest at the peak of paralysis; however, BP-reactive T cells could still be detected at moderate frequencies after clinical recovery. We established BP- and Mycobacteria-reactive T cell lines from the spinal infiltrates that were CD4+ and TcR alpha beta +. Most of the BP lines were found to react to the major encephalitogenic epitope of guinea pig BP for rats (amino acids 71-90); these lines were found to mediate EAE in naive recipients. T cell lines recognizing other epitopes of BP were not encephalitogenic. All of the lines responsive to Mycobacteria recognized hsp65 or hsp70. These results indicating that the immune infiltrate in active EAE is enriched with cells responding to the autoantigen and to hsp65 were confirmed in EAE adoptively transferred by anti-BP T cell clone.
F Mor, I R Cohen
Chronic metabolic acidosis results in metabolic bone disease, calcium nephrolithiasis, and growth retardation. The pathogenesis of each of these sequelae is poorly understood in humans. We therefore investigated the effects of chronic extrarenal metabolic acidosis on the regulation of 1,25-(OH)2D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphate metabolism in normal humans. Chronic extrarenal metabolic acidosis was induced by administering two different doses of NH4Cl [2.1 (low dose) and 4.2 (high dose) mmol/kg body wt per d, respectively] to four male volunteers each during metabolic balance conditions. Plasma [HCO3-] decreased by 4.5 +/- 0.4 mmol/liter in the low dose and by 9.1 +/- 0.3 mmol/liter (P < 0.001) in the high dose group. Metabolic acidosis induced renal hypophosphatemia, which strongly correlated with the severity of acidosis (Plasma [PO4] on plasma [HCO3-]; r = 0.721, P < 0.001). Both metabolic clearance and production rates of 1,25-(OH)2D increased in both groups. In the high dose group, the percentage increase in production rate was much greater than the percentage increase in metabolic clearance rate, resulting in a significantly increased serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentration. A strong inverse correlation was observed for serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentration on both plasma [PO4] (r = -0.711, P < 0.001) and plasma [HCO3-] (r = -0.725, P < 0.001). Plasma ionized calcium concentration did not change in either group whereas intact serum parathyroid hormone concentration decreased significantly in the high dose group. In conclusion, metabolic acidosis results in graded increases in serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentration by stimulating its production rate in humans. The increased production rate is explained by acidosis-induced hypophosphatemia/cellular phosphate depletion resulting at least in part from decreased renal tubular phosphate reabsorption. The decreased serum intact parathyroid hormone levels in more severe acidosis may be the consequence of hypophosphatemia and/or increased serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations.
R Krapf, R Vetsch, W Vetsch, H N Hulter
To analyze their relative effects on premenopausal bone mass, we have studied the impact of lifelong estrogen exposure, assessed by an estrogen score (ES; computed on age at menarche, average length of menstrual cycles since menarche, and use of birth control pills), heredity, and some environmental factors on vertebral bone density (VBD), of 63 premenopausal women (age, 19-40 yr). Compared with women with normal bone density (Z score > -1), subjects with low VBD (Z score < -1) had significantly lower ES (15.1 +/- 3.9 vs. 18.7 +/- 2.4, P = 0.001), higher age at menarche (13.8 +/- 1.7 vs. 12.6 +/- 1.4 yr, P = 0.005), and lower serum estradiol (46.9 +/- 37 vs. 86.6 +/- 57 pg/ml, P = 0.023) and estrone levels (107.4 +/- 60 vs. 178.8 +/- 9.0 pg/ml, P = 0.05). Likewise, women in the lowest quartile for VBD had significantly lower ES (15.3 +/- 4.5 vs. 18.1 +/- 2.7, P = 0.006) and higher age at menarche (13.9 +/- 1.9 vs. 12.8 +/- .4, P = 0.02) than those in the upper three quartiles. A higher proportion of subjects with irregular menses (52 vs. 23%, P = 0.03) and a positive family history of osteoporosis (86 vs. 61%, P = 0.04) was found in the low VBD group compared with subjects with normal VBD. VBD correlated positively with ES (r = 0.44, P = < 0.001) and negatively with age at menarche (r = -0.30, P = 0.03) by simple linear regression, whereas no correlation was found between VBD and age, body mass index, parity, lactation, physical activity, sunlight exposure, and dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes. The correlation between VBD and ES improved after correcting for the effect of all the other variables by partial correlation analysis (Pearson partial r = 0.57, P = < 0.01), which also disclosed a significant contribution of dietary calcium to VBD. However, ES was the only significant independent determinant of VBD, by stepwise multiple regression analysis (R2 = 0.24). Therefore, premenopausal estrogen exposure, and possibly genetic predisposition, rather than environmental factors, are the major determinants for the development of peak bone mass before menopause.
