G J Roth
E T Yeh, W F Rosse
The bone resorbing cells, osteoclasts, express high levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) and vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) during bone resorption. We have used antisense RNA and DNA molecules targeted against CA II, and against 16- and 60-kD subunits of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase), to block the expression of these proteins in vitro. Osteoclastic bone resorption was studied in two in vitro culture systems: release of 45Calcium from prelabeled newborn mouse calvaria cultures, and resorption pit assays performed with rat osteoclasts cultured on bovine bone slices. Both antisense RNA and DNA against CA II and the V-ATPase were used to compare their specificities as regards inhibiting bone resorption in vitro. The antisense molecules inhibited the synthesis of these proteins by decreasing the amounts of mRNA in the cells in a highly specific manner. In osteoclast cultures treated with the 16-kD V-ATPase antisense RNA, acidification of an unknown population of intracellular vesicles was highly stimulated. The acidification of these vesicles was not sensitive to amiloride or bafilomycin A1. This suggests the existence of a back-up system for acidification of intracellular vesicles, when the expression of the V-ATPase is blocked. Our results further indicate that blocking the expression of CA II and V-ATPase with antisense RNA or DNA leads to decreased bone resorption.
T Laitala, H K Väänänen
Oxytocin (OT) is widely used to induce labor in the clinical setting. However, its physiological role in normal human parturition remains unclear. We demonstrated the enhanced expression of OT receptor (OTR) mRNA in chorio-decidual tissue, using the polymerase chain reaction after the reverse transcriptase reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blot analysis. OTR gene expression in chorio-decidual tissue increased fivefold during the course of parturition. In situ hybridization of fetal membrane revealed the expression of OTR mRNA in maternally derived decidual cells. The OTR mRNA was also detected in fetally derived chorionic trophoblast cells. Immunohistochemistry, using a newly developed anti-OTR monoclonal antibody, demonstrated the distribution of OTR protein in fetal membrane. The distribution pattern of OTR protein and OTR mRNA was identical, indicating that the regulation of OTR expression occurs mainly at the transcriptional level. These results support the idea that the expression of decidual OTR regulates the initiation and amplification of labor. The implications of these findings with regard to the pathogenesis of preterm labor are also discussed.
M Takemura, T Kimura, S Nomura, Y Makino, T Inoue, T Kikuchi, Y Kubota, Y Tokugawa, T Nobunaga, S Kamiura
Recombinant mouse beta-glucuronidase administered intravenously to newborn mice with mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is rapidly cleared from the circulation and localized in many tissues. Here we determine the tissue distribution of injected enzyme and describe its effects on the histopathology in 6-wk-old MPS VII mice that received either one injection of 28,000 U recombinant beta-glucuronidase at 5 wk of age or received six injections of 28,000 U given at weekly intervals beginning at birth. These mice were compared with untreated 6-wk-old MPS VII mice. The single injection decreased lysosomal distention in the fixed tissue macrophage system. MPS VII mice that received multiple injections had 27.8, 3.5, and 3.3% of normal levels of beta-glucuronidase in liver, spleen, and kidney, respectively. Brain had detectable beta-glucuronidase, ranging from 2.0-12.1% of normal. Secondary elevations of alpha-galactosidase and beta-hexosaminidase in brain, spleen, liver, and kidney were decreased compared with untreated MPS VII mice. Although no improvement was observed in chondrocytes, glia, and some neurons, the skeleton had less clinical and pathological evidence of disease and the brain had reduced lysosomal storage in meninges and selected neuronal groups. These data show that recombinant beta-glucuronidase treatment begun in newborn MPS VII mice provides enzyme to most tissues and significantly reduces or prevents the accumulation of lysosomal storage during the first 6 wk of life. Whether therapy begun later in life can achieve this level of correction remains to be established.
M S Sands, C Vogler, J W Kyle, J H Grubb, B Levy, N Galvin, W S Sly, E H Birkenmeier
An important question in the pathogenesis and regulation of human gonadotroph adenomas is whether heterogeneous gonadotropin responses to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are due to dysregulation of GnRH receptor biosynthesis and/or cell-signaling pathways. We investigated gonadotropin responsiveness to pulsatile GnRH in 13 gonadotroph adenomas. All tumors had evidence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) beta and alpha subunit biosynthesis using reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) techniques. Four tumors significantly increased gonadotropin and/or free subunit secretion during pulsatile 10(-8) M GnRH administration. The GnRH antagonist Antide (10(-6) to 10(-8) M) blocked secretory increases in all GnRH-responsive tumors. Gonadotropin and/or free subunit secretion increased after 60 mM KCl, confirming that GnRH nonresponsiveness was not due to intracellular gonadotropin depletion. We hypothesized that GnRH nonresponsiveness in these tumors may be due to GnRH receptor (GnRH-Rc) biosynthetic defects. RTPCR analyses detected GnRH-Rc transcripts only in responsive tumors and normal human pituitary. This is the first demonstration of a cell-surface receptor biosynthetic defect in human pituitary tumors. We conclude (a) one third of gonadotroph tumors respond to pulsatile GnRH in vitro, (b) GnRH-Rc mRNA is detected in human gonadotroph adenomas and predicts GnRH responsiveness, and (c) GnRH-Rc biosynthetic defects may underlie GnRH nonresponsiveness in gonadotroph tumors.
J M Alexander, A Klibanski
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine which is made by osteoblasts and has diverse effects on bone metabolism. We studied the interaction of IL-6 with the Ca2+ and cAMP signaling systems in the osteoblastic cell line UMR-106 and in primary osteoblastic cultures derived from neonatal rat calvariae. IL-6 did not alter basal intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) but inhibited Ca2+ transients induced by parathyroid hormone (PTH), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and endothelin-1 in both dose- (100-400 U/ml) and time- (4-48 h) dependent manners. The effect of the cytokine was abolished by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A (50 ng/ml). The IL-6 effect on the Ca2+ message system was related to suppressed production of hormonally induced inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and inhibition of Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Hormonally induced calcium entry pathways (estimated by using Mn2+ as a surrogate for Ca2+) were not, however, altered by the cytokine. IL-6 did not modulate cAMP generation in osteoblasts. With respect to osteoblast function, IL-6, although having no effect on cell proliferation by itself, greatly enhanced the antiproliferative effect of PGE2 and PTH. Because the production of IL-6 in osteoblasts is stimulated by calciotropic hormones (e.g., PTH and PGE2), the suppressive effect of the cytokine on hormonally induced Ca2+ transients may serve as an autocrine/paracrine mechanism for modulating the effect of hormones on bone metabolism.
J Green, S Schotland, Z Sella, C R Kleeman
We have used antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides to define the role played by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in neointimal accumulation of smooth muscle cells in a rat carotid artery injury model. The short-term extraluminal delivery of 250 nmol of antisense oligonucleotides, but not control oligonucleotides, immediately after arterial injury produces a 77% suppression of PCNA mRNA after 24 h and a 52% decrease in the frequency of medial smooth muscle cells expressing PCNA after 72 h. This reduction in PCNA expression is accompanied by a 59% decrease in the frequency of proliferating medial smooth muscle cells at 3 d as measured by BudR staining and an 80% decrease in neointimal accumulation assessed morphometrically at 2 wk. Thus, the expression of PCNA is required for medial smooth muscle cell growth in vivo and for neointimal formation after arterial injury.
M Simons, E R Edelman, R D Rosenberg
Hemangiomas, localized tumors of blood vessels, appear in approximately 10-12% of Caucasian infants. These lesions are characterized by a rapid proliferation of capillaries for the first year (proliferating phase), followed by slow, inevitable, regression of the tumor over the ensuing 1-5 yr (involuting phase), and continual improvement until 6-12 yr of age (involuted phase). To delineate the clinically observed growth phases of hemangiomas at a cellular level, we undertook an immunohistochemical analysis using nine independent markers. The proliferating phase was defined by high expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, type IV collagenase, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Elevated expression of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase, TIMP 1, an inhibitor of new blood vessel formation, was observed exclusively in the involuting phase. High expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and urokinase was present in the proliferating and involuting phases. There was coexpression of bFGF and endothelial phenotypic markers CD31 and von Willebrand factor in the proliferating phase. These results provide an objective basis for staging hemangiomas and may be used to evaluate pharmacological agents, such as corticosteroids and interferon alfa-2a, which accelerate regression of hemangiomas. By contrast, vascular malformations do not express proliferating cell nuclear antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor, bFGF, type IV collagenase, and urokinase. These data demonstrate immunohistochemical differences between proliferating hemangiomas and vascular malformations which reflect the biological distinctions between these vascular lesions.
K Takahashi, J B Mulliken, H P Kozakewich, R A Rogers, J Folkman, R A Ezekowitz
The sympathetic nervous system is an important regulatory mechanism of both metabolic and cardiovascular function, and altered sympathetic activity may play a role in the etiology and/or complications of obesity. In lean subjects, insulin evokes sympathetic activation and vasodilation in skeletal muscle. In obese subjects such vasodilation is impaired and, in turn, may contribute to insulin resistance. To examine the relationship between sympathetic and vasodilatory responses in skeletal muscle to hyperinsulinemia, we simultaneously measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and calf blood flow at basal and during a 2-h hyperinsulinemic (6 pmol/kg per min) euglycemic clamp in eight lean and eight obese subjects. The major findings of this study are twofold: obese subjects had a 2.2 times higher fasting rate of MSNA, and euglycemic hyperinsulinemia, which more than doubled MSNA and increased calf blood flow by roughly 30% in lean subjects, had only a minor vasodilatory and sympathoexcitatory effect in obese subjects. In contrast, two non-insulin-sympathetic stimuli evoked comparably large increases in MSNA in lean and obese subjects. We conclude that insulin resistance in obese subjects is associated with increased fasting MSNA and a specific impairment of sympathetic neural responsiveness to physiological hyperinsulinemia in skeletal muscle tissue.
