Acute injury can contribute to chronic inflammatory disease, but the underlying basis remains unclear. Using a mouse model of chronic obstructive lung disease, Byers and colleagues report that viral infection can stably induce epithelial progenitor cells that release IL-33, and promote inflammatory mucus production (page 3967). This progenitor cell niche is also elevated in humans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Their study provides a new paradigm for the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, like COPD. The accompanying photomicrograph depicts airway epithelial cells from the lung tissue of a COPD patient stained for IL-33 (brown) and counterstained with tartrazine (yellow).
Molecularly targeted agents promise to revolutionize therapeutics by reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. However, despite an urgent need for more effective anticancer compounds, current preclinical drug evaluations largely fail to satisfy the demand. New preclinical strategies, including the improvement of sophisticated mouse models and co-clinical study designs, are being used to augment the predictive value of animal-based translational cancer research. Here, we review the development of successful preclinical antineoplastic agents, their associated limitations, and alternative methods to predict clinical outcomes.
Grit S. Herter-Sprie, Andrew L. Kung, Kwok-Kin Wong
Ushma S. Neill
The metabolism of cancer cells differs from most normal cells, but how to exploit this difference for patient benefit is incompletely understood. Cancer cells require altered metabolism to efficiently incorporate nutrients into biomass and support abnormal proliferation. In addition, the survival of tumor cells outside of a normal tissue context requires adaptation of metabolism to different microenvironments. Some existing chemotherapies target metabolic enzymes, and there is a resurgent interest in developing new cancer drugs that interfere with metabolism. Success with this approach depends on understanding why specific metabolic pathways are important for cancer cells, determining how best to select patients, and developing technologies for monitoring patient response to therapies that target metabolic enzymes. The articles in this Review series address these issues, with a focus on how altered metabolism might influence tumor progression and how this knowledge might inform the use of new therapies targeting cancer metabolism. Emerging biomarker strategies to guide drug development are also highlighted.
Matthew G. Vander Heiden
The discovery of cancer-associated mutations in genes encoding key metabolic enzymes has provided a direct link between altered metabolism and cancer. Advances in mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance technologies have facilitated high-resolution metabolite profiling of cells and tumors and identified the accumulation of metabolites associated with specific gene defects. Here we review the potential roles of such “oncometabolites” in tumor evolution and as clinical biomarkers for the detection of cancers characterized by metabolic dysregulation.
Ming Yang, Tomoyoshi Soga, Patrick J. Pollard
The investigation of metabolic pathways disturbed in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant tumors revealed that the hallmark metabolic alteration is the production of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). The biological impact of D-2HG strongly suggests that high levels of this metabolite may play a central role in propagating downstream the effects of mutant IDH, leading to malignant transformation of cells. Hence, D-2HG may be an ideal biomarker for both diagnosing and monitoring treatment response targeting IDH mutations. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is well suited to the task of noninvasive D-2HG detection, and there has been much interest in developing such methods. Here, we review recent efforts to translate methodology using MRS to reliably measure in vivo D-2HG into clinical research.
Ovidiu C. Andronesi, Otto Rapalino, Elizabeth Gerstner, Andrew Chi, Tracy T. Batchelor, Dan P. Cahill, A. Gregory Sorensen, Bruce R. Rosen
Hypoxia occurs frequently in human cancers and induces adaptive changes in cell metabolism that include a switch from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, increased glycogen synthesis, and a switch from glucose to glutamine as the major substrate for fatty acid synthesis. This broad metabolic reprogramming is coordinated at the transcriptional level by HIF-1, which functions as a master regulator to balance oxygen supply and demand. HIF-1 is also activated in cancer cells by tumor suppressor (e.g., VHL) loss of function and oncogene gain of function (leading to PI3K/AKT/mTOR activity) and mediates metabolic alterations that drive cancer progression and resistance to therapy. Inhibitors of HIF-1 or metabolic enzymes may impair the metabolic flexibility of cancer cells and make them more sensitive to anticancer drugs.
Gregg L. Semenza
Recent genome-wide discovery studies have identified a spectrum of mutations in different malignancies and have led to the elucidation of novel pathways that contribute to oncogenic transformation. The discovery of mutations in the genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) has uncovered a critical role for altered metabolism in oncogenesis, and the neomorphic, oncogenic function of IDH mutations affects several epigenetic and gene regulatory pathways. Here we discuss the relevance of IDH mutations to leukemia pathogenesis, therapy, and outcome and how mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 affect the leukemia epigenome, hematopoietic differentiation, and clinical outcome.
Anna Sophia McKenney, Ross L. Levine
Glutamine is an abundant and versatile nutrient that participates in energy formation, redox homeostasis, macromolecular synthesis, and signaling in cancer cells. These characteristics make glutamine metabolism an appealing target for new clinical strategies to detect, monitor, and treat cancer. Here we review the metabolic functions of glutamine as a super nutrient and the surprising roles of glutamine in supporting the biological hallmarks of malignancy. We also review recent efforts in imaging and therapeutics to exploit tumor cell glutamine dependence, discuss some of the challenges in this arena, and suggest a disease-focused paradigm to deploy these emerging approaches.
