Skeletal myogenesis is regulated by a group of transcription factors (MyoD, myogenin, myf5, and myf6) that are "basic helix-loop-helix" proteins that bind to the promoters of muscle-specific genes and promote their expression. We have previously shown that after a mutation of Leu122 to Arg the DNA binding basic domain of MyoD confers c-myc-like functional characteristics to the protein. In this study we used single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis to determine whether such mutations occur naturally in rhabdomyosarcomas. We have found that the basic domains of all the myogenic factors remain unaltered in rhabdomyosarcomas. Selection against such mutations may be the result of functional redundancy of these myogenic transcription factors.
G Anand, D N Shapiro, P S Dickman, E V Prochownik
Insulin action and obesity are both correlated with the density of muscle capillary supply in humans. Since the altered muscle anatomy in the obese might affect interstitial insulin concentrations and reduce insulin action, we have cannulated peripheral lymphatic vessels in lean and obese males, and compared peripheral lymph insulin concentrations with whole body glucose uptake during a euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp. Lymph insulin concentrations in the lower limb averaged only 34% of arterial insulin concentrations during 150 min of insulin infusion. Obese subjects had the highest arterial (P < or = 0.0001) and lymph insulin (P < 0.005) concentrations, but the lowest glucose uptake rates (P < 0.002). In contrast to the initial steep rise then plateau of arterial insulins, both lymph insulin and whole body glucose uptake rates rose slowly and did not consistently reach a plateau. In each individual, the glucose uptake closely correlated with peripheral lymphatic insulin concentrations (mean r2 = 0.95). The coupling between glucose uptake and lymph insulin (glucose uptake/pmol insulin) was much steeper in lean subjects than in the obese (P < or = 0.0001). These results indicate that even if insulin diffusion into tissues is rate limiting for insulin action, a tissue defect rather than an insulin diffusion defect causes insulin resistance in obese subjects.
C Castillo, C Bogardus, R Bergman, P Thuillez, S Lillioja
Adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells is a critical step in the development of acute and chronic inflammatory lesions. We report here that estradiol treatment of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated up to a twofold increase in TNF-induced adhesion of both polymorphonuclear leukocytes and PMA-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This effect was more evident (threefold increase) when endothelial cells were cultured on the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin. Progesterone, but not testosterone, had a similar stimulatory effect. Estradiol also promoted a slight increase in interferon gamma-stimulated endothelial cell adherence for peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but no effect of estradiol was observed when adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells was stimulated with IL-1 or IL-4. The estradiol-induced increase in leukocyte binding to human umbilical vein endothelial cells was partially blocked by antibodies to the adhesion molecules E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule type 1 (VCAM-1). Indirect immunofluorescence techniques showed that estradiol produces an increase in TNF-induced cell surface expression of these molecules. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a transient increase in TNF-induced expression of mRNA for E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in endothelial cells treated with estradiol. Our data demonstrate that estradiol has important regulatory functions in promoting leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions that might contribute to the observed predominance in females of some autoimmune inflammatory diseases.
M C Cid, H K Kleinman, D S Grant, H W Schnaper, A S Fauci, G S Hoffman
Because high concentrations of IL-8 are found in the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients, we hypothesized that Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) induces the production of IL-8 in airway epithelial cells and in monocytes. Therefore, we incubated the supernatant from PA culture with human transformed bronchial epithelial cells (16-HBE) or with monocytes. The culture medium of 16-HBE cells that had been incubated with PA supernatant for 6 h had chemotactic activity that was inhibited by an antibody to human IL-8. The PA supernatant induced IL-8 production by primary bronchial epithelial cells, by 16-HBE cells, and by monocytes. After incubation with PA supernatant, 16-HBE cells showed a marked increase in the levels of IL-8 gene expression. The PA product responsible for IL-8 production resisted freezing, boiling, and proteolysis. This product was not lipid extractable and was present in a 1-kD filtrate. We conclude that a small molecular mass product of PA stimulates IL-8 production by 16-HBE cells and by monocytes, and that the chemotactic activity produced by 16-HBE cells after exposure to PA is due principally to IL-8.
P P Massion, H Inoue, J Richman-Eisenstat, D Grunberger, P G Jorens, B Housset, J F Pittet, J P Wiener-Kronish, J A Nadel
The current study examined whether alterations in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding contribute to poor response to glucocorticoid therapy in asthma. 29 asthma patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) < 70% predicted were studied. Patients were classified as steroid sensitive (SS) if their morning FEV1 increased > 30% after a 1-wk course of oral prednisone 20 mg twice daily and steroid resistant (SR) if they failed to increase > 15%. PBMC obtained from these two groups, 17 SR and 12 SS, as well as 12 normal controls were analyzed. SR patients had two distinguishable GR binding abnormalities: 15 of the 17 SR patients demonstrated a significantly reduced GR binding affinity, as compared with SS patients (P = 0.0001) and normal controls (P = 0.0001). This defect was localized to T cells and reverted to normal after 48 h in culture media. However, incubation with a combination of IL-2 and IL-4 sustained this abnormality. The other two SR patients had an abnormally low GR number with normal binding affinity that was not limited to T cells. Furthermore, GR number failed to normalize after incubation in media alone or IL-2 and IL-4. Therefore, SR asthma may be due to more than one abnormality, the majority related to a reversible cytokine-induced reduction in GR binding affinity and the second related to an irreversible reduction in GR number. These findings may have important implications for the design of alternative treatment approaches for recalcitrant asthma.
E R Sher, D Y Leung, W Surs, J C Kam, G Zieg, A K Kamada, S J Szefler
Capacity for ATP resynthesis during recovery from ischemia or hypoxia is limited to the size of the adenine nucleotide pool, which is determined in part by the activity of cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT): AMP-->adenosine plus inorganic phosphate (Pi). To define in vivo regulation of 5'-NT, we used the tools of 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), spectroscopy and chemical assay to measure the substrates (AMP), products (Pi, adenosine, and its catabolites), and inhibitors (Pi and H+) of 5'-NT in isolated perfused rat hearts exposed to hypoxia (where pH remains near 7) and no flow, global ischemia (where pH falls to 6.1). We estimated 5'-NT reaction velocity, assessed the relative contributions of Pi and H+ to enzyme inhibition, and defined the consequences of changes in 5'-NT activity on ATP resynthesis after hypoxia and ischemia. We conclude that (a) 5'-NT is activated during hypoxia and early ischemia but is inhibited during prolonged ischemia, (b) H+ (pH < 6.2) is a potent inhibitor of 5'-NT, and (c) differences in AMP accumulation are sufficient to explain the differences in the capacity for net ATP resynthesis in ischemic and hypoxic tissue. These observations have implications for our understanding of heterogeneity of ischemic injury and myocardial protection during ischemia.
M I Bak, J S Ingwall
Familial hypercholesterolemia is associated with premature atherosclerosis. Since endothelial dysfunction is an early event in atherogenesis, we used a noninvasive method to assess endothelial function in the systemic arteries of 30 children aged 7-17 yr (median 11) with familial hypercholesterolemia (2 homozygotes, 28 heterozygotes, total cholesterol 240-696 mg/dl) and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Using high resolution ultrasound, the diameter of the superficial femoral artery was measured at rest, in response to reactive hyperemia (with increased flow causing endothelium-dependent dilation), and after sublingual glyceryltrinitrate (causing endothelium-independent vasodilation). Flow-mediated dilation was present in the controls (7.5 +/- 0.7%) but was impaired or absent in the hypercholesterolemic children (1.2 +/- 0.4%, P < 0.0001). Total cholesterol was inversely correlated with flow-mediated dilation (r = -0.61, P < 0.0001). In the hypercholesterolemic children, flow-mediated dilation was inversely related to the lipoprotein(a) level (r = -0.61, P = 0.027) but not to other lipid fractions. Glyceryltrinitrate-induced dilation was present in all subjects but was lower in the hypercholesterolemia group (10.0 +/- 0.6% vs 12.4 +/- 0.8%, P = 0.023). Thus, impaired endothelium-dependent dilation is present in children with familial hypercholesterolemia as young as 7 yr of age and the degree of impairment is related to the lipoprotein(a) level.
K E Sorensen, D S Celermajer, D Georgakopoulos, G Hatcher, D J Betteridge, J E Deanfield
Ultraviolet (UV) light induces the biosynthesis of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) in the skin of mice bearing the CATTNF reporter transgene. Moreover, nuclear run-on assays indicate that UV light induces transcription of the TNF gene in RAW 264.7 macrophages. These observations suggest that the TNF gene (and/or its mRNA product) responds to signals elicited by UV light. To identify transcriptional UV response elements within the TNF promoter, and to determine whether a posttranscriptional response might also exist, a series of reporter constructs using a CAT coding sequence attached to various portions of the TNF promoter and 3' untranslated region were devised and transfected into several cultured cell lines. All cells tested were found to be UV responsive, and in NIH 3T3 cells, induction was found to depend upon two general regions of the promoter. The more distal region encompassed nucleotides (nt) -1059 through -451 with respect to the cap site, while the more proximal region spanned nt -403 through -261. A negative element, blocking the UV response, was interposed (nt -451 through -403). As with the response to LPS, the response to UV irradiation appears to involve translational activation in macrophages. However, the UV and LPS signaling pathways have little in common with one another, as indicated by three observations. First, no difference in responsiveness was observed on comparison of TNF gene induction in macrophages derived from C3H/HeN as opposed to C3H/HeJ mice. Second, cell fusion studies showed that while the LPS signaling pathway is extinguished by fusion of RAW 264.7 cells with NIH 3T3 cells, the UV signaling pathway remained intact. Finally, induction did not depend upon the NF-kappa B binding sites that are known to be required for LPS response in macrophages, since mutation of these sites did not impair the UV response.
