H E Broxmeyer
D J Looney
We have shown that human macrophages (m phi s) play an important role in the elaboration of chemotactic cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (Koch, A. E., S. L. Kunkel, J. C. Burrows, H. L. Evanoff, G. K. Haines, R. M. Pope, and R. M. Strieter. 1991. J. Immunol. 147:2187; Koch, A. E., S. L. Kunkel, L. A. Harlow, B. Johnson, H. L. Evanoff, G. K. Haines, M. D. Burdick, R. M. Pope, and R. M. Strieter. 1992. J. Clin. Invest. 90:772; Koch, A. E., P. J. Polverini, S. L. Kunkel, L. A. Harlow, L. A. DiPietro, V. M. Elner, S. G. Elner, and R. M. Strieter. 1992. Science (Wash. DC). 258:1798). Recently, m phi inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1 alpha), a cytokine with chemotactic activity for m phi s and neutrophils (PMNs), has been described. We have examined the production of MIP-1 alpha using sera, synovial fluid (SF), and synovial tissue (ST) from 63 arthritic patients. MIP-1 alpha was higher in RA SF (mean, 29 +/- 8 ng/ml [SE]) compared with other forms of arthritis (2.8 +/- 1.7), or osteoarthritis (0.7 +/- 0.4; P < 0.05). RA SF MIP-1 alpha was greater than that found in either RA or normal peripheral blood (PB) (P < 0.05). Anti-MIP-1 alpha neutralized 36 +/- 3% (mean +/- SE) of the chemotactic activity for m phi s, but not PMNs, found in RA SFs. RA SF and PB mononuclear cells produced antigenic MIP-1 alpha. Mononuclear cell MIP-1 alpha production was augmented with phytohemagglutinin or LPS. Isolated RA ST fibroblast production of antigenic MIP-1 alpha was augmented upon incubation of cells with LPS, and to a lesser extent with tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Isolated RA ST m phi s expressed constitutive MIP-1 alpha mRNA and antigenic MIP-1 alpha. Using ST immunohistochemistry, MIP-1 alpha+ cells from RA compared with normal were predominantly m phi s and lining cells (P < 0.05). These results suggest that MIP-1 alpha plays a role in the selective recruitment of m phi s in synovial inflammation associated with RA.
A E Koch, S L Kunkel, L A Harlow, D D Mazarakis, G K Haines, M D Burdick, R M Pope, R M Strieter
C Granert, J Raud, X Xie, L Lindquist, L Lindbom
Exposure of beta-adrenergic receptors (BAR) to agonists often leads to a rapid loss of receptor responsiveness. The proposed mechanisms of such rapid receptor desensitization include receptor phosphorylation by either cAMP-dependent protein kinase or the specific beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (BARK), leading to functional uncoupling from adenylyl cyclase and sequestration of the receptors away from the cell surface. To evaluate the physiological role of such mechanisms, we have investigated whether rapid regulation of BAR occurs in the neonatal rat liver immediately after birth, a physiological situation characterized by a dramatic but transient increase in plasma catecholamines. We have detected a rapid, transient uncoupling of liver plasma membrane BARs from adenylyl cyclase (corresponding to a desensitization of approximately 45%) within the first minutes of extrauterine life, followed by a transient sequestration of approximately 40% of the BARs away from the plasma membrane. In agreement with such pattern of desensitization, we have detected (by enzymatic and immunological assays) rapid changes in BARK specific activity in different neonatal rat liver subcellular fractions that take place within the same time frame of BAR uncoupling and sequestration. Our results provide new evidence on the potential role of BAR desensitization mechanisms in vivo and suggest that they are involved in modulating catecholamines actions at the moment of birth. Furthermore, our data indicate that in addition to its suggested role as a rapid modulator of adrenergic receptor function at synapse, rapid BARK-mediated receptor regulation may have functional relevance in other tissues in response to high circulating or local levels of agonists.
I García-Higuera, F Mayor Jr
We previously reported that 17 beta-estradiol inhibits cytokine-stimulated bioassayable IL-6 and the steady-state level of IL-6 mRNA. To determine the molecular basis of this effect, the transient expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter plasmid driven by the human IL-6 promoter was studied here in HeLa or murine bone marrow stromal cells (MBA 13.2). 17 beta-estradiol (10(-8) M) completely suppressed stimulated CAT expression in HeLa cells cotransfected with IL-6/CAT constructs and a human estrogen receptor (hER) expression plasmid; but had no effect on reporter expression in HeLa cells not transfected with hER. 17 beta-estradiol also inhibited stimulated expression in MBA 13.2 cells (which express the estrogen receptor constitutively) without the requirement of cotransfection of the hER plasmid. The hormonal effects were indistinguishable between constructs containing a 1.2-kb fragment of the 5' flanking region of the IL-6 gene or only the proximal 225-bp fragment. However, yeast-derived recombinant hER did not bind to the 225-bp segment in DNA band shift assays, nor did the 225-bp fragment compete for binding of an estrogen response element oligonucleotide to yeast-derived estrogen receptor. These data suggest that 17 beta-estradiol inhibits the stimulated expression of the human IL-6 gene through an estrogen receptor mediated indirect effect on the transcriptional activity of the proximal 225-bp sequence of the promoter.
S T Pottratz, T Bellido, H Mocharla, D Crabb, S C Manolagas
The mechanisms that impair myocardial relaxation during ischemia are believed to involve abnormalities of calcium handling. However, there is little direct evidence to support this hypothesis. Therefore, we sought to determine whether the time constant of cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]c) decline (tau Ca) was increased during low flow ischemia, and if there was a relationship between the time constant of left ventricular pressure decline (tau P) and tau Ca. Isolated perfused hearts were studied using indo-1 fluorescence ratio as an index of [Ca2+]c.tau P was used as an index of myocardial relaxation. The time constant of decline of the indo-1 ratio increased from 74 +/- 5 ms to 95 +/- 4, 144 +/- 10, and to 204 +/- 16 ms when coronary flow was reduced was reduced to 50, 20, and 10% of control, respectively. Indo-1 transients were calibrated to calculate tau Ca. tau Ca increased from 67 +/- 6 ms to 108 +/- 9 and 158 +/- 19 ms when coronary flow was reduced to 20 and 10% of control, respectively. There was a linear relationship between tau Ca and tau P (r = 0.82). These data support the hypothesis that during low flow ischemia, impaired myocardial relaxation may be caused by slowing of [Ca2+]c decline.
S A Camacho, R Brandes, V M Figueredo, M W Weiner
Previous studies have demonstrated that a human glutathione conjugate transporter, designated as dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione ATPase (DNP-SG ATPase), catalyzed ATP hydrolysis in the presence of several amphiphilic compounds other than glutathione conjugates (Singhal, S. S., R. Sharma, S. Gupta, H. Ahmad, P. Zimniak, A. Radominska, R. Lester, and Y. C. Awasthi. 1991. FEBS [Fed. Eur. Biochem. Soc.] Lett. 281:255-257). We now demonstrate that DNP-SG ATPase purified from human lung and erythrocyte membranes catalyzed the hydrolysis of ATP in the presence of doxorubicin and its metabolites. Doxorubicin-stimulated ATP hydrolysis by DNP-SG ATPase was saturable with respect to doxorubicin (Km 1.2 and 2.8 microM for the lung and erythrocyte enzymes, respectively). Antibodies against DNP-SG ATPase immunoprecipitated the ATP hydrolyzing activity stimulated by doxorubicin, its metabolites, and glutathione conjugates. Inside our vesicles prepared from erythrocyte membranes took up doxorubicin, daunomycin, and vinblastine in an ATP-dependent manner. The uptake was linear with respect to time and vesicle protein, was dependent on ATP and magnesium, was inhibited by heavy metal salts or by heating the vesicles, and was sensitive to both osmolarity and orientation of the vesicles. The transport had an activation energy of 13 kcal/mol, was saturable with respect to both doxorubicin and ATP (Km values of 1.8 microM and 1.9 mM, respectively), and was competitively inhibited by glutathione conjugates as well as by a number of amphiphiles such as daunomycin or vinblastine. Transport was diminished upon coating the vesicles with antibodies against DNP-SG ATPase. Incorporation of increasing amounts of purified DNP-SG ATPase into the vesicles resulted in a linear increase in transport of doxorubicin. These studies demonstrated for the first time that a membrane protein that catalyzed the transport of anionic amphiphilic molecules such as glutathione conjugates could also mediate the transport of weakly cationic antitumor antibiotic, doxorubicin. Notably, the Km of transport was in the range of doxorubicin concentration achievable in human serum after intravenous dosing of doxorubicin.
S Awasthi, S S Singhal, S K Srivastava, P Zimniak, K K Bajpai, M Saxena, R Sharma, S A Ziller 3rd, E P Frenkel, S V Singh
Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) hydrolyzes both insulin and IGFs and has been proposed to play a role in signal termination after binding of these peptides to their receptors. In situ hybridization was used to investigate the cellular distribution of IDE mRNA and to compare it with insulin receptor (IR) and IGF-I receptor (IGFR) gene expression in serial thin sections from a variety of tissues in embryonic and adult rats. IDE mRNA is highly abundant in kidney and liver, tissues known to play a role in insulin degradation. IDE and IR mRNAs are highly coexpressed in brown fat and liver. The highest level IDE gene expression, on a per cell basis, is found in germinal epithelium. IDE and IGFR mRNAs are colocalized in oocytes, while IDE is colocalized with the IGF-II receptor in spermatocytes, suggesting that IDE may be involved with degradation of IGF-II in the testis. In summary, IDE expression demonstrates significant anatomical correlation with insulin/IGF receptors. These data are compatible with a role for IDE in degrading insulin and IGFs after they bind to and are internalized with their respective receptors and may also suggest a novel role for IDE in germ cells.
