T F Deuel, J S Huang
Ethanol/ether soluble apoproteins, comprising 17% of the total recovered surfactant-associated proteins, were isolated from rat lung surfactant and purified by silicic acid chromatography. The protein that eluted in 4:1 chloroform/methanol accounted for greater than 85% of protein in the ethanol/ether soluble fraction and was termed surfactant apoprotein Et (Apo Et). By sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, this protein had an apparent molecular weight of approximately 10,500. Apo Et was evaluated for its effect on uptake of synthetic phospholipids in liposomal form by isolated granular pneumocytes (Type II alveolar epithelial cells) in primary culture. Liposomes were prepared to approximate the phospholipid composition of the alveolar surfactant, and uptake was measured by the accumulation of the radioactively labeled dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline fraction. The uptake of liposomal phosphatidylcholine by cells incubated for 2 h with Apo Et was increased by 61% over control. Most of the cell-associated phospholipid uptake was resistant to treatment with trypsin, suggesting an increased internalization of liposomal material in the presence of Apo Et. The effect of Apo Et on uptake was concentration and time dependent and was not associated with cell damage, phospholipase activity, or detergent properties of the protein. Apo Et had no significant effect on phosphatidylcholine uptake by granular pneumocytes maintained for 7 d in primary culture. Apo Et augmented the uptake of phospholipids by alveolar macrophages although total uptake by these cells was less than that observed with granular pneumocytes. Because Apo Et increases the rate of uptake of surfactant phospholipids by alveolar cells (granular pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages), this protein may represent a physiologically important regulator for clearance of lung surfactant phospholipids.
W D Claypool, D L Wang, A Chander, A B Fisher
We report the case of an infant with hypoglycemia, progressive lactic acidosis, an increased serum lactate/pyruvate ratio, and elevated plasma alanine, who had a moderate to profound decrease in the ability of mitochondria from four organs to oxidize pyruvate, malate plus glutamate, citrate, and other NAD+-linked respiratory substrates. The capacity to oxidize the flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked substrate, succinate, was normal. The most pronounced deficiency was in skeletal muscle, the least in kidney mitochondria. Enzymatic assays on isolated mitochondria ruled out defects in complexes II, III, and IV of the respiratory chain. Further studies showed that the defect was localized in the inner membrane mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). When ferricyanide was used as an artificial electron acceptor, complex I activity was normal, indicating that electrons from NADH could reduce the flavin mononucleotide cofactor. However, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy performed on liver submitochondrial particles showed an almost total loss of the iron-sulfur clusters characteristic of complex I, whereas normal signals were noted for other mitochondrial iron-sulfur clusters. This infant is presented as the first reported case of congenital lactic acidosis caused by a deficiency of the iron-sulfur clusters of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.
R W Moreadith, M L Batshaw, T Ohnishi, D Kerr, B Knox, D Jackson, R Hruban, J Olson, B Reynafarje, A L Lehninger
Transient increases in the activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first and rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, may be critical to initiation of cell growth. We previously reported such increases in ODC activity, and the polyamines, putrescine, and spermidine in rat ileal mucosa between days 1 and 4 after intestinal resection. During this time, there is initiation of mucosal cell hyperplasia, as measured morphologically and biochemically. Intestinal weight and mucosal thickness increase, as do mucosal DNA content and DNA synthesis. In the present study, we gave rats the specific irreversible ODC inhibitor, alpha-difluoromethyl ornithine (DFMO), beginning 3 d before jejunectomy. DFMO completely suppressed the increases in ODC activity and polyamine content in the intestinal mucosa. The suppression in ODC activity was associated with an 87% suppression of DNA synthesis, and resulted in a complete abolition of intestinal adaptation, as manifested by the absence of intestinal weight gain, increase in mucosal thickness, or increase in crypt cell production. Our results indicate that the increases in ODC activity and polyamine biosynthesis are critical for adaptive postresectional crypt cell proliferation in vivo, and that the critical step mediated by polyamines in this adaptive process is the onset of new DNA synthesis.
G D Luk, S B Baylin
To characterize the hepatic response to L-triiodothyronine (T3) in an experimental nonthyroidal disease, we determined the activity of hepatic mitochondrial alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-GPD) and cytosol malic enzyme (ME) as a function of the saturation of the nuclear T3 receptor during constant T3 infusions in rats bearing the Walker 256 carcinoma. Groups of control and tumor-bearing rats were infused by minipumps (Alza Corp., Palo Alto, CA) with vehicle, 1.2 or 4.5 micrograms T3/100 body wt per day for 3 d. The range for serum T3 was 47.2 +/- 4.1 to 165 +/- 17.3 ng/dl for the control rats and 13.2 +/- 1.3 to 135 +/- 14.3 ng/dl for the tumor-bearing rats. Nuclear T3 receptor concentration was between 0.41 +/- 0.06 and 0.47 +/- 0.02 ng/mg DNA in control rats and was decreased in tumor-bearing rats to between 0.23 +/- 0.03 and 0.26 +/- 0.03 ng/mg DNA. Nuclear T3 receptor concentrations were not influenced by the T3 infusions. Specifically bound nuclear T3, determined by radioimmunoassay of extracts of isolated nuclei, was decreased nearly 50% in the tumor-bearing rats. However, the calculated percentage saturation of the T3 nuclear receptor remained similar in control and tumor-bearing rats at each level of T3 infusion. Dose-response curves for alpha-GPD and ME were curvilinear and showed an exponential increase in enzyme activity with progressive receptor saturation. In tumor-bearing rats, the activity curves or calculated appearance rate curves for alpha-GPD were shifted significantly upward and to the left, indicating greater sensitivity to T3, and those of ME were shifted downward and to the right, indicating decreased responsiveness to T3. Our findings suggest that cellular factors result in postreceptor amplification of the alpha-GPD response and diminution of the ME response to T3 in tumor-bearing rats. Augmentation of the alpha-GPD response may be a prototype for other hormonal responses that enable the tumor-bearing rat to maintain an apparent euthyroid state in association with decreased serum T3.
J M Tibaldi, N Sahnoun, M I Surks
Mice were examined for the presence of splenocytes specifically cytotoxic for a rat insulinoma cell line (RIN) during the induction of diabetes by streptozotocin (SZ) in multiple low doses (Multi-Strep). Cytotoxicity was quantitated by the release of 51Cr from damaged cells. A low but statistically significant level of cytolysis (5%) by splenocytes was first detectable on day 8 after the first dose of SZ. The cytotoxicity reached a maximum of approximately 9% on day 10 and slowly decreased thereafter, becoming undetectable 42 d after SZ was first given. The time course of the in vitro cytotoxic response correlated with the degree of insulitis demonstrable in the pancreata of the Multi-Strep mice. The degree of cytotoxicity after Multi-Strep was related to the number of effector splenocytes to which the target RIN cells were exposed and was comparable to that detectable after immunization by intraperitoneal injection of RIN cells in normal mice. The cytotoxicity was specific for insulin-producing cells; syngeneic, allogeneic, and xenogeneic lymphocytes and lymphoblasts, 3T3 cells, and a human keratinocyte cell line were not specifically lysed by the splenocytes of the Multi-Strep mice. This phenomenon was limited to the Multi-Strep mice. Splenocytes from mice made diabetic by a single, high dose of SZ exhibited a very low level of cytotoxicity against the RIN cells. The cytotoxic response was also quantitated in splenocytes from control and Multi-Strep mice (10 d after the first dose of SZ) before and after culture with mitomycin-treated RIN cells in the presence of T cell growth factor (TCGF). The cytotoxicity of the Multi-Strep splenocytes was enhanced more than fivefold after such culture, suggesting the proliferation of an effector cell that could be stimulated and supported in vitro by TCGF. These results support the hypothesis that cell-mediated anti-beta cell autoimmunity may play a role in the destruction of the beta cells in this animal model. The stimulation of this response by TCGF may provide a tool by which enough cytotoxic effector cells could be obtained to establish their possible direct pathogenetic role in the induction of insulin-dependent diabetes. In addition, such cells will be a valuable tool to define the specific beta-cell antigens that may direct the highly selective cell-mediated destruction of these cells in experimental models and, perhaps, in human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
R C McEvoy, J Andersson, S Sandler, C Hellerström
Monoclonal antibodies directed against human renin were obtained by the fusing of myeloma cells with spleen cells from Balb/c or high-responder Biozzi mice injected with pure tumoral or highly purified renal renin. These procedures resulted in the production of seven stable monoclonal antibodies to human renin. Antibodies in the hybridoma culture medium were screened by binding to pure iodinated renin or insolubilized renin in a solid phase assay. The concentration of purified antibodies that provided a 50% binding to iodinated renin varied from 1 X 10(-10) to 1 X 10(-7) M. Two monoclonal antibodies were found to be potent inhibitors of renin enzymatic activity in vitro, behaving as noncompetitive inhibitors (Ki, 1 to 4 X 10(-10) M). They were specific for primate renin. Three monoclonal antibodies provided suitable immunoadsorbants for renin purification. One of these immunoadsorbants was used for large-scale purification of the renal enzyme, resulting in an 825-fold renin enrichment in a single step. Two antibodies were able to distinguish between active and inactive renin and enabled concomitant separation and purification of the two enzyme forms in various biological fluids. Monoclonal antibodies also stained human and monkey renal renin when indirect immunofluorescence and peroxidase-antiperoxidase techniques were used. A highly sensitive radioimmunometric assay of renin was constructed with two monoclonal antibodies. The sensitivity of this improved assay should permit the detection of renin in normal human plasma. Monoclonal antibodies have been shown to be superior to polyclonal antibodies in the following areas: the separation of active from inactive renin, the purification of renin from biological fluids, and the setting up of a direct assay of plasma renin.
