1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D3) directly suppresses the secretion and synthesis of PTH in vivo and in cell culture. This compound has been used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with renal failure, but in some patients prolonged treatment with 1,25-(OH)2D3 results in hypercalcemia. An analogue of 1,25-(OH)2D3 with little or no calcemic activity, 22-oxacalcitriol (OCT), was recently developed. We confirmed this lack of calcemic activity by acute and chronic administration to normal rats. A single intraperitoneal injection of vehicle (propylene glycol), OCT, or 1,25-(OH)2D3 (1.0 micrograms/rat) increased calcium by 0.32, 0.30, and 1.40 mg/dl, respectively. When rats were given daily injections of vehicle or 0.5 micrograms of either 1,25-(OH)2D3 or OCT for 4 d, calcium did not change in the rats receiving vehicle or OCT, but increased from 8.4 to 11.4 mg/dl in the rats treated with 1,25-(OH)2D3. In primary cultures of bovine parathyroid cells, 10 nM OCT was as active as 10 nM 1,25-(OH)2D3, suppressing PTH release by 33%. This suppression is due, at least in part, to blocking of transcription of the PTH gene. Using a probe prepared by random prime labeling of an Msp I fragment of plasmid PTHm122, we found that a single 40-ng dose of OCT or 1,25-(OH)2D3 depressed PTH mRNA levels by 70-80% by 48 h when compared with vehicle. Thus, OCT is a very effective suppressor of PTH secretion with virtually no calcemic activity. This analogue may be a valuable tool for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism.
A J Brown, C R Ritter, J L Finch, J Morrissey, K J Martin, E Murayama, Y Nishii, E Slatopolsky
The production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and IL-1 beta by the monocytic cell line THP-1, productively infected with HIV-1, was investigated using specific RIA and Northern blot analysis. HIV-infected cells, like uninfected cells, did not constitutively produce any detectable amounts of protein or mRNA for TNF alpha or IL-1 beta. After stimulation with LPS or a combination of LPS plus IFN-gamma, TNF alpha and IL-1 beta were detected in tissue culture supernatants and cell lysates and transcripts for both cytokines were seen on Northern blots. No significant difference in production of these two cytokines was observed between uninfected and chronically infected cells. Acutely HIV-infected cells, however, showed phenotypic changes compatible with maturation and an increase in TNF alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA production, and released significantly higher levels of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta compared with chronically infected or uninfected cells. Furthermore, LPS stimulation of HIV-infected cells increased virus production. These results suggest that HIV-infected monocytic cells may produce increased amounts of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta in response to stimuli that could be present in vivo.
J M Molina, D T Scadden, R Byrn, C A Dinarello, J E Groopman
High levels of an acid-labile IFN-alpha have been demonstrated in the sera of patients with symptomatic HIV infection. IFNs have been shown to enhance the cytotoxic and antiproliferative actions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is a potent mediator of inflammation and sepsis. We show that the acid-labile IFN-alpha present in AIDS sera can induce TNF synthesis and sensitize blood monocytes (BM) to endotoxin stimulation resulting in further synthesis of TNF in vitro. TNF production by BM from patients with HIV infections and normal controls was measured by a cytotoxicity assay on L929 cells using human TNF alpha as a standard. BM from AIDS patients spontaneously produce high levels of TNF and are hypersensitive to endotoxin stimulation, resulting in enhanced synthesis of TNF. In determining the mechanism involved, we demonstrated that treatment of normal BM with AIDS sera results in induction of TNF. Neutralization of the acid-labile IFN-alpha in AIDS sera with polyclonal anti-IFN-alpha antibodies results in diminution of TNF induction. In addition, pretreatment of normal BM with AIDS sera, IFN-alpha, or IFN-gamma renders the cells hypersensitive to endotoxin. Consequently, activation of the TNF system by the acid-labile IFN-alpha contributes to some of the physiological disturbances, such as the wasting syndrome, and to the pathophysiology of sepsis in AIDS patients.
A S Lau, J F Livesey
Because we found in previous work that a high fraction of antibodies exhibiting various specificities bound to glutamic acid 50-tyrosine50 homopolymer (GT) and expressed pGAT cross-reactive idiotype (IdX), we studied the activation of clones producing multireactive antibodies in 1-mo-old MRL/lpr and C3H/HeJ mice bearing VHJ haplotype. The activation of such clones was studied after mice were immunized with GT in CFA, HP20 (an anti-Id MAb carrying the internal image of GT in the D region), and a synthetic peptide corresponding to the D segment of HP20. Our results indicate that immunized mice produced both GT- and self-reactive antibodies. Study of the immunochemical properties of MAb showed that they exhibit multispecific properties and bind with similar-affinity constants to GT or self-antigens such as DNA, Smith antigen (Sm), and IgG2a. An important fraction of antibodies obtained from MRL/lpr mice immunized with HP20 expressed pGAT IdX and some of these antibodies share IdX expressed on anti-DNA, Sm, and rheumatoid factor (RFs) antibodies. The hybridomas producing multispecific autoantibodies use heavy-chain- (VH) and light-chain-variable region (VK) genes from various V gene families, suggesting that they do not derive from the pool of GAT precursors. Sequencing of VH and VK genes of two antibodies show that they can use closely related VHJ558, unmutated VK1, or different VK genes than those used by anti-GT antibodies. Our data demonstrate that clones producing antibodies binding to GT and self-antigens with similar-affinity constants can be activated by foreign or anti-Id antibodies carrying the internal image of the antigen or even by a synthetic peptide corresponding to the D segment of anti-Id antibodies.
N C Bailey, V Fidanza, R Mayer, G Mazza, M Fougereau, C Bona
The role of platelet glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) in mediating the effects of human platelets on oxidant-induced edema in the isolated perfused rabbit lung was investigated using dehydroepiandrosterone, a specific steroidal inhibitor of G-6-PD. Xanthine oxidase (0.003 and 0.012 U/ml) caused lung edema that was attenuated by coinfusion of washed human platelets. Platelets that were incubated with DEA to inhibit G-6-PD activity augmented xanthine oxidase-induced lung edema and pulmonary hypertension at both doses of xanthine oxidase. Infusion of papaverine to maintain stable pulmonary artery (PA) pressures, incubation of G-6-PD-inhibited platelets with acetylsalicylate, or infusion of a thromboxane-prostaglandin endoperoxide receptor site antagonist, SQ 29548, into the lung perfusate prevented augmentation of lung edema and the PA pressor response by G-6-PD-inhibited platelets. It was concluded that antioxidant-intact platelets attenuate oxidant-induced lung edema by preventing increased membrane permeability, and that G-6-PD-inhibited platelets augment lung edema through hydrostatic mechanisms mediated by release of platelet cyclooxygenase products.
J E Heffner, J A Cook, P V Halushka
Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE) specifically adhere to vascular endothelium in vivo and to human endothelial cells, some human melanoma cell lines, and human monocytes in vitro. The tissue cell receptor for a ligand on the surface of the infected erythrocytes is an Mr 88,000 glycoprotein (GP88) recognized by the MAb OKM5, which also blocks cytoadherence of IE. Isolated, affinity-purified GP88 (CD36) competitively blocks cytoadherence and when absorbed to plastic surfaces, specifically binds P. falciparum IE. Additionally, monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to GP88 block cytoadherence to both target cells and immobilized GP88. Binding to GP88 by IE is unaffected by the absence of calcium or the absence of thrombospondin, a putative mediator for cytoadherence of P. falciparum IE. Thus, GP88 (CD36), which has been demonstrated to be the same as platelet glycoprotein IV, interacts directly with P. falciparum IE, presumably via a parasite-induced ligand exposed on the surface of the infected erythrocytes. CD36 is shown to be present on brain endothelium in both individuals without malaria and individuals with cerebral malaria. This would suggest that factors other than just cerebral sequestration of IE play an initiating role in the genesis of cerebral malaria.