C A Bondy, J Zhou, E Chin, R R Reinhardt, L Ding, R A Roth
The role of adenosine receptors in the regulation of muscle glucose uptake by insulin and contractions was studied in isolated rat hindquarters that were perfused with a standard medium containing no insulin or a submaximal concentration of 100 microU/ml. Adenosine receptor antagonism was induced by caffeine or 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxantine (CPDPX). Glucose uptake and transport were measured before and during 30 min of electrically induced muscle contractions. Caffeine nor CPDPX affected glucose uptake in resting hindquarters. In contrast, the contraction-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake was inhibited by 30-50% by caffeine, as well as by CPDPX, resulting in a 20-25% decrease in the absolute rate of glucose uptake during contractions, compared with control values. This inhibition was independent of the rate of perfusate flow and only occurred in hindquarters perfused with insulin added to the medium. Thus, adenosine receptor antagonism inhibited glucose uptake during simultaneous exposure to insulin and contractions only. Accordingly, caffeine inhibited 3-O-methylglucose uptake during contractions only in oxidative muscle fibers that are characterized by a high sensitivity to insulin. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate A1 receptors to regulate insulin-mediated glucose transport in contracting skeletal muscle. The findings provide evidence that stimulation of sarcolemmic adenosine receptors during contractions is involved in the synergistic stimulation of muscle glucose transport by insulin and by contractions.
L Vergauwen, P Hespel, E A Richter
Programmed death of T cells has been proposed as one of the mechanisms by which HIV affects immune functions in stages of infection where the number of infected cells is low. Indeed, in HIV-infected individuals both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are primed for programmed cell death, which can be enhanced by polyclonal stimulation. Here, we investigated programmed death of T cells in all stages of HIV infection, including acute infection. In individuals with primary infection the number of T cells dying due to apoptosis was much higher than in the asymptomatic phase of infection and paralleled increased numbers of CD8+ cells. In asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals, cells were dying in increased percentages compared with noninfected controls, although at much lower numbers than during acute infection. Death of T cells was not quantitatively correlated with CD4+ T cell numbers or appearance of more cytopathic, syncytium-inducing HIV variants. Analysis of the phenotype of cells undergoing apoptosis revealed that cell death was not confined to a specific T cell subset nor correlated with expression of certain T cell activation markers. Our results imply that the extent of programmed cell death of T cells in HIV infection does not correlate with progression to disease.
L Meyaard, S A Otto, I P Keet, M T Roos, F Miedema
With increasing age, bone undergoes changes in remodeling that ultimately compromise the structural integrity of the skeleton. The presence of osteocalcin in bone matrix may alter bone remodeling by promoting osteoclast activity. Whether age- and/or gender-related differences exist in the distribution of osteocalcin within individual bone remodeling units is not known. In this study, we determined the immunohistochemical distribution of osteocalcin in the extracellular matrix of iliac crest bone biopsies obtained from normal male and female volunteers, 20-80 yr old. Four different distribution patterns of osteocalcin within individual osteons were arbitrarily defined as types I, II, III, or IV. The frequency of appearance of each osteon type was determined as a percent of the total osteons per histologic section. The proportion of osteons that stained homogeneously throughout the concentric lamellae (type I) decreased in females and males with increasing age. The proportion of osteons that lack osteocalcin in the matrix immediately adjacent to Haversian canals (type III) increased in females and males with age. Osteons staining intensely in the matrix adjacent to Haversian canals (type II) increased in females and was unchanged in aging males. Osteons that contained osteocalcin-positive resting lines (type IV) increased in bone obtained from males with increasing age but were unchanged in females. Sections of bone immunostained for osteopontin (SPP-I), osteonectin, and decorin did not reveal multiple patterns or alterations in staining with gender or increasing age. We suggest that the morphology of individual bone remodeling units is heterogeneous and the particular morphologic pattern of osteocalcin distribution changes with age and gender. These results suggest that differences in the distribution of osteocalcin in bone matrix may be responsible, in part, for the altered remodeling of bone associated with gender and aging.
R T Ingram, Y K Park, B L Clarke, L A Fitzpatrick
F2-isoprostanes are prostaglandin F2-like compounds that are known to be formed in vivo by free radical oxidation of arachidonyl-containing lipids, and their plasma levels have been suggested as indicators of in vivo oxidative stress. As oxidation of LDL, a likely causal factor in atherosclerosis, involves lipid peroxidation, we investigated whether F2-isoprostanes are formed in plasma and LDL exposed to oxidative stress, and how F2-isoprostane formation is related to endogenous antioxidant status. In plasma exposed to aqueous peroxyl radicals, lipid hydroperoxides and esterified F2-isoprostanes were formed simultaneously after endogenous ascorbate and ubiquinol-10 had been exhausted, despite the continued presence of urate, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and lycopene. In isolated LDL exposed to aqueous peroxyl radicals or Cu2+, consumption of endogenous ubiquinol-10 and alpha-tocopherol was followed by rapid formation and subsequent breakdown of lipid hydroperoxides and esterified F2-isoprostanes, and a continuous increase in LDL's electronegativity, indicative of atherogenic modification. In Cu(2+)-exposed LDL, the decrease in esterified F2-isoprostane levels was paralleled by the appearance of free F2-isoprostanes, suggesting that hydrolysis by an LDL-associated activity had occurred. Our data suggest that F2-isoprostanes are useful markers of LDL oxidation in vivo. As F2-isoprostanes are potent vasoconstrictors and can modulate platelet aggregation, their formation in LDL demonstrated here may also have important implications for the etiology of cardiovascular disease.
S M Lynch, J D Morrow, L J Roberts 2nd, B Frei
We describe the spontaneous progression of a colon adenoma cell line to tumorigenicity and growth factor independence. This system allows direct comparison of biologic stages of malignant progression with alterations of colon cancer suppressor genes and oncogenes. VACO-235, a human colon adenoma cell line, is at early passages nontumorigenic in the nude mouse, unable to grow in soft agar, growth stimulated by serum and EGF, and growth inhibited by TGF-beta. VACO-235 daughter passages 93 and higher have in culture spontaneously progressed to being weakly tumorigenic, but retain all other growth characteristics of VACO-235 early passages. A mouse xenograft from late passage VACO-235 was reestablished in culture as the granddaughter cell line, VACO-411. VACO-411 is highly tumorigenic, clones in soft agar, and is unresponsive to serum, EGF, and TGF-beta. Early passage VACO-235 bears a mutant K-ras allele, bears only mutant APC alleles, expresses no DCC transcripts, and expresses only wild type p53 transcripts. VACO-411 retains the identical genotype, still expressing only wild type p53. Colonic cells after ras mutation, APC mutation, and DCC inactivation remain nontumorigenic and growth factor dependent. Malignant progression involves at least two additional steps, and in VACO-411 can proceed by a novel pathway not requiring p53 inactivation.
S D Markowitz, L Myeroff, M J Cooper, J Traicoff, M Kochera, J Lutterbaugh, M Swiriduk, J K Willson
We investigated the effects of 4-6-wk administration of testosterone on calcium and protein metabolism in six healthy prepubertal short boys (mean age +/- SE = 12.9 +/- 0.6 yr). At baseline, subjects received a 4-h infusion of L-[1-13C]leucine and L-[2-15N]glutamine, and were given 42Ca intravenously, and 44Ca PO. Testosterone enanthate (approximately 3 mg/kg) was given I.M. 2 wk apart (two doses n = 5, three doses n = 1), and the study was repeated 4-5 d after the last injection. After testosterone therapy, there were significant increases in serum testosterone and mean peak and total growth hormone concentrations. Net calcium absorption (Va) and retention (Vbal) also increased (Va 13.3 +/- 2.3 vs 21.5 +/- 2.3; mg.kg-1.d-1, Vbal 8.0 +/- 2.1 vs 16.6 +/- 2.5, mg.kg-1.d-1, P < .05 both), as well as Ca's net forward flow into bone and total exchangeable pool (16 and 20%, respectively). The rate of appearance of leucine (an indicator of proteolysis) increased by 17.6 +/- 5.9%, P = 0.036. Leucine oxidation decreased by 48.6 +/- 8.0%, P = 0.004; thus, nonoxidative leucine disappearance, which estimates protein synthesis, increased significantly by 34.4 +/- 7.7%, P = 0.009. Glutamine's rate of appearance also increased (+32%), mostly through enhanced glutamine de novo synthesis (+42%). In conclusion, short term testosterone administration significantly increases calcium's retention and net forward flow into bone in prepubertal humans, as well as whole body estimates of protein and calcium anabolism. These effects may represent a pure androgen effect, an amplification of growth hormone's action or some combination of these factors.