Christopher T. Hensley, Ajla T. Wasti, Ralph J. DeBerardinis
Lactate, once considered a waste product of glycolysis, has emerged as a critical regulator of cancer development, maintenance, and metastasis. Indeed, tumor lactate levels correlate with increased metastasis, tumor recurrence, and poor outcome. Lactate mediates cancer cell intrinsic effects on metabolism and has additional non–tumor cell autonomous effects that drive tumorigenesis. Tumor cells can metabolize lactate as an energy source and shuttle lactate to neighboring cancer cells, adjacent stroma, and vascular endothelial cells, which induces metabolic reprogramming. Lactate also plays roles in promoting tumor inflammation and in functioning as a signaling molecule that stimulates tumor angiogenesis. Here we review the mechanisms of lactate production and transport and highlight emerging evidence indicating that targeting lactate metabolism is a promising approach for cancer therapeutics.
Joanne R. Doherty, John L. Cleveland
Metformin is widely prescribed for the treatment of type II diabetes. Recently, it has been proposed that this compound or related biguanides may have antineoplastic activity. Biguanides may exploit specific metabolic vulnerabilities of transformed cells by acting on them directly, or may act by indirect mechanisms that involve alterations of the host environment. Preclinical data suggest that drug exposure levels are a key determinant of proposed direct actions. With respect to indirect mechanisms, it will be important to determine whether recently demonstrated metformin-induced changes in levels of candidate systemic mediators such as insulin or inflammatory cytokines are of sufficient magnitude to achieve therapeutic benefit. Results of the first generation of clinical trials now in progress are eagerly anticipated. Ongoing investigations may justify a second generation of trials that explore pharmacokinetic optimization, rational drug combinations, synthetic lethality strategies, novel biguanides, and the use of predictive biomarkers.
Pressure and volume overload results in concentric and eccentric hypertrophy of cardiac ventricular chambers with, respectively, parallel and series replication of sarcomeres. These divergent patterns of hypertrophy were related 40 years ago to disparate wall stresses in both conditions, with systolic wall stress eliciting parallel replication of sarcomeres and diastolic wall stress, series replication. These observations are relevant to clinical practice, as they relate to the excessive hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction regularly observed in patients with aortic stenosis. Stress-sensing mechanisms in cardiomyocytes and activation of cardiomyocyte death by elevated wall stress continue to intrigue cardiovascular scientists.
William Grossman, Walter J. Paulus
A 29-year-old man with recently diagnosed HIV infection and a CD4 cell count of 225/mm3 began treatment with atazanavir (300 mg), ritonavir (100 mg), emtricitabine (200 mg), and tenofovir (300 mg) daily. For 18 months, he was treatment adherent and his plasma HIV RNA level was below the limit of detection. He then began a relationship with a new partner, who introduced him to methamphetamines. His medication adherence became erratic, and he missed appointments in clinic. Eventually. he was hospitalized for rehabilitation, and he resumed taking his medications on schedule. Following his discharge, he was found to have a plasma HIV RNA level of 11,400 copies/ml. Genotypic resistance testing revealed only an M184V mutation associated with emtricitabine resistance. A decision regarding his next treatment regimen needs to be made.
John A. Bartlett
Numerous solid tumors and hematologic malignancies acquire resistance to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapeutic drugs by downregulating the key effector caspase-3. These cells rely on caspase-7 to execute the apoptotic program, yet binding with XIAP constitutively inhibits active caspase-7 (p19/p12-CASP7). In this issue, Lin et al. describe how a newly synthesized drug is able to disrupt the XIAP:p19/p12-CASP7 complex and induce apoptosis in caspase-3–deficient cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. As this compound appears to exhibit minimal toxicity on normal tissues, it may represent a promising therapeutic agent to help treat caspase-3–deficient tumors.
Maria Eugenia Guicciardi, Gregory J. Gores
Skin cancer cells with donor genotype have been identified in allogeneic transplant patients; however, the donor contribution to the recipient’s epithelial malignancy remains to be established. In this issue of the
Cai-Bin Cui, David A. Gerber
In a report reading like a fascinating detective story, Vincent and colleagues crack the mysterious case of east Texas bleeding disorder. They show that affected individuals have a mutation in exon 13 of the coagulation
George J. Broze Jr., Thomas J. Girard
Tricellulin is a tricellular tight junction–associated membrane protein that controls movement of solutes at these specialized cell intersections. Mutations in the gene encoding tricellulin,
Tomohito Higashi, Danielle R. Lenz, Mikio Furuse, Karen B. Avraham
While flow cytometry has been used to analyze the antigenic composition of individual cells, the antigenic makeup of viral particles is still characterized predominantly in bulk. Here, we describe a technology, “flow virometry,” that can be used for antigen detection on individual virions. The technology is based on binding magnetic nanoparticles to virions, staining the virions with monoclonal antibodies, separating the formed complexes with magnetic columns, and characterizing them with flow cytometers. We used this technology to study the distribution of two antigens (HLA-DR and LFA-1) that HIV-1 acquires from infected cells among individual HIV-1 virions. Flow virometry revealed that the antigenic makeup of virions from a single preparation is heterogeneous. This heterogeneity could not be detected with bulk analysis of viruses. Moreover, in two preparations of the same HIV-1 produced by different cells, the distribution of antigens among virions was different. In contrast, HIV-1 of two different HIV-1 genotypes replicating in the same cells became somewhat antigenically similar. This nanotechnology allows the study of virions in bodily fluids without virus propagation and in principle is not restricted to the analysis of HIV, but can be applied to the analysis of the individual surface antigenic makeup of any virus.
