Previous Ussing chamber measurements of secretagogue-provoked changes in short circuit current in rectal suction biopsies of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients showed that in a minority of patients chloride secretion in response to cholinergic agonists is reduced but not completely absent. To assess a possible relationship between this phenomenon and both the genotype and the phenotype, we performed Ussing chamber experiments on rectal suction biopsies of 51 CF patients. The CF mutation was identified in 89 out of 102 CF alleles. No apparent chloride secretion was found in 30 CF patients (group I). Low residual chloride secretion was found in 11 CF patients (group II), while a relatively high residual secretion appeared in 10 CF patients (group III). Pancreatic function was preserved more frequently in CF patients displaying residual secretion: 0% in group I, 27% in group II, and 60% in group III (P < 0.001). The age at diagnosis (mean +/- SEM) in group III (18.4 +/- 6.6) was significantly different from group I (1.2 +/- 0.4, P < 0.01) and group II (3.5 +/- 1.4, P = 0.05). Residual chloride secretion was found in some of the 28 dF508 homozygous patients (three in group II, and one in group III), disclosing that other factors than the CF gene defect itself affect the transepithelial chloride transport. The age at diagnosis correlates significantly with the magnitude of the secretory response, even within the dF508 homozygous patients (r = 0.4, P < 0.05). We conclude that residual chloride secretion in CF is the pathophysiological basis of preserved pancreatic function and delayed presentation of the disease, which is not exclusively determined by the CF genotype.
H J Veeze, D J Halley, J Bijman, J C de Jongste, H R de Jonge, M Sinaasappel
Plasmodium falciparum infecting hemoglobin (Hb)H and/or Hb Constant Spring erythrocytes has higher resistance to artemisinin in vitro than when infecting normal erythrocytes. This is due to low drug accumulation of infected erythrocytes resulting from competition with uninfected variant erythrocytes, which have a higher accumulation capacity than genetically normal cells. Drug accumulation of the parasite was shown to be saturable and dependent on metabolic energy. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50's) for the parasite in HbH/Hb Constant Spring erythrocytes were decreased when normal erythrocytes were added to the infected cells, and correspondingly, the IC50's in normal erythrocytes were increased when HbH/Hb Constant Spring erythrocytes were added to the infected cells. The changes of IC50 corresponded to the variation in drug accumulation of mixtures of normal and variant erythrocytes of different compositions. The IC50's for the parasite in variant erythrocytes were also greatly decreased when the hematocrit of the culture was lowered, while the IC50's in normal erythrocytes were independent of the hematocrit. The increase in IC50 values for the parasites infecting variant erythrocytes was also related to the decrease in parasite accumulation, indicating that drug accumulation capacity of the parasite also has a role in determining drug sensitivity. Artemisinin sensitivity therefore is determined by its accessibility to the parasite, which is decreased in infected variant erythrocytes.
S Kamchonwongpaisan, G Chandra-ngam, M A Avery, Y Yuthavong
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of disease in the immunocompromised patient and CMV infection is associated with predominantly mononuclear inflammatory response. Since products of the CMV immediate early (IE) gene region are potent trans-activators, we used the monocyte cell line THP-1 and a transient transfection assay to determine if these viral proteins upregulate expression of the TNF gene. The IE genes of CMV upregulated TNF gene activity as judged by increases in promoter activity, steady state mRNA, and protein production. The presence or absence of the 3' untranslated region of the TNF gene did not affect gene expression induced by the IE gene products. These studies suggest that activation of TNF gene expression by the CMV IE gene products may, in part, account for the inflammatory response associated with CMV infections.
L J Geist, M M Monick, M F Stinski, G W Hunninghake
Although lipids are essential nutrients in the mammalian diet, we have shown that fatty acids are injurious to epithelial cells of developing piglet intestine during luminal perfusion. Furthermore, the intestine of young animals sustains greater injury than that of older piglets. In an effort to understand the mechanism for this developmental injury, we investigated whether changes in the chemical configuration of oleic acid would alter this damage. Mucosal permeability, as quantitated by the plasma-to-lumen clearance of 51chromium EDTA, was evaluated during luminal perfusion with oleic acid as compared with its ethyl (ethyl oleate) and glyceryl (glycerol-1-mono-oleate) esters, solubilized with taurocholic acid, in jejunum of 1-d-, 3-d-, 2-wk-, and 1-mo-old piglets. 51Chromium EDTA clearance increased significantly during oleic acid and glycerol-1-mono-oleate perfusion, but did not increase during perfusion with ethyl oleate or saline. This result was not secondary to failure of absorption of ethyl oleate, as [14C]oleic acid and ethyl [1-14C]oleate were absorbed to a similar extent. Furthermore, developing intestine was able to remove the ethyl group and then re-esterify the fatty acid to form triacyglycerol. These studies indicate that oleic acid-induced mucosal injury can be abolished when the carboxylic group of the fatty acid is esterified with an ethyl, but not a glycerol, group. Since the ethyl ester is also absorbed and metabolized similarly to the free fatty acid, this may provide a means of supplying long-chain fatty acids to developing intestine without causing mucosal damage.
O R Velasquez, A R Place, P Tso, K D Crissinger
A panel of eight unrelated subjects with inherited type I protein S deficiency was screened for mutations in the PROS1 gene. In five subjects an abnormality was found but mutations were not detected in the remaining three subjects. Two subjects shared a G-->A transition at position +5 of the donor splice site consensus sequence of intron 10. Also in two subjects an A-->T transversion was detected in the stopcodon of the PROS1 gene; this transversion predicts a protein S molecule that is extended by 14 amino acids. The fifth subject was found to possess two sequence abnormalities. One allele carried a G-->A transition near the donor splice junction of intron 2, but this abnormality is probably neutral, since it was inherited from the parent with normal protein S antigen levels. In the other allele a single T insertion in codon -25 was found. Analysis of platelet RNA showed that only the mRNA with the A-->T mutation in the stopcodon is present in amounts comparable to wildtype RNA. mRNA from the alleles with the other two mutations was either undetectable or present in greatly reduced amounts. The latter indicates that a mRNA based approach is not feasible for the genetic analysis of protein S deficiency type I.
P H Reitsma, H K Ploos van Amstel, R M Bertina
Growth factors and tumor promoters have been shown to play a role in intestinal epithelial growth regulation and transformation. In this study, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha) and the tumor promoter, tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA), are shown to stimulate the production of eicosanoids by rat intestinal epithelial (RIE-1) cells in culture. A 4.5-kb mRNA, which hybridizes to the mouse cyclooxygenase-2 cDNA probe, is elevated 18-fold within 30 min after TGF alpha or TPA treatment. Stimulation of RIE-1 cells with TGF alpha leads to the increase of a protein (M(r) approximately 69,000), which binds a monospecific antibody to the mouse cyclooxygenase-2 protein. Dexamethasone markedly inhibits the increase of the 4.5-kb mRNA. Pretreatment of TGF alpha or TPA-stimulated RIE-1 cells with dexamethasone or cyclooxygenase inhibitors prevents the increase in eicosanoid production by these cells. Treatment of quiescent RIE-1 cells with TGF alpha stimulates mitogenesis. This mitogenic activity is blocked by pretreating the cells with dexamethasone or cyclooxygenase inhibitors. A mitogen-inducible cyclooxygenase gene is thus shown to be regulated by TGF alpha and TPA in rat intestinal epithelial cells. We suggest that products of an intestinal growth factor-inducible cyclooxygenase may play a role in the regulation of mitogenesis.
R N DuBois, J Awad, J Morrow, L J Roberts 2nd, P R Bishop
5-Lipoxygenase products, such as leukotrienes, are important stimuli for leukocyte-mediated tissue injury in acute inflammation. 15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) is an eicosanoid generated by a variety of cell types via the actions of 15-lipoxygenases and, in addition, cyclooxygenases and epoxygenases. 15-HETE levels are frequently elevated at sites of inflammation, and extracellular 15(S)-HETE is esterified rapidly into neutrophil (PMN) phospholipids in vitro to levels that are comparable with arachidonic acid. We present evidence that remodeling of PMN phospholipids with 15(S)-HETE stereoselectively inhibits PMN migration across endothelium in response to leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and other chemoattractants. Esterified 15(S)-HETE causes a striking reduction in the affinity of LTB4 cell-surface receptors for their ligand and inhibition of LTB4-triggered stimulus-response coupling. As a result of these actions, esterified 15(S)-HETE attenuates the cytoskeletal rearrangements and CD11/CD18-mediated adhesive events that subserve directed locomotion of PMN across endothelium. These observations indicate that products of the 5-lipoxygenase and 15-lipoxygenase pathways can exert counterbalancing influences on PMN trafficking across endothelium. They suggest that 15(S)-HETE may be a potent endogenous inhibitor of PMN-endothelial interactions in vivo and serve to limit or reverse acute inflammation.