J W Barnwell, A S Asch, R L Nachman, M Yamaya, M Aikawa, P Ingravallo
Because metabolic acids stimulate bone resorption in vitro and in vivo, we focused on the cellular events produced by acidosis that might be associated with stimulation of bone remodeling. To this end, we exposed isolated chicken osteoclasts to a metabolic (butyric) acid and observed a fall in both intracellular pH and cytosolic calcium [( Ca2+]i). These phenomena were recapitulated when bone resorptive cells, alkalinized by HCO3 loading, were transferred to a bicarbonate-free environment. The acid-induced decline in osteoclast [Ca2+]i was blocked by either NaCN or Na3VO4, in a Na+-independent fashion, despite the failure of each inhibitor to alter stimulated intracellular acidification. Moreover, K+-induced membrane depolarization also reduced cytosolic calcium in a manner additive to the effect of protons. These findings suggest that osteoclasts adherent to bone lack functional voltage-operated Ca2+ channels, and they reduced [Ca2+]i in response to protons via a membrane residing Ca-ATPase. Most importantly, acidosis enhances formation of podosomes, the contact areas of the osteoclast clear zone, indicating increased adhesion to substrate, an early step in bone resorption. Thus, extracellular acidification of osteoclasts leads to decrements in intracellular pH and calcium, and appears to promote cell-matrix attachment.
A Teti, H C Blair, P Schlesinger, M Grano, A Zambonin-Zallone, A J Kahn, S L Teitelbaum, K A Hruska
To determine whether recombinant enkephalinase (neutral endopeptidase, EC 220.127.116.11) prevents cough induced by exogenously applied and endogenously released neuropeptides, we measured cough responses to aerosolized solutions of substance P or of capsaicin for 2 min in random-source guinea pigs before or after exposing them to aerosolized recombinant human enkephalinase. Substance P (10(-16) M) increased coughing compared with its vehicle. Enkephalinase (120 micrograms) inhibited cough induced by subsequent exposure to substance P compared with the response to substance P alone, but after further exposure to the enkephalinase inhibitor leucine-thiorphan (10(-5) M), substance P increased cough significantly. Similar results were obtained for capsaicin-induced cough. In pathogen-free guinea pigs, after they inhaled inactive recombinant enkephalinase (33 micrograms), capsaicin (10(-13) M) increased cough significantly. In contrast, after they inhaled active recombinant enkephalinase (33 micrograms), capsaicin increased cough only slightly. These results suggest that aerosolized enkephalinase reaches the sites of release or actions of endogenous neuropeptides and, by degrading them, prevents cough induced by their release. Furthermore, these studies suggest that recombinant enkephalinase might be useful in the treatment of cough and other symptoms of diseases involving peptides cleaved by this enzyme.
H Kohrogi, J A Nadel, B Malfroy, C Gorman, R Bridenbaugh, J S Patton, D B Borson
Factor XIII A subunit (FXIIIA) is found in plasma, platelets, and monocytes. The hemopoietic contributions to FXIIIA in these components were studied in patients transplanted with marrows from donors with different FXIIIA phenotypes. In three patients with successful engraftment (by DNA genotyping, red cell phenotyping, and cytogenetic studies) platelet and monocyte FXIIIA changed to donor phenotypes with hematologic recovery. Thus, FXIIIA in platelets and monocytes is synthesized de novo and/or from their progenitor cells. Plasma FXIIIA phenotype change after transplantation was more complex. Patient I changed from phenotype 1-1 (one electrophoretically fast band) to 1-2 (three bands) in 115 d; patients 2 and 3 did not change completely from phenotype 1-2 to 1-1 in up to 458 d, but did show enrichment of the fastest band. Thus, while there is a definite contribution of donor hemopoiesis to plasma FXIIIA, another source of recipient FXIIIA appears to be present to delay or prevent the phenotype change.
M C Poon, J A Russell, S Low, G D Sinclair, A R Jones, W Blahey, B A Ruether, D I Hoar
Plasmin resulted in increased neutrophil adherence to cultured ovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner (10(-12)-10(-7) M). The adherence response increased fivefold above baseline within 60 min after addition of plasmin (10(-8) M) and the response persisted up to 30 min after removal of plasmin. The neutrophil adherence was mediated by the action of plasmin on neutrophils rather than endothelial cells. The response was the result of an increase in functional activity of CD18 neutrophil cell surface adhesive glycoprotein. Neutrophil adherence was inhibited by pretreatment of neutrophils with MAbs IB4 and 60.3 targeted against the beta chain of the CD18, whereas control isotypic MAb 60.5 against HLA class I antigen had no effect. The plasmin catalytic site was not involved in the response. Lys-plasminogen had reduced adherence-promoting activity relative to plasmin, whereas glu-plasminogen had no effect. Elastase-derived plasminogen fragments corresponding to kringle 1+2+3 and kringle 4 (both of which contained the lysine-binding sites) possessed neutrophil adherence-promoting activities similar to plasmin, whereas miniplasminogen (which contains the catalytic site but no lysine-binding sites) had minimal effect, indicating the involvement of lysine-binding sites in the response. Blocking lysine-binding sites of plasmin and elastase-derived plasminogen fragments with tranexamic acid (IC50 of 5 mM) inhibited neutrophil adherence. A monospecific polyclonal antibody against the lysine-binding sites also reduced the neutrophil adherence-promoting activity of plasmin. The results indicate that plasmin induces neutrophil adherence to the endothelium and that the effect is mediated by lysine-binding sites on plasmin.
S K Lo, T J Ryan, N Gilboa, L Lai, A B Malik
To characterize the effects of estrogen treatment on the metabolism of LDL we studied six males with metastatic prostatic carcinoma before and during the initiation of therapy; a repeated study was performed in five participants after 3-6 mo of treatment. The fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of autologous 125I-LDL was calculated both from elimination curves of plasma radioactivity and from urine/plasma (U/P) radioactivity ratios. Within 1-2 d of onset of estrogen therapy a more rapid decay of plasma radioactivity occurred, and FCR measured from U/P ratios increased by 20%. Concomitantly, LDL cholesterol levels decreased by 16%. After 3-6 mo of treatment FCR determined by both techniques was almost doubled, and LDL cholesterol was reduced by 34%. This occurred despite a 29% increase in the calculated synthesis rate of LDL. Tissue culture studies demonstrated that the receptor affinity of LDL isolated from patients on long-term estrogen therapy was reduced. We conclude that a profound increase in LDL catabolism is induced through administration of pharmacological doses of estrogen in males, and hypothesize that this is the consequence of an increased expression of hepatic LDL receptors. This enhanced catabolism of LDL leaves LDL particles in plasma with lower affinity for the LDL receptor.