F X Galen, C Devaux, S Atlas, T Guyenne, J Menard, P Corvol, D Simon, C Cazaubon, P Richer, G Badouaille
We have identified two functional domains on the von Willebrand factor (VWF) moiety of the Factor VIII-von Willebrand factor complex (FVIII-VWF), one interacting with blood platelets, and one interacting with vessel wall collagens, by means of two monoclonal antibodies directed against the VWF molecule, CLB-RAg 35 and CLB-RAg 201. The monoclonal antibody CLB-RAg 35 inhibited virtually all platelet adherence to artery subendothelium and to purified vessel wall collagen type III, at relatively high wall shear rates. CLB-RAg 35 also inhibited the ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation and the binding of FVIII-VWF to the platelet in the presence of ristocetin but did not affect the binding of FVIII-VWF to collagen. The monoclonal antibody CLB-RAg 201 inhibited the binding of FVIII-VWF to purified vessel wall collagen type I and III and all platelet adherence to collagen type III and the platelet adherence to subendothelium that was mediated by FVIII-VWF in plasma. The two functional domains on FVIII-VWF that were recognized by CLB-RAg 35 and CLB-RAg 201 were identified by means of immunoprecipitation studies of trypsin-digested FVIII-VWF. The domains resided on different polypeptide fragments, with a Mr of 48,000 for the collagen binding domain and a Mr of 116,000 for the platelet binding domain. The 116,000-mol wt fragment consisted of subunits of 52,000/56,000 mol wt and 14,000 mol wt after reduction. The 52,000/56,000-mol wt subunits possessed the epitope for CLB-RAg 35.
J J Sixma, K S Sakariassen, H V Stel, W P Houdijk, D W In der Maur, R J Hamer, P G de Groot, J A van Mourik
Previous studies have shown that the fraction of hormone or drug that is plasma protein bound is readily available for transport through the brain endothelial wall, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To test whether these observations are reconcilable with the free-hormone hypothesis, a tracer-kinetic model is used in the present investigations to analyze in vivo initial extraction data on BBB transport of protein-bound steroid hormones (dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, estradiol, and corticosterone), thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine), and lipophilic amine drugs (propranolol). The plasma proteins used are bovine albumin and human orosomucoid. Transport data was fit to a modification of the Kety-Renkin-Crone equation of capillary physiology; the modified equation incorporates the principles of both capillary physiology and plasma protein-ligand mass action binding relationships. In most cases, the experimental data is best fit to the model equation when the apparent in vivo dissociation constant, KDa, of the ligand protein binding reaction increases to values that are 5- to 50-fold greater than the in vitro dissociation constant, KD. This result indicates that the rate of ligand dissociation from the plasma protein is accelerated in the capillary bed relative to the in vitro situation. It is hypothesized that the major factor leading to the rapid transport in vivo of protein-bound ligands into tissues such as brain is an endothelial-induced decrease in the affinity of the plasma protein for the ligand. Under these conditions, the amount of plasma ligand available for tissue clearance in vivo parallels the protein-bound fraction, not the free hormone.
W M Pardridge, E M Landaw
The interaction of spectrin with spectrin-depleted inside-out membrane vesicles was studied in a kindred with an atypical variant of hereditary elliptocytosis inherited in a recessive manner. The probands are characterized by prominent elliptocytosis, decreased erythrocyte thermal stability, an altered limited tryptic peptide pattern of spectrin digested at low ionic strength, and defective spectrin dimer-dimer association. The parents are normal. The spectrin/band 3 ratio determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of isolated membranes of the probands was decreased to approximately 70% of control values, and total erythrocyte spectrin content in one proband was also decreased on SDS-PAGE. When a monospecific antispectrin antibody was used, a faintly labeled fragment of molecular weight approximately 28,000 was detected on immunoblots of whole cell lysates of one proband and a control, but could not account for the decreased erythrocyte spectrin content of the proband on SDS-PAGE. Binding and competitive inhibition studies revealed an alteration in the spectrin-ankyrin interaction due to an abnormality of spectrin in the probands. No defect was found in the mother; the father's spectrin showed decreased binding affinity, although it was not so severe as in the probands. Separation of bound and unbound spectrin dimers from one proband and subsequent conversion to tetramers showed that the self-association defect was detectable only on the bound subpopulation of her spectrin. These findings demonstrate a hitherto undescribed functional abnormality of spectrin in this kindred which could result in decreased stability of the membrane skeleton and contribute to the elliptocytic shape of these erythrocytes.
S S Zail, T L Coetzer
In hepatobiliary disease bilirubin becomes bound covalently to serum albumin, producing a nondissociable bile pigment-protein complex (biliprotein). To elucidate the mechanism of biliprotein formation we studied the bile pigment composition of blood from animals with experimental cholestasis and carried out comparative studies on the rate of biliprotein formation in vivo and in vitro during incubation of bilirubin glucuronides with albumin. Bile duct ligation in the rat and guinea pig led to rapid accumulation in the circulation of bilirubin, heterogeneous bilirubin esters of glucuronic acid, and a biliprotein that migrated along with albumin on high performance liquid chromatography. When the obstruction was removed, biliprotein remained longer in the circulation than did the other bile pigment species. Biliprotein and heterogeneous bilirubin esters of glucuronic acid were not formed in bile duct-ligated homozygous Gunn rats but they were formed when bilirubin glucuronides were incubated with Sprague-Dawley rat serum or human serum albumin at 37 degrees C in vitro. Bilirubin glucuronide rearrangement in vitro was accompanied by nonenzymic hydrolysis. We conclude that the formation of biliprotein in vivo is probably nonenzymic and suggest that mammalian biliprotein is formed by acyl migration of bilirubin from a bilirubin-glucuronic acid ester to a nucleophilic site on albumin.
A F McDonagh, L A Palma, J J Lauff, T W Wu
We have studied the interaction between virulent Legionella pneumophila and human alveolar macrophages, the resident phagocytes at the site of infection in Legionnaires' disease. L. pneumophila multiplied 2.5-5 logs within 3 d, as measured by colony forming units, when incubated with freshly explanted alveolar macrophages in monolayer culture. At the peak of bacterial multiplication, the alveolar macrophage monolayers were destroyed. L. pneumophila multiplied more rapidly in 4-d-old than in freshly explanted alveolar macrophages. Inside alveolar macrophages, L. pneumophila were located within membrane-bound vacuoles whose cytoplasmic sides were studded with ribosomes. Alveolar macrophages that were incubated with concanavalin A (Con A) stimulated human mononuclear cell supernatants (cytokines), inhibited L. pneumophila multiplication, and the degree of inhibition was proportional to the concentration of Con A supernatant added. Anti-L. pneumophila antibody in conjunction with complement promoted phagocytosis of L. pneumophila by alveolar macrophages. By electron microscopy, most (75%) of the phagocytized L. pneumophila were intracellular. However, freshly explanted alveolar macrophages were able to kill only 0-10% of an innoculum of L. pneumophila even in the presence of antibody and complement. At the same time, alveolar macrophages also killed opsonized Escherichia coli poorly. Increasing the ratio of macrophages to bacteria, adhering the macrophages to microcarrier beads, or preincubating the macrophages for 24 or 48 h with Con A supernatants failed to augment alveolar macrophage killing of opsonized E. coli. Corticosteroids appear to increase patient susceptibility to Legionnaires' disease. However, pretreatment of alveolar macrophages and monocytes with hydrocortisone had no influence on intracellular multiplication of L. pneumophila or on the inhibition of that multiplication by activated alveolar macrophages or monocytes. Hydrocortisone did impair cytokine-induced aggregation of alveolar macrophages. These findings demonstrate that L. pneumophila multiplies in human alveolar macrophages and that they do so within a ribosome-lined phagosome; that freshly explanted alveolar macrophages kill few L. pneumophila even in the presence of antibody and complement; that activated alveolar macrophages inhibit L. pneumophila multiplication; and that steroids do not exert a direct suppressive effect on the anti-L. pneumophila activity of activated or nonactivated alveolar macrophages. Our findings indicate that alveolar macrophages may play a central role in both the pathogenesis of Legionnaires' disease and in host defense against it. This paper shows that human resident macrophage can be activated to a higher state of antimicrobial capacity and that the human alveolar macrophage can serve as an effector call in call-mediated immunity.
T W Nash, D M Libby, M A Horwitz
The widespread occurrence of antibodies (IgG) specific to xanthine oxidase in both normal (nonimmune) human and animal sera, and in antisera raised against a diversity of unrelated antigens is described. A study of sera from 81 humans revealed that xanthine oxidase-specific IgG represents a high proportion (1-8%) of total IgG. No obvious correlation to pathological events or symptoms of disease could be found. These xanthine oxidase-specific antibodies could be isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography on purified human or bovine xanthine oxidase and showed specific binding to the enzyme polypeptide of Mr 155,000 in immunoblotting experiments. By immunofluorescence microscopy they displayed the same cell type-specific reaction as experimentally induced antibodies, i.e., the staining of lactating mammary gland epithelium and capillary endothelium. The naturally occurring xanthine oxidase-specific antibodies consisted of polyclonal IgG of various subclasses. F(ab')2 preparations gave immune-reactions identical to those of IgG. The human xanthine oxidase-specific IgG cross-reacted with the bovine enzyme and both human and animal antibodies partially inhibited its activity. The xanthine oxidase activity of human milk lipid globules and supernatant fractions from various human tissues was extremely low when compared with that of the bovine antigen. The enzyme protein, however, was effectively precipitated from these sources by both the human and bovine antibodies. We suggest that the exceptionally high concentrations of antibodies against one protein, xanthine oxidase, are due to self-immunization to the xanthine oxidase antigen present in endothelial cells of capillaries. We do not exclude, however, nutritional contributions of bovine milk antigen to the appearance of xanthine oxidase antibodies in human sera. The possible biological functions of this immunological reaction are discussed.
G Bruder, E D Jarasch, H W Heid
Measurement of mevalonic acid (MVA) concentrations in plasma or 24-h urine samples is shown to be useful in studies of the regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and cholesterol synthesis. Plasma MVA concentrations, measured either at 7-9 a.m. after an overnight fast, or throughout the 24-h cycle, were compared with cholesterol synthesis rates that were measured by the sterol balance method: plasma MVA concentrations were directly related to the rate of whole body cholesterol synthesis (r = 0.972; p less than 0.001; n = 18) over a tenfold range of cholesterol synthesis rates. Moreover, hourly examination of MVA concentrations throughout the day demonstrated that interventions such as fasting or cholesterol feeding cause suppression of the postmidnight diurnal rise in plasma MVA concentrations, with little change in the base-line of the rhythm. Thus, the daily rise and fall of plasma MVA appears to reflect changes in tissues and organs, such as the liver and intestine, that are known to be most sensitive to regulation by fasting or by dietary cholesterol. The hypothesis that short-term regulation of HMG-CoA reductase in tissues is quickly reflected by corresponding variations in plasma MVA was tested by using a specific inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, mevinolin, to block MVA synthesis. Mevinolin caused a dose-dependent lowering of plasma MVA after a single dose; and in patients who received the drug twice a day for 4 wk, it decreased 24-h urinary MVA output. Significant lowering of plasma cholesterol was achieved through administration of mevinolin at doses that only moderately limit MVA production.