N Mauras, M W Haymond, D Darmaun, N E Vieira, S A Abrams, A L Yergey
We investigated the sequence regions of the human muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) beta subunit forming epitopes recognized by T helper cells in myasthenia gravis (MG), using overlapping synthetic peptides, 20 residues long, which screened the sequence of the AChR beta subunit. Since CD4+ lymphocytes from MG patients' blood did not respond to the peptides, we attempted propagation of beta subunit-specific T lines from six MG patients and seven healthy controls by cycles of stimulation of blood lymphocytes with the pooled peptides corresponding to the beta subunit sequence. CD4+ T lines were obtained from four patients and three controls. They secreted IL-2, not IL-4, suggesting that they comprised T helper type 1 cells. The T lines from MG patients could be propagated for several months. Three lines were tested with purified bovine muscle AChR and cross-reacted well with this antigen. All T lines were tested with the individual synthetic peptides present in the pool corresponding to the beta subunit sequence. Several beta subunit peptide sequences were recognized. Each line had an individual pattern of peptides recognition, but three sequence regions (peptides beta 181-200, beta 271-290, and the overlapping peptides beta 316-335 and beta 331-350) were recognized by most MG lines. The beta subunit-specific T lines from controls could be propagated for < 5 wk. Each line recognized several peptides, which frequently included the immunodominant regions listed above.
L Moiola, P Karachunski, M P Protti, J F Howard Jr, B M Conti-Tronconi
Three independent mutations involving the apoptosis-1 (APO-1)/Fas receptor or its putative ligand have led to lupuslike diseases associated with lymphadenopathy in different strains of mice. To determine whether humans with SLE also have a defect in this apotosis pathway, we analyzed the expression of APO-1 on freshly isolated blood mononuclear cells and on lymphocytes activated in vitro using flow cytometry and the monoclonal antibody anti-APO-1. Significantly higher level of APO-1 expression were detected on freshly isolated peripheral B cells and both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte populations obtained from lupus patients when compared with normal controls (P < 0.001). Almost 90% of the cells that stained positive for APO-1 also expressed the CD29 antigen, suggesting that APO-1 was upregulated after lymphocyte activation in vivo. No defect in APO-1 regulation was detected after activation of SLE T (with anti-CD3) or B (with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1) lymphocytes in the presence of IL-2 in vitro. Similarly, the anti-APO-1 antibody induced apoptosis in 74 +/- 5% of activated SLE T cells in vitro compared with 79 +/- 6% of the normal controls (P > 0.05). These results reveal that, while APO-1/Fas may play an important role in the regulation of lymphocyte survival in SLE, no consistent defect in the expression or function of the receptor could be detected in these studies.
E Mysler, P Bini, J Drappa, P Ramos, S M Friedman, P H Krammer, K B Elkon
We identified a novel exonic mutation which causes exon skipping in the mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (T2) gene from a girl with T2 deficiency (GK07). GK07 is a compound heterozygote; the maternal allele has a novel G to T transversion at position 1136 causing Gly379 to Val substitution (G379V) of the T2 precursor. In case of in vivo expression analysis, cells transfected with this mutant cDNA showed no evidence of restored T2 activity. The paternal allele was associated with exon 8 skipping at the cDNA level. At the gene level, a C to T transition causing Gln272 to termination codon (Q272STOP) was identified within exon 8, 13 bp from the 5' splice site of intron 8 in the paternal allele. The mRNA with Q272STOP could not be detected in GK07 fibroblasts, presumably because pre-mRNA with Q272STOP was unstable because of the premature termination. In vivo splicing experiments revealed that the exonic mutation caused partial skipping of exon 8. This substitution was thought to alter the secondary structure of T2 pre-mRNA around exon 8 and thus impede normal splicing. The role of exon sequences in the splicing mechanism is indicated by the exon skipping which occurred with an exonic mutation.
T Fukao, S Yamaguchi, A Wakazono, T Orii, G Hoganson, T Hashimoto
We examined cell-free human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for enzymes of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. BALF was obtained from six patients who were active smokers and six nonsmokers. Enzymatic activity in cell-free BALF was assessed by specific assays for leukotriene (LT) A4 hydrolase, 5-lipoxygenase, and LTC4 synthase using HPLC. Only LTA4 hydrolase enzymatic activity was found. This activity ranged from 101 to 667 when expressed as picomoles of LTB4 produced per milliliter BALF. Enzymatic activity in smokers vs nonsmokers was 484 +/- 120 vs 129 +/- 32 pmol LTB4/ml BALF (mean +/- SD, P < 0.0001). There were no leukotrienes found in BALF before assay. Immunoblot analysis revealed an immunoreactive band at a relative molecular mass of 69,000 D in all samples, consistent with LTA4 hydrolase, but no evidence of 5-lipoxygenase. BALF had greater LTA4 hydrolase activity per milligram of protein than neutrophil cytosol, epithelial cell cytosol, plasma, or serum. The synthesis of LTB4 was significantly increased when neutrophils were stimulated in BALF. These data indicate the selective presence of LTA4 hydrolase in BALF which is significantly increased in smokers. This enzyme in BALF may contribute to the inflammatory response in tobacco-related lung disease.
D A Munafo, K Shindo, J R Baker, T D Bigby
E D Zanjani, A W Flake, H Rice, M Hedrick, M Tavassoli
The concentration of HDL in the blood inversely correlates with the incidence of cardiovascular disease, probably related to the ability of these lipoproteins to efflux cholesterol from vascular cells. it is also possible that HDL affect the production or action of vasoactive peptides implicated in the development of vascular diseases. Therefore, we determined the effects of human HDL on the production and secretion of endothelin-1 (ET-1) from cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. HDL produced a highly significant stimulation of endothelin secretion (maximum 240% of control), even at very low levels of lipoproteins (1 microgram/ml). HDL also stimulated the translation of ET-1 by twofold in the bovine aortic endothelial cells. In contrast, HDL had no significant effect on steady state mRNA levels, transcript degradation, or transcription. Stimulation of ET-1 secretion by HDL was dependent on protein kinase C activation. Purified apo A-I, the major apoprotein of HDL, increased ET-1 secretion and translation approximately 85% as potently as HDL. Our results indicate that low concentrations of human HDL strongly stimulate the production of ET-1, a powerful vasoconstrictor and mitogen for the vascular smooth muscle cell. We propose that HDL may participate in the regulation of vasomotor tone through this potentially important effect in the vasculature.
R M Hu, M Y Chuang, B Prins, M L Kashyap, H J Frank, A Pedram, E R Levin
The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) appear to have antiinflammatory properties that can be partly explained by their biological activity on leukocytes. Since leukocyte emigration is an essential component of the inflammatory response, we have examined the effects of the n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) on neutrophil random and chemotactic movement. Preexposure of neutrophils for 15-30 min to 1-10 micrograms/ml PUFA reduced the random and chemotactic migration to both FMLP- and fungi-activated complement. The inhibitory effect diminished with increasing saturation and carbon chain length, and methylation abolished this activity. Arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids were the most active fatty acids. The PUFA concentration required to inhibit migration was dependent on cell number, suggesting that the fatty acid effects on leukocyte migration in vivo may be governed by the stage of the inflammatory response. It was concluded that the PUFA rather than their metabolites were responsible for the inhibition since: (a) antioxidants did not prevent the PUFA-induced migration inhibition and the hydroxylated intermediates were less active, and (b) inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways were without effect. Inhibitors of protein kinases and calmodulin-dependent enzyme system did not prevent the PUFA-induced migration inhibition, which was also independent of phospholipase D-catalyzed hydrolysis of phospholipids. It is also shown that PUFA decrease the FMLP-induced Ca2+ mobilization.
A Ferrante, D Goh, D P Harvey, B S Robinson, C S Hii, E J Bates, S J Hardy, D W Johnson, A Poulos
Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is an inherited vascular disease that can cause heart failure and death. SVAS can be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait or as part of a developmental disorder, Williams syndrome (WS). In recent studies we presented evidence suggesting that a translocation disrupting the elastin gene caused SVAS in one family while deletions involving the entire elastin locus caused WS. In this study, pulsed-field, PCR, and Southern analyses showed that a 100-kb deletion of the 3' end of the elastin gene cosegregated with the disease in another SVAS family. DNA sequence analysis localized the breakpoint between elastin exons 27 and 28, the same region disrupted by the SVAS-associated translocation. These data indicate that mutations in the elastin gene cause SVAS and suggest that elastin exons 28-36 may encode critical domains for vascular development.
A K Ewart, W Jin, D Atkinson, C A Morris, M T Keating
Skeletal growth depends upon enchondral ossification in growth plate cartilage, within which chondrocytes undergo well defined stages of maturation. We infused IGF-I or growth hormone (GH), two key regulators of skeletal growth, into hypophysectomized rats and compared their effects on growth plate chondrocyte differentiation using qualitative and quantitative autoradiography, stereology, and incident light fluorescence microscopy. Stem cell cycle time was shortened from 50 to 15 and 8 d after treatment with IGF-I and GH, respectively. Proliferating cell cycle time decreased from 11 to 4.5 and 3 d, and duration of the hypertrophic phase decreased from 6 to 4 and 2.8 d. Average matrix volume per cell at each differentiation stage was similar for normal, hormone-treated, and untreated hypophysectomized groups. Mean cell volume and cell height were significantly reduced by hypophysectomy at the proliferative and hypertrophic stages, but were restored to physiological values by IGF-I and GH. In contrast, cell productivity, i.e., increases in cell volume, height, and matrix production per unit of time, did not reach normal values with either IGF-I or GH, and this parameter was inversely proportional to cell cycle time or phase duration. IGF-I and GH are thus capable of stimulating growth plate chondrocytes at all stages of differentiation, albeit to variable degrees with respect to individual cell activities. Although it is generally accepted that GH acts at both the stem and proliferating phases of chondrocyte differentiation, our data represent the first evidence in vivo that IGF-I is also capable of stimulating stem cells.