M Eriksson, L Berglund, M Rudling, P Henriksson, B Angelin
To assess if and by which mechanisms pharmacological estrogen treatment induces gallstone disease, we examined patients with recently diagnosed prostatic cancer randomly allocated to estrogen therapy (n = 37) or orchidectomy (n = 35). According to gallbladder ultrasonography, after 1 yr new gallstones had developed in 5 of 28 estrogen-treated patients, compared with 0 of 26 orchidectomized patients (P = 0.03). Estrogen therapy for 3 mo increased the relative concentration of cholesterol and cholesterol saturation of bile by approximately 30% (n = 10). Serum LDL cholesterol was reduced by approximately 40%, and its relative change related inversely to that of bile cholesterol (Rs = -0.77). There were no changes in biliary or serum lipids after orchidectomy (n = 9). Secretion rates of biliary lipids were measured with a duodenal perfusion technique. Patients on chronic estrogen therapy (n = 5) had approximately 40% higher biliary excretion rates of cholesterol than age-matched controls (n = 7). Phospholipid secretion was also higher, but no difference in bile acid secretion was found. We conclude that an increased hepatic secretion of cholesterol results in increased cholesterol saturation of bile and an enhanced rate of gallstone formation during estrogen treatment. The changes in bile cholesterol seem to be related to the induced changes in serum lipoprotein metabolism.
P Henriksson, K Einarsson, A Eriksson, U Kelter, B Angelin
To examine mechanisms whereby the abundance of functional Ca channels may be regulated in excitable tissue, Ca channel number was estimated by binding of the dihydropyridine (DHP) antagonist 3H (+)PN200-110 to monolayers of intact myocytes from chick embryo ventricle. Beta adrenergic receptor properties were studied in cultured myocytes using [3H]CGP12177, an antagonist ligand. Physiological correlates for alterations in DHP binding site number included 45Ca uptake and contractile response to (+)BAYk 8644, a specific L-type Ca channel activator. All binding and physiological determinations were performed in similar intact cell preparations under identical conditions. 4-h exposure to 1 microM isoproterenol reduced cell surface beta-adrenergic receptor number from 44 +/- 3 to 17 +/- 2 fmol/mg (P less than 0.05); DHP binding sites declined in number from 113 +/- 25 to 73 +/- 30 fmol/mg (P less than 0.03). When protein kinase A was activated by a non-receptor-dependent mechanism, DHP binding declined similarly to 68% of control. Exposure to diltiazem, a Ca channel antagonist, for 18-24 h had no effect on number of DHP binding sites. After 4-h isoproterenol exposure, 45Ca uptake stimulated by BAYk 8644 declined from 3.3 +/- 0.2 nmol/mg to 2.9 +/- 0.3 nmol/mg (P less than 0.01) and BAYk 8644-stimulated increase in amplitude of contraction declined from 168 +/- 7 to 134 +/- 11% (P = 0.02). Thus, elevation of [cAMP] in myocytes is associated with a time-dependent decline in Ca channel abundance as estimated by DHP binding and a decline in physiological responses that are in part dependent on abundance of Ca channels. Binding of a directly acting Ca channel antagonist for 18-24 h does not modulate the number of DHP binding sites.
J D Marsh
We have studied factor IXa binding and factor X activation with normal platelets and with platelets obtained from a patient with a bleeding disorder and an isolated deficiency of platelet procoagulant activity termed Scott syndrome. In the absence of factor VIIIa and factor X, normal, thrombin-treated platelets exposed 560 +/- 35 sites for factor IXa with a Kd of 2.75 +/- 0.27 mM, compared with 461 +/- 60 sites per patient platelet with Kd of 3.2 +/- 0.33 nM. The addition of factor VIIIa and factor X resulted in a decrease in the Kd for normal platelets to 0.68 nM but had no effect on the Kd for patient platelets. The concentrations of factor IXa required for half-maximal rates of factor X activation for normal (0.52 nM) and patient platelets (2.5 nM) were similar to those determined from equilibrium binding studies. Kinetic parameters for factor X activation by factor IXa showed that the Km and Kcat were identical for normal and patient platelets in the absence of factor VIIIa. In the presence of factor VIIIa, and kcat for patient platelets (163 min-1) was only 33% of that for normal platelets (491 min-1): This result can be explained by the difference in affinity for factor IXa between normal and patient platelets in the presence of factor VIIIa, suggesting impaired factor VIIIa binding to Scott syndrome platelets.
S S Ahmad, R Rawala-Sheikh, B Ashby, P N Walsh
Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) mRNA was increased in two of eight neuroblastomas and in eight of eight pheochromocytomas, tumors of the adrenal medulla that occur in childhood and adulthood, respectively. RNA encoding the type I IGF receptor, the receptor thought to mediate the mitogenic effects of IGF-I and IGF-II, also was uniformly expressed in these cells. To assess the role of IGF-II in the growth of these tumor cells, we have used the SK-N-AS cultured neuroblastoma cell line, which can be continuously propagated in mitogen-free medium, as a model system. Our results strongly suggest that IGF-II, synthesized by SK-N-AS cells and acting through type I IGF receptors, contributes to the autonomous growth of this tumor cell line. (a) SK-N-AS cells synthesized large amounts of IGF-II RNA and secreted greater than 50 ng/ml of IGF-II (as determined by specific radioimmuno- and radioreceptor assays). Little, if any, IGF-I RNA or immunoreactive IGF-I were detected. (b) SK-N-AS cells possess type I IGF receptors. (c) Exogenous IGF-I and IGF-II stimulated DNA synthesis in SK-N-AS cells, and this stimulation was abolished by a blocking antibody to the type I IGF receptor. (d) This anti-receptor antibody also abolished the multiplication of SK-N-AS cells in the absence of added mitogens. We conclude that IGF-II is an autocrine growth factor for SK-N-AS cells and suggest that this mechanism may contribute to the growth of some adrenal medullary tumors.
O M El-Badry, J A Romanus, L J Helman, M J Cooper, M M Rechler, M A Israel
In vivo data on the factors controlling angiotensin II (AII) cell surface binding are conflicting. We studied the specific effects of AII on AII binding in rat mesenteric artery vascular smooth muscle cells in culture. Incubation with unlabeled AII at 21 degrees C resulted in time- and concentration-dependent decreases in AII surface binding at 4 degrees C, with a 30% reduction after exposure to 300 nM AII for 15 min. Reductions in cell surface binding were due to decrements in receptor number rather than changes in binding affinity. Loss of surface receptors was mediated by receptor internalization as maneuvers that blocked ligand internalization (cold temperature and phenylarsine oxide [PAO]) attenuated AII-induced loss of surface receptors. After removal of AII, recovery of surface binding was rapid (t1/2 = 15 min) and was mediated by reinsertion of a preexisting pool of receptors into the surface membrane rather than by new receptor synthesis. To determine the role of receptor cycling on AII-induced surface receptor loss, cells were incubated with the endosomal inhibitor chloroquine during exposure to AII at 21 degrees C. Incubation with AII plus chloroquine resulted in a 70% greater loss of surface binding than after incubation with AII alone. To determine the role of receptor cycling on uptake of ligand, cells were incubated with PAO or endosomal inhibitors during exposure to AII at 4 and 21 degrees C. Compared with buffer these agents did not alter AII uptake at 4 degrees C, but decreased uptake by 12-50% at 21 degrees C. These results indicate that after binding AII receptors cycle and that receptor cycling attenuates AII-induced losses of surface receptors and enhances ligand uptake by providing a continuous source of receptors to the cell surface.