T S Parker, D J McNamara, C D Brown, R Kolb, E H Ahrens Jr, A W Alberts, J Tobert, J Chen, P J De Schepper
We have measured unidirectional transmural fluxes of oxalate and neutral sugars across rat ascending colon in vitro, under short-circuit conditions, to characterize permeability barriers selective for size and charge. Ionic oxalate appears to be transported preferentially to sodium oxalate. Mucosal addition of taurocholate (1 mM), deoxycholate (1 mM), or ricinoleate (1 mM) increased bidirectional oxalate fluxes, and the ricinoleate effects were independent of medium calcium. Bidirectional fluxes of uncharged sugar molecules fell sharply at molecular weights above 76 (molecular radius above 3 A), and oxalate transport was retarded relative to that of uncharged molecules of similar size, suggesting that there is both size and charge permselectivity. Ricinoleate increased fluxes of all neutral molecules tested but changed neither the exclusion limits nor the cation selectivity of the epithelium. Bile salts and ricinoleate increase oxalate transport, probably by making more channels available, but do not alter size and charge selectivity.
S C Kathpalia, M J Favus, F L Coe
Two new vascular smooth muscle relaxants, bepridil and cetiedil, were found to possess specific CaM-inhibitory properties which resembled those of trifluoperazine. Trifluoperazine, bepridil, and cetiedil inhibited Ca2+-dependent 125I-CaM binding to erythrocyte membranes and CaM activation of membrane Ca2+-ATPase with IC50 values of approximately 12, approximately 17, and approximately 40 microM, respectively. This does not appear to be the result of a nonspecific hydrophobic interaction since inhibition was not observed with micromolar concentrations of many other hydrophobic agents. The predominant inhibition of binding and Ca2+-ATPase activation was competitive with respect to CaM. Bepridil and cetiedil bind directly to CaM since these drugs displaced [3H]trifluoperazine from sites on CaM. Inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase and binding by the drugs was not due to interference with the catalytic activity of this enzyme since: (a) neither inhibition of CaM-independent basal Ca2+-ATPase activity nor inhibition of proteolytically-activated Ca2+-ATPase activities were produced by these agents, and (b) no drug-induced inhibition of CaM binding was detected when membranes were preincubated with these agents but washed prior to addition of 125I-CaM. Thus, bepridil and cetiedil competitively inhibit Ca2+-dependent interactions of CaM with erythrocyte membranes, most likely by a direct interaction between these drugs and CaM. The principal clinical actions of these drugs may be explained by their interactions with CaM or CaM-related proteins leading to reduced activation of Ca2+-regulated enzymes in certain other tissues, such as myosin light chain kinase in vascular smooth muscle.
P Agre, D Virshup, V Bennett
We have previously demonstrated that continuous exposure of human HL-60 human promyelocytes to 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) results in the induction of terminal differentiation to monocyte-like cells. The present study extends these findings by demonstrating that ara-C induces hemoglobin synthesis in human K562 erythroleukemia cells. This effect occurs maximally at an ara-C concentration (5 X 10(-7) M) that results in K562 cytostasis. In contrast to the reversible effects of hemin and hydroxyurea on globin synthesis in this cell line, we have found that the induction of K562 hemoglobin synthesis by ara-C is irreversible. An induction of K562 hemoglobin synthesis also occurs with aphidicolin, another inhibitor of S-phase DNA synthesis, but not with vinblastine, an inhibitor of mitosis. Finally, ara-C induction of a differentiated K562 phenotype is accompanied by the loss of self-renewal capacity, a finding consistent with terminal differentiation.
C Luisi-DeLuca, T Mitchell, D Spriggs, D W Kufe
To examine the effect of platelets and 5-hydroxytryptamine on pulmonary arterial smooth muscle, rings of canine pulmonary arteries, with and without endothelium, were studied under isometric conditions in physiological salt solution. 5-Hydroxytryptamine, but not the thromboxane-like endoperoxide analogue U-46619, produced concentration-dependent contractions of the rings with a maximum averaging 93% of that obtained with KC1. Autologous platelets in concentrations comparable to that in plasma caused contractions averaging 70% of the maximal responses to KC1. Solution withdrawn from baths containing platelet-contracted rings, but not the supernatant from nonaggregated platelets, also caused contraction. The serotonergic antagonists cyproheptadine, ketanserin, and methysergide caused concentration-dependent inhibition and eventually abolition of contractions evoked by platelets and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Phentolamine and prazosin produced significantly less inhibition of the contractile response to platelets. Pretreatment of the platelets with indomethacin or meclofenamate reduced thromboxane release but had no effect on platelet-induced contractions. Removal of the endothelium did not affect contractile responses to platelets or 5-hydroxy-tryptamine. These experiments demonstrate that in the canine pulmonary artery: (a) 5-hydroxytryptamine is the predominant mediator of the contractile response triggered by platelet aggregation; and (b) unlike in other blood vessels, the endothelium cannot curtail the contractile response to aggregating platelets.
M D McGoon, P M Vanhoutte
Calcium transport was studied in isolated S2 segments of rabbit superficial proximal convoluted tubules. 45Ca was added to the perfusate for measurement of lumen-to-bath flux (JlbCa), to the bath for bath-to-lumen flux (JblCa), and to both perfusate and bath for net flux (JnetCa). In these studies, the perfusate consisted of an equilibrium solution that was designed to minimize water flux or electrochemical potential differences (PD). Under these conditions, JlbCa (9.1 +/- 1.0 peq/mm X min) was not different from JblCa (7.3 +/- 1.3 peq/mm X min), and JnetCa was not different from zero, which suggests that calcium transport in the superficial proximal convoluted tubule is due primarily to passive transport. The efflux coefficient was 9.5 +/- 1.2 X 10(-5) cm/s, which was not significantly different from the influx coefficient, 7.0 +/- 1.3 X 10(-5) cm/s. When the PD was made positive or negative with use of different perfusates, net calcium absorption or secretion was demonstrated, respectively, which supports a major role for passive transport. These results indicate that in the superficial proximal convoluted tubule of the rabbit, passive driving forces are the major determinants of calcium transport.
R C Ng, D Rouse, W N Suki
Human and murine tumor cells contain cell surface receptors for the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin. Since a biologic role for the receptor had not previously been demonstrated, we explored the possibility that the laminin receptor may be involved in hematogenous metastases formation. Preincubation of metastatic murine melanoma cells with syngeneic whole laminin followed by tail vein injection increased tumor cell retention in the lung and strongly stimulated metastases formation. The domain of the laminin molecule responsible for stimulating metastases was identified. Laminin is a cross-shaped molecule with three short arms and one long arm. All arms have globular end regions. Purified protease-derived fragments of laminin were prepared which (a) lacked only the long arm of the molecule (alpha fragment) or, (b) lacked both the long arm and the globular end regions of the short arms (C1 fragment). Both types of fragments contained the laminin receptor binding region. The fragments had opposite effects on metastases. The alpha fragment stimulated metastases formation to the same extent as whole laminin. In contrast, the C1 fragment greatly reduced or abolished metastases formation in a dose-dependent manner. The C1 fragment also inhibited tumor cell attachment to whole amnion basement membrane in vitro. We conclude that intact globular end regions on the short arms (but not the long arm) of the cell surface receptor-bound laminin molecule are necessary for stimulating metastases by the intravenous route.
S H Barsky, C N Rao, J E Williams, L A Liotta
Staphylococcal alpha-toxin is known to damage mammalian cell membranes. Studies of erythrocytes indicate that the native toxin generates a discrete transmembrane channel with an effective diameter of 2-3 nm. (Füssle, R., S. Bhakdi, A. Szeigoleit, J. Tranum-Jensen, T. Kranz, and H.J. Wellensiek. 1981. J. Cell Biol. 91:83-94.) In isolated rabbit lungs, perfused with recirculating blood- and plasma-free perfusion fluid, the mediation of a toxin-provoked vascular pressor response by the triggering of the arachidonic acid cascade and its dependence on extracellular calcium were investigated. Dose-dependent pulmonary artery pressor responses were elicited by the injection of 0.5-5 micrograms staphylococcal alpha-toxin into the pulmonary artery. The pressor responses were completely abolished by preincubation of the toxin with neutralizing antibodies or by preformation of alpha-toxin hexamers in vitro. They were accompanied by the release of the arachidonic acid metabolites thromboxane B2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (stable metabolites of thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin I2, respectively) into the perfusion fluid. They were blocked by inhibitors of thromboxane synthetase, cyclooxygenase, and phospholipase, as well as by substances that interfere with calcium-calmodulin function. alpha-Toxin induced selective release of potassium, but not lactatedehydrogenase into the medium. Calcium depletion of the intravascular space did not suppress the toxin-dependent potassium release but did abrogate the pressor response and the release of the arachidonic acid metabolites. When calcium was reintroduced into the circulation without the application of a second toxin stimulus, marked pressor responses paralleled by the release of arachidonic acid metabolites occurred. The conclusion drawn from these studies is that staphylococcal alpha-toxin provokes pulmonary vascular hypertension which is apparently mediated by thromboxane A2 formation, which surpasses the biological effect of the simultaneously formed prostaglandin I2. The triggering of the arachidonic acid cascade is strictly dependent on extracellular calcium and may be mediated by a nonphysiological calcium bypass through transmembrane toxin channels with subsequent stimulation of phospholipase activity.
