Acquired hypoparathyroidism (AH) has been considered to result from an autoimmune process but the self-antigens have not been identified. We studied 25 patients with AH, of which 17 had type I autoimmune polyglandular syndrome and 8 had AH associated with autoimmune hypothyroidism. Five of 25 (20%) AH sera reacted to a membrane-associated antigen of 120-140 kD in human parathyroid gland extracts using immunoblot analysis. This is the exact size of the calcium sensing receptor (Ca-SR). The AH sera were then tested by immunoblot using a membrane fraction of HEK-293 cells transfected with Ca-SR cDNA. Eight of 25 (32%) AH sera reacted to a 120-140-kD protein, which closely matched that recognized by the anti-Ca-SR IgG raised in rabbits. The Ca-SR cDNA was translated in vitro into two parts in order to identify the antigenic epitopes. By using this technique, 14 of 25 (56%) AH sera were positive to the extracellular domain of the Ca-SR, whereas none of the AH patients sera reacted to the intracellular domain. The reactivity of the positive sera was completely removed after pre-absorption with the Ca-SR containing membranes. Sera from 50 patients with various other autoimmune diseases as well as 22 normal controls were also tested, and none of them was positive. In conclusion, the Ca-SR has been identified as an autoantigen in AH.
Y Li, Y H Song, N Rais, E Connor, D Schatz, A Muir, N Maclaren
To address the role of IL-11 in viral airways dysfunction, we determined whether infectious agents that exacerbate asthma stimulate stromal cell IL-11 production, determined whether IL-11 could be detected at sites of viral infection and evaluated the effects of IL-11 on airway physiology. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3), and rhinovirus (RV) 14 were potent stimulators while cytomegalovirus and adenovirus only weakly stimulated and herpes simplex virus type 2 and bacteria did not stimulate IL-11 elaboration. IL-11 was not detected or barely detected in nasal aspirates from children without, but was detected in aspirates from children with viral upper respiratory tract infections. The levels of IL-11 were highest in patients with clinically detectable wheezing. IL-11 also caused nonspecific airways hyperresponsiveness in BALB/c mice. These studies demonstrate that three major causes of viral-induced asthma, RSV, RV, and PIV, in contrast to other viruses and bacteria, share the ability to induce stromal cell IL-11 production. They also demonstrate that IL-11 can be detected in vivo during viral respiratory infections, that the presence of IL-11 correlates with clinical bronchospasm and that IL-11 is a potent inducer of airways hyperresponsiveness. IL-11 may be an important mediator in viral airways disorders.
O Einarsson, G P Geba, Z Zhu, M Landry, J A Elias
The molecular basis of hereditary complement factor I deficiency is described in two pedigrees. In one pedigree, there were two factor I-deficient siblings, one of whom was asymptomatic and the other suffered from recurrent pyogenic infections. Their factor I mRNA was analyzed by reverse transcription of fibroblast RNA followed by amplification using the polymerase chain reaction. Both siblings were homozygous for the same transversion (adenine to thymine) at nucleotide 1282 in the cDNA. This mutation causes histidine-400 to be replaced by leucine. The altered histidine is a semi-conserved residue within the serine proteinase family, although no function has been ascribed to it. The proband of the second pedigree studied was found to be a compound heterozygote. One allele had the same mutation as the first family, the second allele had a donor splice site mutation that resulted in the deletion of the mRNA encoded in the fifth exon (a low-density lipoprotein receptor domain) from its transcript.
T J Vyse, B J Morley, I Bartok, E L Theodoridis, K A Davies, A D Webster, M J Walport
The roles of hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and of somatostatin (SRIF) in pharmacologically stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion in humans are unclear. GH responses could result either from GHRH release or from acute decline in SRIF secretion. To assess directly the role of endogenous GHRH in human GH secretion, we have used a competitive GHRH antagonist, (N-Ac-Tyr1,D-Arg2)GHRH(1-29)NH2 (GHRH-Ant), which we have previously shown is able to block the GH response to GHRH. We first tested whether an acute decline in SRIF, independent of GHRH action, would release GH. Pretreatment with GHRH-Ant abolished the GH response to exogenous GHRH (0.33 microgram/kg i.v.) but did not modify the GH rise after termination of an SRIF infusion. We then investigated the role of endogenous GHRH in the GH responses to pharmacologic stimuli of GH release. The GH responses to arginine (30 g i.v. over 30 min), L-dopa (0.5 g orally), insulin hypoglycemia (0.1 U/Kg i.v.), clonidine (0.25 mg orally), or pyridostigmine (60 mg orally) were measured in healthy young men after pretreatment with either saline of GHRH-Ant 400 microgram/kg i.v. In every case, GH release was significantly suppressed by GHRH-Ant. We conclude that endogenous GHRH is required for the GH response to each of these pharmacologic stimuli. Acute release of hypothalamic GHRH may be a common mechanism by which these compounds mediate GH secretion.