P Vollenweider, D Randin, L Tappy, E Jéquier, P Nicod, U Scherrer
Cardiac hypertrophy is largely due to cardiac fibroblast growth and increased synthesis of extracellular matrix. This study has investigated the contribution of the vasoactive hormone, angiotensin II, toward this hypertrophic process. We have demonstrated that cultures of adult rat cardiac fibroblasts express AT1 but not AT2 receptors for angiotensin II. The ability of angiotensin II to stimulate phosphoinositide catabolism and to elevate intracellular calcium concentrations in these cells was blocked by losartan, a specific AT1 receptor antagonist, but not by the AT2 receptor antagonist CGP 42112. Exposure of adult cardiac fibroblasts to angiotensin II resulted in the induction of several growth-related metabolic events including c-fos protooncogene expression and increased synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein. Angiotensin II was also found to induce collagen type I, alpha 1 chain transcript expression in cardiac fibroblasts as well as the synthesis and secretion of collagen by these cells. The data demonstrate that angiotensin II, via AT1 receptors, can stimulate cardiac fibroblast growth and increase collagen synthesis in cardiac tissue. Thus, angiotensin II may contribute toward the development of cardiac hypertrophy in conditions of hypertension that are associated with elevated concentrations of angiotensin II.
M Crabos, M Roth, A W Hahn, P Erne
The cytokines IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha cause cachexia and hypermetabolism in animal models, but their role in human inflammation remains controversial. The relationship between in vitro cytokine production and metabolism was examined in 23 adults with RA and 23 healthy control subjects matched on age, sex, race, and weight. Body composition was measured by multicompartmental analysis of body cell mass, water, fat, and bone mass. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured by indirect calorimetry. Cytokine production by PBMC was measured by radioimmunoassay. Usual energy intake, physical activity, disability scores, medication use, and other confounders were also measured. Body cell mass was 13% lower (P < 0.00001), REE was 12% higher (P < 0.008), and physical activity was much lower (P < 0.001) in subjects with RA. Production of TNF-alpha was higher in RA than controls, both before and after stimulation with endotoxin (P < 0.05), while production of IL-1 beta was higher with endotoxin stimulation (P < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, cytokine production was directly associated with REE (P < 0.001) in patients but not in controls. While energy and protein intake were similar in the two groups and exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances, energy intake in subjects with RA was inversely associated with IL-1 beta production (P < 0.005). In this study we conclude that: loss of body cell mass is common in RA; cytokine production in RA is associated with altered energy metabolism and intake, despite a theoretically adequate diet; and TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta modulate energy metabolism and body composition in RA.
R Roubenoff, R A Roubenoff, J G Cannon, J J Kehayias, H Zhuang, B Dawson-Hughes, C A Dinarello, I H Rosenberg
Madin-Darby canine kidney cells behave like the renal medulla and accumulate small organic solutes (osmolytes) in a hypertonic environment. The accumulation of osmolytes is primarily dependent on changes in gene expression of enzymes that synthesize osmolytes (sorbitol) or transporters that uptake them (myo-inositol, betaine, and taurine). The mechanism by which hypertonicity increases the transcription of these genes, however, remains unclear. Recently, it has been reported that yeast mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and its activator, MAP kinase-kinase, are involved in osmosensing signal transduction and that mutants in these kinases fail to accumulate glycerol, a yeast osmolyte. No information is available in mammals regarding the role of MAP kinase in the cellular response to hypertonicity. We have examined whether MAP kinase and MAP kinase-kinase are regulated by extracellular osmolarity in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Both kinases were activated by hypertonic stress in a time- and osmolarity-dependent manner and reached their maximal activity within 10 min. Additionally, it was suggested that MAP kinase was activated in a protein kinase C-dependent manner. These results indicate that MAP kinase and MAP kinase-kinase(s) are regulated by extracellular osmolarity.
T Itoh, A Yamauchi, A Miyai, K Yokoyama, T Kamada, N Ueda, Y Fujiwara
Calcification is common in atheromatous plaques and may contribute to plaque rupture and subsequent thrombosis. However, little is known about the mechanisms which regulate the calcification process. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we show that two bone-associated proteins, osteopontin (OP) and matrix Gla protein (MGP), are highly expressed in human atheromatous plaques. High levels of OP mRNA and protein were found in association with necrotic lipid cores and areas of calcification. The predominant cell type in these areas was the macrophage-derived foam cell, although some smooth muscle cells could also be identified. MGP was expressed uniformly by smooth muscle cells in the normal media and at high levels in parts of the atheromatous intima. Highest levels of this matrix-associated protein were found in lipid-rich areas of the plaque. The pattern of expression of these two genes contrasted markedly with that of calponin and SM22 alpha, genes expressed predominantly by differentiated smooth muscle cells and whose expression was generally confined to the media of the vessel. The postulated function of OP and MGP as regulators of calcification in bone and the high levels and colocalization of both in atheromatous plaques suggest they have an important role in plaque pathogenesis and stability.
C M Shanahan, N R Cary, J C Metcalfe, P L Weissberg
Islet cell antibodies (ICA) in the sera of nondiabetic relatives of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD) are predictive of the disease, a finding that permits the design of intervention strategies to prevent it. However, 85% or more of patients with new onset IDD have no affected relative. We therefore screened 9,696 schoolchildren between the ages of 5 and 18 yr (mean age 10.7 yr) in Pasco County, Florida for ICA in three surveys during 1984/5, 1987/8, and 1990/1 and have followed them prospectively. Approximately 4,000 of these children have been followed for nearly 8 yr. ICA titers > or = 10 Juvenile Diabetes Foundation units on replicate tests were detected in 57 of the children (0.59%). 10 children have developed diabetes so far, and all had ICA detected beforehand. The likelihood of developing IDD among the ICA-positive children was compared with 2,959 age-matched nondiabetic first degree relatives of IDD probands who were screened for ICA by our laboratory during the same time period and also followed prospectively. Of 103 (3.5%) ICA-positive relatives, 31 have developed IDD. Life table analysis reveals no statistically significant differences in the probability of developing IDD between the ICA-positive schoolchildren and ICA-positive first degree relatives (P = 0.3). The estimated risk of developing IDD by 7 yr in the ICA-positive schoolchildren was 45% (95% confidence interval 15-74%) compared with 43% (confidence interval 22-63%) in the relatives. We conclude that ICA appear to be as predictive of IDD in low-risk schoolchildren as they are in high-risk relatives. These data suggest that it is feasible to predict IDD by screening a general population of schoolchildren for ICA and that those found to be positive could be considered, in addition to relatives, for intervention protocols to prevent the disease.
D Schatz, J Krischer, G Horne, W Riley, R Spillar, J Silverstein, W Winter, A Muir, D Derovanesian, S Shah
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) can exert profound inflammatory effects at very low concentrations. In plasma, PAF is hydrolyzed to lyso-PAF by acetylhydrolase, an enzyme that circulates bound to LDL. Previous studies suggest that oxygen radicals may act synergistically with PAF to potentiate tissue injury. However, mechanisms underlying this interaction have not been elucidated. In this study we investigated whether oxygen radicals may inactivate PAF acetylhydrolase. PAF acetylhydrolase activity was measured in human plasma and purified LDL before and after exposure to radicals (10-20 nmol/min per ml) generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase. Oxygen radicals induced > 50% loss of PAF acetylhydrolase activity within 60 s and almost complete inactivation by 10 min. This phenomenon was irreversible and independent of oxidative modification of LDL. Inactivation occurred without changes in the affinity constant of the enzyme (Km was 17.9 microM under control conditions and 15.1 microM after exposure to oxygen radicals). Inactivation was prevented by the scavengers superoxide dismutase or dimethylthiourea or by the iron chelator deferoxamine. Thus, superoxide-mediated, iron-catalyzed formation of hydroxyl radicals can rapidly and irreversibly inactivate PAF acetylhydrolase. Since concomitant production of PAF and oxygen radicals can occur in various forms of tissue injury, inactivation of acetylhydrolase might represent one mechanism by which oxygen radicals may potentiate and prolong the proinflammatory effects of PAF.
G Ambrosio, A Oriente, C Napoli, G Palumbo, P Chiariello, G Marone, M Condorelli, M Chiariello, M Triggiani
M D Kelly, D W Essex, S S Shapiro, F J Meloni, T Druck, K Huebner, B A Konkle
There have been reports of abnormal retinal neurotransmission determined by electroretinography in boys with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy. Dystrophin may play a role in transmitting signals between photoreceptors and the excitatory synapse of the ON-bipolar cell. These electroretinographic changes appeared to be limited to the rod ON-pathway but we felt there was also similar abnormality in the cone ON-pathway. We used long-duration stimuli to separate ON-(depolarizing bipolar cell) and OFF (hyperpolarizing bipolar cell) contributions to the cone-dominated ERG to better understand how the retina functions in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We recorded the electroretinograms of 11 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and found abnormal signal transmission at the level of the photoreceptor and ON-bipolar cell in both the rod and cone generated responses. The OFF-bipolar cell that responds to the offset of the stimulus continues to function normally. The results support our hypothesis that retinal dystrophin plays a role in receptor function or controlling ion channels at the level of the photoreceptor and depolarizing bipolar cell.
K M Fitzgerald, G W Cibis, S A Giambrone, D J Harris
Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been implicated in the development of progressive glomerulosclerosis, but the precise mechanism of this effect remains unclear. In an experimental model, we have shown previously that TGF-beta plays a key role in glomerulosclerosis by stimulating extracellular matrix protein synthesis, increasing matrix protein receptors, and altering protease/protease-inhibitor balance, thereby inhibiting matrix degradation. We hypothesized that Ang II contributes to glomerulosclerosis through induction of TGF-beta. Ang II treatment of rat mesangial cells in culture increased TGF-beta and matrix components biglycan, fibronectin, and collagen type I at both the mRNA and protein levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Saralasin, a competitive inhibitor of Ang II, prevented the stimulation. Ang II also promoted conversion of latent TGF-beta to the biologically active form. Coincubation of mesangial cells with Ang II and neutralizing antibody to TGF-beta blocked the Ang II-induced increases in matrix protein expression. Continuous in vivo administration of Ang II to normal rats for 7 d resulted in 70% increases in glomerular mRNA for both TGF-beta and collagen type I. These results indicate that Ang II induces mesangial cell synthesis of matrix proteins and show that these effects are mediated by Ang II induction of TGF-beta expression. This mechanism may well contribute to glomerulosclerosis in vivo.