F Bazzoni, V Kruys, A Shakhov, C V Jongeneel, B Beutler
There is a medical need for an agent with the positive effects of estrogen on bone and the cardiovascular system, but without the negative effects on reproductive tissue. Raloxifene (LY139481 HCI) is a benzothiophene derivative that binds to the estrogen receptor and inhibits the effects of estrogen on the uterus. In an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model we investigated the effects of raloxifene on bone loss (induced by estrogen deficiency), serum lipids, and uterine tissue. After oral administration of raloxifene for 5 wk (0.1-10 mg/kg per d) to OVX rats, bone mineral density in the distal femur and proximal tibia was significantly greater than that observed in OVX controls (ED50 of 0.03-0.3 mg/kg). Serum cholesterol was lower in the raloxifene-treated animals, which had a minimal effective dose of 0.1 mg/kg and an approximate oral ED50 of 0.2 mg/kg. The effects of raloxifene on bone and serum cholesterol were comparable to those of a 0.1-mg/kg per d oral dose of ethynyl estradiol. Raloxifene diverged dramatically from estrogen in its lack of significant estrogenic effects on uterine tissue. Ethynyl estradiol produced a marked elevation in a number of uterine histologic parameters (e.g., epithelial cell height, stromal eosinophilia). These data suggest that raloxifene has promise as an agent with beneficial bone and cardiovascular effects in the absence of significant uterine effects.
L J Black, M Sato, E R Rowley, D E Magee, A Bekele, D C Williams, G J Cullinan, R Bendele, R F Kauffman, W R Bensch
To further examine whether surfactant-like particles (DeSchryver-Kecskemeti, K., R. Eliakim, S. Carroll, W. F. Stenson, M. A. Moxley, and D. H. Alpers. 1989. J. Clin. Invest. 84:1355-1361) were involved in the transepithelial transport of lipid, alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant-like particle content were measured in apical mucosal scrapings, enterocytes, lamina propria, and serum after inhibition of chylomicron transport. Serum triacylglycerol levels were decreased 60-76% by Pluronic L-81, fenfluramine, and choline deficiency compared with fat-fed controls. 5 h after triacylglycerol feed, alkaline phosphatase activity in all three experimental groups was decreased compared with controls by 52-69% in mucosal scrapings and by 33-72% in serum. A parallel decline (60%) in alkaline phosphatase activity occurred in the lamina propria of Pluronic-treated animals. Total particle content (measured by an ELISA using antiserum against purified particle) after Pluronic treatment was decreased in mucosal scrapings, lamina propria, and serum by 16, 22, and 29% at 3 h and by 33, 40, and 8%, respectively, at 5 h after fat feeding. In contrast, particle content was increased in enterocytes by 29% 3 h and by 8% 5 h after fat feeding. By electron microscopy, enterocytes from Pluronic- and fenfluramine-treated animals exhibited a two- to threefold increase in large intracellular cytoplasmic lipid globules and the appearance of lamellae in apposition, with a marked decrease in the number of surfactant-like particles overlying the brush border. These changes, produced by inhibition of chylomicron transport, in the distribution of surfactant-like particles and particle-bound alkaline phosphatase are consistent with a role for these particles in transepithelial triacylglycerol transport across and out of the enterocyte.
A Mahmood, F Yamagishi, R Eliakim, K DeSchryver-Kecskemeti, T L Gramlich, D H Alpers
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia/thrombosis (HITP) is thought to be mediated by immunoglobulins that activate platelets in the presence of pharmacologic concentrations of heparin, but the molecular basis for this relatively common and often serious complication of heparin therapy has not been established. We found that plasma from each of 12 patients with HITP contained high titer (> or = 1:200) antibodies that reacted with immobilized complexes of heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4), a heparin-binding protein contained in platelet alpha-granules. Recombinant human PF4 behaved similarly to PF4 isolated from platelets in this assay system. Complexes formed at an apparent heparin/PF4 molecular ratio of approximately 1:2 (fresh heparin) and approximately 1:12 (outdated heparin) were most effective in binding antibody. Immune complexes consisting of PF4, heparin, and antibody reacted with resting platelets; this interaction was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody specific for the Fc gamma RII receptor and by excess heparin. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells, known to express heparin-like glycosaminoglycan molecules on their surface, were recognized by antibody in the presence of PF4 alone; this reaction was inhibited by excess heparin, but not by anti-Fc gamma RII. Antibodies reactive with heparin/PF4 were not found in normal plasma, but IgG and IgM antibodies were detected at dilutions of 1:10 (IgG) and 1:50 (IgM) in 3 of 50 patients (6%) with other types of immune thrombocytopenia. These findings indicate that antibodies associated with HITP react with PF4 complexed with heparin in solution or with glycosaminoglycan molecules on the surface of endothelial cells and provide the basis for a new hypothesis to explain the development of thrombocytopenia with thrombosis or disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients sensitive to heparin.
G P Visentin, S E Ford, J P Scott, R H Aster
mAb4E4, a murine monoclonal antibody that is specific for acetylated LDL and malondialdehyde-treated LDL, binds specifically to modified LDL present in human atherosclerotic lesions. It is directed against an epitope that is poorly exposed in delipidated and solubilized apolipoprotein B-100 from modified LDL. mAb4E4, as well as its F(ab')2 and Fab fragments, enhanced the uptake of both acetylated LDL and malondialdehyde-treated LDL by THP-1-derived macrophages resulting in a sixfold increase of cytoplasmic cholesteryl ester levels. The increased uptake of modified LDL/mAb4E4 complexes did not occur via the Fc receptor and did not depend on aggregation of modified LDL particles. However, their uptake was inhibited by blocking the scavenger receptors with fucoidin or by downregulation of receptor expression with endotoxins or interferon-gamma, indicating that their uptake is mediated via these receptors. Thus, generation of autoimmune antibodies against modified LDL and subsequent endocytosis of soluble modified LDL/antibody complexes via scavenger receptors may enhance foam cell generation. This mechanism may contribute to the progression of atherosclerotic lesions.
P Holvoet, G Perez, H Bernar, E Brouwers, B Vanloo, M Rosseneu, D Collen
K Matsumura, A H Burghes, M Mora, F M Tomé, L Morandi, F Cornello, F Leturcq, M Jeanpierre, J C Kaplan, P Reinert
Na-H exchange (NHE) is one of the major non-nutritive Na absorptive pathways of the intestine and kidney. Of the four NHE isoforms that have been cloned, only one, NHE-3, appears to be epithelial specific. We have examined the regional and cellular expression of NHE-3 in the rat intestine. NHE-3 message in the small intestine was more abundant in the villus fractions of the small intestine than in the crypts. Analysis of NHE-3 mRNA distribution in the gut by in situ hybridization demonstrated epithelial cell specificity, as well as expression preferential to villus cells. NHE-1 message, in contrast, was ubiquitous, with slightly greater expression exhibited in the differentiating crypt and lower villus cells of the small intestine. Isoform-specific NHE-3 fusion protein antibody identified a 97-kD membrane protein in the upper villus cells of the small intestine, which was exclusively localized in the apical membrane. In contrast, antibody previously developed against the COOH-terminal region of human NHE-1 (McSwine, R. L., G. Babnigg, M. W. Musch, E. B. Chang, and M. L. Villereal, manuscript submitted for publication) identified a 110-kD basolateral membrane protein. These data suggest that unlike NHE-1, which probably serves a "housekeeping" function, NHE-3 may be involved in vectorial Na transport by the intestine.
C Bookstein, A M DePaoli, Y Xie, P Niu, M W Musch, M C Rao, E B Chang
Knowledge of the pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for the activation of the coagulation system associated with endotoxemia is important for the development of improved modalities for prevention and treatment. We analyzed the appearance in plasma of TNF, IL-6, and indices of coagulation and fibrinolytic system activation in normal chimpanzees after intravenous infusion of endotoxin. Endotoxin infusion elicited reproducible and dose-dependent elevations in serum TNF and IL-6, as well as marked increases in thrombin generation in vivo as measured by immunoassays for prothrombin activation fragment F1 + 2, thrombin-antithrombin III complexes, and fibrinopeptide A. Activation of the fibrinolytic mechanism was monitored with assays for plasminogen activator activity and plasmin-alpha 2-antiplasmin complexes. To potentially intervene in the molecular pathways elicited by endotoxin, pentoxifylline, an agent that interrupts "immediate early" gene activation by monocytes, or a potent monoclonal antibody that neutralizes tissue factor-mediated initiation of coagulation, were infused shortly before endotoxin. Pentoxifylline markedly inhibited increases in the levels of TNF and IL-6, as well as the effects on coagulation and fibrinolysis. In contrast, the monoclonal antibody to tissue factor completely abrogated the augmentation in thrombin generation, but had no effect on cytokine levels or fibrinolysis. We conclude that the endotoxin-induced activation of coagulation appears to be mediated by the tissue factor-dependent pathway, the fibrinolytic response triggered by endotoxin is not dependent on the generation of thrombin, and that the release of cytokines may be important in mediating the activation of both the coagulation and the fibrinolytic mechanisms in vivo.