C A Jaffe, R DeMott-Friberg, A L Barkan
Glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD-IV) is an autosomal recessive disease resulting from deficient glycogen-branching enzyme (GBE) activity. The classic and most common form is progressive liver cirrhosis and failure leading to either liver transplantation or death by 5 yr of age. However, the liver disease is not always progressive. In addition, a neuromuscular type of the disease has been reported. The molecular basis of GSD-IV is not known, nor is there a known reason for the clinical variability. We studied the GBE gene in patients with various presentations of GSD-IV. Three point mutations in the GBE gene were found in two patients with the classical presentation: R515C, F257L, and R524X. Transient expression experiments showed that these mutations inactivated GBE activity. Two point mutations, L224P and Y329S, were detected in two separate alleles of a patient with the nonprogressive hepatic form. The L224P resulted in complete loss of GBE activity, whereas the Y329S resulted in loss of approximately 50% of GBE activity. The Y329S allele was also detected in another patient with the nonprogressive form of GSD-IV but not in 35 unrelated controls or in patients with the more severe forms of GSD-IV. A 210-bp deletion from nucleotide 873 to 1082 of the GBE cDNA was detected in a patient with the fatal neonatal neuromuscular presentation. This deletion, representing the loss of one full exon, was caused by a 3' acceptor splicing site mutation (ag to aa). The deletion abolished GBE activity. Our studies indicate that the three different forms of GSD-IV were caused by mutations in the same GBE gene. The data also suggest that the significant retention of GBE activity in the Y329S allele may be a reason for the mild disease. Further study of genotype/phenotype correlations may yield useful information in predicting the clinical outcomes.
Y Bao, P Kishnani, J Y Wu, Y T Chen
Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor is a key molecule in hemostasis as its abnormality leads to bleeding disorders. Two isoforms of the human TXA2 receptor have been cloned; one from placenta and the other from endothelium, here referred to as TXR alpha and TXR beta, respectively. These isoforms differ only in their carboxyl-terminal tails. We report that both isoforms are present in human platelets. The two isoforms expressed in cultured cells show similar ligand binding characteristics and phospholipase C (PLC) activation but oppositely regulate adenylyl cyclase activity; TXR alpha activates adenylyl cyclase, while TXR beta inhibits it. The Arg60 to Leu mutant of TXR alpha, which has been shown to impair PLC activation (Hirata, T., A. Kakizuka, F. Ushikubi, I. Fuse, M. Okuma, and S. Narumiya. 1994. J. Clin. Invest. 94: 1662-1667), also impairs adenylyl cyclase stimulation, whereas that of TXR beta retains its activity to inhibit adenylyl cyclase. These findings suggest that the pathway linked to adenylyl cyclase inhibition might be involved in some of the TXA2-induced platelet responses such as shape change and phospholipase A2 activation which remain unaffected in the patients with this mutation.
T Hirata, F Ushikubi, A Kakizuka, M Okuma, S Narumiya
The polypeptide encoded by the Fanconi anemia (FA) complementation group C gene, FAC, binds to a group of cytoplasmic proteins in vitro and may form a multimeric complex. A known mutant allele of FAC resulting from the substitution of Pro for Leu at codon 554 fails to correct the sensitivity of FA group C cells to mitomycin C. We reasoned that overexpression of the mutant protein in a wild-type cellular background might induce the FA phenotype by competing with endogenous FAC for binding to the accessory proteins. After stable transfection of 293 cells with wild-type and a mutant FAC allele containing the L554P substitution, four independent clones that expressed four-to-fifteen fold higher levels of transcript from the mutant transgene relative to the endogenous FAC gene showed hypersensitivity to mitomycin C. By contrast, both parental and FAC-overexpressing cells maintained their relative resistance to mitomycin C. No differences in the biosynthesis, subcellular localization and protein interactions of the normal and mutant proteins were detected. The induction of the FA phenotype in this system is compatible with the competition hypothesis and provides support for a functional role of the FAC-binding proteins in vivo.
H Youssoufian, Y Li, M E Martin, M Buchwald
IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) has regulatory effects on IL-1 activity both in vitro and in vivo. In the IgG immune complex model of lung injury in rats, exogenously administered human IL-1Ra suppressed neutrophil recruitment and ensuing lung injury. In this study, we sought to determine if endogenous rat IL-1Ra might regulate this lung-inflammatory response. By Northern blot analysis of lung mRNA and Western analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, rat IL-1Ra expression was found to increase during development of inflammation in IgG immune complex-mediated alveolitis. By immunostaining, alveolar macrophages and recruited neutrophils were the apparent sources of IL-1Ra. In vivo blocking of endogenous IL-1Ra resulted in a 53% increase in lung vascular permeability and a 180% increase in BAL fluid neutrophils. In companion studies, a significant increase in IL-1beta was found, whereas no significant change in TNF-alpha activity was observed. Whereas the in vivo regulatory effects of IL-1R appear to be limited to IL-1beta, IL-10 regulates both IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in this model, reflected by a 48% increase in BAL IL-1beta in rats treated with anti-IL-10. These findings suggest that IL-1Ra is an intrinsic regulator of inflammatory injury after deposition of IgG immune complexes and that it regulates production of IL-1beta.
