Secreted insulin first flows to the liver, where some enters and is subsequently cleared. On page 4513, Tamaki et al. demonstrate that the zinc transporter gene SLC30A8, which has variants associated with type 2 diabetes in humans, plays a surprising role in controlling hepatic insulin clearance. By regulating the level of zinc contained in insulin granules, SLC30A8 variants elevate insulin clearance, while exogenous zinc reduces insulin secretion and inhibits endocytosis. This false-colored electron micrograph shows a murine pancreas that is mosaic for Slc30a8 expression, with dense insulin granules in normal tissue (blue) and low-density insulin granules in mutant tissue (purple).
Esophageal, gastrointestinal, and colonic diseases resulting from disorders of the motor and sensory functions represent almost half the patients presenting to gastroenterologists. There have been significant advances in understanding the mechanisms of these disorders, through basic and translational research, and in targeting the receptors or mediators involved, through clinical trials involving biomarkers and patient responses. These advances have led to relief of patients’ symptoms and improved quality of life, although there are still significant unmet needs. This article reviews the pipeline of medications in development for esophageal sensorimotor disorders, gastroparesis, chronic diarrhea, chronic constipation (including opioid-induced constipation), and visceral pain.
Jillian H. Hurst
Since the discovery of hepatitis C virus (HCV) by molecular cloning almost a quarter of a century ago, unprecedented at the time because the virus had never been grown in cell culture or detected serologically, there have been impressive strides in many facets of our understanding of the natural history of the disease, the viral life cycle, the pathogenesis, and antiviral therapy. It is apparent that the virus has developed multiple strategies to evade immune surveillance and eradication. This Review covers what we currently understand of the temporal and spatial immunological changes within the human innate and adaptive host immune responses that ultimately determine the outcomes of HCV infection.
Hugo R. Rosen
Mammalian P-glycoproteins are active drug efflux transporters located in the plasma membrane. In the early nineties, we generated knockouts of the three P-glycoprotein genes of mice, the
Piet Borst, Alfred H. Schinkel
The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are characterized by spasticity of the leg muscles due to axonal degeneration of corticospinal neurons. Beetz et al. report that the core motor phenotype and axonal pathology of HSPs are recapitulated in mice lacking the HSP-associated gene
Ariel Y. Deutch, Peter Hedera, Roger J. Colbran
Insulin and Zn2+ enjoy a multivalent relationship. Zn2+ binds insulin in pancreatic β cells to form crystalline aggregates in dense core vesicles (DCVs), which are released in response to physiological signals such as increased blood glucose. This transition metal is an essential cofactor in insulin-degrading enzyme and several key Zn2+ finger transcription factors that are required for β cell development and insulin gene expression. Studies are increasingly revealing that fluctuations in Zn2+ concentration can mediate signaling events, including dynamic roles that extend beyond that of a static structural or catalytic cofactor. In this issue of the
Thomas V. O’Halloran, Melkam Kebede, Steven J. Philips, Alan D. Attie
The distal nephron is composed of two main cell types: principal cells and intercalated cells. These cells have distinct morphologic features that allow them to be readily distinguished by light microscopy, as well as distinct suites of proteins that facilitate cell-specific transport properties. In this issue of the
Thomas R. Kleyman, Lisa M. Satlin, Kenneth R. Hallows
B cells from common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients who have one mutant copy of the gene encoding the transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) often display dysfunctional antibody production. Interestingly, some individuals with mutations in both
Antonio La Cava
The success of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in treating chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) depends on the requirement for BCR-ABL1 kinase activity in CML progenitors. However, CML quiescent HSCs are TKI resistant and represent a BCR-ABL1 kinase–independent disease reservoir. Here we have shown that persistence of leukemic HSCs in BM requires inhibition of the tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and expression — but not activity — of the