W Seeger, M Bauer, S Bhakdi
Human immune response genes can be divided into three distinct loci, each of which codes for three distinct families of Ia molecules: HLA-SB, HLA-DC, and HLA-DR. The tissue distribution and function of only one of these Ia molecules, HLA-DR, has been thoroughly studied. Using monoclonal antibodies, we examined the display of HLA-DR and HLA-DC molecules by adherent, human peripheral blood monocytes. The results of these studies demonstrate that although all human peripheral blood monocytes display easily detectable HLA-DR molecules, only 50% display easily detectable HLA-DC molecules. Separation of peripheral blood monocytes into HLA-DC+ and HLA-DC- cells demonstrates that each population displays an equivalent density of HLA-DR molecules. Therefore, on the basis of differences in their display of these two Ia molecules, adherent peripheral blood monocytes can be divided into two broad populations: HLA-DR+, HLA-DC+, and HLA-DR+, HLA-DC-. Despite the dis-coordinate display of these Ia antigens, the expression of both HLA-DR and HLA-DC can be regulated by a common signal, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). Incubation of monocytes for 96 h in autologous serum leads to a marked decrease in the expression of both HLA-DR and HLA-DC. Addition of recombinant IFN-gamma to the cultures leads to reexpression of both HLA-DR and HLA-DC to levels comparable to those seen in fresh monocytes. In addition, although IFN-gamma does not modulate all monocyte surface markers, it can be demonstrated to modulate expression of one marker, MAC 120, in a manner similar to that observed for Ia antigens. These studies demonstrate that among human peripheral blood monocytes, the distribution of the Ia molecule, HLA-DC, is not coordinate with that of HLA-DR, although both respond to the same regulatory signal.
T A Gonwa, J D Stobo
Cholestasis is accompanied by the appearance of lipoprotein-X (LP-X) in plasma. This lipoprotein has a high content of unesterified cholesterol and phospholipids and appears to be ineffective in suppressing the enhanced hepatic cholesterogenesis of cholestasis. Its role as a possible causative factor for cholestatic hypercholesterolemia was investigated. When 125I-LP-X was injected into rats, it disappeared rapidly from the circulation. Calculated on the basis of gram wet weight, spleen took up more LP-X than liver. Prior ligation of the bile duct reduced the uptake in spleen. Experiments with isolated perfused rat liver showed that nonparenchymal cells (NPC) took up over eightfold more 125I-LP-X than hepatic parenchymal cells (PC). Incubation of PC, NPC, human lymphocyte suspensions, or fibroblast cultures with LP-X showed that NPC bound more LP-X than PC or fibroblasts. Lymphocytes took up 20-fold more LP-X than PC and the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase was depressed by LP-X. Lymphocytes isolated from cholestatic patients showed low activity of this enzyme. The activity was increased by LP-X in isolated perfused livers, but suppressed in isolated microsomes. LP-X competitively inhibited the uptake of chylomicron remnants in isolated perfused livers and hepatocytes. In contrast, degradation of LDL by perfused livers, which were isolated from ethinyl estradiol-treated rats or human fibroblast cultures, remained unchanged in the presence of LP-X. The results indicate that cholesterol transported by LP-X is mainly taken up by the cells of the reticuloendothelial system. It increases the activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase and suppresses remnant uptake, thus emphasizing a major role of LP-X in cholestatic hypercholesterolemia.
A K Walli, D Seidel
Fusion of human myeloma cell line GM 4672 and tonsillar lymphoid cells from a normal donor resulted in 13 primary hybridomas, which produced IgM anti-single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) antibodies, as determined in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Nine of these primary hybridomas have been cloned and a total of 34 clones were obtained. Supernatants of these cloned hybridomas were tested for binding to ssDNA, native DNA, RNA, low molecular weight supernatant DNA, polydeoxyguanylate-polydeoxycitidylate, polydeoxyadenylate-thymidylate sodium salt, and cardiolipin. Supernatants from all clones but one showed polyspecificity when reacting with the antigens tested. That the clones were true hybridomas rather than transformed lymphoid cells was evidence by IgM anti-DNA antibody secretion, karyotype analysis, and HLA typing. These studies imply that immunoglobulin genes encoding for anti-DNA autoantibodies with a spectrum of nucleic acid specificities similar to systemic lupus erythematosus, exist among normal B lymphocytes.
E Cairns, J Block, D A Bell
Negative nitrogen balance and increased oxygen consumption after thermal injury in humans and experimental animals is related to the extent of the burn. To determine whether defective muscle metabolism is restricted to the region of injury, we studied protein and glucose metabolism in forelimb muscles of rats 48 h after a scalding injury of their hindquarters. This injury increased muscle protein degradation (PD) from 140 +/- 5 to 225 +/- 5 nmol tyrosine/g per h, but did not alter protein synthesis. Muscle lactate release was increased greater than 70%, even though plasma catecholamines and muscle cyclic AMP were not increased. Insulin dose-response studies revealed that the burn decreased the responsiveness of muscle glycogen synthesis to insulin but did not alter its sensitivity to insulin. Rates of net glycolysis and glucose oxidation were increased and substrate cycling of fructose-6-phosphate was decreased at all levels of insulin. The burn-induced increase in protein and glucose catabolism was not mediated by adrenal hormones, since they persisted despite adrenalectomy. Muscle PGE2 production was not increased by the burn and inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by indomethacin did not inhibit proteolysis. The increase in PD required lysosomal proteolysis, since inhibition of cathepsin B with EP475 reduced PD. Insulin reduced PD 20% and the effects of EP475 and insulin were additive, reducing PD 41%. An inhibitor of muscle PD, alpha-ketoisocaproate, reduced burn-induced proteolysis 28% and lactate release 56%. The rate of PD in muscle of burned and unburned rats was correlated with the percentage of glucose uptake that was directed into lactate production (r = +0.82, P less than 0.01). Thus, a major thermal injury causes hypercatabolism of protein and glucose in muscle that is distant from the injury, and these responses may be linked to a single metabolic defect.
A S Clark, R A Kelly, W E Mitch
To investigate the mechanism of thyroid hormone action on pulmonary surfactant synthesis, we characterized the effect of triiodothyronine on phosphatidylcholine synthesis in cultured fetal rabbit lung. Since glucocorticoids stimulate surfactant synthesis and reduce the incidence of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in premature infants, we also examined the interaction of triiodothyronine and dexamethasone. The rate of choline incorporation into phosphatidylcholine was determined in organ cultures of rabbit lung maintained in serum-free Waymouth's medium. In 23-d lung cultured for 72 h, the increase in choline incorporation with triiodothyronine alone, dexamethasone alone, and triiodothyronine plus dexamethasone was 50, 62, and 161%, respectively. Both triiodothyronine and dexamethasone also increased incorporation rates with glucose, glycerol, and acetate as precursors, and stimulation with triiodothyronine plus dexamethasone was at least additive. Dexamethasone, but not triiodothyronine, affected distribution of radioactivity from [3H] acetate among phospholipids. Stimulation was first detected 8-12 h after addition of triiodothyronine, and then increased in a linear fashion. With triiodothyronine plus dexamethasone, stimulation was maximal at 48-72 h, and was supra-additive at all times. Exposure of cultured lung to dexamethasone enhanced the subsequent response to triiodothyronine, but not vice versa. When triiodothyronine was removed from cultures, there was no further stimulation and the triiodothyronine effect was partially reversed within 24 h. Half-maximal stimulation of choline incorporation occurred at a triiodothyronine concentration (0.10 nM) very similar to the dissociation constant for triiodothyronine binding to nuclear receptor (0.11 nM). The relative potencies of thyroid hormone analogs for nuclear binding and stimulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis were also similar: triiodothyroacetic acid greater than triiodothyronine-proprionic acid greater than L-triiodothyronine approximately D-triiodothyronine much greater than thyroxine much greater than 3,5-diethyl-3'-isopropyl-DL-thyronine approximately 3,5-dimethyl-3'-isopropyl-L-thyronine approximately reverse triiodothyronine. The effect of triiodothyronine was blocked by the presence of either actinomycin D or cycloheximide, inhibitors of ribonucleic acid and protein synthesis, respectively. We conclude that triiodothyronine stimulates phosphatidylcholine synthesis by a process involving nuclear receptors and de novo ribonucleic acid and protein synthesis. These findings support the concept that endogenous triiodothyronine has a physiologic role in lung maturation and suggest that a combined antenatal therapy with thyroid hormone and glucocorticoid may be useful for prevention of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the premature infant.
P L Ballard, M L Hovey, L K Gonzales
Since the early trials using human interferon (hIFN) derived from blood leukocytes or cell lines, fever has been a prominent component of IFN therapy. Human protein impurities might account for the fever to cell-derived hIFN, but recombinant hIFN, free of extraneous human proteins, has produced fever in nearly all recipients during clinical trials. Our present studies were carried out to determine the mechanisms of fever due to recombinant hIFN currently being used in humans. Because recombinant hIFN is produced in Escherichia coli, in these experiments we considered contaminating endotoxin as the cause of fever. Polymyxin B, which blocks endotoxin, had no effect on the pyrogenicity of hIFN in rabbits. In addition, hIFN injected into an endotoxin-resistant strain of mice produced fever. The pyrogenicity of hIFN does not appear to involve production of leukocytic pyrogen (LP), since no circulating LP was detected in rabbits during IFN fever. Furthermore, human mononuclear cells incubated with hIFN in vitro at 10(4)-10(6) U/ml did not release LP. However, hIFN stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release from rabbit hypothalamic tissue in vitro. Intracerebroventricular injection of hIFN into the awake cat also produced fever and a rise in PGE2 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid; both effects were reversed by treatment with indomethacin. We conclude that the fever of recombinant hIFN is not due to endotoxin but that hIFN is intrinsically pyrogenic by inducing PGE2 in the hypothalamus.
C A Dinarello, H A Bernheim, G W Duff, H V Le, T L Nagabhushan, N C Hamilton, F Coceani
Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2), a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation, is a major product of arachidonic acid metabolism in endothelial cells that are derived from large blood vessels (e.g., umbilical veins). We have examined whether PGI2 is also a major product of arachidonic acid metabolism in cultured endothelial cells that are derived from dermal microvessels in human newborn foreskin. Supernatants from confluent monolayers of endothelial cells that had been incubated for 20 min with [3H]arachidonic acid and the calcium ionophore A23187 (10 microM) were assayed for prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (PGF1 alpha) (the stable metabolite of PGI2) by using authentic standards and high performance liquid chromatography. Whereas supernates from stimulated umbilical vein endothelial cells contained 6-keto-PGF 1 alpha much greater than PGF 2 alpha much greater than PGE2, supernates from stimulated foreskin microvessel endothelial cells contained PGF 2 alpha congruent to PGE2 much greater than 6-keto-PGF 1 alpha. Similar results were obtained when supernates from stimulated, unlabeled endothelial cells were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. These data indicate that PGI2 is not a major metabolite of arachidonic acid in cultured endothelial cells from human foreskin microvessels.