R Armamento-Villareal, D T Villareal, L V Avioli, R Civitelli
Renal proximal tubule sodium reabsorption is enhanced by apical or basolateral angiotensin II (AII). Although AII activates phospholipase C (PLC) in other tissues, AII coupling to PLC on either apical or basolateral surfaces of proximal tubule cells is unclear. To determine if AII causes PLC activation, and the differences between apical and basolateral AII receptor function, receptors were unilaterally activated in rat proximal tubule cells cultured on permeable, collagen-coated supports. Apical AII incubation resulted in concentration- and time-dependent inositol trisphosphate (IP3) formation. Basolateral AII caused greater IP3 responses. Apical AII-induced IP3 generation was inhibited by DuP 753, suggesting that the type 1 AII receptor subtype mediated proximal tubule PLC activation. Apical AII signaling did not result from paracellular ligand leak to basolateral receptors since AII-induced PLC activation occurred when basolateral AII receptors were occupied by Sar-Leu AII or DuP 753. Inhibition of endocytosis with phenylarsine oxide prevented apical (but not basolateral) AII-induced IP3 formation. Cytoskeletal disruption with colchicine or cytochalasin D also prevented apical AII-induced IP3 generation. These results demonstrate that in cultured rat proximal tubule cells, AII is coupled to PLC via type 1 AII receptors and cytoskeleton-dependent endocytosis is required for apical (but not basolateral) AII receptor-mediated PLC activation.
J R Schelling, A S Hanson, R Marzec, S L Linas
To date, there has been no systematic study of the process of affinity maturation of human antibodies. We therefore sequenced the variable region genes (V genes) of 14 human monoclonal antibodies specific for the erythrocyte Rh(D) alloantigen and determined the germline gene segments of origin and extent of somatic hypermutation. These data were correlated with determinations of antibody affinity. The four IgM antibodies (low affinity) appear to be derived from two germline heavy chain variable region gene segments and one or two germline light chain variable region gene segments and were not extensively mutated. The 10 IgG antibodies (higher affinity) appear to be derived from somatic hypermutation of these V gene segments and by use of new V gene segments or V gene segment combinations (repertoire shift). Affinity generally increased with increasing somatic hypermutation; on average, there were 8.9 point mutations in the V gene segments of the four IgM antibodies (Ka = 1-4 x 10(7)/M-1) compared with 19 point mutations in the V gene segments of the 10 IgG antibodies. The four highest affinity antibodies (Ka = 0.9-3 x 10(9)/M-1) averaged 25.5 point mutations. The use of repertoire shift and somatic hypermutation in affinity maturation of human alloantibodies is similar to data obtained in inbred mice immunized with haptens.