E B Hunziker, J Wagner, J Zapf
The aims of this study were to examine the effects of whole body heat stress and subsequent stress protein induction on glycolytic metabolism, mitochondrial metabolism, and calcium handling within the heart. The effect of heat stress on glycolytic and mitochondrial pathways was examined by measuring contractile performance in the presence of glucose and pyruvate, respectively. Calcium handling was assessed using force-interval relationships. Right ventricular papillary muscles taken from heat-stressed and control rabbit hearts were superfused with Kreb's solution containing either glucose or pyruvate and rendered hypoxic for 30 min. After reoxygenation, the greatest recovery of contractile function occurred in the heat-stressed muscles with pyruvate as substrate; there was, however, no difference in the force-interval relationship between the groups. The degree of contractile recovery was related to the content of the inducible 70-kD but not the 65-kD, heat stress protein. This study suggests that heat stress enhances the ability of rabbit papillary muscle to use pyruvate, but not glucose, after reoxygenation, and that the differences seen in contractility may be secondary to induction of the 72-kD stress protein.
M S Marber, J M Walker, D S Latchman, D M Yellon
High levels of immunoreactive cyclooxygenase (Cox; prostaglandin H synthase) are present in synovia from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We now show that the recently identified inducible isoform of Cox, Cox-2, is expressed in synovia from patients with RA. To further explore modulation of the Cox isoforms in RA synovial tissues, we examined the expression and modulation of Cox-1 and -2 in rheumatoid synovial explant cultures and cultured rheumatoid synovial fibroblast-like cells (synoviocytes). Immunoprecipitation of in vitro labeled proteins and Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of both Cox-1 and -2 under basal conditions in freshly explanted rheumatoid synovial tissues. De novo synthesis of Cox-2 polypeptide was enhanced by IL-1 beta or PMA, and dramatically suppressed by dexamethasone (dex). Cox-1 expression, under the same conditions, showed only minor variation. Since mRNA for Cox-2 is highly unstable, we examined the regulation of Cox-2 transcripts in cultured rheumatoid synoviocytes. Under basal conditions both Cox-1 and -2 mRNAs were present at low levels, but Cox-2 mRNA was markedly increased by treatment with IL-1 beta or PMA. dex markedly suppressed the induction of Cox-2 mRNA. In sharp contrast, Cox-1 transcripts were not modulated by IL-1 beta or dex. These data suggest that modulation of Cox-2 expression by IL-1 beta and corticosteroids may be an important component of the inflammatory process in synovial tissues from patients with RA.
L J Crofford, R L Wilder, A P Ristimäki, H Sano, E F Remmers, H R Epps, T Hla
We studied the physiometabolic effects of a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmic point mutation, the A-->G3260 transition associated with maternally inherited myopathy and cardiomyopathy. To eliminate the possible influence of the autochthonous nuclear gene set, we fused myoblast-derived cytoplasts of a patient with a human tumoral cell line deprived of mtDNA (Rho degrees). The presence and amount of the mutant G3260 vs the wild-type A3260 were measured by solid phase minisequencing. We observed a marked reduction of the percentage of mutant mtDNA in the culture system compared with that measured in the donor's muscle biopsy, suggesting the presence of negative selection against the mutation. Furthermore, stable mitotic segregation of the two mtDNA populations was observed in 18 of 19 transformant clones, suggesting the presence of intraorganelle and possibly intracellular homoplasmy in the precursor cells of the donor. Several indexes of mtDNA-related respiratory capacity, including oxygen consumption, complex I- and complex IV-specific activities, and lactate production, were markedly abnormal in the clones containing a high proportion of mutant mtDNA, as compared with those containing homoplasmic wild-type mtDNA, possibly because of impaired mitochondrial protein synthesis. We conclude that (a) the A-->G3260 transition is indeed responsible for the mitochondrial disorder identified in the donor patient, and (b) transformant cybrid system gives direct evidence of the mitochondrial origin of a genetic disorder and should be adopted for the evaluation of the pathogenic potential of the mtDNA mutations.
C Mariotti, V Tiranti, F Carrara, B Dallapiccola, S DiDonato, M Zeviani
Neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism is a rare life-threatening disorder characterized by very high serum calcium concentrations (> 15 mg/dl). Many cases have occurred in families with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, a benign condition transmitted as a dominant trait. Among several hypothesized relationships between the two syndromes is the suggestion that neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism is the homozygous form of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. To test this hypothesis, we refined the map location of the gene responsible for familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia on chromosome 3q. Analyses in 11 families defined marker loci closely linked to the gene responsible for familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. These loci were then analyzed in four families with parental consanguinity and offspring with neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism. Each individual who was homozygous for loci that are closely linked to the gene responsible for familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia had neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism. The calculated odds of linkage between these disorders of > 350,000:1 (lod score = 5.56). We conclude that dosage of the gene defect accounts for these widely disparate clinical phenotypes; a single defective allele causes familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, while two defective alleles causes neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism.
M R Pollak, Y H Chou, S J Marx, B Steinmann, D E Cole, M L Brandi, S E Papapoulos, F H Menko, G N Hendy, E M Brown
Allogeneic mouse islets or xenogeneic rat islets, or fetal porcine islets were implanted under the renal capsule of C57BL/6 mice either alone or carefully mixed with syngeneic islets. With this experimental model the syngeneic islets, although not rejected themselves, are exposed to cytokines and inflammatory mediators released during either allograft or xenograft rejection. No differences in insulin content could be observed between mixed islet grafts and pure syngeneic islet grafts 6 wk after transplantation. Neither was there any morphological evidence of a non-specific destruction of syngeneic islets. These findings suggest that the mechanisms of both allograft and xenograft rejections are highly specific. The hormone release from the mixed syngeneic-allogeneic grafts was similar to that from pure syngeneic islet grafts. In contrast, a pronounced impairment of both the first and second phases of insulin release was observed 2 wk after implantation in mixed syngeneic-xenogeneic islet grafts. When perfusing the mixed islet graft after completed rejection of the concordant xenogeneic rat islets (6 wk after implantation), the insulin release from the remaining syngeneic mouse islets was identical to that of control grafts. However, syngeneic mouse islets exposed to the rejection mechanism of the discordant xenogenic pig islet-like cell clusters did not attain a complete functional recovery.
O Korsgren, L Jansson
Pancreatic beta-cell function was studied in six subjects with mutations in the enzyme glucokinase (GCK) who were found to have elevated fasting and postprandial glucose levels in comparison to six normoglycemic controls. Insulin secretion rates (ISRs) were estimated by deconvolution of peripheral C-peptide values using a two-compartment model and individual C-peptide kinetics obtained after bolus intravenous injections of biosynthetic human C-peptide. First-phase insulin secretory responses to intravenous glucose and insulin secretion rates over a 24-h period on a weight maintenance diet were not different in subjects with GCK mutations and controls. However, the dose-response curve relating glucose and ISR obtained during graded intravenous glucose infusions was shifted to the right in the subjects with GCK mutations and average ISRs over a glucose range between 5 and 9 mM were 61% lower than those in controls. In the controls, the beta cell was most sensitive to an increase in glucose at concentrations between 5.5 and 6.0 mM, whereas in the patients with GCK mutations the point of maximal responsiveness was increased to between 6.5 and 7.5 mM. Even mutations that resulted in mild impairment of in vitro enzyme activity were associated with a > 50% reduction in ISR. The responsiveness of the beta cell to glucose was increased by 45% in the subjects with mutations after a 42-h intravenous glucose infusion at a rate of 4-6 mg/kg per min. During oscillatory glucose infusion with a period of 144 min, profiles from the subjects with mutations revealed reduced spectral power at 144 min for glucose and ISR compared with controls, indicating decreased ability to entrain the beta cell with exogenous glucose. In conclusion, subjects with mutations in GCK demonstrate decreased responsiveness of the beta cell to glucose manifest by a shift in the glucose ISR dose-response curve to the right and reduced ability to entrain the ultradian oscillations of insulin secretion with exogenous glucose. These results support a key role for the enzyme GCK in determining the in vivo glucose/ISR dose-response relationships and define the alterations in beta-cell responsiveness that occur in subjects with GCK mutations.
M M Byrne, J Sturis, K Clément, N Vionnet, M E Pueyo, M Stoffel, J Takeda, P Passa, D Cohen, G I Bell
The actions of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) and insulin were compared in 21 healthy young (24 +/- 1 yr) and 14 healthy middle-aged (48 +/- 2 yr) subjects during 3-h paired euglycemic clamp studies using one of three doses (rhIGF-I 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 micrograms/kg.min and insulin 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mU/kg.min, doses chosen to produce equivalent increases in glucose uptake). In younger subjects, rhIGF-I infusions suppressed insulin by 19-33%, C-peptide by 47-59% and glucagon by 33-47% (all, P < 0.02). The suppression of C-peptide was less pronounced with insulin than with rhIGF-I (P < 0.007). The metabolic responses to rhIGF-I and insulin were remarkably similar: not only did both hormones increase glucose uptake and oxidation in a nearly identical fashion, but they also produced similar suppression of glucose production, free fatty acid levels, and fat oxidation rates. In contrast, rhIGF-I had a more pronounced amino acid-lowering effect than did insulin (P < 0.004). In middle-aged subjects, basal IGF-I levels were 44% lower (P < 0.0001) whereas basal insulin and C-peptide were 20-25% higher than in younger subjects. Age did not alter the response to rhIGF-I. However, insulin-induced stimulation of glucose uptake was blunted in older subjects (P = 0.05). Our data suggest that absolute IGF-I and relative insulin deficiency contribute to adverse metabolic changes seen in middle age.