S Takata, M Matsubara, P G Allen, P A Janmey, C N Serhan, H R Brady
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon with a high incidence of colon cancer. Dysplasia is a precursor to carcinoma and a predictor of malignant potential; epithelia containing high-grade or severe dysplasia is most likely to develop cancer. The cellular oncogene c-src and its viral homologue v-src (the transforming gene of Rous sarcoma virus) encode 60-kD cytoplasmic, membrane-associated protein tyrosine kinases. For the viral protein or transforming mutants of the cellular protein (Src), a close correlation exists between elevated tyrosine kinase activity and malignant transformation of cells. Previously, we and others observed elevated Src activity in sporadic colon carcinomas and benign adenomas at greatest risk for developing cancer (those with large size, villous architecture, and/or severe dysplasia). Here we report that Src activity and protein abundance are also elevated in neoplastic UC epithelia. Activity is highest in malignant and severely dysplastic epithelia, and 6-10-fold higher in mildly dysplastic than in nondysplastic epithelia. Thus, Src activity is elevated in premalignant UC epithelia, which is at greatest risk for developing cancer. The data suggest that activation of the src proto-oncogene is an early event in the genesis of UC colon cancer.
C A Cartwright, C A Coad, B M Egbert
We evaluated the prognostic significance of p185c-erbB-2 expression and ras gene mutations in all patients diagnosed with a pulmonary adenocarcinoma between 1982 and 1985 at the University of Iowa. p185c-erbB-2 expression was detected in 15 cases (34%). A ras gene mutation was found in 16 cases (36%) and all were in codon-12 of K-ras. No N-ras mutations were identified. Both p185c-erbB-2 expression and a K-ras mutation were found only in codon-12 and present in six cases (14%). By univariate analysis p185c-erbB-2 expression was associated with shortened survival (P = 0.02) while the presence of a K-ras mutation was not (P = 0.16). Multivariate analysis by the Cox proportional hazards model, controlling for patient age and tumor stage, also continued to identify p185c-erbB-2 expression as an independent unfavorable prognostic factor (P = 0.01). In this model a K-ras mutation also approached significance as a poor prognostic indicator (P = 0.06). The impact of both p185c-erbB-2 expression and a K-ras mutation on survival was additive and highly significant (P = 0.004). This additive nature suggests that together these two markers identify a high-risk population of lung adenocarcinoma patients that may benefit from aggressive therapy.
J A Kern, R J Slebos, B Top, S Rodenhuis, D Lager, R A Robinson, D Weiner, D A Schwartz
beta 2-Microglobulin (beta 2M) is a major constituent of amyloid fibrils in hemodialysis-associated amyloidosis (HAA), a complication of long-term hemodialysis. However, the pathological role of beta 2M in HAA remains to be determined. Recently, we demonstrated that beta 2M in the amyloid deposits of HAA is modified with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) of the Maillard reaction. Since AGEs have been implicated in tissue damage associated with diabetic complications and aging, we investigated the possible involvement of AGE-modified beta 2M (AGE-beta 2M) in the pathogenesis of HAA. AGE- and normal-beta 2M were purified from urine of long-term hemodialysis patients. AGE-beta 2M enhanced directed migration (chemotaxis) and random cell migration (chemokinesis) of human monocytes in a dose-dependent manner. However, normal-beta 2M did not enhance any migratory activity. AGE-beta 2M, but not normal-beta 2M, increased the secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta from macrophages. Similar effects were also induced by in vitro prepared AGE-beta 2M (normal-beta 2M incubated with glucose in vitro for 30 d). When TNF-alpha or IL-1 beta was added to cultured human synovial cells in an amount equivalent to that secreted from macrophages in the presence of AGE-beta 2M, a significant increase in the synthesis of collagenase and morphological changes in cell shape were observed. These findings suggested that AGE-beta 2M, a major component in amyloid deposits, participates in the pathogenesis of HAA as foci where monocyte/macrophage accumulate and initiate an inflammatory response that leads to bone/joint destruction.
T Miyata, R Inagi, Y Iida, M Sato, N Yamada, O Oda, K Maeda, H Seo
Systemic glucose utilization declines during sleep in man. We tested the hypothesis that this decline in utilization is largely accounted for by reduced brain glucose metabolism. 10 normal subjects underwent internal jugular and radial artery cannulation to determine cerebral blood flow by N2O equilibrium technique and to quantitate cross-brain glucose and oxygen differences before and every 3 h during sleep. Sleep stage was graded by continuous electroencephalogram, and systemic glucose turnover was estimated by isotope dilution. Brain glucose metabolism fell from 33.6 +/- 2.2 mumol/100 g per min (mean +/- SE) before sleep (2300 h) to a mean nadir of 24.3 +/- 1.1 mumol/100 g per min at 0300 h during sleep (P = 0.001). Corresponding rates of systemic glucose utilization fell from 13.2 +/- 0.8 to 11.0 +/- 0.5 mumol/kg per min (P = 0.003). Diminished brain glucose metabolism was the product of a reduced arteriovenous glucose difference, 0.643 +/- 0.024 to 0.546 +/- 0.020 mmol/liter (P = 0.002), and cerebral blood flow, 50.3 +/- 2.8 to 44.6 +/- 1.4 cc/100 g per min (P = 0.021). Brain oxygen metabolism fell commensurately from 153.4 +/- 11.8 to 128.0 +/- 8.4 mumol/100 g per min (P = 0.045). The observed reduction in brain metabolism occurred independent of stage of central nervous system electrical activity (electroencephalographic data), and was more closely linked to duration of sleep. We conclude that a decline in brain glucose metabolism is a significant determinant of falling rates of systemic glucose utilization during sleep.
P J Boyle, J C Scott, A J Krentz, R J Nagy, E Comstock, C Hoffman
Previous investigations have demonstrated that growing mesangial cells in high glucose concentration stimulates extracellular matrix synthesis and also increases the expression of TGF-beta. We tested whether the stimulation of extracellular matrix production is mediated by autocrine activation of TGF-beta, a known prosclerotic cytokine. Addition of neutralizing anti-TGF-beta antibody, but not normal rabbit IgG, significantly reduced the high glucose-stimulated incorporation of 3[H]proline. Denaturing SDS-PAGE revealed that mainly collagen types I and IV were stimulated by high (450 mg/dl) D-glucose. This high glucose-mediated increase in collagen synthesis was reduced by the anti-TGF-beta antibody. Treatment of mesangial cells grown in normal (100 mg/dl) D-glucose with 2 ng/ml recombinant TGF-beta 1 mimicked the effects of high glucose. Furthermore, the anti-TGF-beta antibody significantly reduced the increase in mRNA levels encoding alpha 2(I) and alpha 1(IV) collagens induced by high glucose. Thus, the high glucose-stimulated increase of collagen production in mesangial cells is mediated, at least in part, by autocrine TGF-beta activation. We postulate that the interception of the glomerular activity of TGF-beta may be an effective intervention in the management of diabetic nephropathy.
F N Ziyadeh, K Sharma, M Ericksen, G Wolf
By measurements of NO2-/NO3- (NOx) production and Northern blot analysis, we studied the effects of a membrane-permeable cAMP derivative, 8-bromo-cAMP, on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene and the synthesis of NOx in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). 8-bromo-cAMP stimulated NOx production and increased steady-state levels of iNOS mRNA in rat VSMC in a time- and dose-dependent manner. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, a NOS inhibitor, completely blocked the 8-bromo-cAMP-induced NOx production, whose effect was partially, but significantly reversed by an excess L-arginine, but not by D-arginine. Compounds that increase intracellular cAMP levels (cholera toxin, forskolin, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine), all stimulated NOx production. Dexamethasone inhibited the stimulated NOx production, as well as the induction of iNOS mRNA by cAMP. Both actinomycin D and cycloheximide completely blocked the stimulated NOx production by cAMP. Actinomycin D abolished the cAMP-induced iNOS mRNA, whereas cycloheximide remarkably increased iNOS mRNA levels in the presence and absence of 8-bromo-cAMP (superinduction). Actinomycin D, but not dexamethasone, completely abolished the cycloheximide-induced iNOS mRNA. The half-life of cAMP-induced iNOS mRNA was approximately 2 h, whereas no decay in the cycloheximide-induced iNOS mRNA was observed during 12 h. These results demonstrate that iNOS gene is upregulated by cAMP and the superinduction of iNOS mRNA is attributable to increased mRNA stability in rat VSMC.
T Imai, Y Hirata, K Kanno, F Marumo
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants with precore mutation(s) resulting in the absence of HBeAg production have been associated with the occurrence of fulminant hepatitis in Japan, Israel, and southern Europe, where the prevalence of this HBV strain appears common. In areas such as United States, where HBV infection is not endemic, the role of this mutant virus in fulminant hepatitis is unknown. We developed an amplification refractory mutation detection system to detect specifically the presence of the G to A mutation at nucleotide position 1898, which is the most frequently observed mutation resulting in a precore stop codon. In addition, this method provided a quantitative measurement of the relative ratio of one strain to the other. Using this system, we tested HBV strains for the presence of the stop codon mutation in sera from 40 cases of fulminant hepatitis B occurring in the United States. Serum HBV DNAs from 28 patients were analyzed successfully. A mixture of wild-type and mutant strains in various ratios were observed in 15 patients, wild type exclusively in 11, and mutant exclusively in 2. Four of these patients had undergone liver transplantation for HBV-associated cirrhosis and developed fulminant HBV-associated hepatitis after transplantation. Pre- and posttransplant serum samples from one patient were analyzed: a mixture of wild-type and mutant HBV strains was detected in both samples. Our study demonstrated that both wild-type and mutant HBV strains are associated with fulminant hepatitis, and that in some patients in the United States, factors other than precore mutations contribute to the development of fulminant hepatitis.