M E Ullian, S L Linas
The localization of LDL receptors in adrenal gland, liver, and intestine was studied using immunohistochemistry. The anti-LDL receptor antibody used was shown to be monospecific and did not react with striated muscle, a tissue which has a very low level of LDL receptors. Similarly, cerebral cortex showed only faint reactivity and that was to an area previously demonstrated to have LDL receptors. Adrenal gland was intensely reactive with the zona fasciculata, having a greater density of receptors than the zona reticularis. In normal liver, LDL receptors were present on the sinusoidal membranes and were sparse in the areas of hepatocyte-to-hepatocyte contact without an obvious portal to central gradient. LDL receptors were present throughout the intestine. In jejunum, staining was most intense at the base of the villus and extended up toward the villus tip. At the base of the villus, the receptor was primarily at the basal lateral membrane, but toward the villus tip, there was appreciable intracellular staining. Staining in crypts was more faint; in duodenum, staining in crypts equaled that in the villus region in intensity. In colon, there was intense staining throughout the epithelial cells. These results provide new information about the cellular and subcellular localization of LDL receptors and raise the interesting possibility that there is a role for LDL-derived cholesterol in new lipoprotein formation.
L G Fong, E Bonney, J C Kosek, A D Cooper
Somatostatin 28 (S-28) is a peptide produced in the intestinal tract which rises in the circulation during nutrient absorption. We tested the hypothesis that S-28 regulates B-cell function by (a) studying the effects on insulin secretion of "physiologic" infusions of S-28 and (b) measuring insulin responses during elevated nutrient-stimulated endogenous S-28 levels. (a) Synthetic S-28 was infused on separate days into six healthy men at rates of 25 and 50 ng/kg per h which mimicked postprandial levels. Subjects were given a bolus of glucose (0.1 g/kg) after 120 min. Insulin responses during S-28 infusions were compared to a control study using a saline infusion in the same individuals. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was inhibited during the infusion of 50 ng/kg per h S-28 when compared to control (P less than 0.05). (b) Insulin secretion during elevations of endogenous S-28 was studied in healthy men who received a bolus of 2.5 g arginine (n = 14) or 25 U of secretin (n = 8) 120 min after swallowing 50 g fat, or, on a separate day, an equivalent volume of water. S-28 levels rose significantly after fat ingestion but did not change after water. Arginine and secretin-stimulated insulin secretion was inhibited following ingestion of fat compared with intake of water (P less than 0.05). Arginine-enhanced glucagon secretion was not changed by fat ingestion. We conclude that elevations in plasma S-28 levels, occurring during the postprandial state, attenuate B-cell secretion and this peptide may be a physiologic modulator of nutrient-stimulated insulin release.
D A D'Alessio, C Sieber, C Beglinger, J W Ensinck
Growth of a variety of human tumor cell lines is inhibited by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in vitro. This mechanism is not well understood. The present experiments identify two separate mechanisms which account for the growth inhibitory activity of IFN-gamma. Cell lines most sensitive to IFN-gamma (inhibited by 10-30 U/ml IFN-gamma in 3 d) were stimulated by IFN-gamma to oxidize tryptophan in media to kynurenine and completely eliminated tryptophan from the culture media after 48-72 h. Addition of L-tryptophan, but not other aromatic amino acids, other essential amino acids, or D-tryptophan, prevented inhibition of cell growth by IFN-gamma. The amount of IFN-gamma required to yield 50% inhibition of cell growth was directly related to the concentration of L-tryptophan in culture media and increased from approximately 3 to 600 U/ml as the concentration of tryptophan in the media was increased from 25 to 1,000 microM. By contrast, inhibition of growth of the cell lines, BT20 and HT29, was not prevented by addition of tryptophan. Inhibition by IFN-gamma (100-300 U/ml after 5-6 d) was, however, completely prevented by addition of two inhibitors of adenosine diphosphate-ribosyl transferase (ADP-RT), 3-aminobenzamide or nicotinamide. Activity of ADP-RT was increased in these cell lines after addition of IFN-gamma. ADP-RT catalyzes the incorporation of the ADP moiety of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) into proteins and causes depletion of intracellular NAD. All tumor cell lines tested had reduced levels of intracellular NAD after treatment with IFN-gamma and loss of NAD preceded inhibition of cell growth by 12-24 h. Inhibitors of IFN-gamma-mediated inhibition of cell growth prevented loss of levels of intracellular NAD. Generation of reactive oxygen species lead to DNA strand breaks which result in activation of ADP-RT. Increased DNA strand breaks were induced in BT20 and HT29 cells but not ME180 and A549 cells after culture with IFN-gamma. The two enzymes known to catalyze the decyclization of tryptophan to kynurenine require superoxide anion for activity. Increased amounts of superoxide anion were released from ME180 and A549 cells after culture with IFN-gamma. Reduced oxygen concentration decreased the ability of IFN-gamma to inhibit tumor cell growth in vitro. Intracellular glutathione has been shown to protect cells against oxidative damage by various agents. Elevation or reduction of intracellular glutathione concentrations lowered or raised sensitivity of cell lines to IFN-gamma, respectively. These data indicate that at least two distinct mechanisms can account for IFN-gamma-madiated inhibition of tumor cell growth. Both mechanisms appear to be sensitive to oxygen tension and to changes in intracellular glutathione concentrations, and both mechanisms lead to loss of intracellular NAD.
T M Aune, S L Pogue
To elucidate the consequences of extrahepatic cholestasis on the structure and function of hepatocytes, we studied the effects of bile duct ligation on the turnover, surface distribution, and functional activity of the canalicular 100-kD bile salt transport protein (cBSTP). Basolateral (blLPM) and canalicular (cLPM) liver plasma membrane vesicles were purified to the same degree from normal and cholestatic rat livers and the membrane bound cBSTP identified and quantitated using polyclonal anti-cBSTP antibodies. Cholestasis of 50 h resulted in an increased release of cBSTP into bile, thereby decreasing its in vivo half-life from 65 to 25 h. Furthermore, a significant portion of cBSTP accumulated at the basolateral surface and in intracellular vesicles of cholestatic hepatocytes. This redistribution of cBSTP was functionally paralleled by decreased and increased electrogenic taurocholate anion transport in cLPM and blLPM vesicles, respectively. These results demonstrate that biliary obstruction causes a reversal of the bile salt secretory polarity of rat hepatocytes. The resulting increase in basolateral (sinusoidal) bile salt efflux might protect hepatocytes from too high an accumulation of toxic bile salts within the cell interior.
G Fricker, L Landmann, P J Meier
Phagocytosis of C3bi- or IgG-opsonized yeast particles in human neutrophils was found to be associated with an increased formation of inositol phosphates and diacylglycerol. Pertussis toxin only marginally affected phagocytosis of IgG- and C3bi-opsonized particles and the associated formation of second messengers. Forskolin, which induced a threefold rise of cellular cAMP, however, markedly inhibited both C3bi- and IgG-mediated phagocytosis as well as the particle-induced formation of inositol phosphates and diacylglycerol. These observations are in contrast to what was found to occur with chemotactic factors and indicate that chemotactic and phagocytic signaling can be regulated independently in human neutrophils. Since C3bi-mediated phagocytosis has been shown to occur at vanishingly low cytosolic free calcium levels, calcium-depleted cells were used to study the importance of the inositol cycle for the engulfment of C3bi-opsonized particles. Despite a total lack of receptor-induced formation of inositol phosphates, a significantly increased accumulation of diacylglycerol accompanied the ingestion of C3bi-opsonized particles. These data show that the engulfment of C3bi-opsonized particles can occur independently of both a calcium transient and an increased inositol phosphate production. However, the observed accumulation of diacylglycerol, not derived from phosphoinositides, suggests that this second messenger play a role in the control of the engulfment process.
