Hepatitis A virus (HAV) was purified from MRC-5 human diploid cell cultures, inactivated with formalin, and evaluated for safety and immunogenicity in humans. Three vaccine formulations were produced: (a) a fluid preparation containing inactivated HAV, (b) inactivated HAV adsorbed to Al(OH)3, and (c) inactivated HAV coupled to novel immunopotentiating reconstituted influenza virosomes (IRIV). IRIV were prepared by combining phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipids originating from the influenza virus envelope, influenza virus hemagglutinin, and neuraminidase. The HAV-IRIV appeared as unilamellar vesicles with a diameter of approximately 150 nm when viewed by transmission electron microscopy. Upon intramuscular injection, the alum-adsorbed vaccine was associated with significantly (P < 0.01) more local adverse reactions than either the fluid or IRIV formulations. 14 d after a single dose of vaccine, all the recipients of the IRIV formulation seroconverted (> or = 20 mIU/ml) versus 30 and 44% for those who received the fluid and alum-adsorbed vaccines, respectively (P < 0.001). The geometric mean anti-HAV antibody titer achieved after immunization with the IRIV-HAV vaccine was also significantly higher (P < 0.005) compared with the other two vaccines.
R Glück, R Mischler, S Brantschen, M Just, B Althaus, S J Cryz Jr