Paolo Neviani, Jason G. Harb, Joshua J. Oaks, Ramasamy Santhanam, Christopher J. Walker, Justin J. Ellis, Gregory Ferenchak, Adrienne M. Dorrance, Carolyn A. Paisie, Anna M. Eiring, Yihui Ma, Hsiaoyin C. Mao, Bin Zhang, Mark Wunderlich, Philippa C. May, Chaode Sun, Sahar A. Saddoughi, Jacek Bielawski, William Blum, Rebecca B. Klisovic, Janelle A. Solt, John C. Byrd, Stefano Volinia, Jorge Cortes, Claudia S. Huettner, Steffen Koschmieder, Tessa L. Holyoake, Steven Devine, Michael A. Caligiuri, Carlo M. Croce, Ramiro Garzon, Besim Ogretmen, Ralph B. Arlinghaus, Ching-Shih Chen, Robert Bittman, Peter Hokland, Denis-Claude Roy, Dragana Milojkovic, Jane Apperley, John M. Goldman, Alistair Reid, James C. Mulloy, Ravi Bhatia, Guido Marcucci, Danilo Perrotti
Aggregation of tau protein in the brain is associated with a class of neurodegenerative diseases known as tauopathies. FK506 binding protein 51 kDa (FKBP51, encoded by
Laura J. Blair, Bryce A. Nordhues, Shannon E. Hill, K. Matthew Scaglione, John C. O’Leary III, Sarah N. Fontaine, Leonid Breydo, Bo Zhang, Pengfei Li, Li Wang, Carl Cotman, Henry L. Paulson, Martin Muschol, Vladimir N. Uversky, Torsten Klengel, Elisabeth B. Binder, Rakez Kayed, Todd E. Golde, Nicole Berchtold, Chad A. Dickey
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration is a leading cause of irreversible vision loss in the Western world. Cytokine-targeted therapies (such as anti-vascular endothelial growth factor) are effective in treating pathologic ocular angiogenesis, but have not led to a durable effect and often require indefinite treatment. Here, we show that Nutlin-3, a small molecule antagonist of the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase MDM2, inhibited angiogenesis in several model systems. We found that a functional p53 pathway was essential for Nutlin-3–mediated retinal antiangiogenesis and disruption of the p53 transcriptional network abolished the antiangiogenic activity of Nutlin-3. Nutlin-3 did not inhibit established, mature blood vessels in the adult mouse retina, suggesting that only proliferating retinal vessels are sensitive to Nutlin-3. Furthermore, Nutlin-3 inhibited angiogenesis in nonretinal models such as the hind limb ischemia model. Our work demonstrates that Nutlin-3 functions through an antiproliferative pathway with conceivable advantages over existing cytokine-targeted antiangiogenesis therapies.
Sai H. Chavala, Younghee Kim, Laura Tudisco, Valeria Cicatiello, Till Milde, Nagaraj Kerur, Nidia Claros, Susan Yanni, Victor H. Guaiquil, William W. Hauswirth, John S. Penn, Shahin Rafii, Sandro De Falco, Thomas C. Lee, Jayakrishna Ambati
Pancreatic β cell dysfunction is pathognomonic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is driven by environmental and genetic factors. β cell responses to glucose and to incretins such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are altered in the disease state. While rodent β cells act as a coordinated syncytium to drive insulin release, this property is unexplored in human islets. In situ imaging approaches were therefore used to monitor in real time the islet dynamics underlying hormone release. We found that GLP-1 and GIP recruit a highly coordinated subnetwork of β cells that are targeted by lipotoxicity to suppress insulin secretion. Donor BMI was negatively correlated with subpopulation responses to GLP-1, suggesting that this action of incretin contributes to functional β cell mass in vivo. Conversely, exposure of mice to a high-fat diet unveiled a role for incretin in maintaining coordinated islet activity, supporting the existence of species-specific strategies to maintain normoglycemia. These findings demonstrate that β cell connectedness is an inherent property of human islets that is likely to influence incretin-potentiated insulin secretion and may be perturbed by diabetogenic insults to disrupt glucose homeostasis in humans.
David J. Hodson, Ryan K. Mitchell, Elisa A. Bellomo, Gao Sun, Laurent Vinet, Paolo Meda, Daliang Li, Wen-Hong Li, Marco Bugliani, Piero Marchetti, Domenico Bosco, Lorenzo Piemonti, Paul Johnson, Stephen J. Hughes, Guy A. Rutter
The embryonic self-renewal factor SALL4 has been implicated in the development of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Transgenic mice expressing the human
Ailing Li, Youyang Yang, Chong Gao, Jiayun Lu, Ha-Won Jeong, Bee H. Liu, Ping Tang, Xiaopan Yao, Donna Neuberg, Gang Huang, Daniel G. Tenen, Li Chai