S Kagami, W A Border, D E Miller, N A Noble
Increased plasma FFA reduce insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The mechanisms responsible for this inhibition, however, remain uncertain. It was the aim of this study to determine whether the FFA effect was dose dependent and to investigate its mechanism. We have examined in healthy volunteers (13 male/1 female) the effects of three steady state plasma FFA levels (approximately 50, approximately 550, approximately 750 microM) on rates of glucose uptake, glycolysis (both with 3-3H-glucose), glycogen synthesis (determined with two independent methods), carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation (by indirect calorimetry), hepatic glucose output, and nonoxidative glycolysis (glycolysis minus CHO oxidation) during euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamping. Increasing FFA concentration (from approximately 50 to approximately 750 microM) decreased glucose uptake in a dose-dependent fashion (from approximately 9 to approximately 4 mg/kg per min). The decrease was caused mainly (approximately 2/3) by a reduction in glycogen synthesis and to a lesser extent (approximately 1/3) by a reduction in CHO oxidation. We have identified two independent defects in glycogen synthesis. The first consisted of an impairment of muscle glycogen synthase activity. It required high FFA concentration (approximately 750 microM), was associated with an increase in glucose-6-phosphate, and developed after 4-6 h of fat infusion. The second defect, which preceded the glycogen synthase defect, was seen at medium (approximately 550 microM) FFA concentration, was associated with a decrease in muscle glucose-6-phosphate concentration, and was probably due to a reduction in glucose transport/phosphorylation. In addition, FFA and/or glycerol increased insulin-suppressed hepatic glucose output by approximately 50%. We concluded that fatty acids caused a dose-dependent inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (by decreasing glycogen synthesis and CHO oxidation) and that FFA and/or glycerol increased insulin-suppressed hepatic glucose output and thus caused insulin resistance at the peripheral and the hepatic level.
G Boden, X Chen, J Ruiz, J V White, L Rossetti
Levels of insulin autoantibodies (IAA) vary among different first degree relatives of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, suggesting genetic regulation. We previously reported elevated IAA among DR4-positive at risk relatives. In this study, 72/82 at risk relatives were IAA positive, of whom 75% (54/72) carried DR4 versus 20% (2/10) of IAA-negative relatives (P = 0.0004). However, 69% (18/26) of DR4-negative relatives were IAA positive. Since DR4 did not account for all IAA positivity, we analyzed DQA1 and DQB1 alleles. Homozygosity for DQA1 alleles deriving from the evolutionary lineage 4 (*0401, *0501, *0601) was associated with low IAA levels, while lineage 1-3 alleles (*0101, *0102, *0103, *0201, *0301) correlated with higher levels. Most (93%, 65/70) relatives with lineage 1-3 alleles were IAA positive (mean = 360 +/- 63 SEM nU/ml). Only 7/12 relatives homozygous for lineage 4 alleles were IAA-positive, with lower levels than relatives with lineage 1-3 alleles (mean = 55 +/- 15 SEM nU/ml, P < 0.0001; 7/12 vs 65/70, P = 0.004). The amino acid sequences of lineage 1-3 alleles uniquely share glutamic acid (E) and phenylalanine (F) at positions 40 and 51 (EF alleles). Lineage 4 alleles have glycine (G) and leucine (L) at those positions (GL alleles). 90% (65/72) of IAA-positive relatives had an EF allele, while only 75% (54/72) had DR4 (P = 0.01). Homozygosity for GL alleles (often DQA1 *0501 on DR3 haplotypes) correlated with little or no humoral response to insulin. Thus, HLA-DQB1 GL alleles, or other genes on haplotypes (e.g., DR3) that carry these DQA1 alleles, may confer recessive low responsiveness to insulin.
A Pugliese, T Bugawan, R Moromisato, Z L Awdeh, C A Alper, R A Jackson, H A Erlich, G S Eisenbarth
To explore the interactions between insulin action and norepinephrine (NE) on blood pressure and muscle vascular resistance, we studied seven lean (66 +/- 1 kg) sensitive and seven age-matched obese (96 +/- 3 kg) insulin-resistant men after an overnight fast. Both groups were normotensive; however, the obese exhibited higher basal blood pressure, 90.8 +/- 2.2 vs. 83.4 +/- 1.6 mmHg, P < 0.04. Each subject was studied on two separate days during either saline (S) infusion or a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (I) achieving insulin concentrations of approximately 70 microU/ml. After 180 min of either S or I, NE was infused systemically at rates of approximately 50, 75, and 100 pg/kg per min. Glucose uptake was measured in whole body ([3-3H]glucose) and in leg by the balance technique. The results indicate: (a) the NE/pressor dose-response curve was decreased (shifted to the right) during I in lean but not in obese subjects, (b) I enhanced NE metabolic clearance by 20% in lean but not in obese, (c) NE decreases leg vascular resistance more in lean than in obese, and (d) NE causes a approximately 20% increase in insulin-mediated glucose uptake in both groups. In conclusion, insulin resistance of obesity is associated with an apparent augmented NE pressor sensitivity and decreased NE metabolic clearance. Both of these mechanisms can potentially contribute to the higher incidence of hypertension in obese man. Insulin resistance is likely to be a predisposing but not sufficient factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Because the obese group exhibited higher basal blood pressure, it is possible that our results reflect this difference. Further studies will be required to clarify this issue.
A D Baron, G Brechtel, A Johnson, N Fineberg, D P Henry, H O Steinberg
In this study, hepatic production of bile acid was considered together with intestinal cholesterol absorption as potential regulatory sites responsive to dietary cholesterol. Sequential liver biopsies were taken from 45 feral African green monkeys studied during three different diet periods. Low-fat Monkey Chow was fed during the baseline period, a cholesterol and fat-enriched diet was then fed for 12 wk during period 2, and finally, after a washout period of 10 wk, three subgroups were fed low-, moderate-, and high-cholesterol diets for 12 mo during period 3. The percentage of cholesterol absorbed in the intestine was significantly lower when higher levels of cholesterol were fed; however, this percentage was significantly and positively correlated to plasma cholesterol concentration at each dietary cholesterol level. Hepatic free and esterified cholesterol content were significantly elevated by dietary cholesterol challenge and remained elevated even after 20 wk of low-cholesterol diets. Hepatic mRNA abundance for cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (C7H) was significantly lower (approximately 60%) when the high-cholesterol diet was fed, with the decrease being greater than that seen for low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor mRNA. At the same time, hepatic mRNA abundance for apolipoprotein B and hepatic lipase were not diet sensitive. C7H activity was decreased to a similar extent by diet as was C7H mRNA, although the correlation between enzyme activity and mRNA abundance was only r = 0.5, suggesting that dietary regulation includes factors in addition to transcriptional regulation. Activity and mRNA abundance of C7H remained decreased when liver esterified cholesterol content was reduced to only a two- to three-fold elevation over baseline, at a time when plasma cholesterol and hepatic LDL receptor mRNA abundance had returned to baseline levels. These data on liver C7H, obtained in one of the few primate species predisposed to cholesterol gallstone formation, support the hypothesis that the liver may attempt to downregulate intestinal cholesterol absorption by decreasing bile acid production when increased amounts of absorbed dietary cholesterol reach the liver. Presumably this represents attempted downregulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption by limiting bile acid availability as a means to maintain hepatic cholesterol balance.
L Rudel, C Deckelman, M Wilson, M Scobey, R Anderson
The present study evaluated the involvement of glucose transport and phosphorylation in glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic islets. Using quantitative histochemical techniques, we investigated basal islet glucose content, islet glucose uptake in situ during acute extreme experimental hyperglycemia, and islet glucokinase activity in several animal models of diabetes and obesity. The basal islet glucose content in anaesthetized diabetic or obese rodents was either the same or higher than that in their relevant controls. The rate of glucose uptake of islet tissue in these animals after an i.v. glucose injection was different. The db+/db+ mouse and the obese Zucker rat exhibited significantly reduced islet glucose uptake rates. RIP-cHras transgenic mice, BHE/cdb rats and partially pancreatectomized rats showed normal islet glucose uptake rates. The activity of islet glucokinase was increased to a different degree related to the blood glucose level. All five animal models of diabetes or obesity exhibited either a delay or a reduction of insulin release in response to supra maximal glucose stimulation. Our results indicate that the impairment of glucose-induced insulin release in diabetes is not consistently associated with a reduction of islet glucose uptake nor a change of glucokinase activity.
Y Liang, S Bonner-Weir, Y J Wu, C D Berdanier, D K Berner, S Efrat, F M Matschinsky
L B Clerch, G Neithardt, U Spencer, J A Melendez, G D Massaro, D Massaro
PGE1 and PGE2 are potent stimulators of bone formation. Osteogenesis is strongly dependent on angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEFG), a secreted endothelial cell-specific mitogen, has been implicated in physiological and pathological angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the possible role of VEGF in PG stimulation of bone formation. We found that in rat calvaria-derived osteoblast-enriched cells and in the osteoblastic RCT-3 cell line PGE2 and E1 increased VEGF mRNA and protein levels. The increased expression of VEGF mRNA produced by PGE2 was rapid (maximal at 1 h), transient (declined by 3 h), potentiated by cycloheximide, and abolished by actinomycin D. PGE2 had no effect on VEGF mRNA stability, suggesting transcriptional regulation of VEGF expression by PGF2. Rp-cAMP, a cAMP antagonist, suppressed VEGF mRNA induced by PGE2, indicating cAMP mediation. The upregulation of VEGF expression by PGE2 in the preosteoblastic RCT-1 cells was potentiated by treatment with retinoic acid, which induces the differentiation of these cells. The upregulation of VEGF mRNA by PGE2 was inhibited by dexamethasone treatment. In addition, Northern blot analysis showed that VEGF mRNA is expressed in adult rat tibia. In summary, we documented, for the first time, the expression of VEGF in osteoblasts and in bone tissue. Stimulation of VEGF expression by PGs and its suppression by glucocorticoids, which, respectively, stimulate and suppress bone formation, strongly implicate the involvement of VEGF in bone metabolism.