S D Boulware, W V Tamborlane, N J Rennert, N Gesundheit, R S Sherwin
Neutrophil (PMN) adhesion to the vascular endothelium is an important mechanism of myocardial reperfusion injury. The adhesion process is initially mediated by selectins (e.g., P- and L-selectin), and monoclonal antibodies directed against these adhesion molecules exert cardioprotective activity in ischemia/reperfusion models. The counterreceptors for these selectins are thought to be carbohydrate-containing moieties. In this connection, we studied the effect of a soluble sialyl Lewisx-containing oligosaccharide (SLex-OS) on PMN-endothelial interactions in a feline model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R). SLex-OS (10 mg/kg), administered 10 min before R, significantly reduced myocardial necrosis compared with its vehicle 270 min after reperfusion (6 +/- 1% vs. 35 +/- 4% of area at risk, P < 0.01). The cardioprotection was confirmed by significantly lower plasma creatine kinase activities in SLex-OS vs. vehicle-treated cats (P < 0.01). Cardiac contractility (dP/dt max) of cats receiving SLex-OS was significantly preserved after 270 min of R (97 +/- 2% vs. 78 +/- 5% of initial, P < 0.01). Furthermore, endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine in coronary artery rings isolated from MI/R cats treated with SLex-OS was significantly preserved (73 +/- 7% vs. 22 +/- 6% vasorelaxation, P < 0.01). In vitro PMN adherence to coronary vascular endothelium after 270 min of R was significantly attenuated in the SLex-OS-treated group compared with the vehicle group (14 +/- 5 vs. 91 +/- 12 PMN/mm2, P < 0.01). Our results indicate that a SLex-OS is cardioprotective and preserves coronary endothelial function after MI/R, indicating an important role of sialyl Lewisx in PMN accumulation, endothelial dysfunction, and myocardial injury in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion.
M Buerke, A S Weyrich, Z Zheng, F C Gaeta, M J Forrest, A M Lefer
We studied human placental microvillous EGF receptor (EGFR) and its relationship with maternal and placental features in 14 cases of intrauterine growth retardation. Placental EGFR phosphorylation was significantly decreased or absent in 12 cases of small for gestational age neonates, as shown by SDS-PAGE, autoradiography, and scanning analysis. Specific [125I]EGF binding and Scatchard plots of the binding data showed a decreased number of EGFR in 6 of the 12 cases, with a mean maximal binding capacity of 1.09 +/- 0.32 pmol/mg for high affinity sites (mean control value = 2.30 +/- 0.23 pmol/mg). Most of the hypertensive women and smokers belonged to this subgroup. In three of the remaining six cases of small gestational age placentas with low EGFR phosphorylation, there was no maternal pathology or significant parenchymatous placental lesions. Five showed a 175-kD EGFR species when probed by [125I]EGF cross-linking and Western blotting with RK2 and C-Term, two polyclonal anti-EGFR antibodies, suggesting abnormal transduction of the EGF-induced signal. The sixth placenta yielded a single 145-kD EGFR band consistent with an abnormal EGFR structure; Western blot analysis showed no immunoreactive band. In conclusion, maternal and placental pathologies in intrauterine growth retardation are associated with various alterations of placental EGFR, pointing out the importance of EGFR ligands in the regulatory pathway of placental and fetal growth.
C Fondacci, E Alsat, R Gabriel, P Blot, C Nessmann, D Evain-Brion
Particulate and cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) activity was measured in skeletal muscle from 15 insulin-sensitive subjects and 5 insulin-resistant nondiabetic subjects, as well as 18 subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Approximately 90% of total PTPase activity resided in the particulate fraction. In comparison with lean nondiabetic subjects, particulate PTPase activity was reduced 21% (P < 0.05) and 22% (P < 0.005) in obese nondiabetic and NIDDM subjects, respectively. PTPase1B protein levels were likewise decreased by 38% in NIDDM subjects (P < 0.05). During hyperinsulinemic glucose clamps, glucose disposal rates (GDR) increased approximately sixfold in lean control and twofold in NIDDM subjects, while particulate PTPase activity did not change. However, a strong positive correlation (r = 0.64, P < 0.001) existed between particulate PTPase activity and insulin-stimulated GDR. In five obese NIDDM subjects, weight loss of approximately 10% body wt resulted in a significant and corresponding increase in both particulate PTPase activity and insulin-stimulated GDR. These findings indicate that skeletal muscle particulate PTPase activity and PTPase1B protein content reflect in vivo insulin sensitivity and are reduced in insulin resistant states. We conclude that skeletal muscle PTPase activity is involved in the chronic, but not acute regulation of insulin action, and that the decreased enzyme activity may have a role in the insulin resistance of obesity and NIDDM.
J Kusari, K A Kenner, K I Suh, D E Hill, R R Henry
Despite the increasing therapeutic use of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), its metabolic clearance has not been investigated in detail. To evaluate the kinetics of rhGH as a possible function of GH plasma concentration and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), we investigated the steady state metabolic clearance rate (MCR), disappearance half-life, and apparent volume of distribution of rhGH at low and high physiological as well as supraphysiological plasma GH levels during pharmacological suppression of endogenous GH secretion in human subjects with normal and reduced renal function. GH in plasma and urine was determined by an immunoradiometric assay, and GFR by inulin clearance. In all subjects MCR decreased and plasma half-life increased with increasing plasma GH concentrations (P < 0.001). MCR of rhGH was approximately half in patients with chronic renal failure at each GH level and plasma half-life was increased by 25-50%. Allowing for the linear dependence of MCR on GFR and assuming single-compartment distribution, the estimated renal fraction of total MCR was 25-53 and 4-15% in controls and patients, respectively. Saturation of extrarenal disposal of GH was suggested by an inverse hyperbolic relationship between extrarenal MCR and plasma GH concentrations in all subjects. Fractional GH excretion was up to 1,000-fold higher in patients than in controls. We conclude that MCR of hGH is a function of plasma GH concentrations and GFR. Extrarenal elimination is saturable in the upper physiological range of GH concentrations, whereas renal MCR is independent of plasma GH levels. The kidney handles GH like a microprotein involving glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and urinary excretion.
D Haffner, F Schaefer, J Girard, E Ritz, O Mehls
Intimal hyperplasia is induced by therapeutic vascular interventions and often results in clinically important narrowing of the vascular lumen. Examination of the role of TGF-beta 1 in a rat carotid artery injury model confirmed the presence of a previously reported increase in TGF-beta 1 mRNA in the media of injured arteries. Administration of neutralizing anti- TGF-beta 1 antibodies significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the size of the intimal lesions that developed after carotid balloon injury. A control antibody had no effect. The intimal/medial area ratio was also reduced in the anti-TGF-beta 1 group relative to controls (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical staining showed that two TGF-beta 1-induced extracellular matrix components, EDA + fibronectin and versican, were greatly increased in the untreated neointimal lesions, but were almost completely absent from the lesions of the anti-TGF-beta 1-treated animals. We conclude that TGF-beta 1 is causally involved in the development of intimal hyperplasia, and that anti-TGF-beta 1 agents may be useful in achieving at least partial control of this condition.
Y G Wolf, L M Rasmussen, E Ruoslahti
The outcome of in utero cocaine exposure is unclear. To determine if cocaine affects neuronal growth and differentiation, we used PC-12 cells, which have a mitogenic response to IGF-I and differentiate into neurons on exposure to nerve growth factor. Differentiation was quantified as neurite extension after a 72-h exposure to 20 ng/ml nerve growth factor (dosage at 50% maximal effectiveness) and cocaine doses ranging from 0.01 to 10 micrograms/ml. The results were 49 +/- 2, 40 +/- 3, 29 +/- 2, 23 +/- 2, and 12 +/- 2% differentiation with respective cocaine concentrations of 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 micrograms/ml (P < 0.0001). Cocaine stability studies showed insignificant spontaneous hydrolysis under the conditions of this study. Cocaine did not affect cell viability or number, but had a relatively modest, statistically significant (P < 0.001) inhibitory effect on IGF-I-stimulated thymidine incorporation. The dose-response curves for differentiation vs mitogenic response differed significantly (P = 0.021). Therefore, cocaine inhibition of these processes is probably mediated by different mechanisms, and not caused by generalized toxicity. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of cocaine effects on neuronal multiplication and differentiation in vitro. The results suggest in utero exposure may directly impair brain development.