The suppression of tumorigenicity 2/IL-33 (ST2/IL-33) pathway has been implicated in several immune and inflammatory diseases. ST2 is produced as 2 isoforms. The membrane-bound isoform (ST2L) induces an immune response when bound to its ligand, IL-33. The other isoform is a soluble protein (sST2) that is thought to be a decoy receptor for IL-33 signaling. Elevated sST2 levels in serum are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the determinants of sST2 plasma concentrations in 2,991 Framingham Offspring Cohort participants. While clinical and environmental factors explained some variation in sST2 levels, much of the variation in sST2 production was driven by genetic factors. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS), multiple SNPs within
Jennifer E. Ho, Wei-Yu Chen, Ming-Huei Chen, Martin G. Larson, Elizabeth L. McCabe, Susan Cheng, Anahita Ghorbani, Erin Coglianese, Valur Emilsson, Andrew D. Johnson, Stefan Walter, Nora Franceschini, Christopher J. O’Donnell, Abbas Dehghan, Chen Lu, Daniel Levy, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Honghuang Lin, Janine F. Felix, Eric R. Schreiter, Ramachandran S. Vasan, James L. Januzzi, Richard T. Lee, Thomas J. Wang
Inactivation of the B1 proton pump subunit (ATP6V1B1) in intercalated cells (ICs) leads to type I distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), a disease associated with salt- and potassium-losing nephropathy. Here we show that mice deficient in ATP6V1B1 (
Victor Gueutin, Marion Vallet, Maximilien Jayat, Janos Peti-Peterdi, Nicolas Cornière, Françoise Leviel, Fabien Sohet, Carsten A. Wagner, Dominique Eladari, Régine Chambrey
Activation of cells intrinsic to the vessel wall is central to the initiation and progression of vascular inflammation. As the dominant cellular constituent of the vessel wall, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and their functions are critical determinants of vascular disease. While factors that regulate VSMC proliferation and migration have been identified, the endogenous regulators of VSMC proinflammatory activation remain incompletely defined. The Kruppel-like family of transcription factors (KLFs) are important regulators of inflammation. In this study, we identified Kruppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) as an essential regulator of VSMC proinflammatory activation. KLF15 levels were markedly reduced in human atherosclerotic tissues. Mice with systemic and smooth muscle–specific deficiency of KLF15 exhibited an aggressive inflammatory vasculopathy in two distinct models of vascular disease: orthotopic carotid artery transplantation and diet-induced atherosclerosis. We demonstrated that KLF15 alters the acetylation status and activity of the proinflammatory factor NF-κB through direct interaction with the histone acetyltransferase p300. These studies identify a previously unrecognized KLF15-dependent pathway that regulates VSMC proinflammatory activation.
Yuan Lu, Lisheng Zhang, Xudong Liao, Panjamaporn Sangwung, Domenick A. Prosdocimo, Guangjin Zhou, Alexander R. Votruba, Leigh Brian, Yuh Jung Han, Huiyun Gao, Yunmei Wang, Koichi Shimizu, Kaitlyn Weinert-Stein, Maria Khrestian, Daniel I. Simon, Neil J. Freedman, Mukesh K. Jain
DCs and macrophages both express the chemokine receptor CX3CR1. Here we demonstrate that its ligand, CX3CL1, is highly expressed in the murine kidney and intestine. CX3CR1 deficiency markedly reduced DC numbers in the healthy and inflamed kidney cortex, and to a lesser degree in the kidney medulla and intestine, but not in other organs. CX3CR1 also promoted influx of DC precursors in crescentic glomerulonephritis, a DC-dependent aggressive type of nephritis. Disease severity was strongly attenuated in CX3CR1-deficient mice. Primarily CX3CR1-dependent DCs in the kidney cortex processed antigen for the intrarenal stimulation of T helper cells, a function important for glomerulonephritis progression. In contrast, medullary DCs played a specialized role in inducing innate immunity against bacterial pyelonephritis by recruiting neutrophils through rapid chemokine production. CX3CR1 deficiency had little effect on the immune defense against pyelonephritis, as medullary DCs were less CX3CR1 dependent than cortical DCs and because recruited neutrophils produced chemokines to compensate for the DC paucity. These findings demonstrate that cortical and medullary DCs play specialized roles in their respective kidney compartments. We identify CX3CR1 as a potential therapeutic target in glomerulonephritis that may involve fewer adverse side effects, such as impaired anti-infectious defense or compromised DC functions in other organs.