T P Shanley, J L Peters, M L Jones, S W Chensue, S L Kunkel, P A Ward
The purpose of this study was to investigate volume regulation in the lens and its involvement in lens opacification (cataract) and the role of chloride channels in these processes. Single, isolated lens fiber cells from the lens were whole cell patch clamped. When exposed to hypotonic solution, and outwardly rectifying whole-cell current was activated. The current increased from 1.0 to 32.6 pA/pF, reversed at the chloride reversal potential (Ec1 = O mV), and was blocked by the chloride channel blockers 5, nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoate (NPPB) and tamoxifen. Replacing all but 5mM of the external chloride with gluconate caused the reversal potential to shift +33 mV, consistent with a CL- current with a gluconate/chloride permeability ratio of 0.26. When the whole lens of the eye was exposed to hypotonic solution, there was an initial increase in anterior-posterior diameter (5-8 min), representing lens swelling of 6.5%. This was followed by a decrease in volume to a new steady state value that lasted for up to 2 h. In the longer term (> or = 2h), the lenses began to swell again. The simultaneous exposure to hypotonic solution and tamoxifen or NPPB caused swelling and prevented this volume regulation. Lenses incubated in hypotonic solution and hypotonic solution containing tamoxifen becane ipaque after a 2-h incubation period. We conclude that the lens is able to volume regulate. It possesses volume-activated Cl- channels, the inhibition of which results in inhibition of volume regulation, lens swelling and opacification. Our data suggest the long-term prophylactic use of tamoxifen may make the patient more susceptible to cataract.
J J Zhang, T J Jacob
Highly reactive oxygen species rapidly inactivate nitric oxide (NO), and endothelial product which inhibits platelet activation. We studied platelet inhibition by NO in two brothers with a cerebral thrombotic disorder. Both children had hyperreactive platelets, as determined by whole blood platelet aggregometry and flow cytometric analysis of the platelet surface expression of P-selectin. Mixing experiments showed that the patients'platelets behaved normally in control plasma; however, control platelets suspended in patient plasma were not inhibited by NO. As determined by flow cytometry, in the presence of plasma from either patient there was normal inhibition of the thrombin-induced expression of platelet surface P-selectin by prostacyclin, but not NO. Using a scopoletin assay, we measured a 2.7-fold increase in plasma H2O2 generation in one patient and a 3.4-fold increase in the second patient, both compared woth control plasma. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was decreased in the patients' plasmas compared with control plasma. The addition of exogenous GSH-Px led to restoration of platelet inhibition by NO. These data show that, in these patients' plasmas, impaired metabolism of reactive oxygen species reduces the bioavailability of NO and impairs normal platelet inhibitory mechanisms. These findings suggest that attenuated NO-mediated platelet inhibition produced by increased reactive oxygen species or impaired antioxidant defense may cause a thrombotic disorder in humans.
J E Freedman, J Loscalzo, S E Benoit, C R Valeri, M R Barnard, A D Michelson
Tryptase is the major protein constituent of human mast cells, where it is stored within the secretory granules as a fully active tetramer. Two tryptase genes (alpha and beta) are expressed by human mast cells at the level of mRNA and protein, each with a 30 amino acid leader sequence. Recombinant precursor forms of human alpha- and beta-tryptase were produced in a baculovirus system, purified, and used to study their processing. Monomeric beta-protryptase first is shown to be intermolecularly autoprocessed to monomeric beta-pro'tryptase at acid pH in the presence of heparin by cleavage between Arg-3 and Val-2 in the leader peptide. The precursor of alpha-tryptase has an Arg-3 to Gln-3 mutation that precludes autoprocessing. this may explain why alpha-tryptase is not stored in secretory granules, but instead is constitutively secreted by mast cells and is the predominant form of tryptase found in blood in both healthy subjects and those with systemic mastocytosis under nonacute conditions. Second, the NH2-terminal activation dipeptide on beta-pro'tryptase is removed by dipeptidyl peptidase I at acid pH in the absence of heparin to yield an inactive monomeric form of tryptase. Conversion of the catalytic portion of beta-tryptase to the active homotetramer at acid pH requires heparin. Thus, beta-tryptase homotetramers probably account for active enzyme detected in vivo. Also, processing of tryptase to an active form should occur optimally only in cells that coexpress heparin proteoglycan, restricting this pathway to a mast cell lineage.