T J Liang, K Hasegawa, S J Munoz, C N Shapiro, B Yoffe, B J McMahon, C Feng, H Bei, M J Alter, J L Dienstag
We investigated the effects of endothelins on receptor-mediated cyclic nucleotide metabolism in rat glomerulus, inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), and also in cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells. Endothelin (ET)-3 dose-dependently stimulated cGMP accumulation in glomerulus, which was higher than that of ET-1 or ET-2. ETB receptor agonist IRL 1620 produced cGMP in a dose-dependent manner, mimicking the effect of ET-3. ETA receptor antagonist BQ123-Na did not inhibit ET-3- or IRL 1620-stimulated cGMP generation. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) significantly inhibited ET-3- or IRL 1620-induced cGMP production, suggesting that ET-3- or IRL 1620-stimulated cGMP generation was mediated through nitric oxide (NO). Intracellular Ca chelator BAPTA/AM and calmodulin antagonist W-7, but not Ca channel blocker nicardipine, significantly inhibited ET-3- or IRL 1620-induced cGMP generation. In cultured rat mesangial cells, ET-3 stimulated cGMP generation through NO in the presence of fetal calf serum, which was not inhibited by addition of BQ123-Na. In IMCD, ET-3 had no stimulative effect on cGMP generation. We conclude that ET-3 stimulates NO-induced cGMP generation through ETB receptor in glomerulus. This effect seems to be mediated through intracellular Ca/calmodulin, but not through Ca influx via L-type Ca channel. Mesangial cells can be a source of NO coupled to ETB receptor activation in glomerulus. From these results, mesangial ETB receptor may work to counteract the vasoconstrictive effect of endothelin caused via ETA receptor in glomerulus.
A Owada, K Tomita, Y Terada, H Sakamoto, H Nonoguchi, F Marumo
Accumulating evidence indicates that mutations in the human UGT1 gene locus abolish hepatic bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity and cause the subsequent accumulation of bilirubin to toxic levels in patients with Crigler-Najjar type 1 (CN-I). Genetic and biochemical criteria are required to link CN-I with mutations in UGT1. Here we present analysis of mutations at the UGT1 locus in three individuals that were clinically diagnosed with CN-I (two related and one unrelated). Each patient carries a single base substitution that alters conserved residues in the transferase enzyme molecule, serine to phenylalanine at codon 376 and glycine to glutamic acid at codon 309. Each was homozygous for the defect as demonstrated by sequencing and RFLPs. Mutant cDNAs, constructed by site-directed mutagenesis, inserted into expression vectors, and transfected into COS-1 cells, supported the synthesis of the bilirubin transferase protein but only cells transfected with the wild-type cDNA expressed bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity. The data provide conclusive evidence that alterations at Gly 309 and Ser 376 are the genetic basis for CN-I in these families. These results suggest that the two codons, located in conserved regions of the molecule, are part of the active site of the bilirubin enzyme.
L T Erps, J K Ritter, J H Hersh, D Blossom, N C Martin, I S Owens
Both IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma have recently been demonstrated to induce a rapid but transient activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts and a human neuroblastoma cell line. We report that IFN-gamma induces the synthesis and prolonged activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS 2B). Treatment of the cells with IFN-gamma (300 U/ml) increased the release of [3H]arachidonic acid (AA) from prelabeled cells with a maximal effect at 12 h after stimulation. The increased [3H]AA release was inhibited by the PLA2 inhibitor p-bromophenacyl bromide (10(-5) M). Calcium ionophore A23187 (10(-5) M) further increased the [3H]AA release from the IFN-gamma-treated cells. Subcellular enzyme activity assay revealed that IFN-gamma increased PLA2 activity in both the cytosol and membrane fractions with a translocation of the cPLA2 to cell membranes in a Ca(2+)-free cell lysing buffer. Treatment with IFN-gamma also induced the release of 15-HETE, an arachidonic acid metabolite. Immunoblot showed that IFN-gamma induced the synthesis of cPLA2 protein. Nuclear run-on assay demonstrated that IFN-gamma initiated cPLA2 gene transcription within 15 min, and this effect was sustained at 4 h and returned to near control level at 12 h. The cPLA2 mRNA level was assayed by reverse transcription and PCR. IFN-gamma was found to increase the cPLA2 mRNA after 2-24 h treatment. Furthermore, the IFN-gamma induced cPLA2 mRNA increase was blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, suggesting the involvement of these protein kinases in IFN-gamma-induced gene expression of cPLA2. This study shows that IFN-gamma induces the synthesis and prolonged activation of cPLA2.
T Wu, S J Levine, M G Lawrence, C Logun, C W Angus, J H Shelhamer
The effect of insulinopenic diabetes on the expression of glucose transporters in the small intestine was investigated. Enterocytes were sequentially isolated from jejunum and ileum of normal fed rats, streptozotocin-diabetic rats, and diabetic rats treated with insulin. Facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT) 2, GLUT5, and sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 protein content was increased from 1.5- to 6-fold in enterocytes isolated from diabetic animals in both jejunum and ileum. Insulin was able to reverse the increase in transporter protein expression seen after induction of diabetes. There was a four- to eightfold increase in the amount of enterocyte glucose transporter mRNA after diabetes with greater changes in sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and GLUT2 than in GLUT5 levels. In situ hybridization showed that after the induction of diabetes there was new hybridization in lower villus and crypt enterocytes that was reversed by insulin treatment. Thus, the increase in total hexose transport caused by diabetes is due to a premature expression of hexose transporters by enterocytes along the crypt-villus axis, causing a cumulative increase in enterocyte transporter protein during maturation. These changes are likely to represent an adaptive response by the organism to increase nutrient absorption in a perceived state of tissue starvation. These adaptive changes may lead to exacerbation of hyperglycemia in uncontrolled diabetes.
C F Burant, S Flink, A M DePaoli, J Chen, W S Lee, M A Hediger, J B Buse, E B Chang
SCID mouse tibialis anterior muscles were first irradiated to prevent regeneration by host myoblasts and injected with notexin to damage the muscle fibers and trigger regeneration. The muscles were then injected with roughly 5 million human myoblasts. 1 mo later, 16-33% of the normal number of muscle fibers were present in the injected muscle, because of incomplete regeneration. However, > 90% of these muscle fibers contained human dystrophin. Some newly formed muscle fibers had an accumulation of human dystrophin and desmin on a part of their membrane. Such accumulations have been demonstrated at neuromuscular junctions before suggesting that the new muscle fibers are innervated and functional. The same pool of clones of human myoblasts produced only < or = 4% of muscle fibers containing human dystrophin when injected in nude mice muscles. Several of the human myoblasts did not fuse and remained in interstitial space or tightly associated with muscle fibers suggesting that some of them have formed satellite cells. Moreover, cultures of 98% pure human myoblasts were obtained from transplanted SCID muscles. In some mice where the muscle regeneration was not complete, the muscle fibers containing human dystrophin also expressed uniformly HLA class 1, confirming that the fibers are of human origin. The presence of hybrid muscle fibers containing human dystrophin and mouse MHC was also demonstrated following transplantation. These results establish that in absence of an immune reaction, transplanted human myoblasts participate to the muscle regeneration with a high degree of efficacy even if the animals were killed only 1 mo after the transplantation.
J Huard, S Verreault, R Roy, M Tremblay, J P Tremblay
It has been reported previously that intravenous administration of normal human immunoglobulins (IVIg) to human patients can suppress the clinical signs of certain autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanism(s) by which normal Ig interferes with the various disorders and the scheduling of treatment have been poorly delineated. To study these questions, we examined IVIg treatment of two experimentally induced T cell autoimmune diseases in rats: experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and adjuvant arthritis (AA). We now report that IVIg treatment (0.4 g/kg) inhibited the active induction of both EAE and AA, and that this treatment did not affect the acquisition of resistance to reinduction of EAE. The importance of the site of administration and schedule of treatment were studied in the AA model. Ig was effective when given intravenously, but not when administrated subcutaneously or intraperitoneally. IVIg treatment was effective when given daily from immunization to outbreak of disease; but it was also effective when given once at the time of immunization or once 2 wk after induction of AA, just at the clinical outbreak of disease. Administration of IVIg between immunization and outbreak of AA was less effective. Prevention of disease by IVIg occurred despite the presence of T cell reactivity to the specific antigens in the disease. In fact, IVIg administrated to naive rats activated T cell reactivity to some self-antigens. Nevertheless, IVIg treatment led to decreased production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF alpha. Thus, IVIg treatment may exert its therapeutic power not by inhibiting T cell recognition of self-antigens, but by inhibiting the biological consequences of T cell recognition.