D Zachor, J K Cherkes, C T Fay, I Ocrant
We examined changes in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism produced by dietary cholesterol in gallstone subjects and matched controls. Healthy women were recruited and, after confirming the presence or absence of radiolucent gallstones, they were studied on regular diets and again on the same diet supplemented with five eggs daily for 15-18 d. Studies included plasma lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins, dietary records, cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis, plasma clearance of chylomicron remnants, biliary lipid composition, and secretion and bile acid kinetics. On low cholesterol, gallstone subjects absorbed a slightly lower fraction of dietary cholesterol, synthesized more cholesterol, and had smaller bile acid pools and faster fractional turnover rate (FTR) of bile acids. On high cholesterol, the fraction of cholesterol absorbed decreased in both groups and cholesterol synthesis decreased, especially in the gallstone group. Biliary cholesterol secretion increased in the gallstone group only. FTR of bile acids did not change in either group. Bile acid synthesis and pool tended to increase (P = NS) in the controls, but in gallstone subjects, synthesis and pool size decreased. We concluded that in gallstone subjects cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis is significantly altered, and that increasing dietary cholesterol increases biliary cholesterol secretion and decreases bile acid synthesis and pool, changes associated with cholesterol gallstone formation.
F Kern Jr
The type IV collagen alpha 5 chain (COL4A5) gene of 88 unrelated male patients with X-linked Alport syndrome was tested for major gene rearrangements by Southern blot analysis, using COL4A5 cDNA probes. 14 different deletions were detected, providing a 16% deletion rate in the COL4A5 gene in the patient population. The deletions are dispersed all over the gene with different sizes, ranging from 1 kb to the complete absence of the gene (> 250 kb) in one patient. In four patients with intragenic deletions, absence of the alpha 3 (IV) chain in the glomerular basement membrane was demonstrated by immunohistochemical studies. This finding supports the hypothesis that abnormalities in the alpha 5 (IV) chain may prevent normal incorporation of the alpha 3 (IV) chain into the glomerular basement membrane. Direct sequencing of cDNA amplified from lymphoblast mRNA of four patients with internal gene deletions, using appropriate combinations of primers amplifying across the predicted boundaries of the deletions, allowed us to determine the effect of the genomic rearrangements on the transcripts and, by inference, on the alpha 5 (IV) chain. Regardless of the extent of deletion and of the putative protein product, the 14 deletions occur in patients with juvenile-type Alport syndrome.
C Antignac, B Knebelmann, L Drouot, F Gros, G Deschênes, M C Hors-Cayla, J Zhou, K Tryggvason, J P Grünfeld, M Broyer
The proximal segment of murine kidney tubule cells (KTC) constitutively expresses low levels of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) that are upregulated during local and systemic inflammation. It is not known if KTC also express the costimulator molecules necessary for them to productively participate in immune responses and stimulate T cells. To answer this question, we studied the ability of KTC to present antigens to four Th1 clones. KTC did not induce T cell proliferation to specific antigen, superantigen, or concanavalin A. However, T cell receptors did engage the peptide/MHC ligand presented by KTC, as indicated by T cell enlargement and upregulation of interleukin-2 receptor expression. Importantly, KTC failed to express the Th1 costimulator, B7, as detected by fluorescence cytometry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We directly demonstrated that lack of B7 expression accounted for at least part of the KTC presentation defect, in that a KTC line transfected with the cDNA for B7 stimulated T cell proliferation to antigen. Our results suggest that epithelial cells expressing class II MHC have developed mechanisms to prevent costimulator expression and limit parenchymal tissue destruction. Failure of class II-expressing epithelial cells to limit costimulator expression may be an important component of organ-specific autoimmunity.
D T Hagerty, B D Evavold, P M Allen
Several lines of evidence indicate that glycolysis is especially important for normal diastolic relaxation and for the maintenance of cellular ion homeostasis in myocardium. To elucidate whether the glycolytic flux of ATP contributes to diastolic tone and to the regulation of intracellular Ca2+, myocardial content of sugar phosphates ([SP]) and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were measured in isolated, perfused ferret hearts using nuclear magnetic resonance. Glucose and acetate were used as substrates for glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, respectively. Glycogen was effectively depleted after 15-min perfusion with glucagon (2 mg/liter), as verified by the lack of rise in [SP] during exposure to iodoacetate (100 microM) in substrate-free perfusate. Despite the fact that glycolytic flux had been blocked both by iodoacetate and by absence of substrate, end-diastolic left ventricular pressure (EDP) remained unchanged (P > 0.15, n = 6). The subsequent addition of glucose to the perfusate led to SP accumulation and a marked rise in EDP, with a significant correlation between EDP and [SP] (r = 0.86 +/- 0.04, P < 0.01, n = 6). A similar correlation was observed when glucose in the perfusate was replaced by 2-deoxyglucose (r = 0.78 +/- 0.09, P < 0.01, n = 3). Fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of [Ca2+]i verified that EDP faithfully reports changes in diastolic [Ca2+]i under the present experimental conditions. Thus, intracellular Ca2+ overload is caused by the accumulation of SP rather than by the inhibition of glycolysis per se. Glycolysis may appear to be important because its by-products are deleterious, and not necessarily because glycolytically derived ATP plays a favored role in ion homeostasis.
H Kusuoka, E Marban
We have shown previously that interleukin 1 (IL-1) stimulates eicosanoid production in glomerular mesangial cells (MC) by de novo synthesis of a 14-kD, group II phospholipase A2 (PLA2). IL-1-stimulated prostaglandin E2 synthesis precedes expression of this enzyme, suggesting that another PLA2 isoform must be more rapidly activated. In the presence but not absence of calcium inophore, [3H]arachidonate release is increased significantly as early as 5 min after addition of IL-1, and IL-1 concurrently stimulates a Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase activity, which was characterized as the cytosolic form of PLA2 (cPLA2). IL-1 does not alter either cPLA2 mRNA expression or mass in serum-stimulated MC, suggesting that cPLA2 activity is increased by a posttranslational modification. IL-1 treatment for 30 min doubles 32P incorporation into immunoprecipitable cPLA2 protein, concordant with the increase in enzyme activity. Immunoblot analysis of extracts derived from IL-1-treated (30 min) cells demonstrates a decreased mobility of cPLA2, and treatment of MC lysates with acid phosphatase significantly reduces cytokine-activated cPLA2 activity, further indicating that IL-1 stimulates phosphorylation of the enzyme. IL-1 treatment (24 h) of serum-deprived MC doubled cPLA2 mRNA, protein, and activity. In summary, IL-1 increases cPLA2 activity in a biphasic, time-dependent manner both by posttranslational modification and de novo synthesis. We consider cPLA2 activation a key step in IL-1-stimulated synthesis of pro-inflammatory, lipid mediators, and an integral event in the phenotypic responses induced in target cells by this cytokine.
J Gronich, M Konieczkowski, M H Gelb, R A Nemenoff, J R Sedor
Neonatal hypoxic pulmonary hypertension causes increases and spatial changes in tropoelastin expression in pulmonary arteries. However, it is not clear if this is due to recruitment of quiescent smooth muscle cells (SMC) into an elastin-producing phenotype or persistence of the fetal pattern of tropoelastin gene expression. We evaluated the distribution and relative concentration of tropoelastin mRNA in intralobar pulmonary arteries from late gestation fetuses and in animals exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (430 mmHg) from birth for 1, 3, 7, or 14 d, as well as in age-matched and adult room air-breathing controls. In situ hybridization demonstrated that tropoelastin mRNA was distributed throughout the entire radius of the pulmonary vessel wall in the fetus and newborn calf. By 15 d of age, only cells in the inner third of the media expressed tropoelastin mRNA, and by adulthood no tropoelastin mRNA was detected in the vessel wall. These findings demonstrated that tropoelastin expression shuts off in a spatially specific pattern, moving from the abluminal to the luminal side of the medial in the neonatal pulmonary artery when pressures and resistance are falling. In the aorta of 15-d-old calves, tropoelastin mRNA expression was seen equally throughout the media, indicating tissue-specific regulation of elastin in the neonatal period. In contrast, intralobar pulmonary arteries from calves exposed to hypoxia, which prevented the normal postnatal decline in pulmonary artery pressure, maintained the fetal pattern and levels of tropoelastin mRNA expression at all time points. Thus, rather than causing a recruitment of SMC into an elastin-producing phenotype, neonatal pulmonary hypertension caused a persistence of the fetal pattern of tropoelastin expression in medial SMC. Cell-free translation showed that the same tropoelastin isoforms were made by mRNA from control and hypertensive calves and, unlike the ligamentum nuchae, did not change during the transition from fetal to neonatal life. We conclude that pulmonary hypertension in the neonate perturbs the normal postpartum repression of tropoelastin expression resulting in a persistence of the fetal spacial and isoform patterns of tropoelastin gene expression.