Katharina Hochheiser, Christoph Heuser, Torsten A. Krause, Simon Teteris, Anissa Ilias, Christina Weisheit, Florian Hoss, André P. Tittel, Percy A. Knolle, Ulf Panzer, Daniel R. Engel, Pierre-Louis Tharaux, Christian Kurts
α-Actinin-3 deficiency occurs in approximately 16% of the global population due to homozygosity for a common nonsense polymorphism in the
Jane T. Seto, Kate G.R. Quinlan, Monkol Lek, Xi Fiona Zheng, Fleur Garton, Daniel G. MacArthur, Marshall W. Hogarth, Peter J. Houweling, Paul Gregorevic, Nigel Turner, Gregory J. Cooney, Nan Yang, Kathryn N. North
Reduced trophoblast invasion and vascular conversion in decidua are thought to be the primary defect of common pregnancy disorders including preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Genetic studies suggest these conditions are linked to combinations of polymorphic killer cell Ig-like receptor (
Shiqiu Xiong, Andrew M. Sharkey, Philippa R. Kennedy, Lucy Gardner, Lydia E. Farrell, Olympe Chazara, Julien Bauer, Susan E. Hiby, Francesco Colucci, Ashley Moffett
Axonopathies are a group of clinically diverse disorders characterized by the progressive degeneration of the axons of specific neurons. In hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), the axons of cortical motor neurons degenerate and cause a spastic movement disorder. HSP is linked to mutations in several loci known collectively as the spastic paraplegia genes (SPGs). We identified a heterozygous receptor accessory protein 1 (
Christian Beetz, Nicole Koch, Mukhran Khundadze, Geraldine Zimmer, Sandor Nietzsche, Nicole Hertel, Antje-Kathrin Huebner, Rizwan Mumtaz, Michaela Schweizer, Elisabeth Dirren, Kathrin N. Karle, Andrey Irintchev, Victoria Alvarez, Christoph Redies, Martin Westermann, Ingo Kurth, Thomas Deufel, Michael M. Kessels, Britta Qualmann, Christian A. Hübner
Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) is an assorted group of primary diseases that clinically manifest with antibody deficiency, infection susceptibility, and autoimmunity. Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member TACI are associated with CVID and autoimmune manifestations, whereas two mutated alleles prevent autoimmunity. To assess how the number of
Neil Romberg, Nicolas Chamberlain, David Saadoun, Maurizio Gentile, Tuure Kinnunen, Yen Shing Ng, Manmeet Virdee, Laurence Menard, Tineke Cantaert, Henner Morbach, Rima Rachid, Natalia Martinez-Pomar, Nuria Matamoros, Raif Geha, Bodo Grimbacher, Andrea Cerutti, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles, Eric Meffre
Ischemic damage is recognized to cause cardiomyocyte (CM) death and myocardial dysfunction, but the role of cell-matrix interactions and integrins in this process has not been extensively studied. Expression of α7β1D integrin, the dominant integrin in normal adult CMs, increases during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), while deficiency of β1 integrins increases ischemic damage. We hypothesized that the forced overexpression of integrins on the CM would offer protection from I/R injury. Tg mice with CM-specific overexpression of integrin α7β1D exposed to I/R had a substantial reduction in infarct size compared with that of α5β1D-overexpressing mice and WT littermate controls. Using isolated CMs, we found that α7β1D preserved mitochondrial membrane potential during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury via inhibition of mitochondrial Ca2+ overload but did not alter H/R effects on oxidative stress. Therefore, we assessed Ca2+ handling proteins in the CM and found that β1D integrin colocalized with ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) in CM T-tubules, complexed with RyR2 in human and rat heart, and specifically bound to RyR2 amino acids 165–175. Integrins stabilized the RyR2 interdomain interaction, and this stabilization required integrin receptor binding to its ECM ligand. These data suggest that α7β1D integrin modifies Ca2+ regulatory pathways and offers a means to protect the myocardium from ischemic injury.
Hideshi Okada, N. Chin Lai, Yoshitaka Kawaraguchi, Peter Liao, Jeffrey Copps, Yasuo Sugano, Sunaho Okada-Maeda, Indroneal Banerjee, Jan M. Schilling, Alexandre R. Gingras, Elizabeth K. Asfaw, Jorge Suarez, Seok-Min Kang, Guy A. Perkins, Carol G. Au, Sharon Israeli-Rosenberg, Ana Maria Manso, Zheng Liu, Derek J. Milner, Stephen J. Kaufman, Hemal H. Patel, David M. Roth, H. Kirk Hammond, Susan S. Taylor, Wolfgang H. Dillmann, Joshua I. Goldhaber, Robert S. Ross
Improvements in metabolite-profiling techniques are providing increased breadth of coverage of the human metabolome and may highlight biomarkers and pathways in common diseases such as diabetes. Using a metabolomics platform that analyzes intermediary organic acids, purines, pyrimidines, and other compounds, we performed a nested case-control study of 188 individuals who developed diabetes and 188 propensity-matched controls from 2,422 normoglycemic participants followed for 12 years in the Framingham Heart Study. The metabolite 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) was most strongly associated with the risk of developing diabetes. Individuals with 2-AAA concentrations in the top quartile had greater than a 4-fold risk of developing diabetes. Levels of 2-AAA were not well correlated with other metabolite biomarkers of diabetes, such as branched chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids, suggesting they report on a distinct pathophysiological pathway. In experimental studies, administration of 2-AAA lowered fasting plasma glucose levels in mice fed both standard chow and high-fat diets. Further, 2-AAA treatment enhanced insulin secretion from a pancreatic β cell line as well as murine and human islets. These data highlight a metabolite not previously associated with diabetes risk that is increased up to 12 years before the onset of overt disease. Our findings suggest that 2-AAA is a marker of diabetes risk and a potential modulator of glucose homeostasis in humans.