A Achiron, R Margalit, R Hershkoviz, D Markovits, T Reshef, E Melamed, I R Cohen, O Lider
Airway secretions of cystic fibrosis patients were found to contain high concentrations of taurine, which decreased with antibiotic therapy during acute respiratory exacerbations. Taurine, in a 1:1 molar ratio with HOCl/OCl-, caused a 10-fold increase in the amount of HOCl/OCl- needed to induce cytotoxicity to the cat lung epithelial cell line, AKD. Although DMSO protected cells against HOCl/OCl(-)-mediated injury, the presence of an equimolar concentration of taurine with HOCl/OCl- prevented DMSO from protecting cells and sulfhydryl groups against oxidation, suggesting the formation of taurine chloramines. Spectral properties confirmed the formation of monochloramines and dichloramines. Chloride-free buffer, DIDS, and low temperature (4 degrees C) each protected the cells against taurine/HOCl/OCl-, indicating that taurine chloramine uptake through anion transport pathways was required to induce cytotoxicity. A molar excess of taurine inhibited cytotoxicity, to induce cytotoxicity. A molar excess of taurine inhibited cytotoxicity, by decreasing taurine dichloramines and increasing the formation of less toxic taurine monochloramines. We conclude that taurine can protect lung epithelial cells by converting HOCl/OCl- to anionic monochloramines, but that taurine dichloramines can be toxic to respiratory epithelial cells through mechanisms that depend upon epithelial cell anion transport.
A M Cantin
A ruptured atherosclerotic plaque leads to exposure of deeper layers of the plaque to flowing blood and subsequently to thrombus formation. In contrast to the wealth of data on the occurrence of thrombi, little is known about the reasons why an atherosclerotic plaque is thrombogenic. One of the reasons is the relative inaccessibility of the atherosclerotic plaque. We have circumvented this problem by using 6-microns cryostat cross sections of human coronary arteries. These sections were mounted on coverslips that were exposed to flowing blood in a rectangular perfusion chamber. In normal-appearing arteries, platelet deposition was seen on the luminal side of the intima and on the adventitia. In atherosclerotic arteries, strongly increased platelet deposition was seen on the connective tissue of specific parts of the atherosclerotic plaque. The central lipid core of an advanced plaque was not reactive towards platelets. The results indicate that the atherosclerotic plaque by itself is more thrombogenic than the normal vessel wall. To study the cause of the increased thrombus formation on the atherosclerotic plaque, perfusion studies were combined with immunohistochemical studies. Immunohistochemical studies of adhesive proteins showed enrichment of collagen types I, III, V, and VI, vitronectin, fibronectin, fibrinogen/fibrin, and thrombospondin in the atherosclerotic plaque. Laminin and collagen type IV were not enriched. von Willebrand Factor (vWF) was not present in the plaque. The pattern of increased platelet deposition in serial cross sections corresponded best with areas in which collagen types I and III were enriched, but there were also areas in the plaque where both collagens were enriched but no increased reactivity was seen. Inhibition of platelet adhesion with a large range of antibodies or specific inhibitors showed that vWF from plasma and collagen types I and/or III in the plaque were involved. Fibronectin from plasma and fibronectin, fibrinogen, laminin, and thrombospondin in the vessel wall had no effect on platelet adhesion. We conclude that the increased thrombogenicity of atherosclerotic lesions is due to changes in quantity and nature of collagen types I and/or III.
G H van Zanten, S de Graaf, P J Slootweg, H F Heijnen, T M Connolly, P G de Groot, J J Sixma
In vivo and in vitro, Shigella flexneri, an invasive pathogen of the human colon, cannot invade epithelial cells through their apical pole. To identify ways by which it may reach the cellular basolateral domain in order to invade, we have established an assay using the human colonic T-84 cell line grown on permeable filters. Human PMN were added to the basal pole of the cells, and invasive shigellae to their apical pole. Apical addition of bacteria induced strong transmigration of PMN, reaching a maximum after 1 h of incubation. Transmigration depended on a receptor-specific interaction since it was inhibited by an anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody that antagonizes binding of MAC1 on its putative epithelial cell receptor. After 1 h of PMN transmigration, shigellae started to invade the monolayer in areas of intense PMN infiltration. Invasion was clearly dependant on PMN transmigration since it was also inhibited by addition of an anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody. This in vitro assay is consistent with in vivo observations showing early PMN efflux within colonic crypts in the course of shigellosis. PMN transmigration may therefore allow invasion in the colon by opening the paracellular pathway to invasive microorganisms.
J J Perdomo, P Gounon, P J Sansonetti
Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) containing retrovirally introduced genes are a potential vehicle for gene replacement therapy. Because the cultured SMCs are selected for their ability to proliferate in vitro, it is possible that the SMCs might be permanently altered and lose their capacity to respond to growth-suppressing conditions after being seeded back into blood vessels. To investigate this possibility we measured SMC proliferation and intimal thickening in balloon-injured Fischer 344 rat carotid arteries seeded with SMCs stained with the fluorescent marker 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindo-carbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) and infected with replication-defective retrovirus expressing human adenosine deaminase or human placental alkaline phosphatase. The majority of the seeded SMCs remained in the intima while a few of the cells appeared to migrate into the first layer of the media. Intimal SMC proliferation returned to background levels (< 0.1% thymidine labeling index) by 28 d. At late times (1 and 12 mo) the morphological appearance of the intima was the same for balloon-injured arteries with or without seeded SMC, except that the seeded arteries continued to express human adenosine deaminase or alkaline phosphatase. These results support the conclusion that cultured SMC infected with a replication-defective virus containing human adenosine deaminase or alkaline phosphatase are not phenotypically altered and do not become transformed. After seeding onto the surface of an injured artery, they stop replicating but continue to express the introduced human genes even over the long term.
M M Clowes, C M Lynch, A D Miller, D G Miller, W R Osborne, A W Clowes
Arterial gene transfer represents a novel strategy that is potentially applicable to a variety of cardiovascular disorders. Attempts to perform arterial gene transfer using nonviral vectors have been compromised by a low transfection efficiency. We investigated the hypothesis that cellular proliferation induced by arterial injury could augment gene expression after liposome-mediated gene transfer. Nondenuded and denuded rabbit arterial strips were maintained in culture for up to 21 d, after which transfection was performed with a mixture of the plasmid encoding firefly luciferase and cationic liposomes. In non-denuded arteries, the culture interval before transfection did not affect the gene expression. In contrast, denuded arteries cultured for 3-14 d before transfection yielded 7-13-fold higher expression (vs. day 0; P < 0.005). Transfection was then performed percutaneously to the iliac arteries of live rabbits with or without antecedent angioplasty. Gene expression increased when transfection was performed 3-7 d postangioplasty (P < 0.05). Proliferative activity of neointimal cells assessed in vitro by [3H]thymidine incorporation, and in vivo by immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen, increased and declined in parallel with gene expression. These findings thus indicate that the expression of liposome-mediated arterial gene transfer may be augmented in presence of ongoing cellular proliferation.
S Takeshita, D Gal, G Leclerc, J G Pickering, R Riessen, L Weir, J M Isner
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a heparin-binding, endothelial cell-specific mitogen. Previous studies have suggested that VEGF is a regulator of naturally occurring physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. In this study we investigated the hypothesis that the angiogenic potential of VEGF is sufficient to constitute a therapeutic effect. The soluble 165-amino acid isoform of VEGF was administered as a single intra-arterial bolus to the internal iliac artery of rabbits in which the ipsilateral femoral artery was excised to induce severe, unilateral hind limb ischemia. Doses of 500-1,000 micrograms of VEGF produced statistically significant augmentation of collateral vessel development by angiography as well as the number of capillaries by histology; consequent amelioration of the hemodynamic deficit in the ischemic limb was significantly greater in animals receiving VEGF than in nontreated controls (calf blood pressure ratio, 0.75 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.48 +/- 0.19, P < 0.05). Serial angiograms disclosed progressive linear extension of the collateral artery of origin (stem artery) to the distal point of parent vessel (reentry artery) reconstitution in seven of nine VEGF-treated animals. These findings establish proof of principle for the concept that the angiogenic activity of VEGF is sufficiently potent to achieve therapeutic benefit. Such a strategy might ultimately be applicable to patients with severe limb ischemia secondary to arterial occlusive disease.
S Takeshita, L P Zheng, E Brogi, M Kearney, L Q Pu, S Bunting, N Ferrara, J F Symes, J M Isner
The X-linked Hyp mouse is characterized by a specific defect in proximal tubular phosphate (Pi) reabsorption that is associated with a decrease in Vmax of the high affinity Na(+)-Pi cotransport system in the renal brush border membrane. To understand the mechanism for Vmax reduction, we examined the effect of the Hyp mutation on renal expression of Na(+)-Pi cotransporter mRNA and protein. Northern hybridization of renal RNA with a rat, renal-specific Na(+)-Pi cotransporter cDNA probe (NaPi-2) (Magagnin et al. 1993. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 90:5979-5983.) demonstrated a reduction in a 2.6-kb transcript in kidneys of Hyp mice relative to normal littermates (NaPi-2/beta-actin mRNA = 57 +/- 6% of normal in Hyp mice, n = 6, P < 0.01). Na(+)-Pi cotransport, but not Na(+)-sulfate cotransport, was approximately 50% lower in Xenopus oocytes injected with renal mRNA extracted from Hyp mice when compared with that from normal mice. Hybrid depletion experiments documented that the mRNA-dependent expression of Na(+)-Pi cotransport in oocytes was related to NaPi-2. Western analysis demonstrated that NaPi-2 protein is also significantly reduced in brush border membranes of Hyp mice when compared to normals. The present data demonstrate that the specific reduction in renal Na(+)-Pi cotransport in brush border membranes of Hyp mice can be ascribed to a proportionate decrease in the abundance of Na(+)-Pi cotransporter mRNA and protein.