S Harada, J A Nagy, K A Sullivan, K A Thomas, N Endo, G A Rodan, S B Rodan
Human inhibitory alloantibodies and autoantibodies to Factor VIII (FVIII) are usually directed toward the A2 and/or C2 domains of the FVIII molecule. Anti-C2 antibodies block the binding of FVIII to phospholipid, but the mechanism of action of anti-A2 antibodies is not known. We investigated the properties of a patient autoantibody, RC, and a monoclonal antibody, 413, that bind to the region which contains the epitopes of all anti-A2 alloantibodies or autoantibodies studied to date. mAb 413 and RC were noncompetitive inhibitors of a model intrinsic Factor X activation complex (intrinsic FXase) consisting of Factor IXa, activated FVIII (FVIIIa), and synthetic phospholipid vesicles, since they decreased the Vmax of intrinsic FXase by > 95% at saturating concentrations without altering the Km. This indicates that RC and mAb 413 either block the binding of FVIIIa to FIXa or phospholipid or interfere with the catalytic function of fully assembled intrinsic FXase, but they do not inhibit the binding of the substrate Factor X. mAb 413 did not inhibit the increase in fluorescence anisotropy that results from the binding of Factor VIIIa to fluorescein-5-maleimidyl-D-phenylalanyl-prolyl-arginyl-FIXa (Fl-M-FPR-FIXa) on phospholipid vesicles in the absence of Factor X, indicating it does not inhibit assembly of intrinsic FXase. Addition of Factor X to Fl-M-FPR-FIXa, FVIIIa, and phospholipid vesicles produced a further increase in fluorescence anisotropy and a decrease in fluorescence intensity. This effect was blocked completely by mAb 413. We conclude that anti-A2 antibodies inhibit FVIIIa function by blocking the conversion of intrinsic FXase/FX complex to the transition state, rather than by interfering with formation of the ground state Michaelis complex.
P Lollar, E T Parker, J E Curtis, S L Helgerson, L W Hoyer, M E Scott, D Scandella
Three laboratory workers have been infected with the IIIB strain of HIV; their antibody response to HIV has been studied in serial serum specimens. Because the infecting virus is known, the fine specificity of the antibody response was studied on the homologous strain of HIV. Anti-p17, anti-p24, anti-gp160, CD4/gp120 blocking and neutralizing antibodies developed in parallel. Epitope mapping of the anti-gp160 response indicated several regions that consistently induced an antibody response. Serum contained antibody which reacted with V3-specific peptides corresponding to the very tip of the loop and crossreactivity was seen with V3 loop peptides from other sequence divergent strains of HIV. Antibody to the V1 loop was produced at levels comparable with that seen for the V3-loop. Anti-V1 neutralized HIV with a titration curve equivalent to an anti-V3 monoclonal antibody. Because the infecting virus is known and serial reisolates have been obtained, we explored the relationship between production of antibody to a given epitope and mutation in the virus. The data suggest that an association exists, but do not clearly indicate that antibody drives the selection for mutant viruses. The findings presented here provide a fine specificity analysis of the evolution of the antibody response to HIV in greater detail than has previously been performed.
S H Pincus, K G Messer, P L Nara, W A Blattner, G Colclough, M Reitz
We report an inborn error of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, fumarase deficiency, in two siblings born to first cousin parents. They presented with progressive encephalopathy, dystonia, leucopenia, and neutropenia. Elevation of lactate in the cerebrospinal fluid and high fumarate excretion in the urine led us to investigate the activities of the respiratory chain and of the Krebs cycle, and to finally identify fumarase deficiency in these two children. The deficiency was profound and present in all tissues investigated, affecting the cytosolic and the mitochondrial fumarase isoenzymes to the same degree. Analysis of fumarase cDNA demonstrated that both patients were homozygous for a missense mutation, a G-955-->C transversion, predicting a Glu-319-->Gln substitution. This substitution occurred in a highly conserved region of the fumarase cDNA. Both parents exhibited half the expected fumarase activity in their lymphocytes and were found to be heterozygous for this substitution. The present study is to our knowledge the first molecular characterization of tricarboxylic acid deficiency, a rare inherited inborn error of metabolism in childhood.
T Bourgeron, D Chretien, J Poggi-Bach, S Doonan, D Rabier, P Letouzé, A Munnich, A Rötig, P Landrieu, P Rustin
Side effects after the first administration of OKT3, a murine anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) of the IgG2a class, are largely attributed to the release of cytokines as a result of T cell activation caused by interaction with Fc receptors (FcR) on human monocytes. As human monocytes possess FcR for murine IgG2a but not for IgA, it is expected that an anti-CD3 mAb of the IgA class causes less side-effects than an IgG2a anti-CD3 mAb of the same idiotype. To test this hypothesis we treated 20 renal transplant patients prophylactically with either IgG2a or IgA anti-CD3 mAb in a prospective randomized double-blind study. The patients received 0.5 mg anti-CD3 mAb, either IgA (T3.A) or IgG2a (T3.G2a), twice daily during 10 d. Rejection incidence after T3.A and T3.G2a was not significantly different. Side effects score after the first administration of mAb was significantly less after T3.A than after T3.G2a (0.7 vs 2.7, P = 0.002). IL-6 and gamma IFN levels increased significantly at 3 h after T3.G2a, but not after T3.A. The TNF peak level occurring at 1 h after T3.A was much lower than after T3.G2a. In plasma, complement and neutrophil activation products only increased after T3.G2a and not after T3.A. Both T3.A and T3.G2a resulted in a complete depletion of CD3+ cells, but after T3.A, CD3 depletion was of shorter duration than after IgG2a. Finally, in contrast to T3.G2a, T3.A did not affect coagulation and fibrinolysis. In conclusion, an anti-CD3 mAb of the IgA class causes hardly any cytokine release and less side-effects as compared with its IgG2a switch variant. Provided T3.A is sufficiently immunosuppressive, it is superior to OKT3.
K J Parlevliet, I J ten Berge, S L Yong, J Surachno, J M Wilmink, P T Schellekens
Distributions of plasma lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) concentrations exhibit marked interracial differences. Apolipoprotein(a) (apo[a]), the unique constituent of Lp(a), is highly polymorphic in length due to allelic variations in the number of kringle 4(K-4)-encoding sequences. Plasma Lp(a) concentrations are inversely related to the number of K-4 repeats in the apo(a) alleles. To determine the contribution of this length variation to the interracial variation in plasma Lp(a) levels, we compared apo(a) allele size, glycoprotein size, and plasma Lp(a) concentrations in Caucasians, Chinese, and African Americans. Caucasians and African Americans had very different distributions of plasma Lp(a) concentrations yet there was no significant difference in the overall frequency distributions of their apo(a) alleles. Over the entire size spectrum of apo(a) alleles, the plasma Lp(a) levels were higher in African Americans than in Caucasians. Conversely, Caucasians and Chinese had similar plasma Lp(a) concentrations but significantly different apo(a) allele size distributions. Therefore, interracial differences in the plasma concentrations of Lp(a) are not due to differences in the frequency distributions of apo(a) alleles. We also examined the relationship between apo(a) allele size and the presence of detectable plasma apo(a) protein in plasma. Apo(a) alleles associated with no detectable plasma protein were not of uniformly large size, as had been expected, but were distributed over the entire size spectrum. From this analysis, we conclude that there is no common "null" allele at the apo(a) locus.
A Gaw, E Boerwinkle, J C Cohen, H H Hobbs
Bradykinin receptors on vascular smooth muscle may play an important role in regulating the endogenous effects of the vascular kallikrein-kinin system. The present study examined the effect of cyclic nucleotides on bradykinin-stimulated responses in cultured arterial smooth muscle cells. Short term stimulation (1 min) with cyclic AMP produced a variable inhibition of bradykinin-stimulated calcium mobilization which was lost in later passaged cells. However, long-term stimulation (24 h) produced a consistent increase in bradykinin-stimulated calcium mobilization in both early and late passaged cells. Further analysis demonstrated that chronic exposure to cAMP produced a twofold increase in both the number of cell surface bradykinin receptors and in bradykinin-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis. The increase in bradykinin receptors was time dependent (> 7 h) and blocked by protein synthesis inhibitors, suggesting that cAMP enhanced the synthesis of new bradykinin receptors. The increase in bradykinin receptor binding and calcium mobilization was also stimulated by cholera toxin, forskolin, and isobutylmethylxanthine, but not isoproterenol or prostaglandin E2. Of considerable interest, prolonged exposure to cAMP inhibited both angiotensin II and arginine vasopressin-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and intracellular calcium mobilization. In summary, prolonged treatment with cAMP selectively stimulates the synthesis and expression of bradykinin receptors on arterial smooth muscle while decreasing the responsiveness to vasoconstrictor agonists such as angiotensin II and vasopressin.