K R Stenmark, A G Durmowicz, J D Roby, R P Mecham, W C Parks
A periadventitial polymer system is an alternative local drug delivery technique to obtain and maintain high tissue levels of the drug at the site of vascular injury. To determine if local periadventitial delivery of dexamethasone decreases neointimal proliferation after balloon vascular injury, in three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats, 5% dexamethasone, 0.5% dexamethasone, and placebo silicone polymers were implanted around the left common carotid artery after balloon injury. In a fourth group, placebo polymers were implanted without balloon injury. Dexamethasone serum and tissue levels after polymer implantation were significantly higher in the 5% dexamethasone group compared with the 0.5% dexamethasone group. There was no neointima formation in any of the arterial segments covered with placebo polymers for 3 wk, but without balloon injury. In the arterial segments covered by the 5 and 0.5% dexamethasone polymers, there was a 76 and 75% reduction in intima/media ratios, respectively, compared with the placebo group (5% dexamethasone, 0.26 +/- 0.04; 0.5% dexamethasone, 0.27 +/- 0.03; placebo, 1.09 +/- 0.16, respectively; P < 0.0001). These results suggest that: (a) silicone polymers wrapped around the common carotid arteries for 3 wk did not, without balloon injury, stimulate neointimal proliferation in the rat model; (b) the activity of the drug-eluting polymer for suppressing intimal proliferation was chiefly, but not exclusively, site specific; and (c) transadventitial local delivery of dexamethasone at two different doses markedly inhibits neointimal proliferation after balloon vascular injury.
A E Villa, L A Guzman, W Chen, G Golomb, R J Levy, E J Topol
We recently cloned a cDNA of the collecting duct apical membrane water channel of rat kidney, which is important for the formation of concentrated urine (Fushima, K., S. Uchida, Y. Hara, Y. Hirata, F. Marumo, and S. Sasaki. 1993. Nature [Lond.]. 361:549-552). Since urine concentrating ability varies among mammalian species, we examined whether an homologous protein is present in human kidney. By screening a human kidney cDNA library, we isolated a cDNA clone, designated human aquaporin of collecting duct (hAQP-CD), that encodes a 271-amino acid protein with 91% identity to rat AQP-CD. mRNA expression of hAQP-CD was predominant in the kidney medulla compared with the cortex, immunohistochemical staining of hAQP-CD was observed only in the collecting duct cells, and the staining was dominant in the apical domain. Functional expression study in Xenopus oocytes confirmed that hAQP-CD worked as a water channel. Western blot analysis of human kidney medulla indicated that the molecular mass of hAQP-CD is 29 kD, which is the same mass expected from the amino acid sequence. Chromosomal mapping of the hAQP-CD gene assigned its location to chromosome 12q13. These results could be important for future studies of the pathophysiology of human urinary concentration mechanisms in normal and abnormal states.
S Sasaki, K Fushimi, H Saito, F Saito, S Uchida, K Ishibashi, M Kuwahara, T Ikeuchi, K Inui, K Nakajima
Neutrophil infiltration is a prominent feature of Clostridium difficile-associated enteritis and colitis. The aim of this study was to examine the importance of neutrophil recruitment and neutrophil-mediated tissue damage in C. difficile toxin A-induced enteritis. Competitive binding experiments using purified 3H-toxin A demonstrated the presence of a single class of medium affinity receptors on rabbit neutrophils (Kd 7 x 10(-8) M). Pertussis toxin and the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog GTPgamma S both inhibited 3H-toxin A binding (by 56 and 65%, respectively), indicating that the rabbit neutrophil toxin A receptor is G protein linked. Toxin A elicited a dose-dependent (25-200 micrograms/ml) stimulation of neutrophil migration in vitro, and this functional effect was also pertussis toxin sensitive (69% inhibition). Treatment of neutrophils with R15.7, a blocking monoclonal antibody to the leuocyte adhesion molecule CD18, inhibited toxin A-stimulated neutrophil migration by 85% in vitro. Pretreatment of rabbits with R15.7 also prevented neutrophil infiltration of toxin A-exposed ileal loops in vivo as determined by histologic examination and by ileal tissue myeloperoxidase levels. Furthermore, R15.7 effected a substantial inhibition of fluid secretion (by 65%), mannitol permeability (by 66%), and histologic damage in toxin A-exposed ileal loops. Anti-CD18 (R15.7) had no inhibitory effect on cholera toxin enterotoxicity. These data demonstrate that C. difficile toxin A is a proinflammatory toxin whose enterotoxic effects are substantially dependent upon neutrophil recruitment.
C P Kelly, S Becker, J K Linevsky, M A Joshi, J C O'Keane, B F Dickey, J T LaMont, C Pothoulakis
Directed migration or chemotaxis of arterial smooth muscle cells (SMC) contributes to intimal SMC accumulation, a key event in the development of atherosclerotic lesions and in restenosis after angioplasty. The present study compares and contrasts insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) as chemoattractants and mitogens for human arterial SMC. Compared with PDGF-BB, IGF-I is a weaker SMC mitogen. Thus, PDGF-BB, but not IGF-I, evokes a strong and rapid activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase and MAP kinase. However, IGF-I is a potent stimulator of directed migration of human arterial SMC, as measured in a Boyden chamber assay. The half-maximal concentration for migration is similar to the Kd for IGF-I receptor interaction. An IGF-I receptor-blocking antibody blocks the effects of IGF-I, IGF-II, and insulin, indicating that the effects are indeed mediated through the IGF-I receptor. The maximal effect of IGF-I on directed migration ranges between 50% and 100% of the effect of PDGF-BB, the strongest known chemoattractant for SMC. The ability of IGF-I and PDGF-BB to induce chemotaxis coincides with their ability to stimulate phosphatidylinositol turnover, diacylglycerol formation, and intracellular Ca2+ flux and suggests that these signaling pathways, but not activation of the MAP kinase cascade, are required for chemotaxis of human arterial SMC.
K E Bornfeldt, E W Raines, T Nakano, L M Graves, E G Krebs, R Ross
We tested the hypothesis that the intracellular Ca2+ overload of ventricular myocardium during the period of posthypoxic reoxygenation is mediated by transsarcolemmal Ca2+ influx via Na+/Ca2+ exchange. In aequorin-loaded, ferret right ventricular papillary muscles, blockers of the sarcolemmal and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ channels, slowed the Cai2+ transient, producing a convex ascent during membrane depolarization, followed by a concave descent during repolarization. The magnitude of the Cai2+ transient was affected by changes in the membrane potential, Nai+, Nao+, and Cao2+, and was blocked by Ni2+, or dichlorbenzamil. The calculated Na+/Ca2+ exchange current was in the reverse mode (Ca2+ influx) during the ascending phase of the Cai2+ transient, and was abruptly switched to the forward mode (Ca2+ efflux) at repolarization, matching the time course of the Cai2+ transient. During hypoxic superfusion, the Cai2+ transient was abbreviated, which was associated with a shorter action potential duration. In contrast, immediately after reoxygenation, the Cai2+ transient increased to a level greater than that of the control, even though the action potential remained abbreviated. This is the first demonstration on a beat-to-beat basis that, during reoxygenation, Ca2+ influx via Na+/Ca2+ exchange is augmented and transports a significant amount of Ca2+ into the ventricular myocardial cell. The activation of the exchanger at the time of reoxygenation appears to be mediated by Nai+ accumulation, which occurs during hypoxia.
Y Kihara, S Sasayama, M Inoko, J P Morgan
A common molecular variant of angiotensinogen (AGT), the precursor of the potent vasoactive hormone angiotensin II, has been incriminated as a marker for a genetic predisposition to essential hypertension in Caucasians (Jeunemaitre, X., F. Soubrier, Y. V. Kotelevtsev, R. P. Lifton, C. S. Williams, A. Charru, S. C. Hunt, P. N. Hopkins, R. R. Williams, J. M. Lalouel, and P. Corvol. 1992. Cell. 71:169-180). We now show that the same variant, T235, is associated with essential hypertension in Japanese patients. The observation of this association in a distinct, ethnically homogeneous population further substantiates an involvement of angiotensinogen in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension and has physiological, epidemiological, and evolutionary implications.
A Hata, C Namikawa, M Sasaki, K Sato, T Nakamura, K Tamura, J M Lalouel
Gaucher disease (GD; glucosylceramidosis) is caused by a deficient activity of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GC). Clinical manifestations are highly variable and cannot be predicted accurately on the basis of the properties of mutant GC. Analysis of secondary abnormalities, such as elevated plasma levels of some hydrolases, may help to increase insight into the complicated pathophysiology of the disease and could also provide useful disease markers. The recent availability of enzyme supplementation therapy for GD increases the need for markers as early predictors of the efficacy of treatment. We report the finding of a very marked increase in chitotrisidase activity in plasma of 30 of 32 symptomatic type 1 GD patients studied: the median activity being > 600 times the median value in plasma of healthy volunteers. In three GC-deficient individuals without clinical symptoms, only slight increases were noted. Chitotriosidase activity was absent in plasma of three control subjects and two patients. During enzyme supplementation therapy, chitotriosidase activity declined dramatically. We conclude that plasma chitotriosidase levels can serve as a new diagnostic hallmark of GD and should prove to be useful in assessing whether clinical manifestations of GD are present and for monitoring the efficacy of therapeutic intervention.
C E Hollak, S van Weely, M H van Oers, J M Aerts
P Langlade-Demoyen, N Ngo-Giang-Huong, F Ferchal, E Oksenhendler
Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) administered as a single intratracheal injection causes a prominent dose-dependent proliferation of type II alveolar epithelial cells in the lungs of adult rats. The increase in mitotically active alveolar cells histologically appears as a micropapillary epithelial cell hyperplasia after 2 d and peaks after 3 d in the form of monolayers of cuboidal epithelial cells lining alveolar septae. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry confirmed the profound proliferative response induced by KGF. The hyperplastic alveolar lining cells contain immunoreactive surfactant protein B and are ultrastructurally noted to contain lamellar inclusions characteristic of surfactant-producing type II pneumocytes. Mild focal bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia is noted but is much less striking than the proliferation of type II pneumocytes. Large airways are unaffected by KGF. Daily intravenous injection of KGF is also able to cause pneumocyte proliferation. The normal adult rat lung constitutively expresses both KGF and KGF receptor mRNA, suggesting that endogenous KGF may be implicated in the paracrine regulation of the growth of pneumocytes. In conclusion, KGF rapidly and specifically induces proliferation and differentiation of type II pneumocytes in the normal adult lung.