M Levi, H ten Cate, K A Bauer, T van der Poll, T S Edgington, H R Büller, S J van Deventer, C E Hack, J W ten Cate, R D Rosenberg
We describe a duplication of 10 nucleotides (2,455-2,464) in the band 3 gene in a kindred with autosomal dominant hereditary spherocytosis and a partial deficiency of the band 3 protein that is reflected by decreased rate of transmembrane sulfate flux and decreased density of intramembrane particles. The mutant allele potentially encodes an abnormal band 3 protein with a 3.5-kD COOH-terminal truncation; however, we did not detect the mutant protein in the membrane of mature red blood cells. Since the mRNA levels for the mutant and normal alleles are similar and since the band 3 content is the same in the light and dense red cell fractions, we conclude that the mutant band 3 is either not inserted into the plasma membrane or lost from the membrane prior to the release of red blood cells into circulation. We further show that the decrease in band 3 content principally involves the dimeric laterally and rotationally mobile fraction of the band 3 protein, while the laterally immobile and rotationally restricted band 3 fraction is left essentially intact. We propose that the decreased density of intramembrane particles decreases the stability of the membrane lipid bilayer and causes release of lipid microvesicles that leads to surface area deficiency and spherocytosis.
P Jarolim, H L Rubin, S C Liu, M R Cho, V Brabec, L H Derick, S J Yi, S T Saad, S Alper, C Brugnara
Microvascular endothelial cells in vivo exhibit a plastic phenotype, forming a nonproliferative, differentiated capillary network, while retaining their ability to respond to injury by proliferation, migration and neovascularization. The presence of PDGF receptors and PDGF responsiveness in microvascular endothelial cells and the significance of PDGF isoforms in the control of endothelial cell growth and differentiation remain controversial. Since culture of microvascular endothelial cells in a three-dimensional (3D) system induced cell differentiation and angiogenesis and inhibited proliferation, the present study investigates the role of different extracellular matrix environments in inducing different microvascular endothelial cell phenotypes on microvascular endothelial cell PDGF receptor expression and PDGF responsiveness. In conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture, microvascular endothelial cells expressed both PDGF receptor alpha and beta chains. Suramin treatment demonstrated continuous downregulation of the alpha receptor surface expression. PDGF BB and, to a lesser extent, PDGF AB were mitogenic in 2D-culture, PDGF AA failed to induce any proliferative response despite inducing receptor autophosphorylation. During in vitro angiogenesis induced by 3D-culture, both PDGF receptors were rapidly downregulated. Assessment of cell proliferation showed quiescent cells and PDGF unresponsiveness. We conclude that the induction of a differentiated phenotype during in vitro angiogenesis (tube formation) driven in part by the spatial organization of the surrounding matrix is associated with a downregulation of PDGF receptors. Identification of the molecular cell-matrix interactions involved in this receptor regulation may allow for targeted manipulation of cell growth in vivo and lead to novel therapeutic applications for PDGF.
M Marx, R A Perlmutter, J A Madri
We have investigated the systemic anti-HIV antibody response in chimpanzees who were immunized with live vaccinia containing either the HIV envelope glycoprotein (gp160IIIB) or a control antigen (herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D) and then challenged with either a high dose (300,000 TCID50) or low dose (100 TCID50) of HIVIIIB. HIV was subsequently isolated from all animals, indicating failure of the vaccination to protect against HIV infection. Serum antibody responses were evaluated before immunization, at the time of challenge with HIV, and at multiple time points in the 9 mo after challenge. Immunization resulted in a more rapid rise of antibody to gp160 in both high and low dose animals. Antibodies to the V3 loop induced upon infection were unaffected by immunization. In low dose animals, neutralizing antibody rose more rapidly and to higher levels in the immunized animals as compared with the control. There was no difference in neutralizing antibodies between immunized and control chimpanzees in the high dose group. Epitope mapping of the anti-gp 160 response indicated that immunization with gp160 vaccinia induced a postinfection antibody response to a region of gp41 (amino acids 718-743) that was not immunogenic in control-vaccinated animals. These data indicate that failed vaccination with the HIV envelope can alter both the timing and epitope specificity of the subsequent anti-HIV antibody response. These studies also define the evolution and fine specificity of the antibody response during the critical period immediately postinfection.
S H Pincus, K G Messer, S L Hu
Ultrasonic probes were placed around dog femoral arteries to record blood flow. Hind paw scalding with boiling water (5 s) caused a marked increase in ipsilateral femoral blood flow that persisted for the 2-h observation period. Contralateral femoral blood flow and systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances were unchanged. Compared to scald only animals, methysergide pretreatment diminished and shortened the femoral vasodilator response to scald (109 +/- 14 vs 243 +/- 27 ml/min at 5 min; 59 +/- 14 vs 191 +/- 31 ml/min at 2 h). Pretreatment with ritanserin, BW A1433U83, atropine, ICI 118551, diphenhydramine, ranitidine, meclofenamate, L-nitro-arginine methyl ester, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazine, and U 37883A had no effect on the increased femoral blood flow response to scald, suggesting this vasodilator response is not dependent upon activation of serotonergic2, adenosineA1, muscarinic, beta 2-adrenergic, histaminergic1 or histaminergic2 receptors, on cyclooxygenase products, endothelium-derived relaxing factor derived from nitric oxide (NO) synthase III, NO derived from NO synthase II, or KATP channels, respectively. Methysergide given after burn immediately reduced the augmented femoral blood flow to preburn levels, suggesting the vasodilator response to scald is mediated through continual activation of local serotonergic1-like receptors, which may be target site(s) for therapeutic interventions to influence burn-induced hemodynamic alterations.
P A Taheri, H L Lippton, S D Force, E W Franklin, A L Hyman, L M Flint, J J Ferrara
This study was designed to investigate the effects of prostaglandin E1 on reductive stress and the subsequent oxidative cell injury in hypoperfused rat liver. The intralobular heterogeneity of hepatocellular redox state, mitochondrial dysfunction, and intracellular hydroperoxide formation were visually monitored by digital microfluorography of pyridine nucleotide autofluorescence, rhodamine 123, and dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, respectively. Under the 25% low flow perfusion, pyridine nucleotide autofluorescence increased time-dependently and reached a steady state at 10 min among the entire lobules. The decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential was > 20 mV in all portions of the lobules at 60 min. The onset of hydroperoxide formation was observed at 40 min in the marginally oxygenated proximal portion of anoxic pericentral regions and the oxidative impact reached a maximum level at 60 min. Sodium (-)-8-(3-methoxy-4-phenylsulfinylphenyl) pyrazo [1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazine-4-olate monohydrate (BOF 4272), a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor, suppressed the zone-specific oxidative changes without attenuating the increase in pyridine nucleotide autofluorescence and mitochondrial dysfunction. Pretreatment with prostaglandin E1 not only abrogated an early increase in pyridine nucleotide fluorescence and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by hypoperfusion but also diminished the subsequent midzonal oxidative injury. Since prostaglandin E1 has no oxyradical-scavenging action, the preventive effect of this reagent on the hypoxia-induced oxidative cell injury is attributable to the attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction. These results suggest that, in low flow hypoxia, early reductive stress plays a key role in the initiation of xanthine oxidase-mediated midzonal oxidative changes, which may lead to subsequent centrilobular necrosis.
H Suzuki, M Suematsu, H Ishii, S Kato, H Miki, M Mori, Y Ishimura, T Nishino, M Tsuchiya
Experiments were designed to determine whether a heterogeneity of endothelium-dependent relaxations in arteries from different vascular beds exists in experimental congestive heart failure (CHF) and to determine the mediators of those responses. CHF was produced in dogs by rapid ventricular pacing for 15 d. Rings of coronary, femoral, and renal arteries with and without endothelium from control and CHF dogs were suspended in organ chambers for measurement of isometric force. In arteries contracted with prostaglandin F2 alpha, endothelium-dependent relaxations to BHT 920 (an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist) were increased in coronary arteries from dogs with CHF (maximal relaxation: control -15 +/- 9% vs CHF -92 +/- 5%; n = 5-6; P < 0.05), with a modest enhancement in renal arteries. Relaxations to adenosine diphosphate and the calcium ionophore were unchanged. Relaxations to BHT 920 in CHF were reduced by NG monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and pertussis toxin but not by indomethacin. These data suggest that endothelium-dependent relaxations are affected heterogeneously in CHF. The enhanced response to alpha 2-adrenergic agonists in the coronary artery is mediated by nitric oxide through a mechanism sensitive to inhibition by pertussis toxin. This selective increase in endothelium-dependent relaxations in the coronary artery may contribute to preserving coronary blood flow during CHF.
B O'Murchu, V M Miller, M A Perrella, J C Burnett Jr
We studied the defect responsible for Glanzmann thrombasthenia in a patient whose platelets expressed < 5% of the normal amount of GPIIb-IIIa. Genetic and biochemical evidence indicated that the patient's GPIIIa genes were normal. However, DNA analysis revealed the patient homozygous for a G818-->A substitution in her GPIIb genes, resulting in a Gly273-->Asp substitution adjacent to the first GPIIb calcium-binding domain. To determine how this mutation impaired GPIIb-IIIa expression, recombinant GPIIb containing the mutation was coexpressed with GPIIIa in COS-1 cells. The GPIIb mutant formed stable GPIIb-IIIa heterodimers that were not immunoprecipitated by either of two heterodimer-specific monoclonal antibodies, indicating that the mutation disrupted the epitopes for these antibodies. Moreover, the GPIIb in the heterodimers was not cleaved into heavy and light chains, indicating that the heterodimers were not transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex where GPIIb cleavage occurs, nor were the mutant heterodimers expressed on the cell surface. These studies demonstrate that a Gly273-->Asp mutation in GPIIb does not prevent the assembly of GPIIb-IIIa heterodimers, but alters the conformation of these heterodimers sufficiently to impair their intracellular transport. The impaired GPIIb-IIIa transport is responsible for the thrombasthenia in this patient.