H S Tenenhouse, A Werner, J Biber, S Ma, J Martel, S Roy, H Murer
We studied the effects of inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) (endothelium-derived relaxation factor) synthase in combination with alpha and beta adrenergic receptor blockade on pulmonary vascular tone during exercise. In paired studies, we exercised sheep on a treadmill at a speed of 4 mph, and measured blood flow and pressures across the pulmonary circulation with and without inhibition of NO synthase (N omega-nitro-L-arginine 20 mg/kg intravenous [i.v.]), alpha receptor blockade (phentolamine 5 mg i.v.), beta receptor blockade (propranolol 1 mg i.v.), and combined alpha and beta receptor blockade. Activation of both types of adrenergic receptors occurs with exercise, and because increased release in NO is hypothesized to occur during exercise, these studies were designed to determine the magnitude of effect and interactions of these competing dilator and constrictor influences. We found that inhibition of NO synthase raised pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at rest and that, although a reduction in PVR occurred with exercise from this new baseline, vasoconstriction persisted. Combined beta blockade and NO synthase inhibition unmasked unopposed alpha vasoconstriction; PVR rose at rest and continued to rise with exercise; and mean pulmonary arterial pressures approached very high levels, 43.8 +/- 4.4 cmH2O. Using a distal wedged pulmonary artery catheter technique, most of the vasoconstriction was found to be in vessels upstream from small pulmonary veins. During exercise in sheep there appears to be a high degree of alpha and beta adrenergic-mediated tone in the pulmonary circulation. Endogenous production of NO actively dilates pulmonary vessels at rest and opposes potent alpha-mediated pulmonary vasoconstriction during exercise.
D W Kane, T Tesauro, T Koizumi, R Gupta, J H Newman
To determine if peripheral angiotensin II (Ang II) prejunctional receptors facilitating NE release exist in humans, we used [3H]NE kinetic methodology to measure forearm NE spillover during intrabrachial arterial Ang II infusions in eight normal male subjects. We used the following protocol to optimize conditions for demonstrating these receptors: (a) lower body negative pressure (-15 mmHg) to increase sympathetic nerve activity to skeletal muscle; and (b) intraarterial nitroprusside to maintain a high constant forearm blood flow (approximately 10 ml/min.100 ml) to maximize the proportion of neuronally released NE that spills over into the circulation. During lower body negative pressure, the following were infused intraarterially for three consecutive 20-min periods: saline, Ang II (4 ng/min), and Ang II (16 ng/min). During the Ang II infusions, forearm venous NE increased significantly from 173 to 189 and 224 pg/ml (P < 0.01), and forearm NE spillover increased from 384 to 439 and 560 ng/min.100 ml (P < 0.05 for high Ang II). Forearm NE clearance was unchanged. During low and high dose Ang II, the plasma venous Ang II concentrations were 25 and 97 pM, respectively. Since normal subjects increase plasma Ang II from 4 to 20-22 pM with exercise, standing, or diuretic administration, and patients with severe congestive heart failure can have a plasma Ang II of approximately 25 pM at rest, we suggest that Ang II might facilitate NE release in severe congestive heart failure, especially under conditions of stress.
B Clemson, L Gaul, S S Gubin, D M Campsey, J McConville, J Nussberger, R Zelis
Bacterial LPS induces endothelial cell (EC) injury both in vivo and in vitro. We studied the effect of Escherichia coli 0111:B4 LPS on movement of 14C-BSA across bovine pulmonary artery EC monolayers. In the presence of serum, a 6-h LPS exposure augmented (P < 0.001) transendothelial 14C-BSA flux compared with the media control at concentrations > or = 0.5 ng/ml, and LPS (10 ng/ml) exposures of > or = 2-h increased (P < 0.005) the flux. In the absence of serum, LPS concentrations of up to 10 micrograms/ml failed to increase 14C-BSA flux at 6 h. The addition of 10% serum increased EC sensitivity to the LPS stimulus by > 10,000-fold. LPS (10 ng/ml, 6 h) failed to increase 14C-BSA flux at serum concentrations < 0.5%, and maximum LPS-induced increments could be generated in the presence of > or = 2.5%. LPS-binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) could each satisfy this serum requirement; either anti-LBP or anti-CD14 antibody each totally blocked (P < 0.00005) the LPS-induced changes in endothelial barrier function. LPS-LBP had a more rapid onset than did LPS-sCD14. The LPS effect in the presence of both LBP and sCD14 exceeded the effect in the presence of either protein alone. These data suggest that LBP and sCD14 each independently functions as an accessory molecule for LPS presentation to the non-CD14-bearing endothelial surface. However, in the presence of serum both molecules are required.
S E Goldblum, T W Brann, X Ding, J Pugin, P S Tobias
K A Hajjar, C M Reynolds
We studied the role of IL-4 in human IgE formation in severe combined immunodeficient mice engrafted with peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (hu-PBL-SCID). PBL from four nonatopic donors produced only small (< 20 ng/ml) or undetectable amounts of IgE in SCID mice whereas engrafted PBL from seven atopic donors secreted IgE with IgE serum levels reaching a mean +/- SE of 184 +/- 37 ng/ml (n = 20). Serum IgE levels peaked 2-3 wk after PBL transfer and declined thereafter with a half-life of 1-2 wk. In contrast, IgG of all subclasses reached maximum serum levels 5-7 wk after PBL transfer and declined little thereafter. Injection of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to the human IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) on day 0 inhibited completely the IgE formation and caused an approximate twofold reduction of IgG production of all subclasses. The anti-IL-4 R antibody had no effect on IgE secretion when administered 4 wk after PBL engraftment. Incubation of PBL with IL-4 before engraftment resulted in a 10-fold increase in IgE production and could be further enhanced by 100 fold if, in addition to preincubation with IL-4, IL-4 was injected daily for 5 d after PBL transfer. This treatment with IL-4 also induced two- to threefold increase in IgG levels. IFN-gamma had no effect on either IgE or IgG subclass production. In approximately 50% of the mice, one or more IgG subclasses increased disproportionally 5 wk after PBL injection as a result of monoclonal IgG formation. These data demonstrate that PBL from atopic donors secrete IgE in SCID mice in an IL-4-dependent manner, and that IgE production can be enhanced 10- to 100-fold with exogenous human IL-4 in these mice. This mouse model is amenable for the in vivo study of immunomodulators on human IgE formation.
H L Spiegelberg, L Beck, H P Kocher, W C Fanslow, A H Lucas
In this study, IgG fractions from sera of SLE patients with anti-Ro/SSA or anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB activity were tested in Langendorff preparations of adult rabbit hearts, aiming to reproduce the cardiac manifestations observed in neonatal lupus in an experimental model. The hearts were perfused with normal Tyrode's solution for 30 min, followed by perfusion with Tyrode's containing 0.3 mg/ml of anti-Ro/SSA- (or anti-Ro/La-) positive IgG (nine sera), anti-ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-positive IgG (five sera), or IgG fractions from normal donors (five sera). In one third of the experiments done with anti-Ro/La-positive IgG, heart block was observed. With the remaining fractions, a decrease in heart rate of 17.1% was observed, but normal sinus rhythm was maintained. The IgG fractions with anti-RNP activity (five experiments) and from normal sera (six experiments) reduced heart rates by 12.9 and 3.3%, respectively, but heart block was not observed. To further characterize the cellular mechanisms involved in the conduction disturbances observed in the whole rabbit hearts, we conducted experiments with ventricular myocytes isolated from young rabbit hearts, studied by whole cell patch-clamp technique. In these experiments, the slow inward currents were analyzed during the superfusion of the cell with normal Tyrode's solution and 5 min after superfusion with Tyrode's solution containing 0.3 mg/ml of anti-Ro/SSA- (or anti-Ro/La-) positive IgG (five sera), anti-RNP-positive IgG (three sera), or IgG from normal donors (four sera). Resting and action potential amplitudes were not affected by any of the sera used. The anti-Ro/SSA IgG fraction induced a mean reduction in the peak slow inward current of 31.6%. IgG fractions with anti-RNP activity reduced slow inward current by 4.4%, whereas IgG fractions from normal donors increased this current by 3.3%. IgG-free fractions from sera of patients with anti-Ro/SSA activity did not alter the peak slow inward current. These results show, for the first time, that the presence of anti-Ro/SSA or anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB antibody activity in IgG fractions from lupus patients' sera can induce cardiac conduction disorders similar to those observed in neonatal lupus.
S Garcia, J H Nascimento, E Bonfa, R Levy, S F Oliveira, A V Tavares, A C de Carvalho
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3[1,25(OH)2D3] suppresses parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene transcription. Recent evidence suggests that retinoid X receptors are involved in 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated transcriptional events. However, little data exists for a role of retinoids in parathyroid function or in PTH expression. In the present study, we observed that all-trans- or 9-cis retinoic acid suppressed the release of PTH from bovine parathyroid cell cultures. Both retinoids were remarkably potent with significant decreases evident at 10(-10) M and a maximally suppressive effect (approximately 65%) at 10(-7) M. All-trans-retinol was considerably less potent in this system. The effect was not evident until 12 h, suggesting that retinoids did not affect the rapid secretion of preexisting PTH stores. PreproPTH mRNA levels were also suppressed by retinoic acid and the retinoid potencies were similar to those observed in the secretion studies. Combined treatment with 10(-6) M retinoic acid and 10(-8) M 1,25(OH)2D3 more effectively decreased PTH secretion and preproPTH mRNA than did either compound alone. These data indicate that retinoic acid: (a) elicits a bioresponse in bovine parathyroid cells; (b) attenuates PTH expression at the protein and mRNA levels, and (c) acts independently of 1,25(OH)2D3 in the control of PTH expression.