Anush Arakelyan, Wendy Fitzgerald, Leonid Margolis, Jean-Charles Grivel
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major human pathogen that causes immune-mediated hepatitis. Successful immunity to HBV is age dependent: viral clearance occurs in most adults, whereas neonates and young children usually develop chronic infection. Using a mouse model of HBV infection, we sought mechanisms underpinning the age-dependent outcome of HBV and demonstrated that hepatic macrophages facilitate lymphoid organization and immune priming within the adult liver and promote successful immunity. In contrast, lymphoid organization and immune priming was greatly diminished in the livers of young mice, and of macrophage-depleted adult mice, leading to abrogated HBV immunity. Furthermore, we found that CXCL13, which is involved in B lymphocyte trafficking and lymphoid architecture and development, is expressed in an age-dependent manner in both adult mouse and human hepatic macrophages and plays an integral role in facilitating an effective immune response against HBV. Taken together, these results identify some of the immunological mechanisms necessary for effective control of HBV.
Jean Publicover, Anuj Gaggar, Stephen Nishimura, Christine M. Van Horn, Amanda Goodsell, Marcus O. Muench, R. Lee Reinhardt, Nico van Rooijen, Adil E. Wakil, Marion Peters, Jason G. Cyster, David J. Erle, Philip Rosenthal, Stewart Cooper, Jody L. Baron
Patients with ovarian cancer are at high risk of tumor recurrence. Prediction of therapy outcome may provide therapeutic avenues to improve patient outcomes. Using reverse-phase protein arrays, we generated ovarian carcinoma protein expression profiles on 412 cases from TCGA and constructed a PRotein-driven index of OVARian cancer (PROVAR). PROVAR significantly discriminated an independent cohort of 226 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas into groups of high risk and low risk of tumor recurrence as well as short-term and long-term survivors. Comparison with gene expression–based outcome classification models showed a significantly improved capacity of the protein-based PROVAR to predict tumor progression. Identification of protein markers linked to disease recurrence may yield insights into tumor biology. When combined with features known to be associated with outcome, such as
Ji-Yeon Yang, Kosuke Yoshihara, Kenichi Tanaka, Masayuki Hatae, Hideaki Masuzaki, Hiroaki Itamochi, Masashi Takano, Kimio Ushijima, Janos L. Tanyi, George Coukos, Yiling Lu, Gordon B. Mills, Roel G.W. Verhaak
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients have recurrent life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) is a neutrophil granule protein that negatively regulates host defense against bacterial infection. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of
Wenli Liu, Ming Yan, Janyce A. Sugui, Hongzhen Li, Chengfu Xu, Jungsoo Joo, Kyung J. Kwon-Chung, William G. Coleman, Griffin P. Rodgers
Ute E. Burkhardt, Ursula Hainz, Kristen Stevenson, Natalie R. Goldstein, Mildred Pasek, Masayasu Naito, Di Wu, Vincent T. Ho, Anselmo Alonso, Naa Norkor Hammond, Jessica Wong, Quinlan L. Sievers, Ana Brusic, Sean M. McDonough, Wanyong Zeng, Ann Perrin, Jennifer R. Brown, Christine M. Canning, John Koreth, Corey Cutler, Philippe Armand, Donna Neuberg, Jeng-Shin Lee, Joseph H. Antin, Richard C. Mulligan, Tetsuro Sasada, Jerome Ritz, Robert J. Soiffer, Glenn Dranoff, Edwin P. Alyea, Catherine J. Wu
Selection of antigens for therapeutic vaccination against chronic viral infections is complicated by pathogen genetic variations. We tested whether antigens present during persistent viral infections could provide a personalized antigenic reservoir for therapeutic T cell expansion in humans. We focused our study on the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), which is present in microgram quantities in the serum of chronic HBV patients. We demonstrated by quantitative fluorescent microscopy that, out of 6 professional APC populations in the circulation, only CD14 monocytes (MNs) retained an HBsAg depot. Using TCR-redirected CD8+ T cells specific for MHC-I–restricted HBV epitopes, we showed that, despite being constantly exposed to antigen, ex vivo–isolated APCs did not constitutively activate HBV-specific CD8+ T cells. However, differentiation of HBsAg+ CD14 MNs from chronic patients to MN-derived DCs (moDCs) induced cross-presentation of the intracellular reservoir of viral antigen. We exploited this mechanism to cross-present circulating viral antigen and showed that moDCs from chronically infected patients stimulated expansion of autologous HBV-specific T cells. Thus, these data demonstrate that circulating viral antigen produced during chronic infection can serve as a personalized antigenic reservoir to activate virus-specific T cells.