M Poncz, S Rifat, B S Coller, P J Newman, S J Shattil, T Parrella, P Fortina, J S Bennett
The present study was undertaken to assess the role of ovarian renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the preovulatory cascade induced by gonadotropin exposure. In the in vitro perfused rabbit ovaries, exposure to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) enhanced the secretion rate of angiotensin II (Ang II) within 1 h. The secretion rate reached maximal levels at 6 h and then declined thereafter. The intrafollicular Ang II content and renin-like activity were also significantly increased at 2 and 4 h after exposure to hCG, compared with control ovaries perfused with medium alone. The level of intrafollicular Ang II after hCG exposure significantly exceeded the concentration of Ang II in an equivalent volume of plasma. The addition of 1 microM captopril to the perfusate significantly inhibited the secretion rate of Ang II stimulated by hCG; however, captopril affected neither the ovulatory efficiency nor prostaglandin production in ovaries treated with hCG. Captopril significantly inhibited the resumption of meiosis in the ovulated ova and follicular oocytes stimulated by hCG. The administration of 100 micrograms Ang II at 2-h intervals to the perfusate reversed the inhibitory effects of captopril on hCG-induced oocyte maturation. In conclusion, these data indicate that gonadotropin stimulates renin-like activity and Ang II production in the rabbit ovary. Ovarian renin-angiotensin system may play an important role in the process of oocyte maturation after exposure to gonadotropin.
Y Yoshimura, N Koyama, M Karube, T Oda, M Akiba, A Yoshinaga, S Shiokawa, M Jinno, Y Nakamura
We hypothesized that platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent inflammatory mediator, could induce gas exchange abnormalities in normal humans. To this end, the effect of aerosolized PAF (2 mg/ml solution; 24 micrograms) on ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) relationships, hemodynamics, and resistance of the respiratory system was studied in 14 healthy, nonatopic, and nonsmoking individuals (23 +/- 1 [SEM]yr) before and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 15, and 45 min after inhalation, and compared to that of inhaled lyso-PAF in 10 other healthy individuals (24 +/- 2 yr). PAF induced, compared to lyso-PAF, immediate leukopenia (P < 0.001) followed by a rebound leukocytosis (P < 0.002), increased minute ventilation (P < 0.05) and resistance of the respiratory system (P < 0.01), and decreased systemic arterial pressure (P < 0.05). Similarly, compared to lyso-PAF, PaO2 showed a trend to fall (by 12.2 +/- 4.3 mmHg, mean +/- SEM maximum change from baseline), and arterial-alveolar O2 gradient increased (by 16.7 +/- 4.3 mmHg) (P < 0.02) after PAF, because of VA/Q mismatch: the dispersion of pulmonary blood flow and that of ventilation increased by 0.45 +/- 0.1 (P < 0.01) and 0.29 +/- 0.1 (P < 0.04), respectively. We conclude that in normal subjects, inhaled PAF results in considerable immediate VA/Q inequality and gas exchange impairment. These results reinforce the notion that PAF may play a major role as a mediator of inflammation in the human lung.
R Rodriguez-Roisin, M A Félez, K F Chung, J A Barberà, P D Wagner, A Cobos, P J Barnes, J Roca
The effect of lovastatin (LOV), the inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase, on linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) metabolism was examined in human monocytic Mono Mac 6 (MM6) and hepatoma Hep G2 cells. The desaturation of LA was examined after LOV (72 h, 10 microM) or dimethylsulfoxide (LOV carrier, < 0.1%) and [14C]LA (last 18 h, 0.3 microCi, 5 microM). In both cell lines, LOV reduced the percentage of 14C label associated with LA and increased the percentage of label in the 20:4n-6 and the 22:5n-6 fractions. In Hep G2 but not MM6 cells, this effect was fully reversible by means of coincubation with mevalonic acid (500 microM), but not with cholesterol or lipoproteins. In both cell lines, the LOV-mediated increase in LA desaturation resulted in dose-dependent reductions of LA and elevations of AA in cellular phospholipids. The lipids secreted by LOV-treated Hep G2 cells were also enriched in arachidonic acid (AA). In the MM6 cells, LOV increased release of thromboxane upon stimulation with the calcium ionophore A23187. In summary, our findings of higher LA desaturation and AA enrichment of lipids secreted by the Hep G2 cells suggest that LOV treatment may increase the delivery of AA from the liver to extrahepatic tissues. The changes in membrane fatty acid composition can influence a variety of cellular functions, such as eicosanoid synthesis in monocytic cells. The mechanism appears to be related to the reduced availability of intermediates of cholesterogenesis.
N Hrboticky, L Tang, B Zimmer, I Lux, P C Weber
Increased in vitro platelet aggregability and hypercoagulability are generally held to be main determinants in the prethrombotic state in nephrosis. In vivo, however, thrombotic events depend on the dynamic interaction of flowing blood with the vessel wall. The present study confirms that aggregability of platelets of nephrotic patients is significantly increased by mere stirring or by exogenous stimuli as adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid. Moreover, the nephrotic patients have high von Willebrand factor and decreased red blood cell deformability, which normally increase platelet-vessel wall interaction. However, perfusion studies under well-defined flow conditions, in which anticoagulated nephrotic blood was exposed to deendothelialized human umbilical artery segments and sprayed collagen, showed normal platelet adhesion and only a modest increase in the deposition of platelet aggregates. This suggests that some factor counteracts platelet-vessel wall interaction under flow conditions in the nephrotic syndrome. When tissue factor associated with endothelial extracellular matrix (ECM) was allowed to generate thrombin, perfusions with nephrotic blood over this ECM resulted in a strong increase in fibrin generation. The capacity of patient blood to form increased amounts of fibrin appeared strongly correlated with the level of hyperfibrinogenemia. Platelet adhesion as well as aggregation in these experiments was even decreased below control values. This suggests that fibrin coverage may block the direct contact between blood platelets and matrix. We therefore also studied the isolated effect of high fibrinogen on platelet-vessel wall interaction by increasing fibrinogen concentrations in normal blood. Modulation of fibrinogen concentrations in normal blood could mimic all the observations in nephrotic blood: platelet aggregation in suspension increased with increasing concentrations of fibrinogen, while platelet adhesion and aggregate formation under flow conditions decreased. In perfusions over tissue factor-rich matrix, fibrin deposition increased. Therefore, our observations indicate that nephrotic hyperaggregability in suspension is not associated with increased platelet vessel wall-interaction under flow conditions. The latter is probably counteracted by high levels of fibrinogen. Our observations further suggest that hyperfibrinogenemia may be a major thrombotic risk factor in nephrosis by inducing more fibrin depositions.
J J Zwaginga, H A Koomans, J J Sixma, T J Rabelink
We dissected and perfused outer medullary vasa recta (OMVR) from vascular bundles in the rat. Permeabilities of sodium (PNa) and urea (Pu) were simultaneously determined from the lumen-to-bath efflux of 22Na and [14C]urea. PNa and Pu were also measured by in vivo microperfusion of descending (DVR) and ascending vasa recta (AVR) at the papillary tip of Munich-Wistar rats. In some OMVR PNa was indistinguishable from zero. The mean +/- SE of PNa (x 10(-5), cm/s) in OMVR was 76 +/- 9. Pu in OMVR was always very high (x 10(-5), cm/s), 360 +/- 14. There was no correlation between OMVR PNa and Pu. Inner medullary AVR and DVR had PNa of 115 +/- 10 and 75 +/- 10, respectively, and Pu of 121 +/- 10 and 76 +/- 11, respectively. PNa and Pu in papillary vasa recta were always nearly identical and highly correlated. Transport of [14C] urea in OMVR was reversibly inhibited by addition of unlabeled urea or phloretin to the bath and lumen, providing evidence for carrier-mediated transport. These data suggest that sodium and urea might traverse the wall of inner medullary vasa recta by a paracellular pathway while urea also crosses by a transcellular route in OMVR. Electron microscopic examination of seven in vitro perfused OMVR revealed no fenestrations and exposure of these vessels to 10 microM calcium ionophore A23187 or 1 nM angiotensin II resulted in reversible contraction, suggesting that in vitro perfused OMVR are DVR only.
T L Pallone, J Work, R L Myers, R L Jamison
We report a Canadian kindred with a novel mutation in the apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene causing analphalipoproteinemia. The 34-yr-old proband, product of a consanguineous marriage, had bilateral retinopathy, bilateral cataracts, spinocerebellar ataxia, and tendon xanthomata. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was < 0.1 mM and apoA-I was undetectable. Genomic DNA sequencing of the proband's apoA-I gene identified a nonsense mutation at codon [-2], which we designate as Q[-2]X. This mutation causes a loss of endonuclease digestion sites for both BbvI and Fnu4HI. Genotyping identified four additional homozygotes, four heterozygotes, and two unaffected subjects among the first-degree relatives. Q[-2]X homozygosity causes a selective failure to produce any portion of mature apoA-I, resulting in very low plasma level of HDL. Heterozygosity results in approximately half-normal apoA-I and HDL. Gradient gel electrophoresis and differential electroimmunodiffusion assay revealed that the HDL particles of the homozygotes had peak Stokes diameter of 7.9 nm and contained apoA-II without apoA-I (Lp-AII). Heterozygotes had an additional fraction of HDL3-like particles. Two of the proband's affected sisters had documented premature coronary heart disease. This kindred, the third reported apoA-I gene mutation causing isolated complete apoA-I deficiency, appears to be at significantly increased risk for atherosclerosis.