I F Charo, S Shak, M A Karasek, P M Davison, I M Goldstein
The pattern of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulus is critically important in the regulation of pituitary gonadotropin secretion and continuous infusions down-regulate secretion while intermittent pulses maintain luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) responsiveness. We examined the effects of pulsatile GnRH administration on pituitary GnRH receptors (GnRH-R) and gonadotropin secretion in the presence of physiological concentrations of testosterone (T) to elucidate the mechanisms and sites of action of GnRH and T on the pituitary gonadotroph. Castrate male rats received one, two, or four testosterone (T) implants (serum T concentrations of 1.1, 2.4, and 5.2 ng/ml, respectively) to suppress endogenous GnRH secretion. Subsequently, intracarotid pulse injections of GnRH (5-250 ng/pulse) or saline in controls were given every 30 min for 48 h, after which gonadotropin responses and pituitary GnRH-R were measured. In control rats, the T implants prevented the rise in GnRH-R that was seen in castrates (empty implant--600 fmol/mg protein) and maintained receptors at the level that was present in intact animals (300 fmol/mg). Pulsatile GnRH administration increased GnRH-R in castrate T-implanted rats, but the response was dependent on the serum T concentration. With one T implant, increasing GnRH doses per pulse stimulated GnRH-R in a linear manner and the maximum receptor concentration (703 +/- 99 fmol/mg) was seen after the 250 ng GnRH dose. In the presence of two T implants, GnRH-R was maximal (705 +/- 45 fmol/mg) after the 25-ng dose and higher doses did not increase receptors above control values. With four T implants, GnRH doses of 5 ng induced a maximum response, 17-50 ng/pulse did not increase GnRH-R, but receptors were again increased by the 250-ng dose (633 +/- 86 fmol/mg). After 48 h of pulsatile GnRH administration there was no correlation between the number of GnRH-R and LH responses to GnRH. In rats with one or two T implants, LH responses were absent after all but the 250-ng doses. In contrast, LH responsiveness was not impaired in the presence of four implants. Thus, low dose GnRH pulses down-regulate LH secretion by an action at a post GnRH-R site, and this effect is regulated by testosterone. The results show that GnRH, given in a pulsatile manner, regulates its own receptor, and physiological increases in serum T produce a 50-fold increase in the sensitivity of GnRH-R stimulation by GnRH.
A Garcia, M Schiff, J C Marshall
Adenosine receptors that modulate adenylate cyclase activity have been identified recently in a number of tissues. The purpose of these investigations was to determine the effect of adenosine on ion transport in rabbit ileum in vitro. Adenosine and some of its analogues were found to increase the short circuit current (Isc) and the order of potency was N-ethylcarboxamide-adenosine greater than or equal to 2-chloroadenosine greater than phenylisopropyladenosine greater than adenosine. Purine-intact adenosine analogues had no effect on Isc. The effect of adenosine on Isc was enhanced by deoxycoformycin, an adenosine deaminase inhibitor, and by dipyridamole, an adenosine uptake inhibitor. The increase in Isc induced by 2-chloroadenosine was partially reversed in a dose-dependent manner by 8-phenyltheophylline but not by theophylline or isobutylmethylxanthine. 2-Chloroadenosine increased cyclic AMP content, and stimulated net Cl secretion; these effects were partially blocked by 8-phenyltheophylline. These results suggest that there is an adenosine receptor on rabbit ileal mucosal cells that stimulates adenylate cyclase, which results in secondary active Cl secretion.
J W Dobbins, J P Laurenson, J N Forrest Jr
Consumption of alcohol causes hyperuricemia by decreasing urate excretion and increasing its production. Our previous studies indicate that ethanol administration increases uric acid production by increasing ATP degradation to uric acid precursors. To test the hypothesis that ethanol-induced increased urate production results from acetate metabolism and enhanced adenosine triphosphate turnover, we gave intravenous sodium acetate, sodium chloride and ethanol (0.1 mmol/kg per min for 1 h) to five normal subjects. Acetate plasma levels increased from 0.04 +/- 0.01 mM (mean +/- SE) to peak values of 0.35 +/- 0.07 mM and to 0.08 +/- 0.01 mM during acetate and ethanol infusions, respectively. Urinary oxypurines increased to 223 +/- 13% and 316 +/- 44% of the base-line values during acetate and ethanol infusions, respectively. Urinary radioactivity from the adenine nucleotide pool labeled with [8-14C] adenine increased to 171 +/- 27% and to 128 +/- 8% of the base-line values after acetate and ethanol infusions. These data indicate that both ethanol and acetate increase purine nucleotide degradation by enhancing the turnover of the adenine nucleotide pool. They support the hypothesis that acetate metabolism contributes to the increased production of urate associated with ethanol intake.
J G Puig, I H Fox
The lung is affected by disorders in which natural killer (NK) cells are thought to play an important defensive role. This study, however, demonstrated that normal lung lymphocytes actually express very little NK cell activity (P less than 0.001 compared with blood lymphocytes). This was true independent of the NK-sensitive target used (K562, U937, MOLT-3, or Daudi). This lack of lung lymphocyte NK activity occurred even though the proportions of lymphocytes in the normal lower respiratory tract with the morphology (large granular lymphocytes) and surface antigen markers of NK cells were similar to that of blood (P greater than 0.5). Although normal lung lymphocytes bound to known NK-sensitive targets, they did not lyse these cells (P less than 0.001 compared with blood), which suggested that the lack of lung NK cell activity resulted from a relative inability of lung NK cells to destroy their targets. While the mechanisms of this functional impotence of lung NK cells are not clear, normal human alveolar macrophages and lower respiratory tract epithelial lining fluid exerted a profound suppressive effect on blood NK cell activity (P less than 0.001 for both) by inhibiting their ability to lyse target cells after binding (P less than 0.001). Though impotent initially, when incubated for 24 h in medium alone, normal lung lymphocytes demonstrated markedly enhanced NK activity (P less than 0.02), which suggested that lung NK cells do have the potential to express NK activity. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) further augmented this effect (P less than 0.05), but gamma interferon did not (P greater than 0.2). Consistent with this observation, lung lymphocytes from patients with active sarcoidosis, a disease in which lung lymphocytes are spontaneously releasing IL-2, did express NK cell activity (P less than 0.01). These studies suggest that although NK cells are present in the normal lung, they are functionally inactive, due, at least in part, to local inhibitory influences. In the presence of IL-2, however, lung NK cell activity is expressed, which suggests that lung NK cell activity can be modulated.
B W Robinson, P Pinkston, R G Crystal
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency in humans is associated with a severe T cell immunodeficiency. To understand further and exploit this T cell lymphospecificity, we have compared the cytotoxicities and metabolism of deoxyguanosine, the cytotoxic substrate of PNP and of arabinosylguanine, a deoxyguanosine analogue that is resistant to PNP cleavage, in T cell (8402) and B cell (8392) lines in continuous culture established from the same patient. In comparative growth rate experiments the T cells were 2.3-fold and 400-fold more sensitive to growth inhibition by deoxyguanosine and arabinosylguanine, respectively, than were the B cells. Only the T cells, but not the B cells, could phosphorylate in situ deoxyguanosine or arabinosylguanine to the corresponding triphosphate. Both the phosphorylation and cytotoxicity of arabinosylguanine in the T cell line could be prevented by deoxycytidine, which suggests that deoxycytidine-deoxyguanosine kinase initiated the intracellular metabolism and cytotoxicity of this nucleoside analogue. The sensitivity and selectivity of arabinosylguanine toward the T lymphoblastoid cells suggests a rational approach to the design of chemotherapeutic agents that are directed toward T cell malignancies and other T cell disorders.
B Ullman, D W Martin Jr
The fifth component of complement, C5, can form fragments that cause neutrophil chemotaxis, oxygen radical production, and lysosomal enzyme release. The purpose of this study was to determine if C5 and these fragments contribute to the inflammation seen in pulmonary oxygen toxicity as defined by histology and analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In addition, the role of C5 in producing mortality in the animals was addressed. Pairs of C5 deficient (C5-) and C5 sufficient (C5+) mice, 6 mo or older, were placed in a chamber and challenged with 95% oxygen at ambient pressure. A significant difference in mortality was observed after 200 h of exposure, i.e., 90% mortality in C5+ mice vs. 25% mortality in C5- mice (P less than 0.001). This difference in mortality was not seen when C5- mice were transfused with plasma that contained C5 derived from C5+ mice. Morphometric analysis of histologic sections with light microscopy revealed earlier pathologic changes in C5+ mice that was characterized by increased cellularity due in part to neutrophil influx into the alveolar-capillary wall. Transmission electron microscopy also confirmed an earlier inflammatory response in the C5+ mice with evidence of injury to alveolar epithelial cells, interstitial edema, and an increase in the cellular component of the interstitium. Analysis of BALF also demonstrated earlier abnormalities in C5+ mice, which included a significantly greater percentage of neutrophils in the C5+ mice at 117 h. Similar studies in younger mice of these strains again showed earlier neutrophil accumulation in C5+ mice, but the time course of the injury was more protracted. This study shows that the presence of C5 is associated with a greater mortality and an earlier influx of neutrophils into murine lungs. However, in the absence of C5, neutrophils will still immigrate into the lung and hyperoxic damage will occur at a later time point, which demonstrates the inherent redundancy of the inflammatory process.
D A Parrish, B C Mitchell, P M Henson, G L Larsen
An immunotoxin was constructed with an activity that discriminated between two T cell lines based on the expression of the T cell growth factor (TCGF) receptor on their cell surface. A toxic protein conjugate, designated PE-anti-TAC, was made by chemically coupling pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) to a monoclonal antibody (anti-TAC) that recognizes the human TCGF receptor. This conjugate was toxic to HUT-102 cells, a cell line that expresses the TCGF receptor, but was nontoxic for MOLT-4 cells, a receptor-negative line. The toxicity of PE-anti-TAC was enhanced 50-fold in the presence of human adenovirus type II and was reduced to control levels by adding excess anti-TAC antibody. The toxicity of PE-anti-TAC for HUT-102 cells was compared with PE-anti-transferrin receptor. To compare the route of entry for both anti-TAC and anti-TFR using electron microscopy, protein conjugates were made by coupling horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to each antibody. Anti-TFR-HRP entered HUT-102 cells by concentrative adsorptive endocytosis via coated pits, and the majority of the antibodies bound to the cell surface at 4 degrees C were seen in receptosomes by 10 min after warming to 37 degrees C. Anti-TAC-HRP was also found to enter HUT-102 cells via coated pits and receptosomes; but, in contrast to anti-TFR, anti-TAC did not selectively concentrate in coated pits, and therefore the majority of this surface-bound antibody were not internalized in HUT-102 cells by 10 min at 37 degrees C.