J M Bye, C Carter, Y Cui, B D Gorick, S Songsivilai, G Winter, N C Hughes-Jones, J D Marks
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) was purified from MRC-5 human diploid cell cultures, inactivated with formalin, and evaluated for safety and immunogenicity in humans. Three vaccine formulations were produced: (a) a fluid preparation containing inactivated HAV, (b) inactivated HAV adsorbed to Al(OH)3, and (c) inactivated HAV coupled to novel immunopotentiating reconstituted influenza virosomes (IRIV). IRIV were prepared by combining phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipids originating from the influenza virus envelope, influenza virus hemagglutinin, and neuraminidase. The HAV-IRIV appeared as unilamellar vesicles with a diameter of approximately 150 nm when viewed by transmission electron microscopy. Upon intramuscular injection, the alum-adsorbed vaccine was associated with significantly (P < 0.01) more local adverse reactions than either the fluid or IRIV formulations. 14 d after a single dose of vaccine, all the recipients of the IRIV formulation seroconverted (> or = 20 mIU/ml) versus 30 and 44% for those who received the fluid and alum-adsorbed vaccines, respectively (P < 0.001). The geometric mean anti-HAV antibody titer achieved after immunization with the IRIV-HAV vaccine was also significantly higher (P < 0.005) compared with the other two vaccines.
R Glück, R Mischler, S Brantschen, M Just, B Althaus, S J Cryz Jr
Changes in gonadotropins and gonadal steroids during sexual maturation in rats and humans are well documented but little is known about hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) gene expression in relation to these events. This study measured hypothalamic proGnRH mRNA, GnRH precursor, and fully processed GnRH from postnatal day 8 until day 62 in male rats. GnRH precursor increased on day 22, reached a peak on day 24, declined on day 25 and returned to infantile levels by day 28. A secondary rise in precursor occurred at about day 40 when testosterone levels increased. GnRH mRNA increased on day 22 and remained elevated over the study period to day 26. GnRH increased on day 24 and remained at this level until a secondary rise occurred coincident with the testosterone rise at about day 40. The ratio of GnRH precursor to GnRH was high until day 24 and was low from day 26 onwards, reflecting a maturation of the processing enzyme system between these 2 d. Thus, an abrupt increase in GnRH gene transcription (mRNA) occurs early in juvenile male rats (day 22), well before the onset of puberty. An increase in GnRH precursor accompanies these early changes and this is followed by the maturation of processing as evidenced by the rapid decline of precursor and increase in GnRH from day 24 onward.
C M Dutlow, J Rachman, T W Jacobs, R P Millar
These studies examine the in vivo formation of a unique series of PGF2-like compounds (F2-isoprostanes) derived from free radical-catalyzed nonenzymatic peroxidation of arachidonic acid. We have previously shown that levels of these compounds increase up to 50-fold in rats administered CCl4. To understand further the formation of these compounds in vivo, we carried out a series of experiments assessing factors influencing their generation. After CCl4 (2 ml/kg) was administered to rats, plasma F2-isoprostanes increased 55-fold by 4 h. Levels declined thereafter, but at 24 h, they were still elevated 21-fold, indicating continued lipid peroxidation. Pretreatment of rats with isonicotinic acid hydrazide and phenobarbital to induce cytochrome P-450 enhanced the production of F2-isoprostanes after CCl4 administration eightfold and fivefold, respectively, whereas inhibition of the cytochrome P-450 system with SKF-525A and 4-methylpyrazole decreased formation of F2-isoprostanes after CCl4 by 55 and 82%, respectively. Further, the glutathione-depleting agents buthionine sulfoximine and phorone augmented the F2-isoprostane response to CCl4 by 22- and 11-fold, respectively. F2-isoprostanes are formed in situ esterified to lipids and, in addition to increases in levels of free F2-isoprostanes in the circulation, levels of F2-isoprostanes esterified to lipids in various organs and plasma also increase sharply during CCl4 poisoning. The measurement of F2-isoprostanes may facilitate investigation of the role of lipid peroxidation in human diseases.