D S Ng, L A Leiter, C Vezina, P W Connelly, R A Hegele
Contrary to current opinion, the disappearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) from the serum, the development of anti-HBs antibodies, and normalization of liver function may not reflect complete virological recovery from acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. By using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in the current study we demonstrate long-term persistence of HBV DNA in the serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of four patients for up to 70 mo after complete clinical, biochemical, and serological recovery from acute viral hepatitis. Serum HBV DNA reactivity co-sedimented with HBsAg in sucrose gradients, and it displayed the size and density characteristics of naked core particles and intact HBV virions, presumably contained within circulating immune complexes in these anti-HBs antibody-positive sera. HBV DNA was also present in PBMC in late convalescent samples from all four patients, and HBV RNA was detected in late convalescent phase PBMC in two of these patients. These results suggest that HBV DNA, and possibly HBV virions, can be present in the serum, and that the viral genome can persist in a transcriptionally active form in PBMC for > 5 yr after complete clinical and serological recovery from acute viral hepatitis.
T I Michalak, C Pasquinelli, S Guilhot, F V Chisari
Lactate concentration in the subcutaneous interstitial fluid and adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF, ml/100 g.min) were simultaneously measured with the microdialysis technique combined with 133Xe clearance in the abdominal and femoral subcutaneous adipose tissue in nine lean and nine obese men. The studies were performed both in the postabsorptive state and 2 h after an oral glucose load and the results compared to the lactate levels in arterialized venous plasma. After an overnight's fast, arterial lactate was 738 +/- 49 and 894 +/- 69 microM (mean +/- SE) (P < 0.05) in the lean and obese subjects, respectively. The interstitial lactate levels were significantly higher than blood lactate in both subject groups without any regional differences. Abdominal and femoral ATBF was 3.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.8 +/- 0.4 and 1.7 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.4 ml/100 g.min (P < 0.05) in lean and obese subjects, respectively. Mean apparent lactate release from the abdominal vs. femoral adipose tissue in the fasting state was 10.5 +/- 3.1 vs. 8.6 +/- 2.3 and 6.0 +/- 2.3 vs. 8.5 +/- 2.3 mumol/kg.min (NS) in lean and obese subjects, respectively. Both plasma and interstitial lactate levels increased significantly after an oral glucose load in both subject groups. However, apparent lactate release increased significantly only in the lean group. It is concluded that subcutaneous adipose tissue is a significant source of whole-body lactate release in the postabsorptive state and that this is further enhanced in obese subjects due to their large adipose mass.
P A Jansson, A Larsson, U Smith, P Lönnroth
Neutrophils contain at least two types of secretory granules. The present work links the secretion of the (lysosomal type) azurophil granules, but not that of specific granules, to endosomal transport mechanisms. (a) Selective stimulation of azurophil granule secretion by the Na-ionophore Monensin, or nonselective stimulation by FMLP after cytochalasin B pretreatment elicited marked pinocytic activity in parallel with azurophil granule release, whereas FMLP alone, selective for specific granules, elicited little fluid pinocytosis. (b) Pinosomes thus formed fused with azurophil granules, suggesting that exocytosis of azurophil granules might occur via endosomal organelles. This hypothesis was tested by determining the effect on the endosomal pathway(s) of two treatments that selectively prevent the release of azurophil granule contents without interfering with specific granule secretion, namely replacement of Cl- with gluconate- or the addition of zinc. Replacement of Cl- was found to impair the pinocytosis process itself, whereas ZnSO4 appeared to prevent the fusion between endosomes and azurophil granules. These data support the concept that the (lysosomal type) azurophil granules, but not the specific granules, are secreted through the endosomal pathway.
C Fittschen, P M Henson
Hypoxemia is a major comorbid factor for permanent brain damage in several metabolic encephalopathies. To determine whether hypoxia impairs brain adaptation to hyponatremia, worsening brain edema, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies in cats and rats with hyponatremia plus either ischemic or hypoxic hypoxia. Mortality with hypoxic hypoxia was 0%; with hyponatremia, 22%; and with hyponatremia+hypoxia, 100%. Hyponatremia in cats produced brain edema, with a compensatory decrease of brain sodium. Ischemic hypoxia also resulted in brain edema, but with elevation of brain sodium. However, when ischemic hypoxia was superimposed upon hyponatremia, there was elevation of brain sodium with further elevation of water. Outward sodium transport in cat cerebral cortex synaptosomes was measured via three major pathways through which brain osmolality can be decreased. After hyponatremia, sodium transport was significantly altered such that brain cell osmolality would decrease: 44% increase in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase transport activity (ouabain inhibitable); 26% decrease in amiloride-sensitive sodium uptake. The change in veratridine-stimulated sodium uptake was not significant (P > 0.05). When ischemic hypoxia was superimposed upon hyponatremia, all of the cerebral adaptive changes induced by hyponatremia alone were eliminated. Thus, hypoxia combined with hyponatremia produces a major increase in brain edema and mortality, probably by eliminating the compensatory mechanisms of sodium transport initiated by hyponatremia that tend to minimize brain swelling.
Z S Vexler, J C Ayus, T P Roberts, C L Fraser, J Kucharczyk, A I Arieff
The relationship between thermogenic and potentially atherogenic effects of cigarette smoking (CS) and its cessation was investigated. Heavy smokers (n = 7, serum cotinine > 200 ng/ml, > 20 cigarettes/d) were maintained on isoenergetic, constant diets for 2 wk, 1 wk with and 1 wk without CS. Stable isotope infusions with indirect calorimetry were performed on day 7 of each phase, after an overnight fast. CS after overnight abstention increased resting energy expenditure by 5% (not significant vs. non-CS phase; P = 0.18). CS increased the flux of FFA by 77%, flux of glycerol by 82%, and serum FFA concentrations by 73% (P < 0.02 for each), but did not significantly affect fat oxidation. Hepatic reesterification of FFA increased more than threefold (P < 0.03) and adipocyte recycling increased nonsignificantly (P = 0.10). CS-induced lipid substrate cycles represented only 15% (estimated 11 kcal/d) of observed changes in energy expenditure. De novo hepatic lipogenesis was low (< 1-2 g/d) and unaffected by either acute CS or its chronic cessation. Hepatic glucose production was not affected by CS, despite increased serum glycerol and FFA fluxes. Cessation of CS caused no rebound effects on basal metabolic fluxes. In conclusion, a metabolic mechanism for the atherogenic effects of CS on serum lipids (increased hepatic reesterification of FFA) has been documented. Increased entry of FFA accounts for CS-induced increases in serum FFA concentrations. The thermogenic effect of CS is small or absent in heavy smokers while the potentially atherogenic effect is maintained, and cessation of CS does not induce a rebound lipogenic milieu that specifically favors accrual of body fat in the absence of increased food intake.
M K Hellerstein, N L Benowitz, R A Neese, J M Schwartz, R Hoh, P Jacob 3rd, J Hsieh, D Faix
The contribution of IL-1 to leukocyte infiltration in anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody (Ab) glomerulonephritis (GN) was examined by the administration of a specific IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). Lewis rats received anti-GBM Ab or normal rabbit serum and were treated with either 0.9% saline or 6 mg IL-1ra over a 24-h time period. Plasma IL-1ra concentration was 2,659 +/- 51 ng/ml 4 h after anti-GBM Ab and IL-1ra administration. PMN and monocyte/macrophage infiltration declined 39% (9.8 +/- 1.9 to 6.0 +/- 1.5 PMN/glomerulus, P < 0.001) and 29% (4.9 +/- 0.8 to 3.5 +/- 0.8 ED-1 cells/glomerulus, P = 0.002) with IL-1ra treatment at 4 h, respectively. Similarly, the number of glomerular cells staining for lymphocyte function-associated molecule-1 beta (CD18) declined 39% from 16.7 +/- 1.9 to 10.7 +/- 1.6 cells/glomerulus at 4 h (P = 0.0001). This was associated with a decrease in glomerular intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression. The mean glomerular intracellular adhesion molecule-1 score in anti-GBM Ab GN rats treated with IL-1ra was less than that of rats administered anti-GBM Ab and 0.9% saline at 4 (2.0 +/- 0.2 vs 2.5 +/- 0.2, P < 0.05) and 24 (2.5 +/- 0.1 vs 3.1 +/- 0.2, P = 0.0001) h. These immunopathologic changes correlated with a 50% reduction in proteinuria from 147 +/- 34 to 75 +/- 25 mg/d (P < 0.002). Treatment with IL-1ra did not affect the steady state mRNA expression of either IL-1 beta or TNF alpha. An increase in the IL-1ra dose to 30 mg given within the initial 4 h provided no additional benefit. The decline in PMN and monocyte/macrophage infiltration of the glomerulus at 4 h was similar to that found in the initial study. Furthermore, the protective benefit of IL-1ra was abrogated by doubling the dose of the anti-GBM Ab GN, despite administering high dose IL-1ra (30 mg). In these studies, detectable IL-1ra was found in the serum of untreated anti-GBM Ab GN controls. These data suggest a positive yet limited role for IL-1ra in the therapeutic intervention of anti-GBM Ab GN.