B S Dixon
A major diagnostic marker in most rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients is the rheumatoid factor (RF), an autoantibody that binds to the Fc region of IgG. To delineate the Ig genes and the underlying mechanism for RF production in RA patients, we applied a systematic approach to define the genetic origins of three IgG RFs derived from the synovial fluid of two RA patients. The results show that two of three IgG RF have substantial numbers of somatic mutations in their variable (V) regions, ranging from 13 to 23 mutations over a stretch of 291-313 nucleotides, resulting in a frequency of 4.4-7.8%. However, one IgG RF has only one mutation in each V region. This result indicates that an IgG RF may arise from a germline gene by very few mutations. The mutations occur mainly in the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), and the mutations in the CDRs often lead to amino acid substitutions. Five of the six corresponding germline V genes have been found to encode either natural autoantibodies or autoantibodies in other autoimmune disorders; and three of the six V genes have been found in fetal liver. Taken together with other results, the data show that (a) several potentially pathogenic RFs in RA patients arise from natural autoantibodies, and (b) only a few mutations are required to convert the natural autoantibodies to IgG RFs.
M Deftos, T Olee, D A Carson, P P Chen
LAP (NF-IL6 or C/EBP beta), is a liver transcriptional activator protein that confers liver-specific gene expression. Because LAP has a characteristic phosphoacceptor sequence for cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), we tested if in vitro phosphorylation of LAP by PKA modulates its interaction with specific DNA sequences. The major PKA phosphorylation site of LAP was identified as Ser105, which is a predicted PKA site. As expected, this PKA phosphorylation site disappears after mutation of Ser105 to Ala. Kinetic studies with LAP and LAP Asp105 (which mimics a phosphoserine residue) demonstrated that phosphorylation of Ser105 itself has no effect on DNA binding. Phosphorylation of other sites by PKA, identified in the region between Ser173 and Ser223 and at Ser240, by analysis of truncated and mutated LAP peptides, resulted in an inhibition of DNA binding. LAP was also phosphorylated by purified protein kinase C in vitro, and the major phosphoacceptor was shown to be Ser240 within the DNA-binding domain of LAP. Phosphorylation of LAP at this residue or introduction of a Ser240 to Asp mutation resulted in marked decrease in its binding to DNA. These results suggest that site-specific phosphorylations of LAP modulate transactivation of its target genes.
C Trautwein, P van der Geer, M Karin, T Hunter, M Chojkier
We evaluated skeletal muscle counterregulation during hypoglycemia in nine subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) (HbA1c 9.4 +/- 0.5%, nl < 6.2%) compared with six normal controls, matched for age (51 +/- 3 and 49 +/- 5 yr, respectively) and body mass index (27.3 +/- 1.2 and 27.0 +/- 2.1 kg/m2). After 60 min of euglycemia (plasma insulin approximately 140 microU/ml), plasma glucose was lowered to 62 +/- 2 mg/dl by 120 min. Hypoglycemia induced a 2.2-fold greater increase in plasma epinephrine in NIDDM (P < 0.001), while the plasma glucagon response was blunted (P < 0.01). Hepatic glucose output ([3H-3]glucose) suppressed similarly during euglycemia, but during hypoglycemia was greater in NIDDM (P < 0.005). Conversely, glucose uptake during euglycemia was 150% greater in controls (P < 0.01) and remained persistently higher than in NIDDM during hypoglycemia. In NIDDM, plasma FFA concentrations were approximately fivefold greater (P < 0.001), and plasma lactate levels were approximately 40% higher than in controls during hypoglycemia (P < 0.01); the rates of glycolysis from plasma glucose were similar in the two groups despite a 49% lower rate of glucose uptake in NIDDM (3.4 +/- 0.9 vs. 6.9 +/- 1.3 mg/kg per minute, P < 0.001). Muscle glycogen synthase activity fell by 42% with hypoglycemia (P < 0.01) in NIDDM but not in controls. In addition, glycogen phosphorylase was activated by 56% during hypoglycemia in NIDDM only (P < 0.01). Muscle glucose-6-phosphate concentrations rose during hypoglycemia by a twofold greater increment in NIDDM (P < 0.01). Thus, skeletal muscle participates in hypoglycemia counterregulation in NIDDM, directly by decreased removal of plasma glucose and, indirectly, by providing lactate for hepatic gluconeogenesis. Consequently, in addition to inherent insulin resistance in NIDDM, the enhanced plasma epinephrine response during hypoglycemia may partially offset impaired glucagon secretion and counteract the effects of hyperinsulinemia on liver, fat, and skeletal muscle.
H Shamoon, S Friedman, C Canton, L Zacharowicz, M Hu, L Rossetti
The effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on the proximal tubule remains unclear. This may be due to a biphasic effect on transport in this segment. We hypothesized that ET-1 has a biphasic effect on fluid absorption (Jv) in the proximal straight tubule and that its inhibitory effect is superimposed on its stimulatory effect. ET-1 (10(-13) M) stimulated Jv from 0.68 +/- 0.07 to 1.11 +/- 0.20 nl/mm/min, a 60% increase (P < 0.04). 10(-12) and 10(-10) M ET-1 had no significant effect. 10(-9) M ET-1 reduced Jv from 0.81 +/- 0.19 to 0.44 +/- 0.15 nl/mm/min (P < 0.009). Staurosporine (STP, 10(-8) M) prevented both 10(-9) and 10(-13) M ET-1 from altering Jv significantly indicating that protein kinase C (PKC) is involved. Indomethacin (10(-5) M) blocked the inhibition produced by 10(-9) M ET-1. ETI (10(-6) M), a lipoxygenase inhibitor, also blocked ET-1 inhibition of Jv. Interestingly ET-1 (10(-9) M) stimulated Jv in the presence of both indomethacin and ETI. When 10(-9) M ET-1 was added in the presence of 10(-5) M quinacrine, a phospholipase (PL) inhibitor, Jv also increased from 1.02 +/- 0.20 to 1.23 +/- 0.22 nl/mm/min (P < 0.03). STP blocked this increase. We conclude that (a) 10(-13) M ET-1 stimulates fluid absorption by activating PKC; (b) 10(-9) M ET-1 decreases Jv by PKC-, PL-, cyclooxygenase-, and lipoxygenase-dependent mechanisms; and (c) the inhibitory effect of ET-1 on Jv is superimposed on the stimulatory effect.
N H Garcia, J L Garvin
Uninephrectomized rats drinking 1% sodium chloride were given aldosterone (Aldo, 0.75 microgram/h, subcutaneous [s.c.] infusion), deoxycorticosterone (DOC, 20 mg/wk, s.c.), corticosterone (B, 2 mg/d, s.c.), or the antiglucocorticoid-antiprogestin RU486 (2 mg/d, s.c.) for 8 wk, and hemodynamic and tissue responses were compared with a non-steroid-treated control group. Aldo and DOC markedly increased systolic BP and caused considerable (40-50%) cardiac hypertrophy; B and RU486 caused neither hypertension nor cardiac hypertrophy. Measurements of ventricular cross-sectional areas showed hypertrophy due to an increase in mass of the left ventricle only. Cardiac hydroxyproline concentration was increased considerably by Aldo and DOC, to a lesser degree by RU486, and not by B. Aldo markedly elevated left ventricular interstitial collagen (2.5-fold vs control, P < 0.01 vs all groups); other steroid treatments also increased interstitial collagen over control (DOC x 1.8-, RU486 x 1.6-, B x 1.3-fold), with identical responses for right and left ventricles (r = 0.94). A different pattern of perivascular fibrosis was noted; DOC elevated perivascular collagen (2.1-fold vs control, P < 0.01 vs all other groups); RU486 raised levels 1.4-fold vs control, but neither Aldo nor B significantly affected perivascular collagen. These data are consistent with interstitial cardiac fibrosis reflecting type I (mineralocorticoid) receptor occupancy by administered Aldo or DOC, or by elevated endogenous B after type II (glucocorticoid) receptor blockade after RU486 administration; perivascular fibrosis may reflect a composite response after type I receptor agonist/type II glucocorticoid receptor antagonist occupancy.
M Young, M Fullerton, R Dilley, J Funder
E Cersosimo, R L Judd, J M Miles
Bearing in mind the importance of upper-body obesity for the insulin resistance (or metabolic) syndrome and the abnormalities in free fatty acid metabolism associated with this disorder, the regulation of lipolysis in isolated subcutaneous adipocytes was investigated in 13 72-yr old upper-body obese men with insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and in 10 healthy 72-yr-old men. There was a marked resistance to the lipolytic effect of noradrenaline in the metabolic syndrome due to defects at two different levels in the lipolytic cascade. First, an 80-fold decrease in sensitivity to the beta 2-selective agonist terbutaline (P < 0.001) which could be ascribed to a 50% reduced number of beta 2-receptors (P < 0.005) as determined with radioligand binding. The groups did not differ as regards dobutamine (beta 1) or clonidine (alpha-2) sensitivity, nor beta 1-receptor number. The mRNA levels for beta 1- and beta 2-receptors were similar in the two groups. Second, the maximum stimulated lipolytic rate was markedly reduced in the metabolic syndrome. This was true for isoprenaline (nonselective beta-agonist), forskolin (activating adenylyl cyclase), and dibutyryl cAMP (activating protein kinase). In regression analysis, the observed abnormalities in lipolysis regulation correlated in an independent way with the degree of glucose intolerance (r = -0.67) and beta 2-receptor number with insulin resistance (r = 0.67). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate the existence of lipolytic resistance to catecholamines in the adipose tissue of elderly men with the metabolic syndrome, which may be of importance for impaired insulin action and glucose intolerance. The resistance is located at a posttranscriptional level of beta 2-receptor expression and at the protein kinase-hormone sensitive lipase level.