J D Morrow, J A Awad, T Kato, K Takahashi, K F Badr, L J Roberts 2nd, R F Burk
We studied the effects of fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) fragment D on endothelial monolayer integrity and the mechanisms of fragment D-induced endothelial cell detachment from the substratum. Incubation of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC) with fragment D caused concentration- and time-dependent cell detachment from the substratum. The optimal response occurred at fragment D concentrations of 2 microM and required an incubation time of 24 h. BPAEC challenged with fragment D increased the concentration and activity of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in the conditioned medium within 2 to 4 h of incubation. Fragment D also induced the release of tissue-type plasminogen activator, but to a lesser extent than uPA. Fragment D concurrently increased plasminogen activator (PA) activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Increased PA activity was followed by augmentation of cell-associated plasmin activity and subsequent increase in the degradation of 125I-fibrinogen and 125I-vitronectin precoated in the subendothelial matrix. Pretreatment of BPAEC with anti-uPA antibody, and inhibitors of uPA (dansyl-GGACK) and plasmin (aprotinin) prevented approximately 60% of the fragment D-induced endothelial cell detachment. We conclude that FDP fragment D increases secretion of endothelial PAs and enhances the generation of plasmin, thereby contributing to proteolysis of extracellular matrix and endothelial cell detachment. Fragment D may be a critical mediator linking activation of fibrinolysis to vascular endothelial injury in inflammatory disorders.
M Ge, G Tang, T J Ryan, A B Malik
The cell membrane-associated enzyme CD10/neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (CD10/NEP) functions in multiple organ systems to downregulate responses to peptide hormones. Recently, CD10/NEP was found to hydrolyze bombesin-like peptides (BLP), which are mitogens for normal bronchial epithelial cells and small cell lung carcinomas. Growth of BLP-responsive small cell lung carcinomas was potentiated by CD10/NEP inhibition, implicating CD10/NEP in regulation of BLP-mediated tumor growth. BLP are also likely to participate in normal lung development because high BLP levels are found in fetal lung, and bombesin induces proliferation and maturation of human fetal lung in organ cultures and murine fetal lung in utero. To explore potential roles for CD10/NEP in regulating peptide-mediated human fetal lung development, we have characterized temporal and cellular patterns of CD10/NEP expression and effects of CD10/NEP inhibition in organ cultures. Peak CD10/NEP transcript levels are identified at 11-13 wk gestation by Northern blots and localized to epithelial cells and mesenchyme of developing airways by in situ hybridization. CD10/NEP immunostaining is most intense in undifferentiated airway epithelium. In human fetal lung organ cultures, inhibition of CD10/NEP with either phosphoramidon or SCH32615 increases thymidine incorporation by 166-182% (P < 0.025). The specific BLP receptor antagonist, [Leu13-psi(CH2NH)Leu14]bombesin abolishes these effects on fetal lung growth, suggesting that CD10/NEP modulates BLP-mediated proliferation. CD10/NEP expression in the growing front of airway epithelium and the effects of CD10/NEP inhibitors in lung explants implicate the enzyme in the regulation of peptide-mediated fetal lung growth.
M E Sunday, J Hua, J S Torday, B Reyes, M A Shipp
Endotoxemia results in neutrophil localization within a number of microcirculatory beds, reflecting in part an adhesive interaction between neutrophils and the vascular endothelial cell. In previous studies, endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of rabbits resulted in neutrophil sequestration at LPS concentrations well below those effective at increasing neutrophil adherence in vitro. We hypothesized that LPS-induced neutrophil adherence involved a plasma component. In the absence of plasma, high concentrations of LPS (10 micrograms/ml) were required to increase human neutrophil adherence to endothelial cells in vitro. With the inclusion of as little as 1% plasma or serum, however, the LPS dose-response curve was markedly shifted, resulting in increments in adherence at 10 ng/ml, and the time course of enhanced adherence was accelerated. Pretreatment studies suggested that the effect of LPS was on the neutrophil rather than the endothelial cell. Immunoprecipitation of 0111:B4 LPS paralleled the loss of functional activity, suggesting that LPS was an integral part of the active complex, rather than altering a plasma component to make it active. The incubation of plasma with LPS decreased the apparent molecular mass of LPS from 500-1,000 kD to approximately 100 kD. The disaggregated 0111:B4 LPS eluted in the range of albumin and was able to increase adherence in the absence of additional plasma. Plasma depleted of lipoproteins or heat treated retained activity, suggesting that the interaction of LPS with HDL or complement did not account for the observed findings. An LPS-binding protein isolated from rabbit serum enhanced the adherence-inducing effects of both 0111:B4 and Re595 LPS. Furthermore, the activity of rabbit serum was abolished after incubation with an antibody directed against this LPS-binding protein (LBP). An antibody directed against CD14, the putative receptor of the LPS-LBP complex, prevented the adhesive response to LPS. These data suggest that LPS is disaggregated by an LBP in serum and plasma to form an active LPS-plasma component complex. This putative complex then interacts with CD14 on the neutrophil so as to induce an adhesive state.