D J FitzGerald, T A Waldmann, M C Willingham, I Pastan
Cholinergic drugs administered into the cerebral ventricles of animals selectively stimulate the adrenal medulla. However, the effects of central cholinergic stimulation on the sympathoadrenal system have not been studied in man. We stimulated central cholinergic activity in man by administering the cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine to subjects pretreated with peripheral cholinergic blocking agents. A dose of 0.022 mg/kg physostigmine dramatically increased plasma epinephrine levels and slightly increased norepinephrine levels, which is consistent with selective adrenomedullary stimulation. A smaller dose of physostigmine increased epinephrine but did not alter norepinephrine levels. Subjects had increased pulse rates and blood pressures, and felt anxious while they had high plasma epinephrine levels.
B Kennedy, D S Janowsky, S C Risch, M G Ziegler
Influenza A virus-treated human platelets were lyzed in autologous serum. Lysis required the presence of antibody and occurred predominantly through activation of the classical complement pathway. Binding of the virus followed by its elution at 37 degrees C resulted in a dose-dependent desialation of the cells with a maximal release of 45% of total platelet sialic acid. In contrast, platelets that had been treated with Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase and from which 55% of total sialic acid had been removed were not lyzed in autologous serum and did not bind C3 as shown in binding assays using radiolabeled monoclonal anti-C3 antibody. Thus, the immune-mediated lysis of virus-treated platelets in autologous serum did not involve neoantigens expressed by desialated cells. To assess the effect of viruses on the platelet surface, treated platelets were incubated with galactose oxidase and sodium [3H]borohydride prior to separation and analysis of the labeled glycoproteins by SDS-PAGE. Viral treatment resulted in a desialation of each of the surface glycoproteins. At the same time, a labeled component of Mr 72,000 (nonreduced) and Mr 55,000 (reduced) was observed that was not present when V. cholerae-desialated platelets were examined in the same way. Immunoblotting experiments performed using antiwhole virus and anti-hemagglutinin antibodies demonstrated this component to be viral hemagglutinin. Involvement of membrane-bound hemagglutinin in antibody and in complement-mediated lysis of virus-treated platelets in autologous serum was supported by the increased lytic activity of a postvaccinal serum containing an elevated titer of complement fixing anti-hemagglutinin antibodies. Binding of a viral protein to the platelet surface provides a model for immune thrombocytopenias occurring during acute viral infections at the time of the specific immune response.
M D Kazatchkine, C R Lambré, N Kieffer, F Maillet, A T Nurden
Postprandial hyperglycemia in insulin-deficient, insulin-dependent diabetic subjects may result from impaired suppression of endogenous glucose production and/or abnormal disposition of meal-derived glucose. To investigate the relative contributions of these processes and to determine whether 2 wk of near normoglycemia achieved by using intensive insulin therapy could restore the pattern of glucose disposal to normal, meal-related and endogenous rates of glucose appearance were measured isotopically after ingestion of a mixed meal that contained deuterated glucose in seven lean insulin-dependent and five lean nondiabetic subjects. Diabetic subjects were studied once when insulin deficient and again during intensive insulin therapy after 2 wk of near normoglycemia. Total glucose production was determined by using tritiated glucose and the contribution of meal-related glucose was determined by using the plasma enrichment of deuterated glucose. The elevated basal and peak postprandial plasma glucose concentrations (252 +/- 33 and 452 +/- 31 mg/dl) of diabetic subjects when insulin deficient were decreased by intensive insulin therapy to values (82 +/- 6 and 193 +/- 10 mg/dl, P less than 0.01) that approximated those of nondiabetic subjects (93 +/- 3 and 140 +/- 15 mg/dl, respectively). Total and endogenous rates of glucose appearance (3,091 +/- 523 and 1,814 +/- 474 mg/kg per 8 h) in the diabetic subjects were significantly (P less than 0.02) greater than those in non-diabetic subjects (1,718 +/- 34 and 620 +/- 98 mg/kg per 8 h, respectively), whereas meal-derived rates of glucose appearance did not differ. Intensive insulin therapy decreased (P less than 0.01) both total (1,581 +/- 98 mg/kg per 8 h) and endogenous (478 +/- 67 mg/kg per 8 h) glucose appearance to rates that approximated those observed in the nondiabetic subjects, but did not alter meal-related glucose appearance. Thus, excessive entry of glucose into the peripheral circulation in insulin-deficient diabetic patients after ingestion of a mixed meal resulted from a lack of appropriate suppression of endogenous glucose production rather than impairment of initial splanchnic glucose uptake. Intensive insulin therapy restored postprandial suppression of endogenous glucose production to rates observed in nondiabetic subjects.
G Pehling, P Tessari, J E Gerich, M W Haymond, F J Service, R A Rizza
We describe the inhibitory effect of prostaglandins (PGs) on in vivo rat renal ammonia synthesis. The influence of systemic pH upon urinary PG excretion and ammoniagenesis was also investigated. Finally, PG production by incubated rat renal cortical slices was suppressed to investigate the PG-ammonia interplay in the absence of changes in renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, ambient electrolyte concentrations or extrarenal hormonal factors. In vivo ammonia synthesis doubled and PG excretion fell by 44% in normal rats, after intravenous administration of 1 mg/kg of meclofenamate. Higher doses of meclofenamate further augmented ammonia production and further reduced PG excretion. PG depletion was also associated with an increase in fractional excretion of ammonia (FENH3) that was independent of changes in urine flow rate or pH. Acute metabolic acidosis (AMA) increased total ammonia synthesis but also stimulated PG production. Administration of meclofenamate to rats with mild AMA markedly reduced urinary PG excretion, further augmented ammonia synthesis, and significantly increased the FENH3. Inhibition of stimulated PG synthesis during severe AMA did not increase ammoniagenesis or FENH3. Acute metabolic alkalosis did not alter production of PGs or ammonia, but reduced the FENH3 by 42%. Meclofenamate nearly normalized the FENH3 but stimulated synthesis to a lesser degree than was seen in nonalkalotic rats that received meclofenamate. Inhibition of PG synthesis in incubated rat renal cortical slices also stimulated ammoniagenesis. Conversely, stimulation of PG synthesis decreased ammonia production and acidification of the incubation medium increased prostaglandin F2 alpha production. Thus, in vitro findings support the in vivo results. We conclude that PGs inhibit ammonia synthesis in normal rats and in those undergoing mild AMA. Severe acidosis overrides this inhibitory effect of PGs, whereas metabolic alkalosis suppresses the stimulatory effect of PG synthesis inhibition.
E R Jones, T R Beck, S Kapoor, R Shay, R G Narins
The effects of neutrophil elastase on endothelial prostacyclin (PGI2) production, nucleotide release, and responsiveness to vasoactive agents were compared with the effects of cathepsin G (the other major neutral protease of neutrophils), pancreatic elastase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and thrombin. PGI2 production by pig aortic endothelial cells cultured on microcarrier beads and perfused in columns was stimulated in a dose-dependent manner by trypsin, chymotrypsin, and cathepsin G (1-100 micrograms/ml for 3 min). Thrombin, while active at low concentrations (0.1-10 National Institutes of Health U/ml), induced smaller responses. Neutrophil and pancreatic elastase had little or no effect on PGI2 production. Dose-dependent, selective release of adenine nucleotides was induced by neutrophil elastase (3-30 micrograms/ml). The other proteases were much less active; for example, trypsin (100 micrograms/ml) induced a response only approximately 5% as great as did 30 micrograms/ml neutrophil elastase. After exposure to 30 micrograms/ml neutrophil elastase, cells did not exhibit the characteristic burst of PGI2 production in response to extracellular ATP; responsiveness gradually returned after 40-120 min. This effect was not seen with the other proteases. Elastase partly inhibited responses to bradykinin and had no effect on PGI2 production that was stimulated by ionophore A23187. There was no evidence of cytotoxicity, as measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase. Neutrophil degranulation can generate concentrations of elastase and cathepsin G comparable with those tested in the present study, and the effects of these enzymes on endothelial function lead us to suggest that they may play a role in vasoregulation and vascular pathology.
E C LeRoy, A Ager, J L Gordon
During development of delayed hypersensitivity (DH) skin reactions, fibronectin accumulates in two distinct sites: (a) the dermal interstitium in a pattern similar to fibrin and with a time course similar to that of fibrin deposition and mononuclear cell infiltration, and (b) blood vessel walls in a pattern suggestive of basement membrane staining and with a time course similar to that of endothelial cell proliferation. In vitro fibronectin can bind to monocytes or endothelial cells and simultaneously bind to fibrin or collagen matrices; by such interaction in vivo it may affect cell migration or proliferation. Thus, fibronectin deposition in DH reactions may facilitate cell-matrix interactions; however, the possibility exists that extravascular fibronectin accumulation may be only secondary to interstitial fibrin clot formation, and that blood vessel-associated fibronectin may be only a function of adsorption onto basement membrane (type IV) collagen. To address these possibilities, we investigated the association of fibronectin with fibrin, type IV collagen, and mononuclear cell infiltrates in DH reactions. Skin sites of DH reactions in normal volunteers were biopsied at 24, 48, and 72 h after intradermal challenge and examined by immunofluorescence technique. At all time points most of the interstitial fibronectin coincided with fibrin; however, some interstitial fibronectin was coincident with mononuclear cells positive for HLA-DR or monocyte-specific antigen. The coincidence of fibronectin with mononuclear cells was more apparent in a 48-h DH reaction from a patient with congenital afibrinogenemia. Vessel wall fibronectin was increased by 48 h after challenge and appeared as a fine linear band on the luminal side of a much thicker band of type IV collagen. Thus, the coincidence of extravascular fibronectin with mononuclear cells, its appearance without fibrin in the site from a patient with afibrinogenemia, and incomplete correspondence of vessel wall fibronectin with type IV collagen suggest that fibronectin localization in DH reactions involves endothelial cell and mononuclear cell binding as well as adsorption to fibrin and/or type IV collagen.