M Fällman, D P Lew, O Stendahl, T Andersson
Vanadate has insulin-like activity in vitro and in vivo. To characterize the in vivo mechanism of action of vanadate, we examined meal tolerance, insulin-mediated glucose disposal, in vivo liver and muscle glycogen synthesis, and in vitro glycogen synthase activity in 90% partially pancreatectomized rats. Four groups were studied: group I, sham-operated controls; group II, diabetic rats; group III, diabetic rats treated with vanadate; and group IV, diabetic rats treated with phlorizin. Insulin sensitivity, assessed with the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique in awake, unstressed rats, was reduced by approximately 28% in diabetic rats. Both vanadate and phlorizin treatment completely normalized meal tolerance and insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Muscle glycogen synthesis was reduced by approximately 80% in diabetic rats (P less than 0.01) and was completely restored to normal by vanadate, but not by phlorizin treatment. Glycogen synthase activity was reduced in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats (P less than 0.05) compared with controls and was increased to supranormal levels by vanadate treatment (P less than 0.01). Phlorizin therapy did not reverse the defect in muscle glycogen synthase. These results suggest that (a) the defect in muscle glycogen synthesis is the major determinant of insulin resistance in diabetic rats; (b) both vanadate and phlorizin treatment normalize meal tolerance and insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats; (c) vanadate treatment specifically reverses the defect in muscle glycogen synthesis in diabetic rats. This effect cannot be attributed to the correction of hyperglycemia because phlorizin therapy had no direct influence on the glycogenic pathway.
L Rossetti, M R Lauglin
We examined the effects of acute exposure to cigarette smoke on the airway responses to substance P in anesthetized guinea pigs and on the activity of airway neutral endopeptidase (NEP). After exposure to air or to cigarette smoke we measured the change in total pulmonary resistance (RL) induced by increasing concentrations of aerosolized substance P in the absence or presence of the NEP inhibitor phosphoramidon. In the absence of phosphramidon the bronchoconstrictor responses to substance P were greater in cigarette smoke-exposed guinea pigs than in air-exposed animals. Phosphoramidon did not further potentiate the responses to substance P in smoke-exposed guinea pigs, whereas it did so in air-exposed animals. In the presence of phosphoramidon, bronchoconstrictor responses to substance P in animals exposed to air or to cigarette smoke were not different. Aerosols of SOD delivered before cigarette smoke exposures dramatically reduced smoke-induced hyperresponsiveness to substance P, whereas heat-inactivated SOD had no effect on smoke-induced hyper-responsiveness to substance P. Cigarette smoke solution inhibited NEP activity from tracheal homogenate in a concentration-dependent fashion, an inhibitory effect that was mostly due to the gas phase of the smoke, but not to nicotine. The mild chemical oxidant N-chlorosuccinimide mimicked the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of smoke solution on airway NEP activity. We conclude that cigarette smoke causes enhanced airway responsiveness to substance P in vivo by inactivating airway NEP. We suggest that cigarette smoke-induced inhibition of airway NEP is due to effects of free radicals.
D J Dusser, T D Djokic, D B Borson, J A Nadel
Hybridization of murine myeloma cells P3-X63-Ag8.653 with splenocytes from a BALB/c mouse immunized with the syngeneic anti HLA-DR1,4,w6,w8,w9 MAb AC1.59 resulted in the development of 108 hybridomas secreting antiidiotypic antibodies. 100 of them inhibited the binding of MAb AC1.59 to target cells. Detailed analysis of the antiidiotypic MAb F5-444, F5-830, F5-963, F5-1126, F5-1336, and F5-1419 showed that all of them recognize idiotopes within or spatially close to the antigen combining site of MAb AC1.59. In cross-blocking experiments, the six antiidiotypic MAbs cross-blocked each other. It is likely that the six MAbs recognize spatially close, but not identical idiotopes because they elicited antiantiidiotypic antibodies of different or similar, but not identical specificity and differ in their ability to elicit anti-HLA class II antibodies. The latter, which were found only in sera from BALB/c mice immunized with antiidiotypic MAb F5-444 and F5-830, mimic the specificity of MAb AC1.59 and express the idiotope defined by the immunizing antiidiotypic MAb. These results indicate that the MAb F5-444 and F5-830 are antiidiotypes beta and the remaining four are antiidiotypes gamma.
F Perosa, S Ferrone
We analyzed tissue and cells from a stationary and a rapidly growing hyperplastic callus from a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type IV and compared the results with those of compact bone and skin fibroblasts of an age-matched control. Collagen and protein contents per cell were low in the callus tissues and collagen I and III were overmodified as evidenced by an elevated level of hydroxylysine. The degree of lysyl hydroxylation was highest in those regions that appeared most immature by histological examination. Lysyl hydroxylation approached normal levels in collagen from the stationary callus and from the center of the growing callus. Overmodification of collagen was not seen in compact bone or cell cultures (neither skin fibroblasts nor callus cells) from the patient. Elevation of hydroxylysine in collagen from OI patients is generally attributed to mutations that delay triple helix formation. Our observations suggest that the varying degree of collagen modifications may occur in consequence of regulatory mechanisms during bone development and tissue repair. These mechanisms may be defective in some patients with OI as seen in this case with hyperplastic callus formation.
R E Brenner, U Vetter, A Nerlich, O Wörsdorfer, W M Teller, P K Müller
Treatment with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and corticosteroids markedly reduced activity of systemic lupus erythematosis in 10 patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (DPLN) complicated by a nephrotic syndrome. Physiologic and morphometric techniques were used serially before, and 12 and 36 mo post-TLI to characterize the course of glomerular injury. Judged by a progressive reduction in the density of glomerular cells and immune deposits, glomerular inflammation subsided. A sustained reduction in the fractional clearance of albumin, IgG and uncharged dextrans of radius greater than 50 A, pointed to a parallel improvement in glomerular barrier size-selectivity. Corresponding changes in GFR were modest, however. A trend towards higher GFR at 12 mo was associated with a marked increase in the fraction of glomerular tuft area occupied by patent capillary loops as inflammatory changes receded. A late trend toward declining GFR beyond 12 mo was associated with progressive glomerulosclerosis, which affected 57% of all glomeruli globally by 36 mo post-TLI. Judged by a parallel increase in volume by 59%, remaining, patent glomeruli had undergone a process of adaptive enlargement. We propose that an increasing fraction of glomeruli continues to undergo progressive sclerosis after DPLN has become quiescent, and that the prevailing GFR depends on the extent to which hypertrophied remnant glomeruli can compensate for the ensuing loss of filtration surface area.