G S Worthen, N Avdi, S Vukajlovich, P S Tobias
The recognition of cellular receptors by the mammalian reoviruses is an important determinant of cell and tissue tropism exhibited by reovirus strains of different serotypes. To extend our knowledge of the role of reovirus-receptor interactions in reovirus tropism, we determined whether type 1 and type 3 reovirus strains can infect cells derived from erythrocyte precursors. We found that reovirus type 3 Dearing (T3D), but not type 1 Lang, can grow in murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. This difference in growth was investigated by using reassortant viruses and we found that the capacity of T3D to infect MEL cells is determined by the viral cell-attachment protein, sigma 1. In experiments using murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to different sigma 1 regions, we show that T3D binding to MEL cells is inhibited by a mAb that identifies a domain important for hemagglutination (HA). We also determined that type 3 strains that can infect murine L cells but do not produce HA do not infect MEL cells. These results suggest that type 3 reovirus binds to and infects erythrocyte precursor cells via a sigma 1 domain important for HA. Moreover, this study suggests that different domains of some viral cell-attachment proteins are used to initiate productive infections of different types of cells.
D H Rubin, J D Wetzel, W V Williams, J A Cohen, C Dworkin, T S Dermody
A previous study (Carman, W. F., A. R. Zanetti, P. Karayiannis, J. A. Waters, G. Manzillo, E. Tanzi, A. J. Zuckerman, and H. C. Thomas. 1990. Lancet. 336:325-329) demonstrated a variant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in a vaccinated child born to a hepatitis B virus-infected mother. A substitution of arginine for glycine at amino acid 145 in HBsAg was observed. In this study the effect of this substitution on the common "a" determinant of this protein, against which protective immunity is directed, is investigated. Using recombinant HBsAg with and without the amino acid substitution, the binding of monoclonal antibodies that recognize different epitopes of the "a" determinant, was shown to be destroyed by the presence of arginine at amino acid 145. In convalescent and vaccinee sera, antibody binding to HBsAg was not inhibited by the variant HBsAg. Immunization with the variant HBsAg, although eliciting a high titer antibody that recognized the variant, produced a low titer of antibody recognizing the native protein. Studies in mice demonstrate that the immunogenicity of the variant protein is also substantially altered. The data presented here demonstrate that this variant evades the known protective anti-HBs response and lends support to the suggestion that this mutation arose as the result of immune pressure.
J A Waters, M Kennedy, P Voet, P Hauser, J Petre, W Carman, H C Thomas
Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus have an increased mortality and morbidity due to vascular complications. Nitric oxide from the vascular endothelium contributes to the control of normal vascular tone, and endothelial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease. In this study we have examined basal and stimulated nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatation in insulin-dependent diabetics and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Drugs were infused locally into the brachial artery and forearm blood flow measured using venous occlusion plethysmography. Noradrenaline and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine produced similar reductions in resting forearm blood flow in healthy controls. However, in the diabetics, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine was significantly less effective than noradrenaline. Comparing between groups, the response to NG-monomethyl-L-arginine was also significantly less in the diabetics compared with the healthy controls. The response to sodium nitroprusside was significantly less in the diabetics compared with the healthy controls, whereas the responses to both acetylcholine and verapamil were the same in the two groups. The results provide evidence for an abnormality of basal nitric oxide-mediated dilatation in the forearm arterial bed of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and suggest that the vascular smooth muscle is less sensitive to nitric oxide.