Thomas J. Wang, Debby Ngo, Nikolaos Psychogios, Andre Dejam, Martin G. Larson, Ramachandran S. Vasan, Anahita Ghorbani, John O’Sullivan, Susan Cheng, Eugene P. Rhee, Sumita Sinha, Elizabeth McCabe, Caroline S. Fox, Christopher J. O’Donnell, Jennifer E. Ho, Jose C. Florez, Martin Magnusson, Kerry A. Pierce, Amanda L. Souza, Yi Yu, Christian Carter, Peter E. Light, Olle Melander, Clary B. Clish, Robert E. Gerszten
Circulating pancreatic glucagon is increased during fasting and maintains glucose balance by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. Glucagon triggering of the cAMP pathway upregulates the gluconeogenic program through the phosphorylation of cAMP response element–binding protein (CREB) and the dephosphorylation of the CREB coactivator CRTC2. Hormonal and nutrient signals are also thought to modulate gluconeogenic gene expression by promoting epigenetic changes that facilitate assembly of the transcriptional machinery. However, the nature of these modifications is unclear. Using mouse models and in vitro assays, we show that histone H3 acetylation at Lys 9 (H3K9Ac) was elevated over gluconeogenic genes and contributed to increased hepatic glucose production during fasting and in diabetes. Dephosphorylation of CRTC2 promoted increased H3K9Ac through recruitment of the lysine acetyltransferase 2B (KAT2B) and WD repeat–containing protein 5 (WDR5), a core subunit of histone methyltransferase (HMT) complexes. KAT2B and WDR5 stimulated the gluconeogenic program through a self-reinforcing cycle, whereby increases in H3K9Ac further potentiated CRTC2 occupancy at CREB binding sites. Depletion of KAT2B or WDR5 decreased gluconeogenic gene expression, consequently breaking the cycle. Administration of a small-molecule KAT2B antagonist lowered circulating blood glucose concentrations in insulin resistance, suggesting that this enzyme may be a useful target for diabetes treatment.
Kim Ravnskjaer, Meghan F. Hogan, Denise Lackey, Laszlo Tora, Sharon Y.R. Dent, Jerrold Olefsky, Marc Montminy
Aberrant regulation of the erythroblastosis oncogene B (ErbB) family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and their ligands is common in human cancers. ErbB3 is required in luminal mammary epithelial cells (MECs) for growth and survival. Since breast cancer phenotypes may reflect biological traits of the MECs from which they originate, we tested the hypothesis that ErbB3 drives luminal breast cancer growth. We found higher
Meghan M. Morrison, Katherine Hutchinson, Michelle M. Williams, Jamie C. Stanford, Justin M. Balko, Christian Young, Maria G. Kuba, Violeta Sánchez, Andrew J. Williams, Donna J. Hicks, Carlos L. Arteaga, Aleix Prat, Charles M. Perou, H. Shelton Earp, Suleiman Massarweh, Rebecca S. Cook
Escape of prostate cancer (PCa) cells from ionizing radiation–induced (IR-induced) killing leads to disease progression and cancer relapse. The influence of sphingolipids, such as ceramide and its metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate, on signal transduction pathways under cell stress is important to survival adaptation responses. In this study, we demonstrate that ceramide-deacylating enzyme acid ceramidase (AC) was preferentially upregulated in irradiated PCa cells. Radiation-induced AC gene transactivation by activator protein 1 (AP-1) binding on the proximal promoter was sensitive to inhibition of de novo ceramide biosynthesis, as demonstrated by promoter reporter and ChIP-qPCR analyses. Our data indicate that a protective feedback mechanism mitigates the apoptotic effect of IR-induced ceramide generation. We found that deregulation of c-Jun induced marked radiosensitization in vivo and in vitro, which was rescued by ectopic AC overexpression. AC overexpression in PCa clonogens that survived a fractionated 80-Gy IR course was associated with increased radioresistance and proliferation, suggesting a role for AC in radiotherapy failure and relapse. Immunohistochemical analysis of human PCa tissues revealed higher levels of AC after radiotherapy failure than those in therapy-naive PCa, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or benign tissues. Addition of an AC inhibitor to an animal model of xenograft irradiation produced radiosensitization and prevention of relapse. These data indicate that AC is a potentially tractable target for adjuvant radiotherapy.