A Chagnac, B A Kiberd, M C Fariñas, S Strober, R K Sibley, R Hoppe, B D Myers
Using continuous microperfusion techniques, we studied the load dependence of bicarbonate reabsorption along cortical distal tubules of the rat kidney and their bicarbonate permeability. Net bicarbonate transport was evaluated from changes in tracer inulin concentrations and total CO2 measurements by microcalorimetry. Bicarbonate permeability was estimated from the flux of total CO2 along known electrochemical gradients into bicarbonate-and chloride-free perfusion solution containing 10(-4) M acetazolamide. Transepithelial potential differences were measured with conventional glass microelectrodes. Significant net bicarbonate reabsorption occurred at luminal bicarbonate levels from 5 to 25 mM, and at perfusion rates from 5 to 30 nl/min. Bicarbonate reabsorption increased in a load-dependent manner, both during increments in luminal bicarbonate concentration or perfusion rate, reaching saturation at a load of 250 pmol/min with a maximal reabsorption rate of approximately 75 pmol/min.mm. Rate of bicarbonate reabsorption was flow dependent at luminal concentrations of 10 but not at 25 mM. During chronic metabolic alkalosis, maximal rates of reabsorption were significantly reduced to 33 pmol/min.mm. The bicarbonate permeability was 2.32 +/- 0.13 x 10(-5) cm/s in control rats, and 2.65 +/- 0.26 x 10(-5) cm/s in volume-expanded rats. Our data indicate that at physiological bicarbonate concentrations in the distal tubule passive bicarbonate fluxes account for only 16-21% of net fluxes. At high luminal bicarbonate concentrations, passive bicarbonate reabsorption contributes moderately to net reabsorption of this anion.
Y L Chan, G Malnic, G Giebisch
Since platelet hemostatic functions are mediated in part through the binding of adhesive proteins containing an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) recognition sequence, and since platelet reactions may be inhibited in vitro by RGD-containing peptides, we assessed in vivo the antithrombotic activity of RGDV (Arg-Gly-Asp-Val) tetrapeptide using a baboon thrombosis model. Thrombus formation was induced by a device consisting of a tubular segment coated with type I collagen, followed by two regions of expanded diameter exhibiting disturbed flow and stasis. The thrombogenic device was incorporated into femoral arteriovenous shunts under conditions of intermediate wall shear rate (100 s-1). Thrombus formation was measured by scintillation camera imaging of 111In-platelets and by counting of 125I-fibrinogen/fibrin. Thrombus that formed on the collagen substrate was rich in platelets, while thrombus formed in the disturbed flow regions was rich in fibrin and red cells. RGDV peptide was infused proximal to the thrombogenic device to maintain local plasma concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 microM. Infused RGDV decreased the accumulation of both platelets and fibrin on the collagen substrate in a dose-response manner. At the highest dose platelet and fibrin deposition after 40 min was reduced by greater than 80% (P less than 0.01). In the region of disturbed flow, RGDV (100 microM) reduced platelet deposition by 85% (P less than 0.01) but did not reduce the accumulation of fibrin (P less than 0.3). Similarly, the peptide inhibited the release of granular proteins from platelets associated with thrombus (platelet factor 4, beta-thromboglobulin; P less than 0.01), but did not prevent the appearance of fibrinopeptide A in circulating blood (P greater than 0.1). No systemic alterations in blood pressure, bleeding time, or platelet aggregation ex vivo were produced by locally infused RGDV. The antithrombotic effects of RGDV peptide disappeared within 5 min after discontinuing the infusion. In control studies infused RGEV (Arg-Gly-Glu-Val, 100 microM) showed no antithrombotic activity. Thus, RGDV selectively blocks platelet-dependent thrombus formation in vivo.
Y Cadroy, R A Houghten, S R Hanson
When applied to the basolateral (serosal) side of the T84 colonic epithelial monolayer, taurodeoxycholate caused net Cl- secretion in a dose-dependent manner with a threshold effect observed at 0.2 mM. In contrast, when applied to the apical (luminal) surface, concentrations of taurodeoxycholate below 1 mM had little or no effect. Only when the concentration of taurodeoxycholate present on the apical side was greater than or equal to 1 mM did apical addition results in an electrolyte transport effect. This apical effect on electrolyte transport was associated with an abrupt increase in the permeability of the monolayer. Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in the T84 monolayers were not increased by the bile salt, but in the presence of extracellular Ca2+, free cytosolic Ca2+ increased with a graded dose effect and time course that corresponded approximately to the changes in short circuit current (Isc). The results suggest that luminal bile salts at a relatively high concentration (greater than or equal to 1 mM) increase tight junction permeability. Once tight junction permeability increases, luminal bile salts could reach the basolateral membrane of the epithelial cells where they act to increase free cytosolic Ca2+ from extracellular sources. The resulting increases in free cytosolic Ca2+, rather than in cyclic nucleotides, appear to be involved in transcellular Cl- secretion.
K Dharmsathaphorn, P A Huott, P Vongkovit, G Beuerlein, S J Pandol, H V Ammon
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the LDL receptor gene, is five times more frequent in the Afrikaner population of South Africa than it is in the population of the United States and Europe. It has been proposed that the high frequency is due to a founder effect. In this paper, we characterized 24 mutant LDL receptor alleles from 12 Afrikaner individuals homozygous for FH. We identified two mutations that together makeup greater than 95% of the mutant LDL receptor genes represented in our sample. Both mutations were basepair substitutions that result in single-amino acid changes. Each mutation can be detected readily with the polymerase chain reaction and restriction analysis. The finding of two common LDL receptor mutations in the Afrikaner FH homozygotes predicts that these mutations will predominate in the Afrikaner population and that the high frequency of FH is due to a founder effect. The increased incidence of ischemic heart disease in the Afrikaner population may in part be due to the high frequency of these two mutations in the LDL receptor gene.
E Leitersdorf, D R Van der Westhuyzen, G A Coetzee, H H Hobbs
We used soluble, C-fixing antibody/dsDNA IC to investigate immune complex (IC) handling and erythrocyte (E)-to-phagocyte transfer in chimpanzees. IC bound efficiently to chimpanzee E in vitro and showed minimal release with further in vitro incubation in the presence of serum in EDTA (less than or equal to 15% within 1 h). These IC also bound rapidly to E in vivo (70-80% binding within 1 min) and did not show detectable release from E in the peripheral circulation after infusion in vivo (less than or equal to 2% within 1 h). Despite such slow C-mediated release of IC from E, IC were rapidly stripped from E by the mononuclear phagocyte system (T50 for E-IC1500 = 5 min) without sequestration of E. Treatment of the chimpanzees with the anti-Fc gamma RIII MAb 3G8 impaired the clearance of infused IC. This effect was most evident on the fraction of IC500 which did not bind to E and which presumably had captured less C3b (pre-MAb 3G8 T50: 45 min vs. post-MAb 3G8 T50: 180 min). With IC bound in vitro to E before infusion, anti-Fc gamma RIII MAb treatment led to significant amounts of non-E bound IC detectable in the circulation. Thus, the anti-Fc gamma RIII MAb appeared to interfere with the ability of fixed tissue mononuclear phagocytes to take up/or retain IC after their release from E. Both rapid stripping of IC from E, despite slow complement-mediated release of IC from E in the peripheral circulation, and blockade of IC clearance with anti-Fc gamma RIII MAb indicate that the interaction of IC with the fixed tissue phagocyte involves qualitatively different mechanisms than the interaction of IC with E. Fc gamma receptors appear to play an important role in the transfer and retention of IC by the phagocyte.
R P Kimberly, J C Edberg, L T Merriam, S B Clarkson, J C Unkeless, R P Taylor
Immunization of mice and hamsters with a cocktail of mouse MAbs specific for rabies virus nucleocapsid protein and glycoprotein protected animals not only when challenged with a lethal dose of rabies virus after immunization, but also in post-exposure situations. Hamsters treated with the MAb cocktail 3 h after virus inoculation were completely protected from lethal rabies virus infection, and 80% of the animals survived when the MAb cocktail was given 36 h after virus challenge. The potential usefulness of this MAb cocktail for the postexposure treatment of human rabies is discussed.