A Calver, J Collier, P Vallance
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), the principal regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, is also secreted in peripheral inflammatory sites, where it acts as a local proinflammatory agent. Arthritis-susceptible LEW/N rats have profoundly deficient hypothalamic CRH responses to inflammatory stimuli and other stressors. Arthritis-resistant F344/N rats, on the other hand, have a robust increase in hypothalamic CRH in response to the same stimuli. Contrasting with these hypothalamic CRH responses, we now show that CRH expression is markedly increased in the joints and surrounding tissues of LEW/N rats with streptococcal cell wall- and adjuvant-induced arthritis, whereas it is not increased in similarly treated F344/N rats and is only transiently increased in congenitally athymic nude LEW.rnu/rnu rats. Glucocorticoid treatment suppressed, but did not eliminate, CRH immunoreactivity in the joints of LEW/N rats. CRH mRNA was present in inflamed synovia, as well as in spinal cord, and inflamed synovia also expressed specific CRH-binding sites. We compared CRH expression in inflamed joints with another well-characterized proinflammatory neuropeptide, substance P (SP), and found that SP immunoreactivity paralleled that of CRH. In summary, although LEW/N rats have deficient hypothalamic CRH responses to inflammatory stimuli compared with F344/N rats, they express relatively high levels of CRH at the site of inflammation. Analogous to SP, CRH may be delivered to the inflammatory site by peripheral nerves and/or synthesized at the inflammatory site. These data provide further support for the concept that CRH not only triggers the pituitary-adrenal antiinflammatory cascade, but also functions as an antithetically active local mediator of acute and chronic inflammatory arthritis. These data also illustrate the complex interrelationships of the nervous, endocrine, immune, and inflammatory systems.
L J Crofford, H Sano, K Karalis, E L Webster, E A Goldmuntz, G P Chrousos, R L Wilder
Endothelial thrombomodulin (TM) plays a critical role in hemostasis as a cofactor for thrombin-dependent formation of activated protein C, a potent anticoagulant. Chloramine T, H2O2, or hypochlorous acid generated from H2O2 by myeloperoxidase rapidly destroy 75-90% of TM cofactor activity. Activated PMN, the primary in vivo source of biological oxidants, also rapidly inactivate TM. Oxidation of TM by PMN is inhibited by diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. Both Met291 and Met388 in the six epidermal growth factor-like repeat domain are oxidized; however, only substitutions of Met388 lead to TM analogues that resist oxidative inactivation. We suggest that in inflamed tissues activated PMN may inactivate TM and demonstrate further evidence of the interaction between the inflammatory process and induction of thrombotic potential.
C B Glaser, J Morser, J H Clarke, E Blasko, K McLean, I Kuhn, R J Chang, J H Lin, L Vilander, W H Andrews, David R Light
The pathogenesis of extrapancreatic tumor hypoglycemia has been related to the secretion of big insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II by the tumor. In 25 of 28 patients with this type of hypoglycemia we found 1.5-8-fold elevated serum levels of immunoreactive big (15-25 kD), but decreased levels of normal IGF II. After removal of the tumor, big IGF II disappeared and normal IGF II increased. Tumors contained elevated levels of IGF II, 65-80% in the big form. The insulin-like bioactivity of big IGF II and its affinity towards IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP)-2 and -3 are similar to those of normal IGF II, but two- to threefold higher on a molar basis. Big IGF II is mainly bound to the 50-kD IGFBP complex. The latter contains approximately 10 times more of this peptide than in normal serum and displays three- to fourfold increased insulin-like bioactivity. The formation of the 150-kD IGFBP complex with 125I-recombinant human IGFBP-3 is impaired in tumor serum. This results in sequestration of IGFBP-3 and predominant association of big IGF II with IGFBP-2 and -3 in the 50-kD complex. Increased bioavailability of big IGF II in this complex due to unrestricted capillary passage and enhanced insulin bioactivity of this big IGF II pool provide a continuous increased insulin-like potential available to insulin and type 1 IGF receptors of insulin-sensitive tissues and thus may lead to sustained hypoglycemia.