S Reynisdottir, K Ellerfeldt, H Wahrenberg, H Lithell, P Arner
We investigated whether non-abortive maternal infections would compromise fetal brain development and alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning when adult. To study putative teratogenic effects of a T cell-mediated immune response versus an endotoxic challenge, 10-d-pregnant rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of 5 x 10(8) human red blood cells (HRBC) or gram-negative bacterial endotoxin (Escherichia coli LPS: 30 micrograms/kg). The adult male progeny (3 mo old) of both experimental groups showed increased basal plasma corticosterone levels. In addition, after novelty stress the HRBC group, but not the LPS group, showed increased ACTH and corticosterone levels. Both groups showed substantial decreases in mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in the hippocampus, a limbic brain structure critical for HPA axis regulation, whereas GR concentrations in the hypothalamus were unchanged and in anterior pituitary were slightly increased. HRBC and LPS indeed stimulated the maternal immune system as revealed by specific anti-HRBC antibody production and enhanced IL-1 beta mRNA expression in splenocytes, respectively. This study demonstrates that a T cell-mediated immune response as well as an endotoxic challenge during pregnancy can induce anomalies in HPA axis function in adulthood. Clinically, it may be postulated that disturbed fetal brain development due to prenatal immune challenge increases the vulnerability to develop mental illness involving inadequate responses to stress.
J M Reul, I Stec, G J Wiegers, M S Labeur, A C Linthorst, E Arzt, F Holsboer
We have tested the hypothesis that oxidation of lung surfactant results in loss of surface tension lowering function. Porcine lung surfactant was exposed to conditions known to cause lipid peroxidation (0.2 mM FeCl2 + 0.1 mM H2O2 or 5 microM CuCl2). Lipid peroxidation was verified by detection of conjugated dienes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, fluorescent products, hydroxy alkenals, and loss of unsaturated fatty acids. Exposed samples had significantly diminished surface tension lowering ability in vitro as measured in a bubble surfactometer. Samples exposed to FeCl2 + H2O2 had significantly diminished surface tension lowering ability in vivo as indicated by their reduced ability to improve lung compliance of surfactant-deficient fetal rabbits. Oxidation of phospholipid mixtures with surface tension lowering activity and containing unsaturated acyl groups resulted in partial loss of activity as determined in vitro. These results suggest that the effect of oxidants on lung surfactant function is due, in part, to effects on the phospholipid components and that acute pulmonary inflammation accompanied by oxygen radical production may result in surfactant lipid peroxidation and loss of surface tension lowering function.
N Gilliard, G P Heldt, J Loredo, H Gasser, H Redl, T A Merritt, R G Spragg
GM-CSF is known to prime leukocytes for inflammatory stimuli in vitro. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of GM-CSF in vivo in a systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome. The results demonstrate a potentiation of LPS toxicity by GM-CSF in a mortality model as well as in a septic liver failure model in mice. Pretreatment of animals with 50 micrograms/kg GM-CSF induced lethality within 24 h in mice challenged with a subtoxic dose of LPS while controls survived > 72 h. A monoclonal anti-GM-CSF antibody significantly protected against a lethal LPS dose. Serum GM-CSF was inducible by LPS and peaked at 2 h. GM-CSF pretreatment dramatically potentiated systemic TNF release and hepatotoxicity induced by a subtoxic dose of LPS in galactosamine-sensitized mice. Potentiation of LPS hepatotoxicity was possible until 30 min after LPS challenge. Polyclonal anti-GM-CSF IgG protected against septic liver failure in this model and attenuated serum TNF concentrations. In vitro an ex vivo experiments revealed that after GM-CSF pretreatment LPS-induced IL-1 release from bone marrow or spleen cells was also enhanced. These findings suggest that GM-CSF represents an endogenous enhancer of LPS-induced organ injury, possibly by potentiating the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF and IL-1.
G Tiegs, J Barsig, B Matiba, S Uhlig, A Wendel
Increased Na+/H+ antiport activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and vascular disease in diabetes mellitus. The independent effect of elevated extracellular glucose concentrations on Na+/H+ antiport activity in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) was thus examined. Amiloride-sensitive 22Na+ uptake by VSMC significantly increased twofold after 3 and 24 h of exposure to high glucose medium (20 mM) vs. control medium (5 mM). Direct glucose-induced Na+/H+ antiport activation was confirmed by measuring Na(+)-dependent intracellular pH recovery from intracellular acidosis. High glucose significantly increased protein kinase C (PKC) activity in VSMC and inhibition of PKC activation with H-7, staurosporine, or prior PKC downregulation prevented glucose-induced increases in Na+/H+ antiport activity in VSMC. Northern analysis of VSMC poly A+ RNA revealed that high glucose induced a threefold increase in Na+/H+ antiport (NHE-1) mRNA at 24 h. Inhibiting this increase in NHE-1 mRNA with actinomycin D prevented the sustained glucose-induced increase in Na+/H+ antiport activity. In conclusion, elevated glucose concentrations significantly influence vascular Na+/H+ antiport activity via glucose-induced PKC dependent mechanisms, thereby providing a biochemical basis for increased Na+/H+ antiport activity in the vascular tissues of patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.
B Williams, R L Howard
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has previously been shown to promote the survival of several classes of neurons and glial. We report here that in addition to its effects on the nervous system, CNTF can induce potent effects in extra-neural tissues. Implantation of C6 glioma cells engineered to secrete CNTF either subcutaneously or into the peritoneal cavity of adult mice, or systemic injections of purified rat or human recombinant CNTF, resulted in a rapid syndrome of weight loss resulting in death over a period of 7-10 d. This weight loss could not be explained by a reduction in food intake and involved losses of both fat and skeletal muscle. CNTF also induced the synthesis of acute phase proteins such as haptoglobin. Implantation of C6 lines expressing a nonsecreted form of CNTF, or the parental C6 line itself, did not result in wasting effects. Analysis of this CNTF-induced wasting indicates similarities with the previously described cachectins, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 6, and leukemia inhibitory factor, but does not involve the induction of these cytokines.
J T Henderson, N A Seniuk, P M Richardson, J Gauldie, J C Roder
The mechanism by which beta blockade improves left ventricular dysfunction in various cardiomyopathies has been ascribed to improved contractile function of the myocardium or to improved beta-adrenergic responsiveness. In this study we tested two hypotheses: (a) that chronic beta blockade would improve the left ventricular dysfunction which develops in mitral regurgitation, and (b) that an important mechanism of this effect would be improved innate contractile function of the myocardium. Two groups of six dogs with chronic severe mitral regurgitation were studied. After 3 mo both groups had developed similar and significant left ventricular dysfunction. One group was then gradually beta-blocked while the second group continued to be observed without further intervention. In the group that remained unblocked, contractile function remained depressed. However, in the group that received chronic beta blockade, contractile function improved substantially. The contractility of cardiocytes isolated from the unblocked hearts and then studied in the absence of beta receptor stimulation was extremely depressed. However, contractility of cardiocytes isolated from the beta-blocked ventricles was virtually normal. Consistent with these data, myofibrillar density was much higher, 55 +/- 4% in the beta-blocked group vs. 39 +/- 2% (P < 0.01) in the unblocked group; thus, there were more contractile elements to generate force in the beta-blocked group. We conclude that chronic beta blockade improves left ventricular function in chronic experimental mitral regurgitation. This improvement was associated with an improvement in the innate contractile function of isolated cardiocytes, which in turn is associated with an increase in the number of contractile elements.
H Tsutsui, F G Spinale, M Nagatsu, P G Schmid, K Ishihara, G DeFreyte, G Cooper 4th, B A Carabello
We examined effects of acetylcholine (ACh) on the electrical parameters and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the isolated rabbit cortical collecting duct (CCD) perfused in vitro using the conventional microelectrode technique and microscopic fluorescence spectrophotometry. ACh (10(-8) to 10(-5) M) in the bath caused a positive deflection of the transepithelial voltage (VT) and an increase in [Ca2+]i. Carbachol also showed similar but smaller effects. The effects of ACh were antagonized by muscarinic receptor antagonists. ACh at 10(-6) M hyperpolarized the apical membrane voltage and increased the fractional resistance of the apical membrane of the collecting duct cells accompanied by a positive deflection of VT and an increase in transepithelial resistance, whereas it did not affect these parameters in the beta-intercalated cells. In the presence of 10(-5) M amiloride in the lumen, the effects of ACh were almost completely abolished. The ACh-induced increase in [Ca2+]i is accounted for by the release of Ca2+ from intracellular store and Ca2+ entry from the bath. In the absence of Ca2+ in the bath, the ACh-induced changes in electrophysiological parameters were significantly smaller than those observed in the presence of Ca2+. Both phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and phorbol-12,13-dibutylate (PDBu), activators of protein kinase C (PKC), also inhibited the apical Na+ conductance. In the presence of PMA or PDBu in the bath, ACh did not show further inhibitory effect. 1-(5-Isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine, an inhibitor of PKC, partially attenuated the effect of ACh. These observations indicate that ACh inhibits the apical Na+ conductance partly by both increasing [Ca2+]i and activating PKC. Such an action of ACh may partially explain its natriuretic effect.
M Takeda, K Yoshitomi, J Taniguchi, M Imai
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is used increasingly to correct cyanotic heart defects during early infancy, but myocardial dysfunction is often seen after surgical repair. This study evaluates whether starting CPB at a conventional, hyperoxic pO2 causes an "unintentional" reoxygenation (ReO2) injury. We subjected 2-wk-old piglets to ventilator hypoxemia (FIO2 approximately 0.06, pO2 approximately 25 mmHg) followed by 5 min of ReO2 on CPB before instituting cardioplegia. CPB was begun in hypoxemic piglets by either abrupt ReO2 at a pO2 of 400 mmHg (standard clinical practice) or by maintaining pO2 approximately 25 mmHg on CPB until controlling ReO2 with blood cardioplegic arrest. The effects of abrupt vs. gradual ReO2 without surgical ischemia (blood cardioplegia) were also compared. Myocardial nitric oxide (NO) production (chemiluminescence measurements of NO2- + NO3-) and conjugated diene (CD) generation (spectrophotometric A233 measurements of lipid extracts) using aortic and coronary sinus blood samples were assessed during cardioplegic induction. 30 min after CPB, left ventricular end-systolic elastance (Ees, catheter conductance method) was used to determine cardiac function. CPB and blood cardioplegic arrest caused no functional or biochemical change in normoxic (control) hearts. Abrupt ReO2 caused a depression of myocardial function (Ees = 25 +/- 5% of control). Functional depression was relatively unaffected by gradual ReO2 without blood cardioplegia (34% recovery of Ees), and abrupt ReO2 immediately before blood cardioplegia caused a 10-fold rise in cardiac NO and CD production, with subsequent depression of myocardial function (Ees 21 +/- 2% of control). In contrast, controlled cardiac ReO2 reduced NO production 94%, CD did not rise, and Ees was 83 +/- 8% of normal. We conclude ReO2 injury is related to increased NO production during abrupt ReO2, nullifies the cardioprotective effects of blood cardioplegia, and that controlled cardiac ReO2 when starting CPB to correct cyanotic heart defects may reduce NO production and improve myocardial status postoperatively.