C L Schumacher, B Dietzschold, H C Ertl, H S Niu, C E Rupprecht, H Koprowski
Phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) activity in rat liver was measured using a phosphopeptide substrate containing sequence identity to the major site of insulin receptor autophosphorylation. PTPase activity was detected in both cytosolic and particulate fractions of rat liver and produced linear dephosphorylation over a 15-min time course. In rats made insulin-deficient diabetic by streptozotocin treatment (STZ), cytosolic PTPase activity increased to 180% of the control values after 2 d of diabetes and remained elevated at 30 d (P less than 0.02). Gel filtration on Sephadex-75 revealed a single peak of activity in the cytosol in both control and diabetic animals and confirmed the increased levels. In BB diabetic rats, another model of insulin deficiency, the PTPase activity in the cytosolic fraction was increased to approximately 230% of control values. PTPase activity in the particulate fraction of liver was also increased by 30 and 80% after 2 and 8 d of STZ diabetes, respectively. However, this increase was not sustained and after 30 d of STZ diabetes, PTPase activity associated with the particulate fraction in the BB diabetic rat was reduced to approximately 70% of the control levels. Treatment of STZ diabetic rats with subcutaneous insulin or vanadate in their drinking water for 3 d reduced tyrosine PTPase activity in the particulate, but not in the cytosolic fraction. This was associated with a change in blood glucose toward normal. These data indicate insulin deficient diabetes is accompanied by significant changes in hepatic PTPase activity. Since tyrosine phosphorylation plays a central role in the cellular action of insulin receptor, an increase in PTPase activity may be an important factor in the altered insulin action associated with these diabetic states.
J Meyerovitch, J M Backer, C R Kahn
Loss of expression of a tumor-suppressing gene is an attractive model to explain the cytogenetic and epidemiologic features of cases of myelodysplasia and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) associated with bone marrow monosomy 7 or partial deletion of the long arm (7q-). We used probes from within the breakpoint region on 7q-chromosomes (7q22-34) that detect restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) to investigate three families in which two siblings developed myelodysplasia with monosomy 7. In the first family, probes from the proximal part of this region identified DNA derived from the same maternal chromosome in both leukemias. The RFLPs in these siblings diverged at the more distal J3.11 marker due to a mitotic recombination in one patient, a result that suggested a critical region on 7q proximal to probe J3.11. Detailed RFLP mapping of the implicated region was then performed in two additional unrelated pairs of affected siblings. In these families, DNA derived from different parental chromosome 7s was retained in the leukemic bone marrows of the siblings. We conclude that the familial predisposition to myelodysplasia is not located within a consistently deleted segment on the long arm of chromosome 7. These data provide evidence implicating multiple genetic events in the pathogenesis of myelodysplasia seen in association with bone marrow monosomy 7 or 7q-.
K M Shannon, A G Turhan, S S Chang, A M Bowcock, P C Rogers, W L Carroll, M J Cowan, B E Glader, C J Eaves, A C Eaves
The regulation of ATP metabolism by inorganic phosphate (Pi) was examined in five normal volunteers through measurements of ATP degradation during relative Pi depletion and repletion states. Relative Pi depletion was achieved through dietary restriction and phosphate binders, whereas a Pi-repleted state was produced by oral Pi supplementation. ATP was radioactively labeled by the infusion of [8(14)C]adenine. Fructose infusion was used to produce rapid ATP degradation during Pi depletion and repletion states. Baseline measurements indicated a significant decrease of Pi levels during phosphate depletion and no change in serum or urinary purines. Serum values of Pi declined 20 to 26% within 15 min after fructose infusion in all states. Urine measurements of ATP degradation products showed an eightfold increase within 15 min after fructose infusion in both Pi-depleted and -supplemented states. Urinary radioactive ATP degradation products were fourfold higher and urinary purine specific activity was more than threefold higher during Pi depletion as compared with Pi repletion. Our data indicate that there is decreased ATP degradation to purine end products during a relative phosphate repletion state as compared to a relative phosphate depletion state. These data show that ATP metabolism can be altered through manipulation of the relative Pi state in humans.
M A Johnson, K Tekkanat, S P Schmaltz, I H Fox
The collecting duct of the inner stripe outer medulla (OMCDi) is a major site of distal nephron acidification. Using the pH sensitive fluorescent dye 2'-7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5,6,-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) and quantitative spectrofluorometry to measure intracellular pH in isolated perfused OMCDi, we have characterized basolateral transport processes responsible for regulation of intracellular pH. Experiments suggesting the existence of basolateral Cl-/base exchange were performed. In HCO3- containing buffers, bath Cl- replacement resulted in reversible alkalinization of the OMCDi from 7.22 +/- 0.05 to 7.57 +/- 0.12. Similarly 0.1 mM bath 4',4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) alkalinized the OMCDi from 7.14 +/- 0.09 to 7.34 +/- 0.09 and blocked further alkalinization by bath Cl- removal (delta = + 0.02 pH units). The concentration dependence kinetics of Cl-/base exchange revealed a K1/2 of 10 mM for external Cl- with a Vmax of 0.50 pH U/min. Experiments suggesting the existence of basolateral Na+/H+ exchange were also performed. Replacement of bath Na+ by tetramethylammonium resulted in reversible cell acidification (7.14 +/- 0.09 to 6.85 +/- 0.1). Tubules that were acidified by a brief exposure to NH4Cl displayed recovery of cell pH back to baseline at a rate that was highly dependent on bath Na+ concentration. Half maximal recovery rate was achieved at 7 mM bath Na+ and Vmax was 0.605 pH U/min. The Na+-dependent rate of cell pH recovery after acidification was blocked by 0.2 mM bath amiloride. These results suggest that intracellular pH in the OMCDi is regulated by parallel basolateral Na+/H+ exchange and Cl-/base exchange.
M D Breyer, H R Jacobson
Physiologic stimuli of connective tissue accumulation in pulmonary vascular remodeling are poorly defined. We postulated that increased pressure within central pulmonary arteries is a stimulus for connective tissue synthesis and the response is dependent on an intact endothelium. Mechanical tension equivalent to 50 mmHg pressure was applied for 4 h to isolated rat main pulmonary arteries (endothelium intact or removed), and incorporation of [14C]proline into collagen, [14C]valine into elastin, [3H]thymidine into DNA and pro alpha 1 (I) collagen mRNA levels were measured. In intact vessels, tension induced synthesis of collagen (3.1 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.3 +/- 0.5 [SEM] dpm X 10(2) [14C]-hydroxyproline/[mg protein.h]) (n = 10) and elastin (6.1 +/- 2.4 vs. 2.9 +/- 0.4 dpm X 10(3) [14C]valine/[mg protein.h]) (n = 5) (both P less than 0.05). Steady state mRNA levels of pro alpha 1 (I) collagen were also increased by tension (46 vs. 30 X 10(2) dpm hybridized/100 ng total RNA). However, the stimulus did not increase [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA. In denuded vessels, tension had no effect on connective tissue synthesis or mRNA level of pro alpha 1 (I) collagen. Messenger RNA levels for v-sis were induced by tension in intact but not denuded vessels. Our findings establish that induction of vascular connective tissue synthesis by mechanical tension is dependent on an intact endothelium.