Joseph C. Cheng, Aiping Bai, Thomas H. Beckham, S. Tucker Marrison, Caroline L. Yount, Katherine Young, Ping Lu, Anne M. Bartlett, Bill X. Wu, Barry J. Keane, Kent E. Armeson, David T. Marshall, Thomas E. Keane, Michael T. Smith, E. Ellen Jones, Richard R. Drake Jr., Alicja Bielawska, James S. Norris, Xiang Liu
Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition, for which there is still no effective therapy. Acute ischemic stroke is associated with high concentrations of glutamate in the blood and interstitial brain fluid. The inability of the tissue to retain glutamate within the cells of the brain ultimately provokes neuronal death. Increased concentrations of interstitial glutamate exert further excitotoxic effects on healthy tissue surrounding the infarct zone. We developed a strategy based on peritoneal dialysis to reduce blood glutamate levels, thereby accelerating brain-to-blood glutamate clearance. In a rat model of stroke, this simple procedure reduced the transient increase in glutamate, consequently decreasing the size of the infarct area. Functional magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that the rescued brain tissue remained functional. Moreover, in patients with kidney failure, peritoneal dialysis significantly decreased glutamate concentrations. Our results suggest that peritoneal dialysis may represent a simple and effective intervention for human stroke patients.
María del Carmen Godino, Victor G. Romera, José Antonio Sánchez-Tomero, Jesus Pacheco, Santiago Canals, Juan Lerma, José Vivancos, María Angeles Moro, Magdalena Torres, Ignacio Lizasoain, José Sánchez-Prieto
The epidermis, the outer layer of the skin, forms a physical and antimicrobial shield to protect the body from environmental threats. Skin injury severely compromises the epidermal barrier and requires immediate repair. Dendritic epidermal T cells (DETC) reside in the murine epidermis where they sense skin injury and serve as regulators and orchestrators of immune responses. Here, we determined that TCR stimulation and skin injury induces IL-17A production by a subset of DETC. This subset of IL-17A–producing DETC was distinct from IFN-γ producers, despite similar surface marker profiles. Functionally, blocking IL-17A or genetic deletion of IL-17A resulted in delayed wound closure in animals. Skin organ cultures from
Amanda S. MacLeod, Saskia Hemmers, Olivia Garijo, Marianne Chabod, Kerri Mowen, Deborah A. Witherden, Wendy L. Havran
Progression of premalignant lesions is restrained by oncogene-induced senescence. Oncogenic
Kwan-Hyuck Baek, Dongha Bhang, Alexander Zaslavsky, Liang-Chuan Wang, Anil Vachani, Carla F. Kim, Steven M. Albelda, Gerard I. Evan, Sandra Ryeom
Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) originate in stratified epithelia, with a small subset becoming metastatic. Epithelial stem cells are targets for driver mutations that give rise to SCCs, but it is unknown whether they contribute to oncogenic multipotency and metastasis. We developed a mouse model of SCC by targeting two frequent genetic mutations in human SCCs, oncogene
Ruth A. White, Jill M. Neiman, Anand Reddi, Gangwen Han, Stanca Birlea, Doyel Mitra, Laikuan Dionne, Pam Fernandez, Kazutoshi Murao, Li Bian, Stephen B. Keysar, Nathaniel B. Goldstein, Ningjing Song, Sophia Bornstein, Zheyi Han, Xian Lu, Joshua Wisell, Fulun Li, John Song, Shi-Long Lu, Antonio Jimeno, Dennis R. Roop, Xiao-Jing Wang
Recent studies described the experimental adaptation of influenza H5 HAs that confers respiratory droplet transmission (rdt) to influenza virus in ferrets. Acquisition of the ability to transmit via aerosol may lead to the development of a highly pathogenic pandemic H5 virus. Vaccines are predicted to play an important role in H5N1 control should the virus become readily transmissible between humans. We obtained PBMCs from patients who received an A/Vietnam/1203/2004 H5N1 subunit vaccine. Human hybridomas were then generated and characterized. We identified antibodies that bound the HA head domain and recognized both WT and rdt H5 HAs. We used a combination of structural techniques to define a mechanism of antibody recognition of an H5 HA receptor–binding site that neutralized H5N1 influenza viruses and pseudoviruses carrying the HA rdt variants that have mutations near the receptor-binding site. Incorporation or retention of this critical antigenic site should be considered in the design of novel H5 HA immunogens to protect against mammalian-adapted H5N1 mutants.
Natalie J. Thornburg, David P. Nannemann, David L. Blum, Jessica A. Belser, Terrence M. Tumpey, Shyam Deshpande, Gloria A. Fritz, Gopal Sapparapu, Jens C. Krause, Jeong Hyun Lee, Andrew B. Ward, David E. Lee, Sheng Li, Katie L. Winarski, Benjamin W. Spiller, Jens Meiler, James E. Crowe Jr.