Adam J. Gehring, Muzlifah Haniffa, Patrick T. Kennedy, Zi Zong Ho, Carolina Boni, Amanda Shin, Nasirah Banu, Adeline Chia, Seng Gee Lim, Carlo Ferrari, Florent Ginhoux, Antonio Bertoletti
The autosomal dominantly inherited east Texas bleeding disorder is linked to an
Lisa M. Vincent, Sinh Tran, Ruzica Livaja, Tracy A. Bensend, Dianna M. Milewicz, Björn Dahlbäck
Antigen-specific Abs are able to enhance or suppress immune responses depending on the receptors that they bind on immune cells. Recent studies have shown that pro- or antiinflammatory effector functions of IgG Abs are also regulated through their Fc N-linked glycosylation patterns. IgG Abs that are agalactosylated (non-galactosylated) and asialylated are proinflammatory and induced by the combination of T cell–dependent (TD) protein antigens and proinflammatory costimulation. Sialylated IgG Abs, which are immunosuppressive, and Tregs are produced in the presence of TD antigens under tolerance conditions. T cell–independent (TI) B cell activation via B cell receptor (BCR) crosslinking through polysaccharides or via BCR and TLR costimulation also induces IgG Abs, but the Fc glycosylation state of these Abs is unknown. We found in mouse experiments that TI immune responses induced suppressive sialylated IgGs, in contrast to TD proinflammatory Th1 and Th17 immune responses, which induced agalactosylated and asialylated IgGs. Transfer of low amounts of antigen-specific sialylated IgG Abs was sufficient to inhibit B cell activation and pathogenic immune reactions. These findings suggest an immune regulatory function for TI immune responses through the generation of immunosuppressive sialylated IgGs and may provide insight on the role of TI immune responses during infection, vaccination, and autoimmunity.
Constanze Hess, André Winkler, Alexandra K. Lorenz, Vivien Holecska, Véronique Blanchard, Susanne Eiglmeier, Anna-Lena Schoen, Josephine Bitterling, Alexander D. Stoehr, Dominique Petzold, Tim Schommartz, Maria M.M. Mertes, Carolin T. Schoen, Ben Tiburzy, Anne Herrmann, Jörg Köhl, Rudolf A. Manz, Michael P. Madaio, Markus Berger, Hedda Wardemann, Marc Ehlers
Tumor cells with donor genotype have been identified in human skin cancer after allogeneic transplantation; however, the donor contribution to the malignant epithelium has not been established. Kidney transplant recipients have an increased risk of invasive skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is associated with accumulation of the tumor suppressor p53 and
Laurence Verneuil, Mariana Varna, Philippe Ratajczak, Christophe Leboeuf, Louis-François Plassa, Morad Elbouchtaoui, Pierre Schneider, Wissam Sandid, Celeste Lebbé, Marie-Noelle Peraldi, François Sigaux, Hugues de Thé, Anne Janin
Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (CAMT) is caused by the loss of thrombopoietin receptor–mediated (MPL-mediated) signaling, which causes severe pancytopenia leading to bone marrow failure with onset of thrombocytopenia and anemia prior to leukopenia. Because
Shinji Hirata, Naoya Takayama, Ryoko Jono-Ohnishi, Hiroshi Endo, Sou Nakamura, Takeaki Dohda, Masanori Nishi, Yuhei Hamazaki, Ei-ichi Ishii, Shin Kaneko, Makoto Otsu, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Shinji Kunishima, Koji Eto
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) are high-density lipoprotein–associated (HDL-associated) proteins mechanistically linked to inflammation, oxidant stress, and atherosclerosis. MPO is a source of ROS during inflammation and can oxidize apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) of HDL, impairing its atheroprotective functions. In contrast, PON1 fosters systemic antioxidant effects and promotes some of the atheroprotective properties attributed to HDL. Here, we demonstrate that MPO, PON1, and HDL bind to one another, forming a ternary complex, wherein PON1 partially inhibits MPO activity, while MPO inactivates PON1. MPO oxidizes PON1 on tyrosine 71 (Tyr71), a modified residue found in human atheroma that is critical for HDL binding and PON1 function. Acute inflammation model studies with transgenic and knockout mice for either PON1 or MPO confirmed that MPO and PON1 reciprocally modulate each other’s function in vivo. Further structure and function studies identified critical contact sites between APOA1 within HDL, PON1, and MPO, and proteomics studies of HDL recovered from acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subjects revealed enhanced chlorotyrosine content, site-specific PON1 methionine oxidation, and reduced PON1 activity. HDL thus serves as a scaffold upon which MPO and PON1 interact during inflammation, whereupon PON1 binding partially inhibits MPO activity, and MPO promotes site-specific oxidative modification and impairment of PON1 and APOA1 function.
Ying Huang, Zhiping Wu, Meliana Riwanto, Shengqiang Gao, Bruce S. Levison, Xiaodong Gu, Xiaoming Fu, Matthew A. Wagner, Christian Besler, Gary Gerstenecker, Renliang Zhang, Xin-Min Li, Anthony J. DiDonato, Valentin Gogonea, W.H. Wilson Tang, Jonathan D. Smith, Edward F. Plow, Paul L. Fox, Diana M. Shih, Aldons J. Lusis, Edward A. Fisher, Joseph A. DiDonato, Ulf Landmesser, Stanley L. Hazen
Rotavirus-induced diarrhea is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals and in children in developing countries. We have developed a system for prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus disease using transgenic rice expressing the neutralizing variable domain of a rotavirus-specific llama heavy-chain antibody fragment (MucoRice-ARP1). MucoRice-ARP1 was produced at high levels in rice seeds using an overexpression system and RNAi technology to suppress the production of major rice endogenous storage proteins. Orally administered MucoRice-ARP1 markedly decreased the viral load in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. The antibody retained in vitro neutralizing activity after long-term storage (>1 yr) and boiling and conferred protection in mice even after heat treatment at 94°C for 30 minutes. High-yield, water-soluble, and purification-free MucoRice-ARP1 thus forms the basis for orally administered prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus infections.