K Sakai, S Ren, L B Schwartz
Regulation of coronary vasomotor tone during exercise is incompletely understood. We investigated the contributions of K+ ATP channels and adenosine to the coronary vasodilation that occurs during exercise in the normal heart and in the presence of a coronary artery stenosis. Dogs that were chronically instrumented with a Doppler flow probe, hydraulic occluder, and indwelling catheter on the left anterior descending coronary artery were exercised on a treadmill to produce heart rates of approximately 200 beats/min. By graded inflation of the occluder to produce a wide range of coronary stenosis severities, we determined the coronary pressure-flow relation. K+ atp channel blockade with intracoronary glibenclamide (10-50 microgram/kg per min) decreased coronary blood flow during exercise at coronary pressures within and below the autoregulatory range, indicating that coronary K+ ATP channel activation is critical for producing coronary vasodilation with either normal arterial inflow or when flow is restricted by a coronary artery stenosis. Adenosine receptor blockade with intravenous 8-phenyltheophylline (5 mg/kg) had no effect on coronary flow at pressures within the autoregulatory range but decreased flow at pressures < 55 mmHg. In contrast, in the presence of K+ ATP channel blockade, the addition of adenosine receptor blockade further decreased coronary flow even at coronary pressures in the autoregulatory range, indicating increased importance of the vasodilator influence of endogenous adenosine during exercise when K+ atp channels are blocked. Intracoronary adenosine (50 microgram/kg per min) increased coronary flow at perfusion pressures both within and below the autoregulatory range. In contrast, selective K+ ATP channel activation with intracoronary pinacidil (0.2-5.0 microgram/kg per min) increased flow at normal but not at lower coronary pressures (< 55 mmHg). This finding demonstrates that not all K+ ATP channels are activated during exercise at pressures in the autoregulatory range, but that most K+ ATP channels are recruited as pressures approach the lower end of the autoregulatory plateau. Thus, K+ ATP channels and endogenous adenosine play a synergistic role in maintaining vasodilation during exercise in normal hearts and distal to a coronary artery stenosis that results in myocardial hypoperfusion during exercise.
D J Duncker, N S van Zon, Y Ishibashi, R J Bache
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) exists as two isoenzymes and plays a central role in the metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters. In this study we compared the neurochemical phenotypes of previously described subjects with genetically determined selective lack of MAO-A or a lack of both MAO-A and MAO-B with those of two subjects with a previously described X chromosome microdeletion in whom we now demonstrate selective MAO-B deficiency. Mapping of the distal deletion breakpoint demonstrates its location in intron 5 of the MAO-B gene, with the deletion extending proximally into the Norrie disease gene. In contrast to the borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavioral phenotype in subjects with selective MAO-A deficiency and the severe mental retardation in patients with combined MAO-A/MAO-B deficiency and Norrie disease, the MAO-B-deficient subjects exhibit neither abnormal behavior nor mental retardation. Distinct neurochemical profiles characterize the three groups of MAO-deficient patients. In MAO-A-deficient subjects, there is a marked decrease in deaminated catecholamine metabolites and a concomitant marked elevation of O-methylated amine metabolites. These neurochemical changes are only slightly exaggerated in patients with combined lack of MAO-A and MAO-B. In contrast, the only biochemical abnormalities detected in subjects with the MAO-B gene deletion are a complete absence of platelet MAO-B activity and an increased urinary excretion of phenylethylamine. The differences in neurochemical profiles indicate that, under normal conditions, MAO-A is considerably more important than MAO-B in the metabolism of biogenic amines, a factor likely to contribute to the different clinical phenotypes.
J W Lenders, G Eisenhofer, N G Abeling, W Berger, D L Murphy, C H Konings, L M Wagemakers, I J Kopin, F Karoum, A H van Gennip, H G Brunner
We examined the contribution of actin-myosin contraction to the modulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cell focal adhesion caused by histamine and thrombin. Focal adhesion was measured as the electrical resistance across a cultured monolayer grown on a microelectrode. Actin-myosin contraction was measured as isometric tension of cultured monolayers grown on a collagen gel. Histamine immediately decreased electrical resistance but returned to basal levels within 3-5 min. Histamine did not increase isometric tension. Thrombin also immediately decreased electrical resistance, but, however, resistance did not return to basal levels for 40-60 min. Thrombin also increased isometric tension, ML-7, an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase, prevented increases in myosin light chain phosphorylation and increases in tension development in cells exposed to thrombin. ML-7 did not prevent a decline in electrical resistance in cells exposed to thrombin. Instead, ML-7 restored the electrical resistance to basal levels in a shorter period of time (20 min) than cells exposed to thrombin alone. Also, histamine subsequently increased electrical resistance to above basal levels, and thrombin initiated an increase in resistance during the time of peak tension development. Hence, histamine and thrombin modulate endothelial cell focal adhesion through centripetal and centrifugal forces.