J Zapf, E Futo, M Peter, E R Froesch
Whey from 17 women (four acutely infected with Toxoplasma gondii, eight chronically infected, and five uninfected) was studied. T. gondii-specific secretory IgA antibodies were demonstrated by ELISA in whey from acutely infected and one of eight chronically infected women. Such antibodies to tachyzoite proteins of < or = 14, 22, 26-28, 30, 46, 60, 70-80, and > 100 kD (eliminated by protease but not periodate or neuraminidase treatment) were demonstrated in whey from acutely infected subjects when Western blots were probed with their whey and antibodies to human secretory IgA or IgA or secretory piece. Secretory IgA from four of eight chronically infected women recognized the 46- and 69-kD epitopes. Other whey samples were negative. Incubation of T. gondii tachyzoites with whey or purified secretory IgA from acutely infected (but not seronegative) women caused 50-75% reduction in infection of enterocytes in vitro. Whey reactive with the 46-kD epitope from three of six chronically infected women caused less (> or = 40%) inhibition. Whey and purified secretory IgA from two of three acutely infected women agglutinated tachyzoites. Whey did not result in complement-dependent lysis of T. gondii. These results indicate that it may be possible to produce human secretory IgA to T. gondii capable of reducing initial infection of enterocytes, as such IgA is present during natural infection. They also demonstrate candidate epitopes for such protection.
D G Mack, R McLeod
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced DNA damage and cell death have been attributed to the direct cytotoxicity of H2O2 and other oxidant species generated from H2O2. We examined the possibility that oxidants activate endonucleases leading to DNA damage and cell death in renal tubular epithelial cells, similar to that described for apoptosis. Within minutes, H2O2 caused DNA strand breaks in a dose-dependent manner, followed by cell death. DNA fragmentation was demonstrated both by the release of [3H]thymidine in 27,000-g supernatant as well as the occurrence of low molecular weight DNA fragments on agarose gel electrophoresis, characteristic of endonuclease cleavage. Endonuclease inhibitors, aurintricarboxylic acid, Evans blue, and zinc ion prevented H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks, fragmentation, and cell death. Inhibitors of protein or mRNA synthesis had only minor protection against H2O2-induced DNA damage in contrast to complete protection reported in apoptotic thymocytes. Micrococcal endonuclease induced similar DNA strand breaks in LLC-PK1 cells, and the endonuclease inhibitors prevented the events confirming the ability of endonucleases to induce DNA damage. The protective effect of aurintricarboxylic acid was not due to the prevention of the rise in intracellular free calcium. We conclude that endonuclease activation occurs as an early event leading to DNA damage and cell death in renal tubular epithelial cells exposed to oxidant stress and, in contrast to apoptotic thymocytes, does not require macromolecular synthesis.
N Ueda, S V Shah
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal inherited disease in the Caucasian population with an incidence of approximately 1 in 2,500 live births. Pulmonary complications of CF, which are the most morbid aspects of the disease, are caused by primary abnormalities in epithelial cells that lead to impaired mucociliary clearance. One potential therapeutic strategy is to reconstitute expression of the CF gene in airway epithelia by somatic gene transfer. To this end, we have developed an animal model of the human airway using bronchial xenografts and have tested the efficiency of in vivo retroviral gene transfer. Using the LacZ reporter gene, we find the efficiency of in vivo retroviral gene transfer to be dramatically dependent on the regenerative and mitotic state of the epithelium. Within an undifferentiated regenerating epithelium in which 40% of nuclei labeled with BrdU, 5-10% retroviral gene transfer was obtained. In contrast, no gene transfer was noted in a fully differentiated epithelium in which 1% of nuclei labeled with BrdU. These findings suggest that retroviral mediated gene transfer to the airway in vivo may be feasible if the proper regenerative state can be induced.
J F Engelhardt, J R Yankaskas, J M Wilson