W W Tang, L Feng, J L Vannice, C B Wilson
R Anan, G Greve, L Thierfelder, H Watkins, W J McKenna, S Solomon, C Vecchio, H Shono, S Nakao, H Tanaka
Microelectrode techniques were used to assess the electrical properties of the collecting duct cell in the isolated perfused cortical collecting duct from remnant kidneys 3, 6, and 24 h after uninephrectomy (UNX); results were compared with those from sham-operated kidneys. Plasma aldosterone levels did not change during the time course after UNX. The lumen-negative transepithelial voltage was elevated significantly 3 h after UNX, and was increased further 24 h after UNX. The basolateral membrane voltage (VB) was elevated 6 h after UNX, and then was increased further at 24 h. Although the tight junction conductance and the fractional apical membrane resistance (fRA) were not altered at any time points after UNX, the apical membrane conductance as well as the transepithelial (GT) and basolateral membrane conductances increased 6 and 24 h after UNX. The changes in apical membrane voltage, GT, and fRA upon addition of luminal amiloride increased just 3 h after UNX, and then remained elevated at 6 and 24 h. The changes in apical membrane voltage and GT upon addition of luminal Ba2+, the changes in VB upon addition of bath ouabain, and the changes in VB, GT, and fRA upon raising bath K+ were not influenced 3 h after UNX, but increased at 6 and 24 h. At these latter periods after UNX, the transference number of Cl- of the basolateral membrane decreased significantly, whereas the transference number of K+ of the basolateral membrane increased significantly. Simultaneously, addition of Ba2+ to the bath caused the VB to hyperpolarize in parallel with decreases in GT and fRA. We conclude: (a) the initial effect of UNX (3 h) in the collecting duct cell is an increase in apical membrane Na+ conductance; (b) the delayed effects of UNX (6 and 24 h) are increases in apical membrane K+ conductance as well as basolateral membrane Na(+)-K+ pump activity and K+ conductance; (c) the hyperpolarization of VB at 6 and 24 h after UNX may result in the decrease of the ratio of the relative Cl- conductance to the relative K+ conductance of the basolateral membrane and also may increase passive K+ entry into the cell across the basolateral membrane; (d) these time-dependent electrical changes occur independently of plasma aldosterone levels.
S Muto, S Ebata, Y Asano
Although catalase is a major intracellular antioxidant, the expression of the human catalase gene appears to be limited in the airway epithelium, making these cells vulnerable to oxidant stress. The basis for this limited gene expression was examined by evaluation of the expression of the endogenous gene in human bronchial epithelial cells in response to hyperoxia. Hyperoxia failed to upregulate endogenous catalase gene expression, in contrast to a marked increase in expression of the heat shock protein gene. Sequence analysis of 1.7 kb of the 5'-flanking region of the human catalase gene showed features of a "house-keeping" gene (no TATA box, high GC content, multiple CCAAT boxes, and transcription start sites). Transfection of human bronchial epithelial cells with fusion genes composed of various lengths of the catalase 5'-flanking region and luciferase as a reporter gene showed low level constitutive promoter activity that did not change after exposure to hyperoxia. Importantly, using a replication-deficient recombinant adenoviral vector containing the human catalase cDNA, levels of catalase were significantly increased in human airway epithelial cells and this was associated with increased survival of the cells when exposed to hyperoxia. These observations provide a basis for understanding the sensitivity of the human airway epithelium to oxidant stress and a strategy for protecting the epithelium from such injury.
J H Yoo, S C Erzurum, J G Hay, P Lemarchand, R G Crystal
The C1q inhibitor, C1qI, an approximately 30-kD circulating chondroitin-4 sulfate proteoglycan, displayed concentration-dependent prolongation of plasma and fibrinogen solution clotting times. Under factor XIIIa catalyzed cross-linking conditions and maximum C1qI concentrations, minor amounts of clot formed displaying complete gamma-gamma dimer formation but virtually no alpha-polymer formation. The anticoagulant effect was undiminished by its binding to C1q, by increased ionic strength, and by CaCl2, but was abolished by incubation of C1qI with chondroitinase ABC. 125I-labeled C1qI bound to immobilized fibrinogen, fibrin monomer, fibrinogen plasmic fragments D1 and E, and fibrin polymers. Occupancy on the E domain required uncleaved fibrinopeptides together with another structure(s), and it did not decrease binding of thrombin to fibrinogen. Occupancy on the D domain did not decrease the fibrinogen binding to fibrin monomer. We conclude that the E domain occupancy impaired fibrinopeptide cleavage, and occupancy on the D domain impaired polymerization, both steric hindrance effects. C1qI binding to fibrinogen explains at least in part the well-known fibrin(ogen) presence in immune complex-related lesions, and the fibrinogen presence in vascular basement membranes and atheromata. We postulate that fibrin binding by resident basement membrane proteoglycans provides dense anchoring of thrombus, substantially enhancing its hemostatic function.
D K Galanakis, B Ghebrehiwet
Nitric oxide (NO)-dependent cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) generation was examined in glomeruli isolated from 1-2-wk and 2-mo streptozotocin diabetic (D) and control (C) rats. After 1-2 wk of diabetes, ex vivo basal cGMP generation and cGMP responses to carbamylcholine (CCh) were significantly suppressed in glomeruli from D compared with those from C, whereas cGMP responses to the calcium ionophore A23187 and nitroprusside (NP) did not differ in glomeruli from D vs. those from C. After 2 mo, glomeruli from D did not respond to CCh, and responses to A23187 and NP were suppressed compared with those from C. Differences in basal, CCh, and A23187-responsive cGMP between D and C were abolished by the NO synthetase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. Soluble glomerular guanylate cyclase prepared from either D or C responded indistinguishably to NP, suggesting a role for NO quenching in the suppression of cGMP in intact glomeruli from D. Compared with those from C, glomeruli isolated from D demonstrated increased generation of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Both the TXA2/endoperoxide receptor antagonist Bay U3405 and inhibitors of PKC activity restored a cGMP response to CCh in glomeruli from D. Conversely, in glomeruli from C, the TXA2/endoperoxide analogue U46619 activated PKC and suppressed the cGMP response to CCh. Both of those actions were blocked by inhibitors of PKC. The results indicate a progressive impairment of NO-dependent cGMP generation in glomeruli from D which may be mediated in part by TXA2 and activation of PKC. This impairment may participate in glomerular injury in diabetes.
P A Craven, R K Studer, F R DeRubertis
Classic (complete) lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency and Fish-eye disease (partial LCAT deficiency) are genetic syndromes associated with markedly decreased plasma levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol but not with an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We investigated the metabolism of the HDL apolipoproteins (apo) apoA-I and apoA-II in a total of five patients with LCAT deficiency, one with classic LCAT deficiency and four with Fish-eye disease. Plasma levels of apoA-II were decreased to a proportionately greater extent (23% of normal) than apoA-I (30% of normal). In addition, plasma concentrations of HDL particles containing both apoA-I and apoA-II (LpA-I:A-II) were much lower (18% of normal) than those of particles containing only apoA-I (LpA-I) (51% of normal). The metabolic basis for the low levels of apoA-II and LpA-I:A-II was investigated in all five patients using both exogenous radiotracer and endogenous stable isotope labeling techniques. The mean plasma residence time of apoA-I was decreased at 2.08 +/- 0.27 d (controls 4.74 +/- 0.65 days); however, the residence time of apoA-II was even shorter at 1.66 +/- 0.24 d (controls 5.25 +/- 0.61 d). In addition, the catabolism of apoA-I in LpA-I:A-II was substantially faster than that of apoA-I in LpA-I. In summary, genetic syndromes of either complete or partial LCAT deficiency result in low levels of HDL through preferential hypercatabolism of apoA-II and HDL particles containing apoA-II. Because LpA-I has been proposed to be more protective than LpA-I:A-II against atherosclerosis, this selective effect on the metabolism of LpA-I:A-II may provide a potential explanation why patients with classic LCAT deficiency and Fish-eye disease are not at increased risk for premature atherosclerosis despite markedly decreased levels of HDL cholesterol and apoA-I.
D J Rader, K Ikewaki, N Duverger, H Schmidt, H Pritchard, J Frohlich, M Clerc, M F Dumon, T Fairwell, L Zech
We examined the role of intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) as an antioxidant by studying the effect of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) on extracellular H2O2-induced damage in cultured rat gastric mucosal cells. 51Cr-labeled monolayers from rat stomachs were exposed to glucose oxidase-generated H2O2 or reagent H2O2, which both caused a dose-dependent increase in 51Cr release. DDC dose-dependently enhanced 51Cr release by hydrogen peroxide, corresponding with inhibition of endogenous SOD activity. This inhibition was not associated either with modulation of other antioxidant defenses, or with potentiation of injury by nonoxidant toxic agents. Enhanced hydrogen peroxide damage by DDC was significantly prevented by chelating cellular iron with deferoxamine or phenanthroline. Inhibition of cellular xanthine oxidase (possible source of superoxide production) by oxypurinol neither prevented lysis by hydrogen peroxide nor diminished DDC-induced sensitization to H2O2. We conclude that (a) extracellular H2O2 induces dose dependent damage to cultured gastric mucosal cells; (b) intracellular SOD plays an important role in preventing H2O2 damage; (c) generation of superoxide seems to occur intracellularly after exposure to H2O2, but independent of cellular xanthine oxidase; and (d) cellular iron mediates the damage by catalyzing the production of more reactive species from superoxide and H2O2, the process which causes ultimate cell injury.
H Hiraishi, A Terano, T Sugimoto, T Harada, M Razandi, K J Ivey
Angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes growth of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. Consistent with this, Ang II enhances neointimal proliferation in vivo after vascular injury, while angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors attenuate this process. Since tissue ACE plays a key role in the control of local Ang II production, we examined whether vascular injury resulted in an increase in vascular ACE expression that may result in increased Ang II production. Abdominal aorta of Sprague-Dawley rats were injured with a 2 French balloon catheter. Morphometrical changes, ACE enzymatic activity, and localization of ACE by immunohistochemistry in injured and uninjured aorta were analyzed. Vascular ACE activity in the injured aorta was significantly higher than in the uninjured aorta, while serum and lung ACE levels were not different between the two groups. The cellular distribution of the ACE protein in the neointima was similar to that of alpha smooth muscle actin but differed from those of endothelial (von Willebrand factor) or monocytes/macrophages (ED-1) markers, demonstrating that ACE was expressed in neointimal smooth muscle cells. These data demonstrate that vascular injury results in the induction of vascular ACE and suggest that the inhibition of vascular ACE may be important in the prevention of restenosis after balloon injury.