A B Moy, J Van Engelenhoven, J Bodmer, J Kamath, C Keese, I Giaever, S Shasby, D M Shasby
The effect of anti-interleukin (IL-12 treatment on Lyme borreliosis in C3H/HeN (C3H) mice was assessed because other studies have implicated CD4+ T cell helper (Th) type 1 responses in the genesis of disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Infection of inbred mice with B. burgdorferi results in varying degrees of arthritis: BALB/c mice develop mild disease and C3H mice develop severe arthritis that is most pronounced 2-4 wk after infection. Since IL-12 is a major inducer of Th1 responses, we blocked this cytokine in vivo in B. burgdorferi infected C3H mice, and evaluated the effects of treatment on the development of arthritis at the peak of acute joint inflammation (14 d) and in the resolution phase (60 d) of disease. As expected, intraperitoneal administration of an anti-IL-12 monoclonal antibody (mAb) to C3H mice resulted in a decrease in both IFN-gamma and B. burgdorferi-specific IgG2a in serum, indicative of diminished Th1 responses. No IL-4 production was detected in serum of anti-IL-12 mAb treated or control mice. IgG1 and IgG2b levels did not increase in B. burgdorferi infected mice treated with anti-IL-12 mAb compared with controls suggesting that Th2 responses were not affected. Nevertheless, CD4+ T cells from both control and anti-IL-12 mAb treated mice had similar in vitro responses to B. burgdorferi antigens. Treatment with anti-IL-12 mAb produced a significant reduction in peak arthritis severity, and an increase in the number of spirochetes in ear tissue. These data show that treatment of B. burgdorferi infected mice with anti-IL-12 mAb results in a reduction of the Th1 and/or innate immune responses in vivo and a reduction in the severity of acute murine Lyme arthritis.
J Anguita, D H Persing, M Rincon, S W Barthold, E Fikrig
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility. Most cases of severe OI result from mutations in the coding region of the COL1A1 or COL1A2 genes yielding an abnormal collagen alpha chain. In contrast, many patients with mild OI show evidence of a null allele due to a premature stop mutation in the mutant RNA transcript. We have previously described a null allele arising from a splice donor mutation where the transcript containing the included intron was sequestered in the nucleus. Here we demonstrate that transcripts from null alleles arising from premature stop mutations are also present in the nucleus and absent in the cytoplasm. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR and single-strand conformational polymorphism of COL1A1 mRNA from patients with mild OI, we describe three patients with distinct null producing mutations identified from the mutant transcript within the nuclear compartment. A fourth patient with a Gly--->Arg expressed point mutation exhibits the mutant transcript in both compartments. Defining the distribution of allelic variants of COL1A1 mRNA in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments gives further insight into cell biology of OI and provides a strategy for investigating potential causes of a null allele.
D A Redford-Badwal, M L Stover, M Valli, M B McKinstry, D W Rowe
We have shown previously that chronic exposure of HIT-T15 cells to supraphysiologic glucose concentrations causes decreased insulin gene transcription and decreased binding activities of two beta-cell specific transcription factors, STF-1 and the RIPE3b1 activator, and have suggested that these events may provide a mechanism for glucose toxicity on beta-cell function. However, this contention can be criticized because it is not clear whether these observations are unique to the HIT-T15 cell or generalizable to other beta-cell lines and the islet. Therefore, we cultured betaTC-6 cells for up to 41 wk in either 11.1 or 0.8 mM glucose. We observed a passage-dependent decrease in insulin content and insulin mRNA levels in betaTC-6 cells chronically cultured in 11.1 mM glucose. Cells chronically cultured in 0.8 mM glucose had higher insulin mRNA levels than cells chronically cultured in 11.1 mM glucose. The relative activity of a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene controlled by the 5' regulatory region of the human insulin gene was decreased in late passage betaTC-6 cells chronically cultured in 11.1 mM glucose, but was preserved in late passages of cells chronically cultured in 0.8 mM glucose. Electromobility shift assays demonstrated that binding of a specific nuclear protein that recognizes the RIPE3b1 binding site of the insulin gene was markedly diminished in late passage cells chronically exposed to 11.1 mM glucose, whereas binding activities of STF-1 and ICE activators were unchanged. RIPE3b1 binding activity was preserved in late passage cells chronically exposed to 0.8 mM glucose. Mutation of the RIPE3b1 binding site almost completely abolished insulin gene transcription as well as binding activity. We conclude that chronic exposure of betaTC-6 cells to high glucose concentrations paradoxically decreases insulin gene transcription, in part, by decreasing activity of the trans-activating factor which binds to the RIPE3b1 sequence. This study uniquely demonstrates that altered binding to the RIPE3b1 sequence mediates glucose toxicity in betaTC-6 cells, thus reinforcing the importance of this cis-acting element in the regulation of insulin gene transcription. We conclude that the phenomenon of glucose toxicity decreasing binding of transcription factors and thereby reducing insulin gene expression is not a feature solely of HIT-T15 cells and may be demonstrable generally in beta-cell lines.
V Poitout, L K Olson, R P Robertson
We have generated a transgenic model consisting of both the human renin and human angiotensinogen genes to study further the role played by the renin-angiotensin system in regulating arterial pressure. Transgenic mice containing either gene alone were normotensive, whereas mice containing both genes were chronically hypertensive. Plasma renin activity and plasma angiotensin II levels were both markedly elevated in the double transgenic mice compared with either single transgenic or nontransgenic controls. The elevation in blood pressure caused by the human transgenes was independent of the genotype at the endogenous renin locus and was equal in mice homozygous for the Ren-1c allele or in mice containing one copy each of Ren-1c, Ren-1d, or Ren-2. Chronic overproduction of angiotensin II in the double transgenic mice resulted in a resetting of the baroreflex control of heart rate to a higher pressure without significantly changing the gain or sensitivity of the reflex. Moreover, this change was not due to the effects of elevated pressure itself since angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition had minimal effects on the baroreflex in spontaneously hypertensive BPH-2 control mice, which exhibit non-renin-dependent hypertension. This double transgenic model should provide an excellent tool for further studies on the mechanisms of hypertension initiated by the renin-angiotensin system.