P N MacDonald, C Ritter, A J Brown, E Slatopolsky
Two families with hereditary renal amyloidosis were found to have a novel mutation in the fibrinogen A alpha chain gene. This form of amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by proteinuria, hypertension, and subsequent azotemia. DNAs of patients with amyloidosis were screened for a polymorphism in fibrinogen A alpha chain gene by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, and affected individuals from two kindreds were found to have a mutation. Both of these kindreds are American of Irish descent presenting with non-neuropathic, nephropathic amyloidosis in the fifth to the seventh decade of life. DNA sequencing showed a point mutation in the fibrinogen A alpha chain gene that is responsible for substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 526. By restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, 7 affected individuals and 14 asymptomatic individuals in these two kindreds were positive for the fibrinogen A alpha chain Val 526 gene. Fibrinogen was isolated from plasma of a heterozygous gene carrier and shown to contain approximately 50% variant fibrinogen. Discovery of this new mutation confirms the association between fibrinogen A alpha chain variant and hereditary renal amyloidosis and establishes a new biochemical subtype of amyloidosis.
T Uemichi, J J Liepnieks, M D Benson
Critical to an understanding of the pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the development of effective gene therapies is a definition of the distribution and regulation of CF gene expression in adult human lung. Previous studies have detected the product of the CF gene, the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), in submucosal glands of human bronchi. In this report, we have characterized the distribution of CFTR RNA and protein in the distal airway and alveoli of human lungs. Samples from eight human lungs were analyzed for CFTR expression by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. CFTR was detected in a subpopulation of epithelial cells at every level of the distal lung, including proximal, terminal, and respiratory bronchioles, and the alveoli. However, there was substantial variation in the level of CFTR expression between samples. In bronchioles, CFTR protein localized to the apical plasma membrane and was found primarily in a subpopulation of nonciliated cells. CFTR was expressed in the same distribution as the Clara cell marker CC10 in proximal bronchioles, however, expression was discordant in the more distal bronchioles and alveoli where CC10 was not detected. These studies suggest that epithelial cells of the distal lung may play a primary role in the pathogenesis of CF as well as expand the spectrum of target cells that should be considered in the development of gene therapies.
J F Engelhardt, M Zepeda, J A Cohn, J R Yankaskas, J M Wilson
Cell-mediated autoimmunity has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular cell injury in Takayasu's arteritis. To clarify the immunological mechanisms involved, we examined the expression of a cytolytic factor, perforin in infiltrating cells of aortic tissue samples from seven patients with Takayasu's arteritis. We also examined the expression of a 65-kD heat-shock protein (HSP-65), human leukocyte antigen classes I and II, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the aortic tissue. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the infiltrating cells mainly consisted of gamma delta T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, macrophages, cytotoxic T lymphocytes and T helper cells, and that perforin was expressed in gamma delta T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In situ hybridization analysis also revealed expression of perforin mRNA in the infiltrating cells. Immunoelectron microscopic studies demonstrated that the infiltrating cells released massive amounts of perforin directly onto the surface of arterial vascular cells. We also found that expression of HSP-65, human leukocyte antigen classes I and II, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was strongly induced in the aortic tissue and might facilitate the recognition, adhesion and cytotoxicity of the infiltrating killer lymphocytes. These findings provide the first direct evidence that the infiltrating cells in the aortic tissue mainly consist of killer cells, and strongly suggest that these killer cells, especially gamma delta T lymphocytes, may recognize HSP-65 and play a critical role in the vascular cell injury of Takayasu's arteritis by releasing perforin.
Y Seko, S Minota, A Kawasaki, Y Shinkai, K Maeda, H Yagita, K Okumura, O Sato, A Takagi, Y Tada
Myocardial ischemia markedly increases the expression of several members of the stress/heat shock protein (HSP) family, especially the inducible HSP70 isoforms. Increased expression of HSP70 has been shown to exert a protective effect against a lethal heat shock. We have examined the possibility of using this resistance to a lethal heat shock as a protective effect against an ischemic-like stress in vitro using a rat embryonic heart-derived cell line H9c2 (2-1). Myogenic cells in which the heat shock proteins have been induced by a previous heat shock are found to become resistant to a subsequent simulated ischemic stress. In addition, to address the question of how much does the presence of the HSP70 contribute to this protective effect, we have generated stably transfected cell lines overexpressing the human-inducible HSP70. Embryonal rat heart-derived H9c2(2-1) cells were used for this purpose. This stably transfected cell line was found to be significantly more resistant to an ischemic-like stress than control myogenic cells only expressing the selectable marker (neomycin) or the parental cell line H9c2(2-1). This finding implicates the inducible HSP70 protein as playing a major role in protecting cardiac cells against ischemic injury.
R Mestril, S H Chi, M R Sayen, K O'Reilly, W H Dillmann
The loss of T helper cell (TH) function in asymptomatic HIV type 1-infected individuals occurs before the decline in CD4+ T cells. At least part of the loss in TH function results from changes in immunoregulatory cytokine profiles. To investigate the role of IL-10 in such dysregulation, we tested whether: (a) expression of IL-10-specific mRNA would be upregulated in PBMC from asymptomatic, HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals; (b) PBMC from these same individuals would produce increased levels of IL-10 when stimulated in vitro with phytohemagglutinin; and (c) defective antigen-specific TH function could be restored by anti-IL-10 antibody. We observed that IL-10-specific mRNA was marginally upregulated, and increased levels of IL-10 were produced by PBMC from HIV+ individuals compared with PBMC from uninfected individuals. Those individuals whose TH function was more severely compromised produced higher levels of IL-10. Additionally, defective antigen-specific TH function in vitro could be reversed by anti-IL-10 antibody, including the response to HIV envelope synthetic peptides. Furthermore, the antigen-specific TH responses of HIV-uninfected PBMC could be reduced with IL-10, a process reversed by anti-IL-10. These results confirm that the early loss of TH function in HIV+ individuals is due at least in part to cytokine-induced immune dysregulation, and support the hypothesis of a switch from a predominant type 1 state to a predominant type 2 condition in HIV infection.
M Clerici, T A Wynn, J A Berzofsky, S P Blatt, C W Hendrix, A Sher, R L Coffman, G M Shearer
Eosinophils and T lymphocytes are thought to be involved in allergic airway inflammation. Both cells express the alpha 4 beta 1-integrin, very late antigen-4 (VLA-4, CD49d/CD29); alpha 4-integrins can promote cellular adhesion and activation. Therefore, we examined the in vivo effects of a blocking anti-alpha 4 monoclonal antibody, HP 1/2, on antigen-induced early and late bronchial responses, airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammatory cell influx, and peripheral leukocyte counts in allergic sheep. Sheep blood lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils expressed alpha 4 and bound HP 1/2. In control sheep, Ascaris antigen challenge produced early and late increases in specific lung resistance of 380 +/- 42% and 175 +/- 16% over baseline immediately and 7 h after challenge, respectively, as well as airway hyperresponsiveness continuing for 14 d after antigen challenge. Treatment with HP 1/2 (1 mg/kg, i.v.) 30 min before antigen challenge did not affect the early increase in specific lung resistance but inhibited the late-phase increase at 5-8 h by 75% (P < 0.05) and inhibited the post-antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness at 1, 2, 7, and 14 d (P < 0.05, for each time). Intravenous HP 1/2 given 2 h after antigen challenge likewise blocked late-phase airway changes and postchallenge airway hyperresponsiveness. Airway administration of HP 1/2 (16-mg dose) was also effective in blocking these antigen-induced changes. Response to HP 1/2 was specific since an isotypic monoclonal antibody, 1E6, was ineffective by intravenous and aerosol administration. Inhibition of leukocyte recruitment did not totally account for the activity of anti-alpha 4 antibody since HP 1/2 neither diminished the eosinopenia or lymphopenia that followed antigen challenge nor consistently altered the composition of leukocytes recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage. Because airway administration of HP 1/2 was also active, HP 1/2 may have inhibited cell activation. Reduction of platelet-activating factor-induced eosinophil peroxidase release from HP 1/2-treated eosinophils supports such a mechanism. These findings indicate a role for alpha 4-integrins in processes that lead to airway late phase responses and persisting airway hyperresponsiveness after antigen challenge.
W M Abraham, M W Sielczak, A Ahmed, A Cortes, I T Lauredo, J Kim, B Pepinsky, C D Benjamin, D R Leone, R R Lobb
By means of a rat aortic smooth muscle (RASM) cell culture model, the effects of angiotensin II (AII) on early proto-oncogene gene expression, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation were measured and compared to known mitogens. In 24-h [3H]-thymidine incorporation assays, AII was found to be a weak mitogen when compared to potent mitogens such as fetal bovine serum and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). In contrast, when assays were carried out for 48 h, AII induced a significant dose-dependent stimulation of DNA synthesis, which more than doubled at 3 nM AII, and was maximal (five- to eightfold above control) at 100 nM AII. Treatment of cells with the AII type 1 receptor antagonist losartan inhibited the mitogenic effects of AII. AII also stimulated smooth muscle cell proliferation, as indicated by an absolute increase in cell number after AII stimulation of RASM cells for 5 d. AII stimulation of RASM cell growth correlated with the increased expression of specific endogenous growth factors, including transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and PDGF A-chain. However, addition of either PDGF- or TGF-beta 1-neutralizing antibodies failed to significantly reduce the delayed mitogenic effects induced by AII. In contrast, we found that AII-stimulated mitogenesis could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the growth factor inhibitor drug suramin. Taken together, our results indicate that enhanced endogenous growth factor expression may represent the direct mechanism by which AII promotes smooth muscle cell growth in some vascular hyperproliferative diseases.