T R Ulich, E S Yi, K Longmuir, S Yin, R Biltz, C F Morris, R M Housley, G F Pierce
Cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia exhibit defective transepithelial electrolyte transport: cAMP-stimulated Cl- secretion is abolished because of the loss of apical membrane cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channels, and amiloride-sensitive Na+ absorption is increased two- to threefold because of increased amiloride-sensitive apical Na+ permeability. These abnormalities are thought to alter respiratory tract fluid, thereby contributing to airway disease, the major source of mortality in this genetic disease. However, the underlying hypothesis, that fluid transport is abnormal in CF airway epithelia, has not been tested. Most conjecture about fluid transport is based on measurements of Na+ and Cl- transport performed under short circuit conditions in Ussing chambers. But such studies differ from in vivo conditions in that transepithelial voltage and mucosal fluid composition are held constant. Therefore, we measured fluid transport and mucosal electrolyte composition in primary cultures of CF airway epithelia without holding transepithelial voltage and ion concentration gradients at zero. In normal epithelia, cAMP agonists plus amiloride stimulated NaCl and fluid secretion. In CF epithelia, cAMP agonists failed to stimulate fluid or electrolyte secretion, changes consistent with the loss of CFTR Cl- channels. But in striking contrast to predictions based on Ussing chamber studies, CF epithelia absorbed fluid at a rate no greater than normal epithelia. Moreover, amiloride, which inhibits Na+ channels, failed to inhibit fluid absorption by CF epithelia. These results have important implications for understanding the pathogenesis of CF airway disease and for the design and evaluation of therapy.
J J Smith, P H Karp, M J Welsh
Streptozotocin-induced, diabetic mice (C57BL/6) were preimmunized by injecting 25 low temperature, cultured Wistar-Furth (WF) rat islets into the portal vein, and the recipients received one injection of mouse and rat antilymphocyte sera. 3 wk later, fresh WF islets were transplanted under the kidney capsule of the preimmunized recipients, and normoglycemia was maintained in all 13 recipients for 60 d. Removal of the grafts at 60 d returned the mice to a diabetic state. Transplants of fresh WF islets under the kidney capsule without pretreatment of the recipients had a mean survival time of 16.5 +/- 2.5 d. These findings demonstrate that immune unresponsiveness can be achieved across a concordant, islet xenograft barrier within 3 wk after intrahepatic preimmunization with a small number of donor rat islets and transient immunosuppression with antilymphocyte sera.
J A Goss, E H Finke, M W Flye, P E Lacy
The ligand for CD40 is expressed on activated T lymphocytes and delivers contact-dependent activation signals to B lymphocytes. The mechanisms regulating CD40 ligand gene expression are largely unknown. Optimal expression of CD40 ligand required activation of protein kinase C and a rise in intracellular calcium concentration. CD40 ligand expression was inhibited by pretreatment of T cells with cyclosporin A. Cyclosporin A analogues inhibited CD40 ligand expression with a potency mirroring the ability of each compound to inhibit calcineurin activity, indicating that calcineurin plays a key role in CD40 ligand gene expression. Cyclosporin A inhibited IL-4-driven CD40 ligand-dependent IgE isotype switching in PBMC but did not inhibit IgE synthesis induced by CD40 mAb plus IL-4. PBMC derived from transplant patients receiving cyclosporin A failed to express CD40 ligand upon stimulation. These results suggest that patients receiving cyclosporin A may be deficient in CD40 ligand-dependent T cell help.
R Fuleihan, N Ramesh, A Horner, D Ahern, P J Belshaw, D G Alberg, I Stamenkovic, W Harmon, R S Geha
The presence of somatostatin receptors has been demonstrated in various endocrine tumors as well as in normal tissues. We recently have cloned five human somatostatin receptor subtypes (SSTR1-SSTR5). These mRNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. In this study, we have determined the somatostatin receptor subtypes expressed in various endocrine tumors using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method. In two cases of glucagonoma and its metastatic lymph nodes in one case, all the SSTR subtype mRNAs except SSTR5 mRNA were expressed. In four cases of insulinoma, SSTR1 and SSTR4 mRNAs were detected, but SSTR2 mRNA was not detected in one case and SSTR3 mRNA was not detected in two cases, indicating a heterogeneous expression of SSTR subtypes in insulinomas. Interestingly, SSTR3 mRNA, which is highly expressed in rat pancreatic islets, is not expressed in normal human pancreatic islets, while SSTR1, SSTR2, and SSTR4 mRNAs are expressed. In three cases of pheochromocytoma, SSTR1 and SSTR2 mRNAs were detected, showing an expression pattern identical to that of normal adrenal gland. In a carcinoid, SSTR1 and SSTR4 mRNAs were detected. We have also found that human SSTR2 shows a high affinity for SMS 201-995, which has been used clinically for the treatment of endocrine tumors. Since SMS 201-995 was effective in the treatment of a patient with glucagonoma in which SSTR2 mRNA was present, but had no effect in a patient with carcinoid in which SSTR2 mRNA was not detected, this study suggests that the efficacy of SMS 201-995 may depend, at least in part, on the expression of SSTR2 in tumors.
A Kubota, Y Yamada, S Kagimoto, A Shimatsu, M Imamura, K Tsuda, H Imura, S Seino, Y Seino
We have used a cDNA probe from a cloned rat liver Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) to screen a human liver cDNA library. A 1,599-bp cDNA clone that encodes a human Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) was isolated. The human NTCP consists of 349 amino acids (calculated molecular mass of 38 kD) and exhibits 77% amino acid homology with the rat Ntcp. In vitro translation experiments indicate that the protein is glycosylated and has a molecular weight similar to the rat Ntcp. Injection of in vitro transcribed cRNA into Xenopus laevis oocytes resulted in the expression of Na(+)-dependent taurocholate uptake. Saturation kinetics indicated that the human NTCP has a higher affinity for taurocholate (apparent Km = 6 microM) than the previously cloned rat protein (apparent Km = 25 microM). NTCP-mediated taurocholate uptake into oocytes was inhibited by all major bile acid derivatives (100 microM), bumetanide (500 microM), and bromosulphophthalein (100 microM). Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from a panel of human/hamster somatic cell hybrids mapped the human NTCP gene to chromosome 14.
B Hagenbuch, P J Meier
IL-10 inhibits macrophage-dependent antigen presentation, cytokine production, and generation of allospecific cells in vitro. These findings have lead to the widespread expectation that IL-10 may be a useful immunosuppressive agent to inhibit allograft rejection or autoimmunity in vivo. We used two experimental paradigms to study effects of murine IL-10 on in vivo immune responses. First, fetal pancreata or adult pancreatic islets from transgenic mice expressing IL-10 in pancreatic beta cells (Ins-IL-10 mice) were grafted across the MHC barrier to examine if IL-10 could inhibit allograft rejection. Second, Ins-IL-10 mice were crossed with transgenic mice expressing lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) antigens in pancreatic beta cells. These mice were infected with LCMV to elicit autoimmune diabetes, allowing us to ask if IL-10 protects islets from autoimmune destruction. We observed that allografts from IL-10-transgenic donors were rejected with comparable kinetics to the rejection of control nontransgenic allografts, indicating that IL-10 does not inhibit allograft rejection. After LCMV infection, IL-10 and LCMV antigen double transgenic mice developed diabetes earlier than LCMV antigen single transgenic littermates, suggesting that IL-10 does not inhibit islet antigen presentation or recognition. Our results contrast to in vitro observations and suggest that IL-10 cannot overcome immune-mediated tissue destruction within the pancreas.
M S Lee, L Wogensen, J Shizuru, M B Oldstone, N Sarvetnick
Contractions to serotonin (5-HT) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in infant (0-2 yr) and adult (38-71 yr) vertebral arteries were examined in the presence of either the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin or NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide production. In addition, endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were characterized in arteries contracted with agonist. The results showed that: (a) Contractions of infant arteries to 5-HT or ET-1 decreased to 44 +/- 8% and 27 +/- 13%, respectively, within 10 min. Indomethacin or removal of endothelium abolished this decreased response, whereas L-NMMA had no effect. (b) Adult arteries produced sustained contractions to 5-HT or ET-1 that were unaffected by indomethacin, endothelium denudation, or L-NMMA. (c) Endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were greater in infant than adult arteries and were abolished by indomethacin (but not L-NMMA) in infants and L-NMMA (but not indomethacin) in adults. Thus, endothelium-dependent responses in infant arteries are attenuated because of increased prostaglandin activity not observed in adult tissues. Additionally, there is an age-dependent change in the primary mechanism responsible for acetylcholine-induced vasodilation. Apparently, endothelium dependency of acetylcholine-induced relaxation is highly dependent on cyclooxygenase activity in the infant vertebral artery, but in the adult artery, nitric oxide is linked to the vasodilator response.
J R Charpie, K D Schreur, S M Papadopoulos, R C Webb