D C Merrill, M W Thompson, C L Carney, B P Granwehr, G Schlager, J E Robillard, C D Sigmund
Studies in the rat have pointed to a role for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the pathogenesis of acute tubular necrosis. These studies used antibodies, which may have nonspecific effects. We report that renal ICAM-1 mRNA levels and systemic levels of the cytokines IL-1 and TNF-alpha increase 1 h after ischemia/ reperfusion in the mouse. We sought direct proof for a critical role for ICAM-1 in the pathophysiology of ischemic renal failure using mutant mice genetically deficient in ICAM-1. ICAM-1 is undetectable in mutant mice in contrast with normal mice, in which ICAM-1 is prominent in the endothelium of the vasa recta. Mutant mice are protected from acute renal ischemic injury as judged by serum creatinine, renal histology, and animal survival . Renal leukocyte infiltration, quantitated morphologically and by measuring tissue myeloperoxidase, was markedly less in ICAM-1-deficient than control mice. To evaluate whether prevention of neutrophil infiltration could be responsible for the protection observed in the mutant mice, we treated normal mice with antineutrophil serum to reduce absolute neutrophil counts to < 100 cells/mm3. These neutrophil-depleted animals were protected against ischemic renal failure. Anti-1CAm-1 antibody protected normal mice against renal ischemic injury but did not provide additional protection to neutrophil-depleted animals. Thus, ICAM-1 is a key mediator of ischemic acute renal failure likely acting via potentiation of neutrophilendothelial interactions.
K J Kelly, W W Williams Jr, R B Colvin, S M Meehan, T A Springer, J C Gutierrez-Ramos, J V Bonventre
The actions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on protein turnover and of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) were examined in skeletal muscle of rats with chronic renal failure (CRF) and sham operated (SO), pair-fed controls. Acidemia was prevented in CRF rats with NaHCO3. Serum IGF-1 and skeletal muscle IGF-1 and IGF-1 mRNA were reduced in CRF rats. Dose-response studies revealed impaired stimulation of protein synthesis and suppressed inhibition of protein degradation by IGF-1 in epitrochlearis muscle of CRF rats. Neither IGF-1 analogues with low affinity to IGF binding proteins nor proteinase inhibitors obliterated the IGF-1 resistance. In CRF rats, skeletal muscle IGF-1R mRNA was increased; displacement ligand binding studies and affinity labeling of the IGF-1R alpha subunit indicated increased total skeletal muscle IGF-1R number with normal affinity. However, both autophosphorylation of the IGF-1R beta subunit (i.e., IGF-1R tyrosine kinase) and the IGF-1R tyrosine kinase activity towards exogenous insulin receptor substrate-1, a natural substrate for IGF-1R tyrosine kinase, were reduced in CRF fats. These data indicate that in skeletal muscle of CRF rats there is resistance to the IGF-1 effects on protein synthesis and degradation and decreased IGF-1 and IGF-1 mRNA levels; IGF-1R mRNA and number are increased; but activity of IGF-1R tyrosine kinase is impaired. This postreceptor defect may be a cause of the skeletal muscle resistance to IGF-1 in CRF.
H Ding, X L Gao, R Hirschberg, J V Vadgama, J D Kopple
Net HCO3- transport in the rabbit kidney cortical collecting duct (CCD) is mediated by simultaneous H+ secretion and HCO3- secretion, most likely occurring in a alpha- and beta-intercalated cells (ICs), respectively. The polarity of net HCO3- transport is shifted from secretion to absorption after metabolic acidosis or acid incubation of the CCD. We investigated this adaptation by measuring net HCO3- flux before and after incubating CCDs 1 h at pH 6.8 followed by 2 h at pH 7.4. Acid incubation always reversed HCO3- flux from net secretion to absorption, whereas incubation for 3 h at pH 7.4 did not. Inhibition of alpha-IC function (bath CL- removal or DIDS, luminal bafilomycin) stimulated net HCO3- secretion by approximately 2 pmol/min per mm before acid incubation, whereas after incubation these agents inhibited net HCO3- absorption by approximately 5 pmol/min per mm. Inhibition of beta-IC function (luminal Cl- removal) inhibited HCO3- secretion by approximately 9 pmol/min per mm before incubation, whereas after incubation HCO3- absorption by only 3 pmol/min per mm. After acid incubation, luminal SCH28080 inhibited HCO3- absorption by only 5-15% vs the circa 90% inhibitory effect of bafilomycin. In outer CCDs, which contain fewer alpha-ICs than midcortical segments, the reversal in polarity of HCO3- flux was blunted after acid incubation. We conclude that the CCD adapts to low pH in vitro by downregulation HCO3- secretion in beta-ICs via decreased apical CL-/base exchang activity and upregulating HCO3- absorption in alpha-ICs via increased apical H+ -ATPase and basolateral CL-/base exchange activities. Whether or not there is a reversal of IC polarity or recruitment of gamma-ICs in this adaptation remains to be established.