Daisuke Tokuhara, Beatriz Álvarez, Mio Mejima, Tomoko Hiroiwa, Yuko Takahashi, Shiho Kurokawa, Masaharu Kuroda, Masaaki Oyama, Hiroko Kozuka-Hata, Tomonori Nochi, Hiroshi Sagara, Farah Aladin, Harold Marcotte, Leon G.J. Frenken, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Hiroshi Kiyono, Lennart Hammarström, Yoshikazu Yuki
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a heterogenous genetic disease with a high risk of cancer. The FA proteins are essential for interphase DNA damage repair; however, it is incompletely understood why FA-deficient cells also develop gross aneuploidy, leading to cancer. Here, we systematically evaluated the role of the FA proteins in chromosome segregation through functional RNAi screens and analysis of primary cells from patients with FA. We found that FA signaling is essential for the spindle assembly checkpoint and is therefore required for high-fidelity chromosome segregation and prevention of aneuploidy. Furthermore, we discovered that FA proteins differentially localize to key structures of the mitotic apparatus in a cell cycle–dependent manner. The essential role of the FA pathway in mitosis offers a mechanistic explanation for the aneuploidy and malignant transformation known to occur after disruption of FA signaling. Collectively, our findings provide insight into the genetically unstable cancers resulting from inactivation of the FA/BRCA pathway.
Grzegorz Nalepa, Rikki Enzor, Zejin Sun, Christophe Marchal, Su-Jung Park, Yanzhu Yang, Laura Tedeschi, Stephanie Kelich, Helmut Hanenberg, D. Wade Clapp
HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) are among the most effective antiretroviral drugs. They are characterized by highly cooperative dose-response curves that are not explained by current pharmacodynamic theory. An unresolved problem affecting the clinical use of PIs is that patients who fail PI-containing regimens often have virus that lacks protease mutations, in apparent violation of fundamental evolutionary theory. Here, we show that these unresolved issues can be explained through analysis of the effects of PIs on distinct steps in the viral life cycle. We found that PIs do not affect virion release from infected cells but block entry, reverse transcription, and post–reverse transcription steps. The overall dose-response curves could be reconstructed by combining the curves for each step using the Bliss independence principle, showing that independent inhibition of multiple distinct steps in the life cycle generates the highly cooperative dose-response curves that make these drugs uniquely effective. Approximately half of the inhibitory potential of PIs is manifest at the entry step, likely reflecting interactions between the uncleaved Gag and the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env protein. Sequence changes in the CT alone, which are ignored in current clinical tests for PI resistance, conferred PI resistance, providing an explanation for PI failure without resistance.
S. Alireza Rabi, Gregory M. Laird, Christine M. Durand, Sarah Laskey, Liang Shan, Justin R. Bailey, Stanley Chioma, Richard D. Moore, Robert F. Siliciano
Caspase-3 downregulation (CASP3/DR) in tumors frequently confers resistance to cancer therapy and is significantly correlated with a poor prognosis in cancer patients. Because CASP3/DR cancer cells rely heavily on the activity of caspase-7 (CASP7) to initiate apoptosis, inhibition of activated CASP7 (p19/p12-CASP7) by X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a potential mechanism by which apoptosis is prevented in those cancer cells. Here, we identify the pocket surrounding the Cys246 residue of p19/p12-CASP7 as a target for the development of a protein-protein interaction (PPI) inhibitor of the XIAP:p19/p12-CASP7 complex. Interrupting this PPI directly triggered CASP7-dependent apoptotic signaling that bypassed the activation of the apical caspases and selectively killed CASP3/DR malignancies in vitro and in vivo without adverse side effects in nontumor cells. Importantly, CASP3/DR combined with p19/p12-CASP7 accumulation correlated with the aggressive evolution of clinical malignancies and a poor prognosis in cancer patients. Moreover, targeting of this PPI effectively killed cancer cells with multidrug resistance due to microRNA let-7a-1–mediated CASP3/DR and resensitized cancer cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. These findings not only provide an opportunity to treat CASP3/DR malignancies by targeting the XIAP:p19/p12-CASP7 complex, but also elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying CASP3/DR in cancers.