K Morita, K Ihnken, G D Buckberg, M P Sherman, H H Young, L J Ignarro
The effects of airway inflammation induced by chronic antigen exposure on substance P (SP)-induced increases and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-induced decreases in airway opening pressure (Pao), and the recovery of intact and hydrolyzed radiopeptide were studied in tracheally perfused guinea pig lungs. SP (10(-6) mol/kg) induced a significantly greater increase in Pao in lungs from antigen-exposed (30 +/- 5 cm H2O) than saline-exposed animals (15 +/- 1 cm H2O, P < 0.05). Significantly more intact 3H-SP and significantly less 3H-SP 1-7, a neutral endopeptidase (NEP) hydrolysis product, were recovered from the lung effluent of antigen-exposed than saline-exposed animals (P < 0.05). Injection of VIP (10(-9) mol/kg) induced significantly more pulmonary relaxation in saline-exposed compared with antigen-exposed lungs (62 +/- 4%, P < 0.001). In contrast to effluent from saline-exposed animals, lung effluent from antigen-exposed lungs contained less intact VIP, increased amounts of a tryptic hydrolysis product, and no products consistent with the degradation of VIP by NEP. These data indicate that inflamed lungs are more sensitive to the contractile effects of SP because it is less efficiently degraded by NEP and are less sensitive to the relaxant effects of VIP because it is more efficiently degraded by a tryptic enzyme. Changes in airway protease activity occur with allergic inflammation and may contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness.
C M Lilly, L Kobzik, A E Hall, J M Drazen
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is associated with chronic intrauterine events. Acute nitric oxide (NO) inhibition attenuates the normal increase in pulmonary blood flow at birth. We investigated whether chronic NO inhibition in utero causes persistent pulmonary hypertension. 11 fetal lambs received either a continuous infusion of N omega-nitro-L-arginine (an NO synthesis inhibitor) or 0.9% saline. Before infusion, acetylcholine (dependent upon endogenous NO production) and sodium nitroprusside (which releases its own NO) produced potent pulmonary vasodilation. After 10.5 +/- 1.5 d of infusion, acetylcholine did not produce pulmonary vasodilation in N omega-nitric-L-arginine-treated fetal lambs, but did in saline-treated fetal lambs; sodium nitroprusside produced pulmonary vasodilation in both groups. Immediately after birth, at 140 d of gestation, during the 3-h study period, mean pulmonary arterial pressure did not decrease in N omega-nitro-L-arginine-treated lambs; the increase in pulmonary blood flow and decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance were markedly attenuated compared to saline-treated lambs. These hemodynamic derangements were reversed by L-arginine. There were no anatomic abnormalities in the pulmonary circulation. Chronic NO inhibition in utero reproduces many of the physiologic derangements of PPHN. Intrauterine events which result in endothelial dysfunction and inhibition of NO may produce the physiologic derrangements of PPHN.
J R Fineman, J Wong, F C Morin 3rd, L M Wild, S J Soifer
Previous work from our laboratory localized nitric oxide to the affected spinal cords of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a prime model for the human disease multiple sclerosis. The present study shows that activated lymphocytes sensitized to the central nervous system encephalitogen, myelin basic protein, can induce nitric oxide production by a murine macrophage cell line. Induction was inhibited by amino-guanidine, a preferential inhibitor of the inducible nitric oxide synthase isoform, and by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. Aminoguanidine, when administered to mice sensitized to develop experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, inhibited disease expression in a dose-related manner. At 400 mg aminoguanidine/kg per day, disease onset was delayed and the mean maximum clinical score was 0.9 +/- 1.2 in aminoguanidine versus 3.9 +/- 0.9 in placebo-treated mice. Histologic scoring of the spinal cords for inflammation, demyelination, and axonal necrosis revealed significantly less pathology in the aminoguanidine-treated group. The present study implicates excessive nitric oxide production in the pathogenesis of murine inflammatory central nervous system demyelination, and perhaps in the human disease multiple sclerosis.
A H Cross, T P Misko, R F Lin, W F Hickey, J L Trotter, R G Tilton
Portal hypertension (PHT) is characterized by splanchnic hyperemia due to a reduction in mesenteric vascular resistance. We hypothesized that alterations in the activity of a guanine-nucleotide regulatory protein (G-protein) might be partially responsible for the marked circulatory disturbances observed in PHT. We, therefore, determined alterations in adenylyl cyclase/cAMP system in prehepatic portal hypertensive rabbits and correlated these changes to the activity of a G-protein. Basal and G-protein-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities were lower in the PHT superior mesenteric artery (22-26%) and thoracic aorta (31-46%) membranes, but higher (178-321%) in portal vein. The functional activity of Gi alpha proteins (pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-dependent ribosylation) increased in the PHT superior mesenteric artery and thoracic aorta, but decreased in portal vein. Immunodetection revealed an increase in the Gi alpha protein subunits (Gi alpha 1/Gi alpha 2 and Gi alpha 3/Go alpha) in PHT thoracic aorta, without any change in Gs alpha proteins; and a decrease in the amount of Gi alpha proteins in PHT portal vein. There was no change in the amount of Gs alpha/Gi alpha in the PHT superior mesenteric artery. We conclude the hemodynamic alterations of PHT are associated with intrinsic alterations in G-protein-enzyme effector systems. These alterations are vessels specific and suggest a possible unique global derangement underlying the vasculopathy of PHT.
P A Cahill, Y Wu, J V Sitzmann
The endothelin system, consisting of a series of potent vasoconstrictor peptides and their receptors, is potentially important in the control of blood pressure. We found that the gene coding for endothelin-2 (ET2), also known as vasoctive intestine peptide, cosegregated strongly with systolic blood pressure in a F2 population [F2(S x LEW)] derived from a cross of the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat and the Lewis (LEW/NCrlBR) (LEW) rat. The ET2 locus was assigned to rat chromosome 5. The testis-specific histone (HITH) locus also strongly cosegregated with blood pressure in the F2(S x LEW) population and was assigned to rat chromosome 17. Genetic maps of the regions containing the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for blood pressure on chromosomes 5 and 17 were constructed and the QTL were localized using the MAPMAKER/QTL program. The rat genes for endothelin-1, endothelin-3, and endothelin receptor A did not cosegregate with blood pressure in several F2 populations tested and were assigned to rat chromosomes 17, 3, and 19, respectively. Endothelin receptor B cosegregated weakly with blood pressure and was provisionally assigned to rat chromosome 15. We conclude that, in the rat, one new blood pressure QTL is located on chromosome 5 marked by the ET2 locus and another new QTL is located on chromosome 17 near the HITH locus.
A Y Deng, H Dene, M Pravenec, J P Rapp
The present study was undertaken to determine whether low density lipoprotein (LDL) modulates the cellular action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in rat glomerular mesangial cells in culture. AVP increased cellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) in a dose-dependent manner. When cells were preincubated for 24 h with 10 microgram/ml LDL, the 1 x 10(-7) M AVP-mobilized [Ca2+]i was 874 nM, a value significantly greater than that of 375 nM in the intact cells. AVP caused a biphasic change in cellular pH (pHi), namely, an early acidification followed by a sustained alkalinization, and the change in pHi produced by AVP was also enhanced by LDL. AVP stimulated a 2.2-fold increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation, an effect significantly greater in the presence of 10 micrograms/ml LDL. Furthermore, 1 x 10(-7) M AVP significantly activated mitogen-activated protein kinase from 14.0 to 24.5 pmol/mg protein. Such an activation was significantly enhanced by the LDL pretreatment. Both [3H]thymide incorporation and mitogen-activated protein kinase were not altered by 10 micrograms/ml LDL. [3H]AVP receptor binding was not affected by the LDL pretreatment. 1 x 10(-7) M AVP increased inositol trisphosphate production by 1.9-fold, an effect significantly greater in the presence of LDL. These results indicate that LDL enhances the cellular action of AVP and the AVP-stimulated cellular proliferation in glomerular mesangial cells. A site of action of LDL is the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol.
S Ishikawa, M Kawasumi, K Okada, T Saito
Sorbitol (aldose reductase) pathway flux in diabetes perturbs intracellular metabolism by two putative mechanisms: reciprocal osmoregulatory depletion of other organic osmolytes e.g., myo-inositol, and alterations in NADPH/NADP+ and/or NADH/NAD+. The "osmolyte" and "redox" hypotheses predict secondary elevations in CDP-diglyceride, the rate-limiting precursor for phosphatidylinositol synthesis, but through different mechanisms: the "osmolyte" hypothesis via depletion of intracellular myo-inositol (the cosubstrate for phosphatidylinositol-synthase) and the "redox" hypothesis through enhanced de novo synthesis from triose phosphates. The osmolyte hypothesis predicts diminished phosphoinositide-derived arachidonyl-diacylglycerol, while the redox hypothesis predicts increased total diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. In high aldose reductase expressing retinal pigment epithelial cells, glucose-induced, aldose reductase inhibitor-sensitive CDP-diglyceride accumulation and inhibition of 32P-incorporation into phosphatidylinositol paralleled myo-inositol depletion (but not cytoplasmic redox, that was unaffected by glucose) and depletion of arachidonyl-diacylglycerol. 3 mM pyruvate added to the culture medium left cellular redox unaltered, but stimulated Na(+)-dependent myo-inositol uptake, accumulation, and incorporation into phosphatidylinositol. These results favor myo-inositol depletion rather than altered redox as the primary cause of glucose-induced aldose reductase-related defects in phospholipid metabolism in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells.