C A Tozzi, G J Poiani, A M Harangozo, C D Boyd, D J Riley
Five highly informative multiallele restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of value for preclinical diagnosis of Huntington's disease (HD) have been genetically characterized. One RFLP was uncovered by expansion of the D4S43 locus while three others are at D4S111 and D4S115, loci defined by NotI-linking clones. The final marker, D4S125, represents a recently discovered VNTR locus. All four loci map closer to the HD gene and to the telomere than D4S10, the original linked marker for HD. In combination with two multiallele RFLPs previously identified for D4S43 and another linked locus, D4S95, these five new multiallele markers will dramatically improve the speed and accuracy of predictive testing in HD, and increase its applicability by maximizing the chances of an informative test for anyone with appropriate family structure.
M E MacDonald, S V Cheng, M Zimmer, J L Haines, A Poustka, B Allitto, B Smith, W L Whaley, D M Romano, J Jagadeesh
Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) shares with epidermal growth factor (EGF) structural homology (35%), a common cell-surface membrane receptor (TGF alpha/EGF receptor), and a nearly identical spectrum of biological activity, including inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Herein, we report expression of TGF alpha mRNA in normal gastric mucosa of the adult guinea pig, rat, and dog. TGF alpha mRNA was also detected in matched surgically resected gastric mucosa and adjacent gastric carcinoma from 10 patients, and in gastric mucosa adjacent to a benign ulcer from an additional patient. TGF alpha protein was quantitated by radioimmunoassay and was present in tumor and adjacent mucosa. TGF alpha/EGF receptor mRNA was also detected in gastric mucosa from all species studied. Localization of TGF alpha and TGF alpha/EGF receptor mRNA expression was examined in samples of unfractionated guinea pig gastric mucosa and from chief cell-enriched and parietal cell-enriched fractions. All samples exhibited TGF alpha and TGF alpha/EGF receptor expression. The TGF alpha signal was greatest in the parietal cell fraction (5.8-fold increase), but was also enhanced in the chief cell fraction (1.9-fold increase) relative to the unfractionated gastric mucosa. Like TGF alpha expression, TGF alpha/EGF receptor mRNA expression was most intense in the parietal cell-enriched fraction (7.8-fold increase), but was also increased in the chief cell-enriched fraction (2.7-fold increase) relative to the unfractionated guinea pig gastric mucosa. We conclude that TGF alpha and TGF alpha/EGF receptor genes are expressed in normal adult mammalian gastric mucosa. These findings, when interpreted in light of described actions of TGF alpha and EGF, provide evidence that local production of TGF alpha could play an important role in the regulation of acid secretion and mucosal renewal in the stomach.
R D Beauchamp, J A Barnard, C M McCutchen, J A Cherner, R J Coffey Jr
We report the identification of a female patient with the X-linked recessive Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase [HPRT] deficiency). Cytogenetic and carrier studies revealed structurally normal chromosomes for this patient and her parents and demonstrated that this mutation arose through a de novo gametic event. Comparison of this patient's DNA with the DNA of her parents revealed that a microdeletion, which occurred within a maternal gamete and involved the entire HPRT gene, was partially responsible for the disease in this patient. Somatic cell hybrids, generated to separate maternal and paternal X chromosomes, showed that expression of two additional X-linked enzymes, phosphoglycerate kinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, were expressed only in cells that contained the maternal X chromosome, suggesting the presence of a functionally inactive paternal X chromosome. Furthermore, comparison of methylation patterns within a region of the HPRT gene known to be important in gene regulation revealed differences between DNA from the father and the patient, in keeping with an active HPRT locus in the father and an inactive HPRT locus in the patient. Together these data indicate that nonrandom inactivation of the cytogenetically normal paternal X chromosome and a microdeletion of the HPRT gene on an active maternal X chromosome were responsible for the absence of HPRT in this patient.
N Ogasawara, J T Stout, H Goto, S Sonta, A Matsumoto, C T Caskey
Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) of neonates born of mothers with Chagas' disease or schistosomiasis exhibited strong proliferative responses against idiotypes expressed on antibodies with specificity for Trypanosoma cruzi or Schistosoma mansoni antigens, respectively. These immunoaffinity-purified preparations were stimulatory if they were prepared from pools of patients' sera or from the mother's own serum, taken early during her pregnancy. These CBMC did not respond to normal immunoglobulin, and CBMC of neonates born of uninfected mothers did not respond to antibodies against either T. cruzi or S. mansoni, or normal immunoglobulin preparations. We propose that in utero exposure of a fetus to some idiotypes expressed on placentally transferred antibodies induces anti-Id T lymphocyte sensitization, which we detect as a proliferative response by CBMC exposed to immunoaffinity-purified antibodies expressing the relevant idiotypes. This is the first experimental evidence that children born of mothers with chronic infections undergo natural in utero idiotypic manipulations and are born possessing cellular anti-Id reactivity.
S M Eloi-Santos, E Novato-Silva, V M Maselli, G Gazzinelli, D G Colley, R Correa-Oliveira
Endothelins are a group of potent vasoconstrictors whose structure was deduced from genomic DNA. ET-1 was first isolated from culture supernatants from porcine endothelial cells and ET-3 was identified from a rat DNA library. We report on the binding of 125I-ET-1 to zona glomerulosa cells in culture and on its ability to stimulate aldosterone secretion. Cultured calf adrenal zona glomerulosa cells have saturable, high affinity [Kd = 1.00 +/- 0.17 X 10(-10) M (SEM)] receptors which bind ET-1 in a temperature and time dependent manner. Binding was specific and angiotensin II, vasopressin, ANP, BNP, apamin, calcium channel agonists or antagonists did not interact with the receptor. ET-3 displaced 125I-ET-1 from the receptor with a relative potency of 0.39 +/- 0.1% (SEM) that of ET-1. ET-1 incubated with cultured glomerulosa cells stimulated aldosterone secretion in a dose dependent manner but it was less potent than angiotensin II. ET-3 had less than 1% the relative potency of ET-1 stimulating aldosterone secretion. This data suggest that ET-1 is an independent stimulator of aldosterone secretion and we are speculating that it might be important in those situations, like in malignant hypertension, where endothelial damage might result in increased ET-1 production.
E N Cozza, C E Gomez-Sanchez, M F Foecking, S Chiou
Fibroplasia and angiogenesis are essential components of tissue repair when substantial tissue has been lost at a site of injury. Platelets and monocyte/macrophages accumulate at these sites and release a variety of growth factors that are thought to initiate and sustain the repair. Often the involved tissue contracts, a process that can markedly reduce the amount of fibroplasia and angiogenesis necessary for the reestablishment of organ integrity. Such tissue contraction occurs over hours or days, a much slower time course than the rapid, reversible contraction of muscle tissue. Fibroblasts, which are rich in f-actin bundles, appear to be responsible for wound contraction. However, the signals that stimulate contraction are not known. Using cultured fibroblasts, which are also rich in f-actin bundles, we demonstrate the platelet and monocyte isoforms of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF; AB and BB) but not PDGF-AA, can stimulate fibroblasts to contract collagen matrix in a time course similar to that of wound contraction. In addition, PDGF appears to be the predominant fibroblast/collagen gel contraction activity released from platelets. Vasoactive agonists known to stimulate smooth and striated muscle contraction do not stimulate fibroblast-driven collagen gel contraction.
R A Clark, J M Folkvord, C E Hart, M J Murray, J M McPherson