Yuan-Feng Lin, Tsung-Ching Lai, Chih-Kang Chang, Chi-Long Chen, Ming-Shyan Huang, Chih-Jen Yang, Hon-Ge Liu, Jhih-Jhong Dong, Yi-An Chou, Kuo-Hsun Teng, Shih-Hsun Chen, Wei-Ting Tian, Yi-Hua Jan, Michael Hsiao, Po-Huang Liang
RUNX1 is generally considered a tumor suppressor in myeloid neoplasms. Inactivating RUNX1 mutations have frequently been found in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, no somatic RUNX1 alteration was found in AMLs with leukemogenic fusion proteins, such as core-binding factor (CBF) leukemia and MLL fusion leukemia, raising the possibility that RUNX1 could actually promote the growth of these leukemia cells. Using normal human cord blood cells and those expressing leukemogenic fusion proteins, we discovered a dual role of RUNX1 in myeloid leukemogenesis. RUNX1 overexpression inhibited the growth of normal cord blood cells by inducing myeloid differentiation, whereas a certain level of RUNX1 activity was required for the growth of AML1-ETO and MLL-AF9 cells. Using a mouse genetic model, we also showed that the combined loss of
Susumu Goyama, Janet Schibler, Lea Cunningham, Yue Zhang, Yalan Rao, Nahoko Nishimoto, Masahiro Nakagawa, Andre Olsson, Mark Wunderlich, Kevin A. Link, Benjamin Mizukawa, H. Leighton Grimes, Mineo Kurokawa, P. Paul Liu, Gang Huang, James C. Mulloy
The human fetal immune system is naturally exposed to maternal allogeneic cells, maternal antibodies, and pathogens. As such, it is faced with a considerable challenge with respect to the balance between immune reactivity and tolerance. Here, we show that fetal natural killer (NK) cells differentiate early in utero and are highly responsive to cytokines and antibody-mediated stimulation but respond poorly to HLA class I–negative target cells. Strikingly, expression of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) did not educate fetal NK cells but rendered them hyporesponsive to target cells lacking HLA class I. In addition, fetal NK cells were highly susceptible to TGF-β–mediated suppression, and blocking of TGF-β signaling enhanced fetal NK cell responses to target cells. Our data demonstrate that KIR-mediated hyporesponsiveness and TGF-β–mediated suppression are major factors determining human fetal NK cell hyporesponsiveness to HLA class I–negative target cells and provide a potential mechanism for fetal-maternal tolerance in utero. Finally, our results provide a basis for understanding the role of fetal NK cells in pregnancy complications in which NK cells could be involved, for example, during in utero infections and anti-RhD–induced fetal anemia.
Martin A. Ivarsson, Liyen Loh, Nicole Marquardt, Eliisa Kekäläinen, Lena Berglin, Niklas K. Björkström, Magnus Westgren, Douglas F. Nixon, Jakob Michaëlsson
Chondrocytes are the only cells in cartilage, and their death by apoptosis contributes to cartilage loss in inflammatory joint diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A putative therapeutic intervention for RA is the inhibition of apoptosis-mediated cartilage degradation. The hormone prolactin (PRL) frequently increases in the circulation of patients with RA, but the role of hyperprolactinemia in disease activity is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that PRL inhibits the apoptosis of cultured chondrocytes in response to a mixture of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ) by preventing the induction of p53 and decreasing the BAX/BCL-2 ratio through a NO-independent, JAK2/STAT3–dependent pathway. Local treatment with PRL or increasing PRL circulating levels also prevented chondrocyte apoptosis evoked by injecting cytokines into the knee joints of rats, whereas the proapoptotic effect of cytokines was enhanced in PRL receptor–null (
Norma Adán, Jessica Guzmán-Morales, Maria G. Ledesma-Colunga, Sonia I. Perales-Canales, Andrés Quintanar-Stéphano, Fernando López-Barrera, Isabel Méndez, Bibiana Moreno-Carranza, Jakob Triebel, Nadine Binart, Gonzalo Martínez de la Escalera, Stéphanie Thebault, Carmen Clapp
Bone remodeling is characterized by the sequential, local tethering of osteoclasts and osteoblasts and is key to the maintenance of bone integrity. While bone matrix–mobilized growth factors, such as TGF-β, are proposed to regulate remodeling, no in vivo evidence exists that an osteoclast-produced molecule serves as a coupling factor for bone resorption to formation. We found that CTHRC1, a protein secreted by mature bone-resorbing osteoclasts, targets stromal cells to stimulate osteogenesis.
Sunao Takeshita, Toshio Fumoto, Kazuhiko Matsuoka, Kyoung-ae Park, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Shigeaki Kato, Masako Ito, Kyoji Ikeda
Cancers subvert the host immune system to facilitate disease progression. These evolved immunosuppressive mechanisms are also implicated in circumventing immunotherapeutic strategies. Emerging data indicate that local tumor-associated DC populations exhibit tolerogenic features by promoting Treg development; however, the mechanisms by which tumors manipulate DC and Treg function in the tumor microenvironment remain unclear. Type III TGF-β receptor (TGFBR3) and its shed extracellular domain (sTGFBR3) regulate TGF-β signaling and maintain epithelial homeostasis, with loss of TGFBR3 expression promoting progression early in breast cancer development. Using murine models of breast cancer and melanoma, we elucidated a tumor immunoevasion mechanism whereby loss of tumor-expressed TGFBR3/sTGFBR3 enhanced TGF-β signaling within locoregional DC populations and upregulated both the immunoregulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in plasmacytoid DCs and the CCL22 chemokine in myeloid DCs. Alterations in these DC populations mediated Treg infiltration and the suppression of antitumor immunity. Our findings provide mechanistic support for using TGF-β inhibitors to enhance the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy, indicate that sTGFBR3 levels could serve as a predictive immunotherapy biomarker, and expand the mechanisms by which TGFBR3 suppresses cancer progression to include effects on the tumor immune microenvironment.