T P Thomas, F Porcellati, K Kato, M J Stevens, W R Sherman, D A Greene
Na,K-ATPase activity and isoform expression were measured in rat small intestinal mucosa taken from both normal and streptozocin-treated diabetic rats. Enzyme activity and abundance was 1.7-2.3-fold higher in rats diabetic for 2 wk than in controls. This was associated with 1.4-1.7-fold increases in small intestinal protein and DNA content. Ouabain inhibition curves of Na,K-ATPase were monophasic with Kis of 2.6 +/- 1.4 x 10(-4) and 2.0 +/- 1.2 x 10(-4) M for control and diabetic rats, respectively (NS). Northern blot analysis revealed a 2.5-fold increase in mRNA alpha 1 and a 3.4-fold increase in mRNA beta 1 in diabetic rats relative to controls. Two thirds of this increase occurred within 24h after injection of streptozocin. Immunoblots of intestinal enzyme preparations from diabetic and control rats indicated the presence of alpha 1 and beta 1 subunits but not of alpha 2 or alpha 3. Administration of glucagon (80 micrograms/kg) to normal rats daily for 14-16 d increased mRNA alpha 1 3.1-fold but did not increase mRNA beta 1 or enzyme activity. In experimental diabetes, alpha 1 and beta 1 isoforms of Na,K-ATPase are coordinately upregulated at both protein and mRNA levels, an effect which appears to be partially mediated by the associated hyperglucagonemia.
K Barada, C Okolo, M Field, N Cortas
Microcirculation was studied during 10 wk in untreated rabbits (n = 13) and in rabbits treated with dietary addition of 1% cholesterol (n = 13), 1% cholesterol + 1% of the antioxidant BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) (n = 11), or 1% BHT (n = 5). The studies were performed by direct intravital microscopic imaging of the left and right conjunctivae with the use of a stereo microscope and a high resolution television camera. Microvessel diameter, erythrocyte flow velocity, and microhemorheologic conditions were evaluated quantitatively via a computer-assisted digital image processing system. Significant and marked changes occurred in all the above variables as a consequence of cholesterol feeding. After 3 wk of feeding there was a dramatic decrease (approximately 30%) in blood flow velocity in arterioli of the third order (P < 0.0001), accompanied by aggregation of cells in 40-50% of the smaller conjunctival vessels (P < 0.0001). These changes were enhanced further during the following 7 wk of treatment. All the above changes in the microcirculation were markedly reduced by the addition of BHT treatment. The diameter of the above arterioli decreased in the purely cholesterol-fed group (P < 0.005), whereas this did not occur in the group fed both cholesterol and BHT. In rabbits fed BHT in the absence of cholesterol, there was no significant effect on any assessed microcirculatory variable. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the antioxidant BHT prevented early cholesterol-induced microcirculatory changes. This prevention occurred in the absence of a reduction of blood lipid levels. The results provide strong support for the hypothesis that a considerable part of the effects on microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia may be due to cholesterol-induced oxidations and not to cholesterol itself. The results are discussed in relation to the previously demonstrated antiatherogenic effect of BHT and the possible use of antioxidants in the therapy and prophylaxis of atherosclerosis.
R J Xiu, A Freyschuss, X Ying, L Berglund, P Henriksson, I Björkhem
Graves' ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune condition characterized by T cell infiltration of the retrobulbar tissue. Phenotypic and functional analysis of these infiltrating cells may provide insight into the pathogenesis of the disease. IL-2-responsive cells were therefore grown out of the retrobulbar tissue from two patients with severe Graves' ophthalmopathy undergoing orbital decompression surgery, and six T cell lines were established and characterized. They consisted predominantly of CD8 + CD45RO+ cells and secreted IL-4, IFN-gamma, and IL-10 upon activation. When screened for their antigen reactivity, all lines proliferated in response to stimulation with autologous retrobulbar fibroblasts in an HLA class I-restricted manner, but did not recognize autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells, crude eye muscle extract, allogeneic cells, or purified protein derivate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In contrast, PBMC from the same patients responded readily to purified protein derivate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and allogeneic PBMC, but did not recognize autologous fibroblasts. Interestingly, only one of the six retrobulbar T cell lines displayed cytotoxicity towards its specific target cell population. These results suggest that the retrobulbar fibroblasts are a major T cell target in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Pronounced cytokine production in the absence of target cell cytotoxicity may explain fibroblast proliferation, glycosaminoglycan secretion, and secondary eye muscle enlargement in this condition.
B Grubeck-Loebenstein, K Trieb, A Sztankay, W Holter, H Anderl, G Wick
Gonococcal pilin variation is thought to allow immune evasion and change the adherence properties of the pilus. We have examined the process of pilin antigenic variation in human volunteers inoculated with strain FA1090. Our data show that pilin variation occurred throughout the process of infection, that at each time sampled after inoculation multiple pilin variants were present, and that later pilin variants appear to be recombinants between previously expressed genes and the silent storage pilin copies. Thus, during infection a large repertoire of proteins are available to the population to help avoid immune responses, to provide pili with varying functions, and to transmit to a new host.
H S Seifert, C J Wright, A E Jerse, M S Cohen, J G Cannon
Cellular Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) activity is elevated in type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy and patients with essential hypertension. The characteristics of this NHE phenotype in hypertension (raised Vmax and a lowered Hill coefficient) are preserved in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblasts from hypertensive patients. In this study, we have determined NHE kinetics in cultured lymphoblasts from diabetic patients with and without nephropathy, with nondiabetic controls, using fluorometry with the pH indicator 2,7'-bis-(carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein and estimation of NHE isoform 1 (NHE-1) density with specific polyclonal antibodies. The Vmax of NHE was elevated significantly, and the Hill coefficient for internal H+ binding was lowered in cells from patients with diabetic nephropathy compared with both normal controls and normoalbuminuric diabetic patients. NHE-1 density as measured by Western blotting was similar in all groups. The turnover number of NHE-1 was thus elevated in cells from nephropathy patients. This phenotype in cells from diabetic nephropathy patients resembles that in essential hypertension and suggests that such patients may have a predisposition to hypertension. Moreover, as these changes persist in cultured lymphoblasts in vitro, these cells should provide a cell culture model to further define the basic mechanisms leading to NHE activation in diabetic nephropathy.
L L Ng, J E Davies, M Siczkowski, F P Sweeney, P A Quinn, B Krolewski, A S Krolewski
Lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) is an atherogenic lipoprotein which is similar in structure to low density lipoproteins (LDL) but contains an additional protein called apolipoprotein(a) (apo[a]). Apo(a) is highly polymorphic in size, and there is a strong inverse association between the size of the apo(a) isoform and the plasma concentration of Lp(a). We directly compared the in vivo catabolism of Lp(a) particles containing different size apo(a) isoforms to establish whether there is an effect of apo(a) isoform size on the catabolic rate of Lp(a). In the first series of studies, four normal subjects were injected with radio-labeled S1-Lp(a) and S2-Lp(a) and another four subjects were injected with radiolabeled S2-Lp(a) and S4-Lp(a). No significant differences in fractional catabolic rate were found between Lp(a) particles containing different apo(a) isoforms. To confirm that apo(a) isoform size does not influence the rate of Lp(a) catabolism, three subjects heterozygous for apo(a) were selected for preparative isolation of both Lp(a) particles. The first was a B/S3-apo(a) subject, the second a S4/S6-apo(a) subject, and the third an F/S3-apo(a) subject. From each subject, both Lp(a) particles were preparatively isolated, radiolabeled, and injected into donor subjects and normal volunteers. In all cases, the catabolic rates of the two forms of Lp(a) were not significantly different. In contrast, the allele-specific apo(a) production rates were more than twice as great for the smaller apo(a) isoforms than for the larger apo(a) isoforms. In a total of 17 studies directly comparing Lp(a) particles of different apo(a) isoform size, the mean fractional catabolic rate of the Lp(a) with smaller size apo(a) was 0.329 +/- 0.090 day-1 and of the Lp(a) with the larger size apo(a) 0.306 +/- 0.079 day-1, not significantly different. In summary, the inverse association of plasma Lp(a) concentrations with apo(a) isoform size is not due to differences in the catabolic rates of Lp(a) but rather to differences in Lp(a) production rates.
D J Rader, W Cain, K Ikewaki, G Talley, L A Zech, D Usher, H B Brewer Jr
The developing brain obtains polyunsaturated fatty acids from the circulation, but the mechanism and route of delivery of these fatty acids are undetermined. 14C-labeled chylomicrons were prepared by duodenal infusion of [1-14C]16:0, [1-14C]18:2(n-6), [1-14C]18:3(n-3), or [1-14C]22:6(n-3) into adult donor rats, and were individually injected into hepatectomized 2-wk-old suckling rats. After minor correction for trapped blood in the brain, the incorporation of chylomicron fatty acids after 30 min was nearly half that of a co-injected free fatty acid reference. [1-14C]22:6(n-3)-labeled chylomicrons showed an average 65% greater incorporation than chylomicrons prepared from the other fatty acids. This apparent selectivity may have been partly due to lower oxidation of 22:6(n-3) in the brain compared to the other fatty acids tested, based on recovered water-soluble oxidation products. The bulk of the radioactivity in the brain was found in phospholipid and triacylglycerol, except that animals injected with [1-14C]22:6(n-3) chylomicrons showed considerable incorporation also into the fatty acid fraction instead of triacylglycerol. These data show that chylomicrons may be an important source of fatty acids for the developing rat brain.
G J Anderson, P S Tso, W E Connor