The activating receptor NK cell group 2 member D (NKG2D) mediates antitumor immunity in experimental animal models. However, whether NKG2D ligands contribute to tumor suppression or progression clinically remains controversial. Here, we have described 2 novel lines of “humanized” bi-transgenic (bi-Tg) mice in which native human NKG2D ligand MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B (MICB) or the engineered membrane-restricted MICB (MICB.A2) was expressed in the prostate of the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model of spontaneous carcinogenesis. Bi-Tg TRAMP/MICB mice exhibited a markedly increased incidence of progressed carcinomas and metastasis, whereas TRAMP/MICB.A2 mice enjoyed long-term tumor-free survival conferred by sustained NKG2D-mediated antitumor immunity. Mechanistically, we found that cancer progression in TRAMP/MICB mice was associated with loss of the peripheral NK cell pool owing to high serum levels of tumor-derived soluble MICB (sMICB). Prostate cancer patients also displayed reduction of peripheral NK cells and high sMIC levels. Our study has not only provided direct evidence in “humanized” mouse models that soluble and membrane-restricted NKG2D ligands pose opposite impacts on cancer progression, but also uncovered a mechanism of sMIC-induced impairment of NK cell antitumor immunity. Our findings suggest that the impact of soluble NKG2D ligands should be considered in NK cell–based cancer immunotherapy and that our unique mouse models should be valuable for therapy optimization.
Gang Liu, Shengjun Lu, Xuanjun Wang, Stephanie T. Page, Celestia S. Higano, Stephen R. Plymate, Norman M. Greenberg, Shaoli Sun, Zihai Li, Jennifer D. Wu
Ferritin plays a central role in iron metabolism and is made of 24 subunits of 2 types: heavy chain and light chain. The ferritin heavy chain (FtH) has ferroxidase activity that is required for iron incorporation and limiting toxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of FtH in acute kidney injury (AKI) and renal iron handling by using proximal tubule–specific
Abolfazl Zarjou, Subhashini Bolisetty, Reny Joseph, Amie Traylor, Eugene O. Apostolov, Paolo Arosio, Jozsef Balla, Jill Verlander, Deepak Darshan, Lukas C. Kuhn, Anupam Agarwal
High-throughput genomic technologies have identified biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer. Comprehensive functional validation studies of the biological and clinical implications of these biomarkers are needed to advance them toward clinical use. Amplification of chromosomal region 5q31–5q35.3 has been used to predict poor prognosis in patients with advanced stage, high-grade serous ovarian cancer. In this study, we further dissected this large amplicon and identified the overexpression of FGF18 as an independent predictive marker for poor clinical outcome in this patient population. Using cell culture and xenograft models, we show that FGF18 signaling promoted tumor progression by modulating the ovarian tumor aggressiveness and microenvironment. FGF18 controlled migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity of ovarian cancer cells through NF-κB activation, which increased the production of oncogenic cytokines and chemokines. This resulted in a tumor microenvironment characterized by enhanced angiogenesis and augmented tumor-associated macrophage infiltration and M2 polarization. Tumors from ovarian cancer patients had increased FGF18 expression levels with microvessel density and M2 macrophage infiltration, confirming our in vitro results. These findings demonstrate that FGF18 is important for a subset of ovarian cancers and may serve as a therapeutic target.
Wei Wei, Samuel C. Mok, Esther Oliva, Sung-hoon Kim, Gayatry Mohapatra, Michael J. Birrer
An acquired somatic mutation at codon 816 in the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase is associated with poor prognosis in patients with systemic mastocytosis and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Treatment of leukemic cells bearing this mutation with an allosteric inhibitor of p21–activated kinase (Pak) or its genetic inactivation results in growth repression due to enhanced apoptosis. Inhibition of the upstream effector Rac abrogates the oncogene-induced growth and activity of Pak. Although both Rac1 and Rac2 are constitutively activated via the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Vav1, loss of Rac1 or Rac2 alone moderately corrected the growth of KIT-bearing leukemic cells, whereas the combined loss resulted in 75% growth repression. In vivo, the inhibition of Vav or Rac or Pak delayed the onset of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and corrected the associated pathology in mice. To assess the role of Rac GEFs in oncogene-induced transformation, we used an inhibitor of Rac, EHop-016, which specifically targets Vav1 and found that EHop-016 was a potent inhibitor of human and murine leukemic cell growth. These studies identify Pak and Rac GTPases, including Vav1, as potential therapeutic targets in MPN and AML involving an oncogenic form of KIT.