Brent A. Hanks, Alisha Holtzhausen, Katherine S. Evans, Rebekah Jamieson, Petra Gimpel, Olivia M. Campbell, Melissa Hector-Greene, Lihong Sun, Alok Tewari, Amanda George, Mark Starr, Andrew B. Nixon, Christi Augustine, Georgia Beasley, Douglas S. Tyler, Takayu Osada, Michael A. Morse, Leona Ling, H. Kim Lyerly, Gerard C. Blobe
Retinoids are structurally related derivatives of vitamin A and are required for normal vision as well as cell proliferation and differentiation. Clinically, retinoids are effective in treating many skin disorders and cancers. Application of retinoids evokes substantial irritating side effects, including pain and inflammation; however, the precise mechanisms accounting for the sensory hypersensitivity are not understood. Here we show that both naturally occurring and synthetic retinoids activate recombinant or native transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), an irritant receptor for capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chili peppers. In vivo, retinoids produced pain-related behaviors that were either eliminated or significantly reduced by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 function. These findings identify TRPV1 as an ionotropic receptor for retinoids and provide cellular and molecular insights into retinoid-evoked hypersensitivity. These findings also suggest that selective TRPV1 antagonists are potential therapeutic drugs for treating retinoid-induced sensory hypersensitivity.
Shijin Yin, Jialie Luo, Aihua Qian, Junhui Du, Qing Yang, Shentai Zhou, Weihua Yu, Guangwei Du, Richard B. Clark, Edgar T. Walters, Susan M. Carlton, Hongzhen Hu
Emergency granulopoiesis is a component of the innate immune response that is induced in response to infectious or inflammatory challenge. It is characterized by the rapid expansion and differentiation of granulocyte/monocyte progenitor (GMP) populations, which is due in part to a shortened S-phase of the cell cycle. We found that IRF8 (also known as ICSBP), an interferon regulatory transcription factor that activates phagocyte effector genes during the innate immune response, activates the gene encoding Fanconi C (
Liping Hu, Weiqi Huang, Elizabeth Hjort, Elizabeth A. Eklund
Chronic obstructive lung disease is characterized by persistent abnormalities in epithelial and immune cell function that are driven, at least in part, by infection. Analysis of parainfluenza virus infection in mice revealed an unexpected role for innate immune cells in IL-13–dependent chronic lung disease, but the upstream driver for the immune axis in this model and in humans with similar disease was undefined. We demonstrate here that lung levels of IL-33 are selectively increased in postviral mice with chronic obstructive lung disease and in humans with very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the mouse model, IL-33/IL-33 receptor signaling was required for
Derek E. Byers, Jennifer Alexander-Brett, Anand C. Patel, Eugene Agapov, Geoffrey Dang-Vu, Xiaohua Jin, Kangyun Wu, Yingjian You, Yael Alevy, Jean-Philippe Girard, Thaddeus S. Stappenbeck, G. Alexander Patterson, Richard A. Pierce, Steven L. Brody, Michael J. Holtzman
The inhibitory effects of vitamin D on colitis have been previously documented. Global vitamin D receptor (VDR) deletion exaggerates colitis, but the relative anticolitic contribution of epithelial and nonepithelial VDR signaling is unknown. Here, we showed that colonic epithelial VDR expression was substantially reduced in patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. Moreover, targeted expression of human VDR (hVDR) in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) protected mice from developing colitis. In experimental colitis models induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, dextran sulfate sodium, or CD4+CD45RBhi T cell transfer, transgenic mice expressing hVDR in IECs were highly resistant to colitis, as manifested by marked reductions in clinical colitis scores, colonic histological damage, and colonic inflammation compared with WT mice. Reconstitution of
Weicheng Liu, Yunzi Chen, Maya Aharoni Golan, Maria L. Annunziata, Jie Du, Urszula Dougherty, Juan Kong, Mark Musch, Yong Huang, Joel Pekow, Changqing Zheng, Marc Bissonnette, Stephen B. Hanauer, Yan Chun Li
Many oncology drugs are administered at their maximally tolerated dose without the knowledge of their optimal efficacious dose range. In this study, we describe a multifaceted approach that integrated preclinical and clinical data to identify the optimal dose for an antiangiogenesis agent, anti-EGFL7. EGFL7 is an extracellular matrix–associated protein expressed in activated endothelium. Recombinant EGFL7 protein supported EC adhesion and protected ECs from stress-induced apoptosis. Anti-EGFL7 antibodies inhibited both of these key processes and augmented anti-VEGF–mediated vascular damage in various murine tumor models. In a genetically engineered mouse model of advanced non–small cell lung cancer, we found that anti-EGFL7 enhanced both the progression-free and overall survival benefits derived from anti-VEGF therapy in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we identified a circulating progenitor cell type that was regulated by EGFL7 and evaluated the response of these cells to anti-EGFL7 treatment in both tumor-bearing mice and cancer patients from a phase I clinical trial. Importantly, these preclinical efficacy and clinical biomarker results enabled rational selection of the anti-EGFL7 dose currently being tested in phase II clinical trials.