H Rakugi, D K Kim, J E Krieger, D S Wang, V J Dzau, R E Pratt
We have used in situ hybridization to localize expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene in the human gastrointestinal tract and associated organs. The stomach exhibits a low level of CFTR expression throughout gastric mucosa. In the small intestine, expression is relatively high in the mucosal epithelium, with a decreasing gradient of expression along the crypt to tip axis. The cells of the Brunner's glands express high levels of CFTR mRNA. In addition, there is a small subpopulation of highly positive cells scattered along the epithelium in the duodenum and jejunum, but not in the ileum. These cells do not represent endocrine cells, as determined by lack of colocalization with an endocrine-specific marker. The distribution of CFTR mRNA in the colon is similar to the small intestine, with highest level of expression in the epithelial cells at the base of the crypts. In the pancreas, CFTR is expressed at high levels in the small, intercalated ducts and at lower levels in the interlobular ducts. CFTR transcripts are expressed at uniformly high levels in the epithelium of the gallbladder. Throughout the gastrointestinal tract, CFTR expression is increased in mucosal epithelial cells that are near lymph nodules.
T V Strong, K Boehm, F S Collins
Vascular smooth muscle cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation are central to blood vessel development. Since neointimal formation after vascular injury may require the reexpression of a smooth muscle developmental sequence, we examined the expression of H19, a developmentally regulated gene, in rat blood vessels. Expression of the H19 gene is associated with the differentiation process that takes place during development of many tissues. Consistent with this, H19 was highly expressed in the 1-d-old rat aorta but was undetectable in the adult. H19 transcripts were only minimally detected in uninjured carotid artery but were abundant at 7 and 14 d after injury and were localized by in situ hybridization, primarily to the neointima. H19 transcript were undetectable in proliferating neointimal cells in culture but became highly abundant in postconfluent, differentiated neointimal cells. H19 transcripts were only minimally expressed in adult medial smooth muscle cells grown under the identical conditions. Thus, H19 may play an important role in the normal development and differentiation of the blood vessel and in the phenotypic changes of the smooth muscle cells, which are associated with neointimal lesion formation. The vascular injury model may be a useful system to use in examining the function of H19.
D K Kim, L Zhang, V J Dzau, R E Pratt
Plasma cell infiltration of synovium is common in longstanding rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The mechanism(s) underlying synovial B cell proliferation remains unclear. One theory invokes nonspecific polyclonal stimuli; another implicates antigen as the driving force. Antigen-driven repertoires are characteristically enriched for related sets of V gene segments containing similar sequence in the antigen binding site (complementarity-determining regions; CDRs). To study the forces shaping B cell proliferation, we analyzed V kappa transcripts expressed in the synovium of an RA patient. We found Humkv325, a developmentally regulated V kappa III gene segment associated with autoantibody reactivity, in > 10% of randomly-chosen synovial C kappa cDNAs. Two sets of sequences contained identical charged amino acid residues at the V kappa-J kappa join, apparently due to N region addition. We generated "signature" oligonucleotides from these CDR3s and probed PCR amplified V kappa products from the synovium and PBLs of the same patient, and from PBLs and spleen of individuals without rheumatic disease. Significant expression of transcripts containing these unique CDR3 sequences occurred only in the patient's synovium. Thus, in this synovium there is expansion of a limited set of B cell clones expressing antigen receptors that bear evidence of antigen selection.
S K Lee, S L Bridges Jr, P M Kirkham, W J Koopman, H W Schroeder Jr
Stimulation of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels in airway smooth muscle cells by phosphorylation-dependent and membrane-delimited, G protein actions has been reported (Kume, H. A. Takai, H. Tokuno, and T. Tomita. 1989. Nature [Lond.]. 341:152-154; Kume, H., M. P. Graziano, and M. I. Kotlikoff. 1992. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 89:11051-11055). We show that beta-adrenergic receptor/channel coupling is not affected by inhibition of endogenous ATP, and that activation of KCa channels is stimulated by both alpha S and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). PKA stimulated channel activity in a dose-dependent fashion with an EC50 of 0.12 U/ml and maximum stimulation of 7.38 +/- 2.04-fold. Application of alpha S to patches near maximally stimulated by PKA significantly increased channel activity to 15.1 +/- 3.65-fold above baseline, providing further evidence for dual regulatory mechanisms and suggesting that the stimulatory actions are independent. Analysis of channel open-time kinetics indicated that isoproterenol and alpha S stimulation of channel activity primarily increased the proportion of longer duration events, whereas PKA stimulation had little effect on the proportion of short and long duration events, but resulted in a significant increase in the duration of the long open-state. cAMP formation during equivalent relaxation of precontracted muscle strips by isoproterenol and forskolin resulted in significantly less cAMP formation by isoproterenol than by forskolin, suggesting that the degree of activation of PKA is not the only determinant of tissue relaxation. We conclude that beta-adrenergic stimulation of KCa channel activity and relaxation of tone in airway smooth muscle occurs, in part, by means independent of cyclic AMP formation.
H Kume, I P Hall, R J Washabau, K Takagi, M I Kotlikoff
The extent of nucleotide variation within the HIV-1 env hypervariable domains serves as a marker of virus genotypes within infected individuals and as a means to track transmission of the virus between individuals. We analyzed env V1 and V2 sequences in longitudinal samples from two HIV-1-infected mothers, each with three children infected by maternal transmission of the virus. Sequences in samples that were obtained from two infants at 2 d and 4 wk after birth displayed more variation in V1 and V2 than maternal samples obtained at the same times. Multiple HIV-1 genotypes were identified in each mother. In each family, multiple maternal HIV-1 genotypes were transmitted to the infants. Specific amino acid residues in the hypervariable domains were conserved within sequences from each family producing a family-specific amino acid signature pattern in V1 and V2. Viruses that were highly related to maternal viruses in signature pattern persisted for as long as 4 yr in the older children. Results support a model of transmission involving multiple HIV-1 genotypes with development of genetic variation from differential outgrowth and accumulation of genetic changes within each individual.
S L Lamers, J W Sleasman, J X She, K A Barrie, S M Pomeroy, D J Barrett, M M Goodenow
We and others have previously demonstrated that human alveolar macrophages produce more PGE2 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) than do blood monocytes. We hypothesized that this observation was due to a greater increase in prostaglandin H synthase-2 (PGHS-2) enzyme mass in the macrophage compared to the monocyte. To evaluate this hypothesis, alveolar macrophages and blood monocytes were obtained from healthy nonsmoking volunteers. The cells were cultured in the presence of 0 to 10 micrograms/ml LPS. LPS induced the synthesis of large amounts of a new 75-kD protein in human alveolar macrophages, and a lesser amount in monocytes. Synthesis of this protein required more than 6 h and peaked in 24 to 48 h; the protein reacted with an anti-PGHS-2 antibody prepared against mouse PGHS-2. Associated with synthesis of the protein was a marked increase in LPS-stimulated and arachidonic acid-stimulated synthesis of PGE2 by alveolar macrophages compared to monocytes. Cells not exposed to LPS contained only PGHS-1 and synthesized very little PGE2 during culture or in response to exogenous arachidonic acid. An LPS-induced mRNA, which hybridized to a human cDNA probe for PGHS-2 mRNA, was produced in parallel with production of this new protein and was produced in much greater amounts by alveolar macrophages compared to blood monocytes. This mRNA was not detectable in cells not exposed to LPS. In contrast, both types of cells contain mRNA, which hybridizes to a cDNA probe for PGHS-1. This mRNA did not increase in response to LPS. LPS also had no effect on PGHS-1 protein. These data demonstrate that PGE2 synthesis in human alveolar macrophages and blood monocytes correlates to the mass of PGHS-2 in the cell. We conclude that the greater ability of the macrophage to synthesize PGE2 in response to LPS is due to greater synthesis of PGHS-2 by the macrophage.
S L Hempel, M M Monick, G W Hunninghake
The major reabsorptive mechanism for D-glucose in the kidney is known to involve a low affinity high capacity Na+/glucose cotransporter, which is located in the early proximal convoluted tubule segment S1, and which has a Na+ to glucose coupling ratio of 1:1. Here we provide the first molecular evidence for this renal D-glucose reabsorptive mechanism. We report the characterization of a previously cloned human kidney cDNA that codes for a protein with 59% identity to the high affinity Na+/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1). Using expression studies with Xenopus laevis oocytes we demonstrate that this protein (termed SGLT2) mediates saturable Na(+)-dependent and phlorizin-sensitive transport of D-glucose and alpha-methyl-D-glucopyranoside (alpha MeGlc) with Km values of 1.6 mM for alpha MeGlc and approximately 250 to 300 mM for Na+, consistent with low affinity Na+/glucose cotransport. In contrast to SGLT1, SGLT2 does not transport D-galactose. By comparing the initial rate of [14C]-alpha MeGlc uptake with the Na(+)-influx calculated from alpha MeGlc-evoked inward currents, we show that the Na+ to glucose coupling ratio of SGLT2 is 1:1. Using combined in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry with tubule segment specific marker antibodies, we demonstrate an extremely high level of SGLT2 message in proximal tubule S1 segments. This level of expression was also evident on Northern blots and likely confers the high capacity of this glucose transport system. We conclude that SGLT2 has properties characteristic of the renal low affinity high capacity Na+/glucose cotransporter as previously reported for perfused tubule preparations and brush border membrane vesicles. Knowledge of the structural and functional properties of this major renal Na+/glucose reabsorptive mechanism will advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of renal diseases such as familial renal glycosuria and diabetic renal disorders.