Holly Martin, Raghuveer Singh Mali, Peilin Ma, Anindya Chatterjee, Baskar Ramdas, Emily Sims, Veerendra Munugalavadla, Joydeep Ghosh, Ray R. Mattingly, Valeria Visconte, Ramon V. Tiu, Cornelis P. Vlaar, Suranganie Dharmawardhane, Reuben Kapur
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) comprise immature myeloid populations produced in diverse pathologies, including neoplasia. Because MDSCs can impair antitumor immunity, these cells have emerged as a significant barrier to cancer therapy. Although much research has focused on how MDSCs promote tumor progression, it remains unclear how MDSCs develop and why the MDSC response is heavily granulocytic. Given that MDSCs are a manifestation of aberrant myelopoiesis, we hypothesized that MDSCs arise from perturbations in the regulation of interferon regulatory factor–8 (IRF-8), an integral transcriptional component of myeloid differentiation and lineage commitment. Overall, we demonstrated that (a)
Jeremy D. Waight, Colleen Netherby, Mary L. Hensen, Austin Miller, Qiang Hu, Song Liu, Paul N. Bogner, Matthew R. Farren, Kelvin P. Lee, Kebin Liu, Scott I. Abrams
Naive CD8+ T cells rely upon oxidation of fatty acids as a primary source of energy. After antigen encounter, T cells shift to a glycolytic metabolism to sustain effector function. It is unclear, however, whether changes in glucose metabolism ultimately influence the ability of activated T cells to become long-lived memory cells. We used a fluorescent glucose analog, 2-NBDG, to quantify glucose uptake in activated CD8+ T cells. We found that cells exhibiting limited glucose incorporation had a molecular profile characteristic of memory precursor cells and an increased capacity to enter the memory pool compared with cells taking up high amounts of glucose. Accordingly, enforcing glycolytic metabolism by overexpressing the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase-1 severely impaired the ability of CD8+ T cells to form long-term memory. Conversely, activation of CD8+ T cells in the presence of an inhibitor of glycolysis, 2-deoxyglucose, enhanced the generation of memory cells and antitumor functionality. Our data indicate that augmenting glycolytic flux drives CD8+ T cells toward a terminally differentiated state, while its inhibition preserves the formation of long-lived memory CD8+ T cells. These results have important implications for improving the efficacy of T cell–based therapies against chronic infectious diseases and cancer.
Madhusudhanan Sukumar, Jie Liu, Yun Ji, Murugan Subramanian, Joseph G. Crompton, Zhiya Yu, Rahul Roychoudhuri, Douglas C. Palmer, Pawel Muranski, Edward D. Karoly, Robert P. Mohney, Christopher A. Klebanoff, Ashish Lal, Toren Finkel, Nicholas P. Restifo, Luca Gattinoni
Dysfunctional telomeres limit cellular proliferative capacity by activating the p53-p21– and p16INK4a-Rb–dependent DNA damage responses (DDRs). The p16INK4a tumor suppressor accumulates in aging tissues, is a biomarker for cellular senescence, and limits stem cell function in vivo. While the activation of a p53-dependent DDR by dysfunctional telomeres has been well documented in human cells and mouse models, the role for p16INK4a in response to telomere dysfunction remains unclear. Here, we generated protection of telomeres 1b
Yang Wang, Norman Sharpless, Sandy Chang
P311 is an 8-kDa intracellular protein that is highly conserved across species and is expressed in the nervous system as well as in vascular and visceral smooth muscle cells.
Kameswara Rao Badri, Ming Yue, Oscar A. Carretero, Sree Latha Aramgam, Jun Cao, Stephen Sharkady, Gene H. Kim, Gregory A. Taylor, Kenneth L. Byron, Lucia Schuger
Recent genome-wide association studies demonstrated that common variants of solute carrier family 30 member 8 gene (
Motoyuki Tamaki, Yoshio Fujitani, Akemi Hara, Toyoyoshi Uchida, Yoshifumi Tamura, Kageumi Takeno, Minako Kawaguchi, Takahiro Watanabe, Takeshi Ogihara, Ayako Fukunaka, Tomoaki Shimizu, Tomoya Mita, Akio Kanazawa, Mica O. Imaizumi, Takaya Abe, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Shintaro Hojyo, Toshiyuki Fukada, Takeshi Kawauchi, Shinya Nagamatsu, Toshio Hirano, Ryuzo Kawamori, Hirotaka Watada
Mutations in the gene centrosomal protein 290 kDa (
Theodore G. Drivas, Erika L.F. Holzbaur, Jean Bennett
Ulrich Matt, Omar Sharif, Rui Martins, Tanja Furtner, Lorene Langeberg, Riem Gawish, Immanuel Elbau, Ana Zivkovic, Karin Lakovits, Olga Oskolkova, Bianca Doninger, Andreas Vychytil, Thomas Perkmann, Gernot Schabbauer, Christoph J. Binder, Valery N. Bochkov, John D. Scott, Sylvia Knapp
Abdul Qader Omer Al-aidaroos, Hiu Fung Yuen, Ke Guo, Shu Dong Zhang, Tae-Hoon Chung, Wee Joo Chng, Qi Zeng
Yan Zhou, Matthew J. Gormley, Nathan M. Hunkapiller, Mirhan Kapidzic, Yana Stolyarov, Victoria Feng, Masakazu Nishida, Penelope M. Drake, Katherine Bianco, Fei Wang, Michael T. McMaster, Susan J. Fisher