H Weber, D S Taylor, C J Molloy
To determine the timing of peak bone mass and density, we conducted a cross-sectional study of bone mass measurements in 265 premenopausal Caucasian females, aged 8-50 yr. Bone mass and bone mineral density were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry and single-photon absorptiometry at the spine (anteroposterior, lateral), proximal femur, radius shaft, distal forearm, and the whole body. Bone mass parameters were analyzed using a quadratic regression model and segmented regression models with quadratic-quadratic or quadratic-linear form. The results show that most of the bone mass at multiple skeletal locations will be accumulated by late adolescence. This is particularly notable for bone mineral density of the proximal femur and the vertebral body. Bone mass of the other regions of interest is either no different in women between the age of 18 yr and the menopause or it is maximal in 50-yr-old women, indicating slow but permanent bone accumulation continuing at some sites up to the time of menopause. This gain in bone mass in premenopausal adult women is probably the result of continuous periosteal expansion with age. Since rapid skeletal mineral acquisition at all sites occurs relatively early in life, the exogenous factors which might optimize peak bone mass need to be more precisely identified and characterized.
V Matkovic, T Jelic, G M Wardlaw, J Z Ilich, P K Goel, J K Wright, M B Andon, K T Smith, R P Heaney
R D Isaacs
Restenosis after angioplasty is due predominantly to accumulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The resistance of restenosis to pharmacological treatment has prompted investigation of genes involved in VSMC proliferation. We have examined the effect on VSMC proliferation of blocking expression of the c-myc proto-oncogene with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, both in vitro and in a rat carotid artery injury model of angioplasty restenosis. Antisense c-myc oligodeoxynucleotides reduced average cell levels of c-myc mRNA and protein by 50-55% and inhibited proliferation of VSMCs when mitogenically stimulated from quiescence or when proliferating logarithmically (IC50 = 10 micrograms/ml). Corresponding sense c-myc, two-base-pair mismatch antisense c-myc, antisense alpha-actin or glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase oligodeoxynucleotides did not suppress c-myc expression or inhibit VSMC proliferation. Antisense c-myc inhibition was relieved by overexpression of an exogenous c-myc gene. After balloon catheter injury, peak c-myc mRNA expression occurred at 2 h. Antisense c-myc applied in a pluronic gel to the arterial adventitia reduced peak c-myc expression by 75% and significantly reduced neointimal formation at 14 d, compared with sense c-myc and gel application alone. We conclude that c-myc expression is required for VSMC proliferation in vitro and in the vessel wall. C-myc is a therefore a potential target for adjunctive therapy to reduce angioplasty restenosis.
M R Bennett, S Anglin, J R McEwan, R Jagoe, A C Newby, G I Evan
We examined cell-attached patches on principal cells of primary cultured, rabbit cortical collecting tubules. Under basal conditions, apical 9-pS Cl(-)-selective channels were observed in 9% of patches (11/126), and number of channels times open probability (NP0) was 0.56 +/- 0.21. The channel had a linear current-voltage relationship, reversal potential (Erev) near resting membrane potential, a P0 (0.30-0.70) that was independent of voltage, and complicated kinetics (i.e., bursting) at hyperpolarized potentials. NP0 and channel frequency were increased after 30 min of basolateral exposure to 0.5 microM PGE2 (18/56), 10 microM forskolin (23/36), or 0.5 mM dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) (25/41). Increases in NP0 appeared to be mediated primarily through an increase in the number of observed channels per patch (N), not changes in P0. After these cAMP-increasing maneuvers, N was inconsistent with a uniform distribution of channels in the apical membrane (P < 0.001), but rather the channels appeared to be clustered in pairs. Apical 0.5 microM PGE2 (12/91), apical or basolateral 0.5 microM PGF2 alpha (8/110), or 0.25 microM thapsigargin (releaser of intracellular Ca2+ stores) (7/73) did not increase NP0 or channel frequency. Conclusions: (a) 9-pS Cl- channels provide a conductive pathway for apical membrane Cl- transport across principal cells. (b) Channel activation by basolateral PGE2 is mediated via a cAMP-, but not a Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism. (c) Apical channels are clustered in pairs. (d) With its low baseline frequency and Erev near resting membrane potential, this channel would not contribute significantly to transcellular Cl- flux under basal conditions. (e) However, cAMP-producing agonists (i.e., PGE2, arginine vasopressin) would increase apical Cl- transport with the direction determined by the apical membrane potential.
B N Ling, K E Kokko, D C Eaton
The aim of this study was to investigate in 261 subjects from 58 families the association between DNA variation at the genes coding for the Na,K-ATPase peptides and resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory quotient (RQ), and percent body fat (%FAT). Five restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) at three Na,K-ATPase genes were determined: one at the alpha 1 locus (BglII), and two at the beta locus (beta MspI and beta PvuII). Haplotypes were determined from the two variable sites of the alpha 2 gene (alpha 2 haplotypes) and the beta gene (beta haplotypes). There was a strong trend for %FAT to be related to the RFLP generated by BglII at the alpha 2 exons 21-22 in males (P = 0.06) and females (P = 0.05). RQ was (a) associated with the BglII RFLP at the alpha 2 exon 1 (P = 0.02) and with the alpha 2 8.0 kb/4.3 kb haplotype (P = 0.04) and (b) linked with the beta gene MspI marker (P = 0.04) and with the beta 5.3 kb/5.1 kb haplotype (P = 0.008) based on sib-pair analysis. The present study suggests that the genes encoding Na,K-ATPase may be associated or linked with RQ and perhaps with %FAT but not with RMR.
O Dériaz, F Dionne, L Pérusse, A Tremblay, M C Vohl, G Côté, C Bouchard
Abnormalities in endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation develop early in atherosclerosis and may, in part, result from the effects of modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on agonist-mediated endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) release and EDRF degradation. alpha-Tocopherol (AT) is the main lipid-soluble antioxidant in human plasma and lipoproteins, therefore, we investigated the effects of AT on endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation in male New Zealand White rabbits fed diets containing (a) no additive (controls), (b) 1% cholesterol (cholesterol group), or 1% cholesterol with either (c) 1,000 IU/kg chow AT (low-dose AT group) or (d) 10,000 IU/kg chow AT (high-dose AT group). After 28 d, we assayed endothelial function and LDL susceptibility to ex vivo copper-mediated oxidation. Acetylcholine-and A23187-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxations were significantly impaired in the cholesterol group (P < 0.001 vs. control), but preserved in the low-dose AT group (P = NS vs. control). Compared to the control and cholesterol groups, vessels from the high-dose AT group demonstrated profound impairment of arterial relaxation (P < 0.05) and significantly more intimal proliferation than other groups (P < 0.05). In normal vessels, alpha-tocopherol had no effect on endothelial function. LDL derived from both the high- and low-dose AT groups was more resistant to oxidation than LDL from control animals (P < 0.05). These data indicate that modest dietary treatment with AT preserves endothelial vasodilator function in cholesterol-fed rabbits while a higher dose of AT is associated with endothelial dysfunction and enhanced intimal proliferation despite continued LDL resistance to ex vivo copper-mediated oxidation.
J F Keaney Jr, J M Gaziano, A Xu, B Frei, J Curran-Celentano, G T Shwaery, J Loscalzo, J A Vita
We report the DNA sequences of the heavy and light chain immunoglobulin genes of 11 monoclonal rheumatoid factor (RF)-secreting lines derived from the peripheral blood of two patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is evident from immunogenetic analysis of these lines that RA-associated RF activity can arise from a wide variety of heavy and light chain genes and gene combinations. Although the RF response from our two patients shows a bias in gene usage toward those genes used to encode monoclonal RF, particularly VkIII, relatively few of these RFs are reactive with the monoclonal antiidiotypes 6B6.6 and 17.109 that define VkIII germline-encoded light chains and the loss of this idiotypic reactivity is clearly related to somatic mutation. Finally, RFs derived from peripheral blood of RA patients show a similar heterogeneity of epitope binding to Fc as that seen for synovium-derived RF and some are clearly different in binding specificity from the restricted RF population found in patients with B cell malignancies. Somatic mutations as well as different VH/VL combinations contribute to the heterogeneity in the binding patterns of these RA-derived RF.