Y Kanai, W S Lee, G You, D Brown, M A Hediger
Expression of fibronectin (FN) isoforms containing CS1, a 25-amino acid sequence present within the alternatively spliced IIICS region of FN, has been analyzed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium. Unexpectedly, CS1-containing FN variants were exclusively found on endothelium but not extracellular matrix (ECM) of RA synovium. Lumenal expression of CS1 on RA endothelial cells, as observed by electron microscopy, correlated with inflammation in RA, since normal synovium expressed little CS1 without appreciable decrease in ECM FN. CS1 expression on human endothelial cells was further shown by FN mRNA analyses. In adhesion assays on frozen RA synovial sections, T lymphoblastoid cells expressing functionally activated alpha 4 beta 1 integrin specifically attached to the intravascular surface of RA endothelium. Binding was abrogated by both anti-alpha 4 integrin and CS1 peptides. Our observations suggest direct involvement of CS1-containing FN in recruitment of alpha 4 beta 1-expressing mononuclear leukocytes in synovitis, and provide basis for therapeutic intervention in RA.
M J Elices, V Tsai, D Strahl, A S Goel, V Tollefson, T Arrhenius, E A Wayner, F C Gaeta, J D Fikes, G S Firestein
The distribution of Na(+)-independent Cl(-)-HCO3- exchange was studied in individual intercalated cells from in vitro perfused rabbit outer CCDs using dual excitation laser scanning confocal microscopy by measuring the pHi response to sequential removal of Cl- from both sides of the tubule. Three patterns of intracellular pH (pHi) response were observed. 39% of intercalated cells had only apical Cl(-)-HCO3- exchange (beta cell), 4% had only basolateral Cl(-)-HCO3- exchange (alpha cell), and 57% had both apical and basolateral Cl(-)-HCO3- exchange (gamma cell). Valinomycin-high K+ voltage clamping had no effect on the pHi response of intercalated cells with bilateral Cl(-)-HCO3- exchange. Although the mean rates of dpHi/dt following apical Cl- removal were similar in beta cells compared to gamma cells, a wide range of apical rates was seen among individual beta and gamma intercalated cells. Neither the apical nor the basolateral Cl(-)-HCO3- exchanger in gamma cells was inhibited by 0.5 mM H2DIDS. Binding of apical peanut lectin was seen both in beta cells and in gamma cells. In 41% of CCDs with four to seven intercalated cells studied, all intercalated cells were of the same subtype. We conclude that the majority of intercalated cells from the rabbit outer CCD have both apical and basolateral Na(+)-independent Cl(-)-HCO3- exchangers (gamma cells), which are stilbene-insensitive. Intercalated cells with only basolateral Cl(-)-HCO3- exchange are very uncommon in the rabbit outer CCD. There is a tendency for all intercalated cells in a given rabbit outer CCD to be of the same subtype (either all beta cells or all gamma cells), suggesting the presence of CCD intertubule heterogeneity at the same cortical level. This finding may account for intertubule differences in transepithelial H(+)-base transport.
C Emmons, I Kurtz
In this study, we show that IL-10 enhances in vitro the viability of purified splenic B cells. There was a two- to threefold increase in recovery of viable cells during a 15-d culture period in the presence of IL-10. This effect was abolished by neutralizing antibodies to IL-10. The survival of large splenic B cells, which mostly represent follicular center cells, was similarly increased. The in vitro rescue from spontaneous death of the latter cells is known to involve a bcl-2-dependent pathway. We therefore investigated whether IL-10 might affect bcl-2 expression. Unseparated B cells as well as large splenic B cells displayed a strong expression of bcl-2 protein by immunofluorescence at days 2-7 of culture in the presence of IL-10. Other lymphokines such as IL-2 and IL-4 were able to trigger only a transient and faint expression of bcl-2; moreover, this effect was abolished by anti-IL-10 mAb. Inasmuch as activated B cells can produce their own IL-10, this lymphokine may play a crucial role in relieving from apoptosis those B cells that encounter their antigen in B cell follicles.
Y Levy, J C Brouet
Cytogenetic studies have previously identified abnormalities of chromosome band 11q23 in many cases of infant acute leukemia. Recent studies by ourselves and others have demonstrated breakpoint clustering in acute leukemias bearing translocations involving 11q23, and a Drosophila trithorax gene homologue (called MLL, HRX, or ALL-1) has been shown to span the 11q23 breakpoints of these translocations. To determine if this gene is affected in infant acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we have analyzed 26 infant AML cases for molecular alterations of this 11q23 gene. 15 out of 26 cases studied (58%) showed rearrangement of the MLL gene at the molecular level, and these rearrangements were clustered within an approximately 11-kb region containing nine exons of this gene. Moreover, 14 of the 15 cases with 11q23 rearrangements (93%) had myelomonocytic or monocytic phenotypes (M4 or M5 FAB subtypes, respectively), both of which are associated with a poor prognosis in childhood AML. In contrast, only 1 of 11 nonrearranged cases had an M4 or M5 phenotype (P = 0.00002). Rearrangement also correlated significantly with hyperleukocytosis (P = 0.02), another clinical parameter associated with poor outcome in this disease. Our results demonstrate that molecular rearrangements of MLL are common in M4 or M5 infant AML, and suggest that alteration of this gene may result in abnormal control of proliferation and differentiation in monocytic progenitor cells.
P H Sorensen, C S Chen, F O Smith, D C Arthur, P H Domer, I D Bernstein, S J Korsmeyer, G D Hammond, J H Kersey
Basement membrane thickening is the most prominent and characteristic feature of early diabetic microangiopathy. Unknown is not only the causative process but also whether the thickening reflects increased synthesis of specific components. Because collagen type IV is uniquely present in basement membranes and represents their predominant structural element, we studied its expression in retinas obtained postmortem from five patients with 8 +/- 3 yr of diabetes and six nondiabetic controls. The collagen IV transcript proved to be rare in adult human retina and undetectable by Northern analysis. We thus identified a set of primers and conditions to detect the transcript by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and to measure its level relative to an endogenous internal standard (beta-actin mRNA). In the diabetic patients the levels of collagen IV mRNA were increased twofold over levels in controls, whereas the actin mRNA levels were similar in the two groups. Hence, the collagen IV/actin ratio was 0.53 +/- 0.15 in diabetic samples and 0.24 +/- 0.09 in control samples (P = 0.004). These results indicate that diabetes induces a twofold increase in the expression of collagen IV by the cells that synthesize basement membranes in the adult retina (vascular cells). Insofar as high ambient glucose in vitro elicits the same effect, it may be proposed that basement membrane thickening in diabetes results from enhanced synthesis of specialized component molecules sustained by hyperglycemia.
S Roy, M Maiello, M Lorenzi
Antibodies to native DNA (nDNA) in sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus have been found to frequently correlate with antibodies to the A and D SnRNP proteins measured in Western blot assays. 40 of 54 SLE (74.1%) sera with anti-nDNA bound to A and D proteins, while 9 of 113 sera (8%) without anti-nDNA bound the A and D proteins, P < 10(-8) by Fisher's exact test. Antibodies to nDNA correlated closely with anti-A and anti-D in seven of eight patients followed sequentially, r = 0.7865. Nine human polyclonal anti-nDNA populations were isolated from DNA cellulose columns. Seven reacted equally with A and D, and two reacted predominantly with D. Two of three murine monoclonal anti-DNA antibodies isolated from NZB/NZW F1 hybrid mice bound A and D equally in Western blot with a titer > 1/40,000. These reactions were directed to the unfolded A and D proteins measurable in Western blot since these monoclonals (and several of the human anti-nDNA populations) failed to react with native U1RNP in ELISA or in RNA immunoprecipitation experiments. These newly recognized cross reactions of anti-nDNA may amplify the immune response to DNA and be part of the original immunogenic drive.
M Reichlin, A Martin, E Taylor-Albert, K Tsuzaka, W Zhang, M W Reichlin, E Koren, F M Ebling, B Tsao, B H Hahn
This study investigated the mechanism by which chronic ethanol feeding reduces arachidonate and other highly unsaturated fatty acids in pig liver phospholipids. Five micropigs were fed a diet providing 89 kcal/kg body wt for 12 mo, with ethanol and fat as 40 and 34% of energy, respectively. Five control pigs were pairfed corn starch instead of ethanol. The activities of delta 6 and delta 5 desaturases (expressed as microsomal conversion of precursor to product) in liver from ethanol-fed pigs were reduced to less than half that of controls, whereas the activity of delta 9 desaturase was unaffected in the ethanol group. delta 5 Desaturase activity showed positive correlation with the abundance of its products in liver total phospholipids and microsomes in the ethanol group, but not in the controls. Correlation between delta 6 desaturase activity and its products showed similar pattern to that of delta 5 desaturase, but did not reach statistical significance. No difference was observed between the two groups in coenzyme A concentration in the liver. These results suggest that the selective reduction of delta 6 and delta 5 desaturase activities, not the microsomal electron transport system, are directly responsible for the altered profile of liver phospholipids.
M T Nakamura, A B Tang, J Villanueva, C H Halsted, S D Phinney