S Tsuruoka, G J Schwartz
Extracellular calcium concentrations (Cao) > 0.1 mM are required for the differentiation of normal human keratinocytes in culture. Increments in Cao result in acute and sustained increases in the intracellular calcium level (Cai), postulated to involve both a release of calcium from intracellular stores and a subsequent increase in calcium influx through nonspecific cation channels. The sustained rise in Cai appears to be necessary for keratinocyte differentiation. To understand the mechanism by which keratinocytes respond to Cao, we measured the acute effects of Cao on Cai and calcium influx in keratinocytes at various stages of differentiation. We then demonstrated the existence of the calcium receptor (CaR) in keratinocytes and determined the effect of calcium-induced differentiation on its mRNA levels. Finally, we examined the role of Cai in regulating both the initial rise in Cai after the switch to higher Cao and the activity of the nonspecific cation channel through which calcium influx occurs. Our data indicate that the acute Cai response to Cao is lost as the cells differentiate and increase their basal Cai. These data correlated with the decrease in CaR mRNA levels in cells grown in low calcium. However, calcium influx as measured by 45Ca uptake increased with differentiation in 1.2mM calcium, consistent with the increase in CaR mRNA in these cells as well as the calcium-induced opening of the nonspecific cation channels. We conclude that the keratinocyte contains a CaR that regulates both the initial release of Cai from intracellular stores and the subsequent increase in calcium flux through nonspecific calcium channels. A rising level of Cai may turn off the release of calcium from intracellular stores while potentiating the influx through the nonspecific cation channels. Differentiation of keratinocytes appears to increase the CaR, which may facilitate the maintenance of the high Cai required for differentiation.
D D Bikle, A Ratnam, T Mauro, J Harris, S Pillai
The role of the glomerular visceral epithelial cell in the physiologic turnover and pathologic breakdown of the glomerular extracellular matrix has remained largely unexplored. In this study a 98-kD neutral proteinase secreted by cultured rat visceral glomerular epithelial cells was shown to be a calcium, zinc-dependent enzyme secreted in latent form. In addition, the protein was heavily glycosylated and demonstrated proteolytic activity against Type I gelatin, Type IV collagen gelatin, and fibronectin. The similarity in molecular mass and substrate specificities to the 92-kD human matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, or gelatinase B) suggested the identity of this activity, which was confirmed by immunoprecipitation and Northern blot analysis. The differences in molecular mass (98 vs. 92 kD) were not due to species-specific differences in glycosylation patterns, since cultured rat peritoneal macrophages secreted MMP-9 as a 92-kD enzyme. Furthermore, transfection of the human MMP-9 cDNA into rat glomerular epithelial cells yielded the 98-kD product. Using a specific monoclonal anti-MMP-9 antibody and in situ reverse transcription (ISRT) analysis of MMP-9 mRNA, the expression of this enzyme was evaluated in vivo. Normal rat glomeruli expressed little immunohistochemical or ISRT staining for MMP-9, while in rats with passive Heymann nephritis there was a major increase in MMP-9 protein and mRNA staining within the visceral epithelial cells. The temporal patterns of MMP-9 expression correlated with the period of proteinuria associated with this model, suggesting that a causal relationship may exist between GEC MMP-9 expression and changes in glomerular capillary permeability.
J I McMillan, J W Riordan, W G Couser, A S Pollock, D H Lovett
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine whose expression is increased in numerous respiratory diseases, particularly in asthma. However, the role of GM-CSF in the pathogenesis of these conditions in vivo remains unclear. Here, we report the functional activities of GM-CSF highly expressed in rat lung after intrapulmonary transfer of the gene coding for murine GM-CSF by using an adenoviral vector. This high, transient expression of GM-CSF led to the sustained but self-limiting accumulation of eosinophils and macrophages associated with tissue injury in the lung followed by varying degrees of irreversible fibrotic reactions observed in later stages. These results suggest that GM-CSF plays a previously unrealized role in the development of respiratory conditions characterized by eosinophilia, granuloma and/or fibrosis and provide the rationale for targeting this molecule in these diseases.