K Youngblood, L Fruchter, G Ding, J Lopez, V Bonagura, A Davidson
Previous studies have correlated the Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB) to an altered expression of the basement membrane component nicein/kalinin. This heterotrimeric glycoprotein appears to be present in H-JEB tissues in an abnormal form, because a number of antibodies specific to the protein either do not react with or weakly stain the epidermal basement membranes of most of the patients. With cDNA probes encoding each subunit of nicein and polyclonal antibodies raised against bacterial fusion polypeptides corresponding to the individual chains of the protein, we have molecularly analyzed the expression of nicein in H-JEB tissues and cultured keratinocytes. By immunohistochemistry, Northern blot, and protein analysis, we show a defective synthesis of one of the nicein subunits in six cases of H-JEB from five different consanguineous families. In two patients, the disease correlates with an impaired synthesis of the nicein B2 (nic B2) chain, in three others with that of the B1 (nic B1) chain, and in a sixth patient with that of the heavy A (nic A) chain. In this report, we thus demonstrate that H-JEB is a genetically heterogeneous disease and we provide strong evidence that the genes of nicein are the candidates for this genodermatosis.
C Baudoin, C Miquel, C Blanchet-Bardon, C Gambini, G Meneguzzi, J P Ortonne
We tested effects of long-term exposure of pancreatic islets to free fatty acids (FFA) in vitro on B cell function. Islets isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to palmitate (0.125 or 0.25 mM), oleate (0.125 mM), or octanoate (2.0 mM) during culture. Insulin responses were subsequently tested in the absence of FFA. After a 48-h exposure to FFA, insulin secretion during basal glucose (3.3 mM) was several-fold increased. However, during stimulation with 27 mM glucose, secretion was inhibited by 30-50% and proinsulin biosynthesis by 30-40%. Total protein synthesis was similarly affected. Conversely, previous palmitate did not impair alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (5 mM)-induced insulin release. Induction and reversibility of the inhibitory effect on glucose-induced insulin secretion required between 6 and 24 h. Addition of the carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitor etomoxir (1 microM) partially reversed (by > 50%) FFA-associated decrease in secretory as well as proinsulin biosynthetic responses to 27 mM glucose. The inhibitory effect of previous palmitate was similar when co-culture was performed with 5.5, 11, or 27 mM glucose. Exposure to palmitate or oleate reduced the production of 14CO2 from D-[U-14C]glucose, and of 14CO2 from D-[3,4-14C]-glucose, both effects being reversed by etomoxir. Conclusions: long-term exposure to FFA inhibits glucose-induced insulin secretion and biosynthesis probably through a glucose fatty acid cycle.
Y P Zhou, V E Grill
Clusterin is a serum glycoprotein endowed with cell aggregating, complement inhibitory, and lipid binding properties, and is also considered as a specific marker of dying cells, its expression being increased in various tissues undergoing programmed cell death (PCD). However, no study has so far directly shown that cells expressing clusterin in these tissues are actually apoptotic as defined by morphological and biochemical criteria. We have studied cellular clusterin gene expression in vitro using three different models of PCD: (a) ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation of human U937, HeLa, and A431 cell lines, (b) in vitro aging of human peripheral blood neutrophils (PMNs), and (c) dexamethasone-induced cell death of the human lymphoblastoid cell line CEM-C7. In all three models, the classical morphological and biochemical features of PCD observed did not correlate with an increase, but with either a marked decrease or an absence of clusterin gene expression as assessed by Northern blot analysis. In situ hybridization of U937 and A431 cells after UV-B irradiation revealed, in addition, that only morphologically normal cells that are surviving continue to express the clusterin gene. Our results demonstrate that in the human myeloid, lymphoid, and epithelial cell types studied, clusterin gene expression is not a prerequisite to their death by apoptosis. In addition, and most interestingly, in situ hybridization of U937 and A431 cells revealed that only surviving cells express the clusterin gene after the induction of PCD, thus providing novel evidence suggesting that clusterin may be associated with cell survival within tissues regressing as a consequence of PCD.
L E French, A Wohlwend, A P Sappino, J Tschopp, J A Schifferli
Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in AIDS is associated with high tissue burdens (10(9)-10(10) mycobacteria/g tissue) of organism. The basis for the extraordinary susceptibility of AIDS to M. avium infection is unclear. HIV or its constituents may alter mononuclear phagocyte functions resulting in enhanced intracellular M. avium growth. The effects of an envelope glycoprotein (gp120), a transmembrane protein (p121), and core proteins of HIV-1 on M. avium infection of human monocytes were examined. Preculturing monocytes with gp120 inhibited M. avium phagocytosis and consistently enhanced intracellular growth of six M. avium strains. Pretreatment with p121, gag5, or p24 did not inhibit phagocytosis nor enhance intracellular growth of M. avium. Incubation of gp120 with soluble CD4 before addition to monocyte cultures or pretreatment of monocytes with OKT4A abrogated gp120 effects on M. avium phagocytosis and intracellular growth. gp120 also augmented cytokine production by infected monocytes. These results suggest that gp120, but not p121 or core proteins, modulate monocyte phagocytosis and enhance intracellular growth of M. avium at least in part through monocyte CD4 receptors. Direct effects of HIV-1 products may, therefore, contribute to the diathesis of AIDS to develop disseminated M. avium infection and to the extensive replication of the organisms within tissue macrophages.
H Shiratsuchi, J L Johnson, Z Toossi, J J Ellner
The biological activity of TGF-beta, an important modulator of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix formation, is governed by dissociation of mature TGF-beta from an inactive, latent TGF-beta complex in a process that is critical to its role in vivo. So far, it has not been possible to monitor activation in vivo since conventional immunohistochemical detection does not accurately discriminate latent versus active TGF-beta, nor have events associated with activation been defined well enough to serve as in situ markers of this process. We describe here a modified immunodetection method using differential antibody staining that allows the specific detection of active versus latent TGF-beta. Under these conditions, we report that an antibody raised to latency-associated peptide detects latent TGF-beta, and we demonstrate that LC(1-30) antibodies specifically recognize active TGF-beta 1 in tumor xenografts overproducing active TGF-beta 1, without cross-reactivity in tumors expressing similar levels of latent TGF-beta 1. We previously reported that TGF-beta immunoreactivity increases in murine mammary gland after whole-body 60Co-gamma radiation exposure. Using differential antibody staining we now show that radiation exposure specifically generates active TGF-beta 1. While latent TGF-beta 1 was widely distributed in unirradiated tissue, active TGF-beta 1 distribution was restricted. Active TGF-beta 1 increased significantly within 1 h of irradiation concomitant with decreased latent TGF-beta immunoreactivity. This rapid shift in immunoreactivity provides the first evidence for activation of TGF-beta in situ. This reciprocal pattern of expression persisted for 3 d and was accompanied by decreased recovery of latent TGF-beta 1 from irradiated tissue. Radiation-induced activation of TGF-beta may have profound implications for understanding tissue effects caused by radiation therapy.
M H Barcellos-Hoff, R Derynck, M L Tsang, J A Weatherbee
Studies were designed to examine the effect of a selective endothelinA (ETA) receptor antagonist, BQ123, on severe postischemic acute renal failure (ARF) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Severe ARF was induced in uninephectomized, chronically instrumented rats by 45-min renal artery occlusion. BQ123 (0.1 mg/kg.min) or vehicle was infused intravenously for 3 h on the day after ischemia. Measurements before infusion (24 h control) showed a 98% decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), increase in fractional excretion of sodium from 0.6 to 39%, and in plasma K+ from 4.3 to 6.5 mEq/liter. All vehicle-treated rats died in 4 d because of continuous deterioration of renal function, resulting in an increase of plasma K+ to fatal levels (> 8 mEq/liter). Infusion of BQ123 significantly improved survival rate (75%) by markedly improving tubular reabsorption of Na+ and moderately increasing GFR and K+ excretion. Plasma K+ returned to basal levels by the 5th d after ischemia. Improved tubular function was followed by gradual recovery in GFR and urinary concentrating mechanism. Additional data from renal clearance studies in rats with moderate ARF (30-min ischemia) and in normal rats with intact kidneys showed that ETA receptor blockade increases Na+ reabsorption and has no effect on renal hemodynamics. These results indicate that in the rat, the ETA receptor subtype mediates tubular epithelial function, and it plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of ischemia-induced ARF. Treatment with the selective ETA receptor antagonist reverses deteriorating tubular function in established ARF, an effect of possible therapeutic significance.
M Gellai, M Jugus, T Fletcher, R DeWolf, P Nambi
Lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) is a major phospholipid component of atherogenic lipoproteins (e.g., oxidized LDL and beta-VLDL) and also can be generated through the action of leukocyte-secreted phospholipase A2 at sites of inflammation. We have previously reported that lyso-PC can activate cultured endothelia, resulting in the selective upregulation of adhesion molecules, such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. In this study, we have found that lyso-PC increased steady state mRNA levels for two smooth muscle/fibroblast-directed growth factors, the A and B chains of PDGF and heparin-binding EGF-like protein (HB-EGF), in cultured human endothelial cells. Lyso-PC did not upregulate the expression of certain other inducible endothelial genes, including E-selectin, IL-8, or monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the same cells, in contrast to the coordinate pattern of activation typically observed with other stimuli, such as TNF alpha, bacterial endotoxin, or PMA. Nuclear runoff assays documented an increased transcriptional rate for the HB-EGF gene in lyso-PC-treated cells. Northern blot analyses, after actinomycin D treatment, further indicated that the increased amounts of mRNA for HB-EGF, PDGF A and B chains, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were not dependent upon message stabilization. We conclude that lyso-PC can induce growth factor gene expression in cultured endothelial cells and thus may contribute to the migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts in various response-to-injury settings in vivo.
N Kume, M A Gimbrone Jr