R A Clark, C R Horsburgh, A A Hoffman, H F Dvorak, M W Mosesson, R B Colvin
Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits, like humans with familial hypercholesterolemia, have a genetic defect in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. WHHL fibroblasts produce a low molecular weight precursor form of the receptor that is not glycosylated normally and is not transported to the cell surface at a normal rate. In the current studies, we have used a monoclonal antibody that reacts with the rabbit LDL receptor to extend these findings to intact rabbits. We have made the following observations: (a) In normal rabbits the liver and adrenal glands synthesize high molecular weight mature LDL receptors like those in fibroblasts. (b) In WHHL rabbits the adrenals express only the low molecular weight receptor precursor, and the liver expresses no detectable receptors. (c) When injected intravenously, the radioiodinated anti-LDL receptor monoclonal antibody is cleared from plasma 6-10-fold faster in normal than in WHHL rabbits, with specific uptake demonstrable in livers and adrenals of normal but not WHHL rabbits. The latter finding raises the general possibility that the total number of cell surface receptors expressed by an animal or human in vivo can be estimated by measuring the rate of clearance of an intravenously injected monoclonal antibody directed against the receptor of interest.
M Huettinger, W J Schneider, Y K Ho, J L Goldstein, M S Brown
Since elevated levels of circulating complexes have been noted to occur in the sera of patients with post-streptococcal sequelae, the possibility that these complexes contained streptococcal antigens within the complex was investigated. Sera from these patients were precipitated with polyethylene glycol to extract a fraction rich in these complexes, which was then injected into rabbits. The rabbit sera were then reacted with both cellular and extracellular fractions obtained from streptococcal strains associated with either acute post-streptococcal nephritis (APSGN) or acute rheumatic fever (ARF) by using immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA techniques. The data demonstrate that both ARF and APSGN complexes contain streptococcal antigens. However, APSGN complexes react uniquely to certain extracellular antigens present in those strains associated with nephritis, while ARF complexes react specifically to certain streptococcal extracellular antigens excreted by strains associated with rheumatic fever. Neither of the two groups of complexes appear to contain streptococcal antigens related to any cellular antigens derived from the group A streptococcus. Additionally, a rabbit serum immunized with streptococcal extracellular products reacted directly with complexes isolated from nephritis patients. Removal of the gamma globulin by absorption with an anti-human Fc serum resulted in the concomitant loss of reactivity with the anti-streptococcal serum, strongly suggesting an intimate association of the streptococcal antigen with these complexes. The presence of streptococcal antigens within the circulating immune complex of patients with APSGN coupled with their specific presence in those strains associated with post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis argues strongly for a causal role of these antigens in the disease process.
J Friedman, I van de Rijn, H Ohkuni, V A Fischetti, J B Zabriskie
Local 5'-deiodination of serum thyroxine (T4) is the main source of triiodothyronine (T3) for the brain. Since we noted in previous studies that the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats tolerated marked reductions in serum T4 without biochemical hypothyroidism, we examined the in vivo T4 and T3 metabolism in that tissue and in the cerebellum of euthyroid and hypothyroid 2-wk-old rats. We also assessed the contribution of enhanced tissue T4 to T3 conversion and decreased T3 removal from the tissues to the T3 homeostasis in hypothyroid brain. Congenital and neonatal hypothyroidism was induced by adding methimazole to the drinking water. Serum, cerebral cortex (Cx), cerebellum (Cm), liver (L) and kidney (R) concentrations of 125I-T4, 125I-T3(T4), and 131I-T3 were measured at various times after injecting 125I-T4 and 131I-T3. The rate of T3 removal from the tissues was measured after injecting an excess of anti-T3-antibody to rats previously injected with tracer T3. In euthyroid rats, fractional turnover rates of T3 per hour were: Cx, 0.26 +/- 0.02 (SE); Cm, 0.20 +/- 0.02; L, 0.98 +/- 0.07; R, 0.97 +/- 0.12; and the calculated unidirectional plasma T3 clearance by these tissues were, in milliliters per gram per hour: Cx = 0.38, Cm = 0.32, L = 5.0, and R = 5.6. In hypothyroidism, the fractional removal rates and clearances were reduced in all tissues, in cortex and cerebellum by 70%, and in liver and kidney ranging from 30 to 50%. While greater than 80% of the 125I-T3(T4) in the brain tissues of euthyroid rats was locally produced, in hypothyroid cerebral cortex and cerebellum the integrated concentrations of 125I-T3(T4) were 2.7- and 1.5-fold greater than in euthyroid rats. In the Cx, this response resulted from an approximately sixfold increase in fractional conversion and an approximately fourfold decrease in T3 removal rate hampered by a decreased uptake of T4 from plasma, whereas in Cm the response resulted only from the reduced T3 removal rate. In euthyroid rats, the calculated production rate of T3 in nanograms per gram per hour by the Cx was 0.96 and 0.89 by the Cm, which on a per organ basis equals 15 and 2%, respectively, of the extrathyroidal production rate as assessed in the body pool exchanging with plasma. Several conclusions can be drawn: Production of T3 by developing brain is a very active process in agreement with the need of thyroid hormones during this period. (b) The brain-plasma exchange of T3 is slow compared with that of L or R. (c) This, along with the active local production, explains the predominant role of the latter as a source of T3 for the brain. (d) In hypothyroidism, the Cx is protected by an increase in the efficiency of T4 to T3 conversion and a prolong residence time of T3 in the tissue, whereas the Cm is protected only by the latter. Because of the large fraction of the T3 produced locally and the active turnover rate of T3 in the brain, reductions in T3 removal rate are of utmost importance for T3 homeostasis in these tissues.
J E Silva, P S Matthews
The pathogenesis of chronic cold agglutinin disease (CCAD) has been enigmatic. To determine if abnormal erythrocyte membrane constituents might provide the stimulus for antibody production, we compared the electrophoretic pattern of radiolabeled membrane glycoproteins of four patients with CCAD to that of normal control erythrocytes. For the CCAD erythrocytes, fluorographs revealed the appearance of an abnormal band whose molecular weight was estimated at 126,000 D. Using two-dimensional gel analysis and immunoblotting techniques, it was determined that the 126,000 D glycoprotein consisted predominately of polymeric glycophorin-alpha. Previous investigations had suggested that abnormalities in glycophorin-alpha influence the functional activity of the complement system. When purified complement (C)3 was activated in the fluid-phase by cobra venom factor complexes, CCAD erythrocytes bound nascent C3b 7-27 times more efficiently than normal erythrocytes. Normal erythrocytes could be induced to manifest the appearance of the 126,000 D band, and the increased efficiency of binding of nascent C3b by incubation with CCAD serum or with the purified cold agglutinin antibody plus autologous serum, but not with the purified antibody alone or the purified antibody plus EDTA-chelated autologous serum. These studies demonstrate that the interactions of IgM cold-reacting antibody and complement with glycophorin induce changes in the biophysical properties of the erythrocyte membrane which modify subsequent interactions with complement.
C J Parker, C M Soldato, M J Telen
A series of studies were performed to determine the relationship between physiologic levels of circulating plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine and human platelet alpha-2 binding site number and the affinity (KD) of these sites for antagonist radioligands. In one study, alpha-2-adrenergic binding site number and affinity were compared using both [3H]yohimbine and [3H]dihydroergocryptine as radioligands. There was good absolute and relative comparison for binding site number, but only a relative relationship for KD. In 46 normal subjects, there was no significant relationship between site number or KD and age, plasma epinephrine, or plasma norepinephrine concentration. Even after plasma epinephrine was raised nearly 20-fold by means of an intravenous infusion for 4 h in seven normal subjects, neither sites (608 +/- 68 vs. 567 +/- 120 sites/platelet) nor KD (2.01 +/- 0.94 vs. 2.14 +/- 1.15 nM) were significantly changed. Similarly, neither sites (445 +/- 55 vs. 421 +/- 53 sites/platelet) nor KD (1.44 +/- 0.29 vs. 2.10 +/- 0.75 nM) were significantly changed in six normal subjects when plasma norepinephrine levels increased during oral administration of prazosin for 1 wk. Thus, in a cross-sectional analysis and after a change in plasma catecholamine concentrations, there was no relationship in normal subjects between platelet alpha-2 binding site number or affinity of these sites for antagonist radioligands and the circulating catecholamine levels to which the platelets were exposed. In a group (n = 7) of patients who lack epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation due to abnormal thrombopoiesis, binding site number was decreased (304 +/- 36 vs. 572 +/- 29 sites/platelet, P less than 0.001) and KD tended to be greater (8.69 +/- 2.44 vs. 5.40 +/- 0.31 nM, P = NS) than in normal subjects (n = 46), despite having similar plasma catecholamine levels. There was no difference in binding site number (491 +/- 116 sites/platelet) and KD (5.61 +/- 0.84 nM) in patients (n = 5) with autonomic insufficiency and low levels of upright plasma norepinephrine when compared with the normal subjects. Two patients were examined before and after the removal of a pheochromocytoma. Their binding site number and KD were normal before the operation and essentially unchanged after the tumor removal and fall of plasma catecholamines. Thus, this study demonstrates that within the physiologic and pathophysiologic range of plasma catecholamines (in men), there is no relationship between the circulating catecholamine concentration and either platelet alpha-2 adrenergic binding site number or the affinity of these sites for antagonist radioligands.