Z Xing, Y Ohkawara, M Jordana, F Graham, J Gauldie
TNFalpha is orverexpressed in the adipose tissue of obese rodents and humans, and is associated with insulin resistance. To more closely link TNF expression with whole body insulin action, we examined the expression of TNF by muscle, which is responsible for the majority of glucose uptake in vivo. Using RT-PCR, TNF was detected in human heart, in skeletal muscle from humans and rats, and in cultured human myocytes. Using competitive RT-PCR, TNF was quantitated in the muscle biopsy specimens from 15 subjects whose insulin sensitivity had been characterized using the glucose clamp. technique. TNF expression in the insulin resistant subjects and the diabetic patients was fourfold higher than in the insulin sensitive subjects, and there was a significant inverse linear relationship between maximal glucose disposal rate and muscle TNF (r = -0.60, P < 0.02). In nine subjects, muscle cells from vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were placed into tissue culture for 4 wk, and induced to differentiate into myotubes. TNF was secreted into the medium from these cells, and cells from diabetic patients expressed threefold more TNF than cells from nondiabetic subjects. Thus, TNF is expressed in human muscle, and is expressed at a higher level in the muscle tissue and in the cultured muscle cells from insulin resistant and diabetic subjects. These data suggest another mechanism by which TNF may play an important role in human insulin resistance.
M Saghizadeh, J M Ong, W T Garvey, R R Henry, P A Kern
This study examines the effect of purified rabbit antiguinea pig eosinophil-derived major basic protein (MBP) Ig on antigen-induced bronchial hyperreactivity to inhaled acetylcholine in aerosol-sensitized guinea pigs. Ovalbumin inhalation by sensitized guinea pigs induced a rise in the numbers of eosinophils and in the levels of MBP in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which peaked at 24 h and resolved at 72 h. Antigen-challenged animals exhibited bronchial hyperreactivity to inhale acetylcholine at 72 h, but not at 6 or 24 h. The intranasal administration of 200 microliter of purified rabbit anti-guinea pig MBP Ig, at 2.5 mg/ml, but not of the control preimmune rabbit Ig, 1 h before and 5 h after ovalbumin inhalation suppressed bronchial hyperreactivity to acetylcholine at 72 h without affecting the number of eosinophils accumulating in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These findings indicate that antigen challenge in sensitized guinea pigs is followed by early eosinophil infiltration and activation within the airways and by late bronchial hyperreactivity. Neutralization of endogenously secreted MBP by a specific antiserum prevented antigen-induced bronchial hyperreactivity, suggesting that eosinophil degranulation plays an important role in the alterations of bronchopulmonary function in the guinea pig.
J Lefort, M A Nahori, C Ruffie, B B Vargaftig, M Pretolani
Mast cells have been implicated in a number of diseases involving chronic inflammation including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel diseases. They are a potent source of several cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Freshly isolated rat peritoneal mast cells will produce IL-6 in response to anti-IgE, LPS, PGE1, or PGE2; however, the mechanisms by which such cytokine production is regulated are poorly understood. IL-10 is recognized as an important immunoregulatory cytokine with effects on T cell development and the production of inflammatory cytokines. IL-10 has previously been described to enhance mast cell development in the context of IL-3 and IL-4. In the current study, we have examined the ability of IL-10 to modulate rat peritoneal mast cell IL-6 and TNF-alpha production in response to a variety of stimuli. We have observed that recombinant murine IL-10 can inhibit the production of both IL-6 and TNF-alpha by mast cells without altering the degree of histamine release in response to anti-IgE. Concentrations of IL-10 as low as 0.2 ng/ml were sufficient to inhibit IL-6 production by LPS- or anti-IgE-activated cells significantly. IL-10 also inhibited PGE1- and PGE2-induced IL-6 production. The relative potency of IL-10 as an inhibitor of mast cell IL-6 production was highly dependent upon the stimulus used, with a 10-fold difference in the IC50 for LPS- or anti-IgE-activated cells (0.21 ng/ml) and cells activated with a combination of LPS and PGE2 (2.29 ng/ml). This suggests that prostanoids may limit the ability of IL-10 to modulate mast cell IL-6 production in the context of inflammation. These data have important implications for the regulation of mast cell IL-6 in inflammatory diseases involving prostanoid production and the effects of treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Our results also demonstrate a dual role for IL-10 on mast cells as a growth factor and inhibitor of cytokine production.
J S Marshall, I Leal-Berumen, L Nielsen, M Glibetic, M Jordana
41 students took either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil capsules containing 1.5-1.8 grams DHA/day (17 females and 5 males) or control oil capsules containing 97% soybean oil plus 3% fish oil (12 females and 7 males) for 3 mo in a double-blind fashion. They took a psychological test (P-F Study) and Stroop and dementia-detecting tests at the start and end of the study. The present study started at the end of summer vacation and ended in the middle of mental stress such as final exams. In the control group extraggression (aggression against others) in P-F Study was significantly increased at the end of the study as compared with that measured at the start (delta = +8.9%, P = 0.0022), whereas it was not significantly changed in the DHA group (delta = -1.0%). The 95% CI of differences between the DHA and control groups were -16.8 to -3.0%. DHA supplementation did not affect the Stroop and dementia-detecting tests. Thus, DHA intake prevented extraggression from increasing at times of mental stress. This finding might help understand how fish oils prevent disease like coronary heart disease.
T Hamazaki, S Sawazaki, M Itomura, E Asaoka, Y Nagao, N Nishimura, K Yazawa, T Kuwamori, M Kobayashi