Leisa Johnson, Mahrukh Huseni, Tanya Smyczek, Anthony Lima, Stacey Yeung, Jason H. Cheng, Rafael Molina, David Kan, Ann De Mazière, Judith Klumperman, Ian Kasman, Yin Zhang, Mark S. Dennis, Jeffrey Eastham-Anderson, Adrian M. Jubb, Olivia Hwang, Rupal Desai, Maike Schmidt, Michelle A. Nannini, Kai H. Barck, Richard A.D. Carano, William F. Forrest, Qinghua Song, Daniel S. Chen, Louie Naumovski, Mallika Singh, Weilan Ye, Priti S. Hegde
Mice deficient in Schnurri-3 (SHN3; also known as HIVEP3) display increased bone formation, but harnessing this observation for therapeutic benefit requires an improved understanding of how SHN3 functions in osteoblasts. Here we identified SHN3 as a dampener of ERK activity that functions in part downstream of WNT signaling in osteoblasts. A D-domain motif within SHN3 mediated the interaction with and inhibition of ERK activity and osteoblast differentiation, and knockin of a mutation in
Jae-Hyuck Shim, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Weiguo Zou, Zhiwei Huang, Marc N. Wein, Nicholas Brady, Dorothy Hu, Jean Charron, Heather R. Brodkin, Gregory A. Petsko, Dennis Zaller, Bo Zhai, Steven Gygi, Laurie H. Glimcher, Dallas C. Jones
Acute kidney injury predisposes patients to the development of both chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal failure, but the molecular details underlying this important clinical association remain obscure. We report that kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), an epithelial phosphatidylserine receptor expressed transiently after acute injury and chronically in fibrotic renal disease, promotes kidney fibrosis. Conditional expression of KIM-1 in renal epithelial cells (
Benjamin D. Humphreys, Fengfeng Xu, Venkata Sabbisetti, Ivica Grgic, Said Movahedi Naini, Ningning Wang, Guochun Chen, Sheng Xiao, Dhruti Patel, Joel M. Henderson, Takaharu Ichimura, Shan Mou, Savuth Soeung, Andrew P. McMahon, Vijay K. Kuchroo, Joseph V. Bonventre
The two compositionally distinct extracellular cochlear fluids, endolymph and perilymph, are separated by tight junctions that outline the scala media and reticular lamina. Mutations in
Gowri Nayak, Sue I. Lee, Rizwan Yousaf, Stephanie E. Edelmann, Claire Trincot, Christina M. Van Itallie, Ghanshyam P. Sinha, Maria Rafeeq, Sherri M. Jones, Inna A. Belyantseva, James M. Anderson, Andrew Forge, Gregory I. Frolenkov, Saima Riazuddin
Neuropathic pain is characterized by mechanical allodynia induced by low-threshold myelinated Aβ-fiber activation. The original gate theory of pain proposes that inhibitory interneurons in the lamina II of the spinal dorsal horn (DH) act as “gate control” units for preventing the interaction between innocuous and nociceptive signals. However, our understanding of the neuronal circuits underlying pain signaling and modulation in the spinal DH is incomplete. Using a rat model, we have shown that the convergence of glycinergic inhibitory and excitatory Aβ-fiber inputs onto PKCγ+ neurons in the superficial DH forms a feed-forward inhibitory circuit that prevents Aβ input from activating the nociceptive pathway. This feed-forward inhibition was suppressed following peripheral nerve injury or glycine blockage, leading to inappropriate induction of action potential outputs in the nociceptive pathway by Aβ-fiber stimulation. Furthermore, spinal blockage of glycinergic synaptic transmission in vivo induced marked mechanical allodynia. Our findings identify a glycinergic feed-forward inhibitory circuit that functions as a gate control to separate the innocuous mechanoreceptive pathway and the nociceptive pathway in the spinal DH. Disruption of this glycinergic inhibitory circuit after peripheral nerve injury has the potential to elicit mechanical allodynia, a cardinal symptom of neuropathic pain.
Yan Lu, Hailong Dong, Yandong Gao, Yuanyuan Gong, Yingna Ren, Nan Gu, Shudi Zhou, Nan Xia, Yan-Yan Sun, Ru-Rong Ji, Lize Xiong
There are currently more than 15 million preterm births each year. We propose that gene-environment interaction is a major contributor to preterm birth. To address this experimentally, we generated a mouse model with uterine deletion of
Jeeyeon Cha, Amanda Bartos, Mahiro Egashira, Hirofumi Haraguchi, Tomoko Saito-Fujita, Emma Leishman, Heather Bradshaw, Sudhansu K. Dey, Yasushi Hirota
Chris C. Tang, Andrew Feigin, Yilong Ma, Christian Habeck, Jane S. Paulsen, Klaus L. Leenders, Laura K. Teune, Joost C.H. van Oostrom, Mark Guttman, Vijay Dhawan, David Eidelberg
Neveen Said, Henry F. Frierson, Marta Sanchez-Carbayo, Rolf A. Brekken, Dan Theodorescu