M A Pfeifer, K Ward, T Malpass, J Stratton, J Halter, M Evans, H Beiter, L A Harker, D Porte Jr
In vivo small doses of insulin inhibit lipolysis, lower plasma FFA, and stimulate glucose disposal. Lowering of plasma FFA, either in the absence of a change in insulin or during combined hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, promotes glucose uptake by heart muscle in vivo. In the isolated perfused heart, large doses of insulin directly stimulate heart glucose uptake. To assess the effect of physiological elevations of plasma insulin upon myocardial glucose and FFA uptake in vivo independent of changes in plasma substrate concentration, we measured arterial and coronary sinus concentrations of glucose, lactate, and FFA, and coronary blood flow in conscious dogs during a 30 min basal and a 2 h experimental period employing three protocols: (a) euglycemic hyperinsulinemia (insulin clamp, n = 5), (b) euglycemic hyperinsulinemia with FFA replacement (n = 5), (c) hyperglycemic euinsulinemia (hyperglycemic clamp with somatostatin, n = 5). In group 1, hyperinsulinemia (insulin = 73 +/- 13 microU/ml) stimulated heart glucose uptake (7.3 +/- 4.4 vs. 28.2 +/- 2.8 mumol/min, P less than 0.002), lowered plasma FFA levels by 80% (P less than 0.05), and decreased heart FFA uptake (28.4 +/- 4 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.9, P less than 0.01). When the fall in plasma FFA was prevented by FFA infusion (group 2), hyperinsulinemia (86 +/- 10 microU/ml) provoked a lesser (P less than 0.05) stimulation of glucose uptake (delta = 8.2 +/- 4.2 mumol/min) than in group 1, and there was no significant change in FFA uptake (25.3 +/- 16 vs. 16.5 +/- 4). Hyperglycemia (plasma glucose = 186 +/- 8 mg/100 ml) during somatostatin infusion resulted in only a small rise in plasma insulin (delta = 12 +/- 7 microU/ml), and although plasma FFA tended to decline, heart glucose uptake did not rise significantly (delta = 5.5 +/- 3.2 mumol/min, P = NS). There was no significant change in coronary blood flow during any of the three study protocols. We conclude that, in the dog, insulin at physiologic concentrations: (a) stimulates heart glucose uptake, both directly and by suppressing the plasma FFA concentration, and (b) does not alter coronary blood flow. Hyperglycemia per se has little effect on heart glucose uptake.
E J Barrett, R G Schwartz, C K Francis, B L Zaret
To investigate the association of the putative platelet fibrinogen receptor (glycoprotein IIb-III(a) with the cytoskeleton, 125I-surface labeled human platelets washed by gel-filtration were activated under conditions which allow selective assembly of the platelet cytoskeleton. The four conditions were activation with arachidonate or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) with and without pretreatment with cytochalasin E. Activation with arachidonate generates a complete cytoskeletal core (pseudopodal and contractile elements) while PMA activation forms only an actin plus actin-binding protein pseudopodal core. Pretreatment with cytochalasin E leads to actomyosin contractile core formation if arachidonate activated, and essentially blocks cytoskeletal development if PMA activated. Cytoskeletal cores from arachidonate or PMA-activated platelets retained 26 (+/- 3%) of the total 125I-IIIa. Pretreatment with cytochalasin E followed by arachidonate or PMA activation reduced the 125I-IIIa retention to near control levels (unactivated platelets: 4 +/- 2%). The role of aggregation vs. receptor occupancy in the retention of IIb-IIIa was assessed by activation of platelets with arachidonate in the presence of fibrinogen fragment D (0.6-12 mg/ml). Aggregation was blocked by increasing concentrations of fragment D reagent while cytoskeletal assembly was not altered. The IIIa retention correlated with extent of aggregation with maximal retention corresponding to full aggregation. To determine if cytoskeletal development is necessary for the expression of the fibrinogen binding site, binding studies were performed with unlabeled platelets and 125I-fibrinogen. The mean number of binding sites and the mean dissociation constant were not significantly different among the four activation conditions. Although the development of a platelet cytoskeletal core is not required for the expression of the fibrinogen binding site, the retention of the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex is dependent on fibrinogen-supported aggregation as well as the formation of the pseudopodal cytoskeleton.
M E Wheeler, A C Cox, R C Carroll
The thyrotropin (TSH) receptor is a putative target for autoantibodies in Graves' hyperthyroidism and therefore, should be capable of being identified, isolated, and structurally characterized by immunological means. To this end, four sera from patients with hyperthyroidism, three of which inhibited the binding of 125I-TSH to Triton-solubilized human thyroid membranes, were used to isolate TSH receptors by immunoprecipitation. To account for an effect of TSH binding or receptor occupancy on the ability of Graves' immunoglobulins to precipitate TSH receptors, two approaches were taken: (a) specific 125I-TSH binding activity was measured after solubilized thyroid membranes had been incubated with Graves' sera followed by precipitation with Staphylococcus protein A ("receptor depletion"); (b) TSH binding sites were labeled with 125I-TSH and the complexes were precipitated using Graves' sera and Staphylococcus protein A ("receptor precipitation"). The three sera which inhibited 125I-TSH binding depleted 125I-TSH binding activity between 30-80%. Preformed complexes between Staphylococcus protein A and immunoglobulins in these sera were also able to deplete 125I-TSH binding activity. However, after receptor depletion, the one serum that did not inhibit 125I-TSH binding was associated with a significant increase in 125I-TSH binding. All four sera specifically precipitated 80-100% of receptors identified by prelabeling with 125I-TSH. The dilutions of sera that precipitated 50% of 125I-TSH-receptor complexes ranged from 1:150-1:20. Complexes were partially precipitated by high concentrations of control sera (1:20), but the relative potency of control sera was at least fourfold less than Graves' sera. Immunoprecipitates of 125I-labeled thyroid membranes were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography to reveal Graves'-specific bands of reduced molecular weights of 100-110,000, 80-90,000, and 70-75,000. These bands were similar to those obtained from 125I-labeled thyroid membranes purified by TSH affinity chromatography. Thus, Graves' immunoglobulins: (a) precipitate unoccupied and occupied TSH receptors, (b) in one case, neither inhibit binding nor immunodeplete the unoccupied receptor but immunoprecipitate 125I-TSH-receptor complexes, suggesting that binding of TSH may initiate an interaction between the binding site and a separate immunoreactive molecule, and (c) identify the molecular structure of Graves' autoantigens, putatively, the TSH receptor.
P Heyma, L C Harrison
We examined the ability of the plasma of a 52-yr-old male Tangier patient to effect the conversion of radiolabeled pro-apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), isolated from hepatoma cell culture media, into mature apo A-I. The conversion was assessed by amino-terminal sequence analysis, isoform patterns with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and a rapid assay based on the different solubilities of intact pro-apo A-I and its hexapeptide prosegment in 10% trichloroacetic acid. We found that the converting activity of Tangier plasma was comparable to that exhibited by control normolipidemic plasma and that in both cases pro-apo A-I was correctly processed at the Gln-Asp bond. After ultracentrifugal fractionation of Tangier plasma at d = 1.21 g/ml, the pro-apo A-I-to-mature apo A-I converting activity was mainly recovered in the middle fraction of d = 1.225 g/ml and was at least 10-fold more effective than the top and bottom fractions. In contrast, in normal plasma the activity was only present in the top and bottom fractions. It has been previously established that in Tangier plasma the pro-apo A-I/apo A-I ratio is significantly higher than normal (1 vs. 0.02). Our studies suggest that this abnormal ratio is not the result of a reduced converting enzyme activity and may relate to differences in turnover rates between Tangier and normal plasma apolipoproteins.
C Edelstein, J I Gordon, C A Vergani, A L Catapano, V Pietrini, A M Scanu
The humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) is caused by tumor cells that release a circulating factor which stimulates osteoclastic bone resorption. Recently, it has been reported that tumors associated with HHM contain factors that stimulate renal and bone cell adenylate cyclase. The activity was inhibited by parathyroid hormone (PTH) antagonists, and this led to the hypothesis that hypercalcemia is due to bone resorbing factors that engage PTH receptors in bone. Since it is not known whether the bone resorbing factors act via PTH receptors in bone, we examined the effects of PTH antagonists on PTH-stimulated bone resorption and bone resorbing activity that was produced by two tumor models of HHM which also release these adenylate cyclase stimulating factors. The PTH antagonists [8,18norleucine, 34tyrosine]bovine PTH (3-34) amide and [34tyrosine]bovine PTH (7-34) completely inhibited PTH-stimulated bone resorption. Neither antagonist inhibited bone resorption that was stimulated by the conditioned medium from cells that were derived from the Walker rat 256 tumor model of HHM. Both antagonists also failed to inhibit bone resorption that was stimulated by culture media from cells that were derived from the rat Leydig cell tumor. These data suggest that in these two models of HHM, the bone resorbing factors do not exert their effects by interacting with PTH receptors on bone.
S M D'Souza, K J Ibbotson, G R Mundy
The time course of changes in hepatic fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F-2,6-P2) and glycogen content was examined in fasted rats infused with glucose intragastrically or allowed to eat a chow diet ad lib. Initial values for the two parameters were approximately 0.4 nmol/g and 2 mg/g of tissue, respectively. Contrary to what might have been expected on the basis of reported studies with hepatocytes exposed to glucose (i.e., a rapid elevation of F-2,6-P2), the rise in F-2,6-P2 levels in vivo was a late event. It began only 4-5 h after glucose administration or refeeding, at which time glycogen content had reached approximately 35 mg/g of tissue. Thereafter, [F-2,6-P2] climbed rapidly, attaining fed values in the region of 10 nmol/g as glycogen stores became maximal (approximately 60 mg/g of tissue). Although the biochemical basis for these changes is still unclear, the delayed increase in [F-2,6-P2] is entirely consistent with the fact that much of the glycogen deposited in liver in the early postprandial phase is gluconeogenic in origin. The later rise in [F-2,6-P2] likely represents a key signal for the attenuation of gluconeogenic carbon flow into glycogen as the latter approaches repletion levels.
M Kuwajima, C B Newgard, D W Foster, J D McGarry
The effects of alpha- and gamma-interferons (IFNs) on collagen production by confluent human diploid fibroblasts in culture were examined. It was found that partially purified alpha-IFNs and affinity purified gamma-IFNs caused greater than 50% inhibition of collagen synthesis by these cells independently of their effect on cell proliferation. Recombinant alpha-IFNs showed a similar effect (38.8% inhibition), indicating that collagen synthesis inhibition was a constitutive property of IFNs. Collagen synthesis inhibition by IFNs was concentration dependent. Gel filtration chromatography of the newly synthesized proteins from the media of fibroblasts incubated with partially purified alpha-IFNs demonstrated a selective depression of molecules eluting in the region of procollagen. No detectable increase in collagen degradation products or underhydroxylation of procollagen was observed. Short-term kinetic studies further demonstrated that the major effect of IFNs was due to a net decrease in fibroblast collagen production rather than to impairment of secretion or increased extracellular degradation of the newly synthesized molecules. These results indicate that alpha- and gamma-IFNs are potent inhibitors of human fibroblast collagen production and suggest that they may play an important role in the regulation of normal and pathologic fibrogenesis.
S A Jimenez, B Freundlich, J Rosenbloom
W N Kelley