E G Erdös
M Hallman, T A Merritt
CD44, the principal receptor for hyaluronic acid, is a widely distributed cell surface proteoglycan involved in cellular activation, proliferation, and migration. These processes are also central to the vascular smooth muscle cell's response to arterial wall injury. We evaluated the expression of CD44 and its isoform, CD44-V6, on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo and assessed the role of CD44 in DNA synthesis. Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells expressed CD44 and CD44-V6 at levels equal to or higher than those of the beta 1 and beta 2 integrins. In a rat carotid artery balloon injury model, CD44 and CD44-V6 mRNAs were unregulated in vascular smooth muscle cells after injury, and CD44 protein expression was greatest at the luminal edge of the growing neointima. CD44-expressing smooth muscle cells proliferated actively, and hyaluronic acid expression increased after injury in a temporal pattern similar to that of CD44. Through binding to hyaluronic acid, CD44 augmented DNA synthesis in cultured human and rat smooth muscle cells by 48 +/- 7.8 and 100 +/- 12.5%, respectively, an effect inhibited by an anti-CD44 antibody that blocked hyaluronate binding. These observations support a role for CD44 in the reaction of vascular smooth muscle cells to arterial wall injury.
M Jain, Q He, W S Lee, S Kashiki, L C Foster, J C Tsai, M E Lee, E Haber
The CC chemokine eotaxin, identified in guinea pigs and also recently in mice, may be a key element for the selective recruitment of eosinophils to certain inflamed tissues. Using a partial mouse eotaxin CDNA probe, the human eotaxin gene was cloned and found to be 61.8 and 63.2% identical at the amino acid level to guinea pig and mouse eotaxin. Human eotaxin protein was a strong and specific eosinophil chemoattractant in vitro and was an effective eosinophil chemoattractant when injected into the skin of a rhesus monkey. Radiolabeled eotaxin was used to identify a high affinity receptor on eosinophils (0.52 nM Kd), expressed at 4.8 x 10(4) sites per cell. This receptor also bound RANTES and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 with lower affinity, but not macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha. Eotaxin could desensitize calcium responses of eosinophils to RANTES and monocyte chemotactic protein-3, although RANTES was able to only partially desensitize eosinophil calcium responses to eotaxin. Immunohistochemistry on human nasal polyp with antieotaxin mAbs showed that certain leukocytes as well as respiratory epithelium were intensely immunoreactive, and eosinophil infiltration occurred at sites of eotaxin upregulation. Thus eotaxin in humans is a potent and selective eosinophil chemoattractant that is expressed by a variety cell types in certain inflammatory conditions.
P D Ponath, S Qin, D J Ringler, I Clark-Lewis, J Wang, N Kassam, H Smith, X Shi, J A Gonzalo, W Newman, J C Gutierrez-Ramos, C R Mackay
Elevated glucose concentrations have been reported to inhibit insulin receptor kinase activity. We studied the effects of high glucose on insulin action in Rat1 fibroblasts transfected with wild-type human insulin receptor (HIRcB) and a truncated receptor lacking the COOH-terminal 43 amino acids (delta CT). In both cell lines, 25 mM glucose impaired receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation by 34%, but IGF-1 receptor phosphorylation was unaffected. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and bromodeoxyuridine uptake were decreased by 85 and 35%, respectively. This was reversed by coincubation with a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor or microinjection of a PKC inhibitor peptide. Phosphopeptide mapping revealed that high glucose or PMA led to serine/threonine phosphorylation of similar peptides. Inhibition of the microtubule-associated protein (MAP) kinase cascade by the MAP kinase kinase inhibitor PD98059 did not reverse the impaired phosphorylation. We conclude that high glucose inhibits insulin action by inducing serine phosphorylation through a PKC-mediated mechanism at the level of the receptor at sites proximal to the COOH-terminal 43 amino acids. This effect is independent of activation of the MAP kinase cascade. Proportionately, the impairment of insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine phosphorylation is greater than that of the insulin receptor resulting in attenuated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation and mitogenic signaling.
T S Pillay, S Xiao, J M Olefsky
Earlier work from this laboratory showed that the human proteoglycan aggrecan from fetal cartilages can induce a CD4+ T cell-dependent inflammatory polyarthritis in BALB/c mice when injected after removal of chondroitin sulfate chains. Adult keratan sulfate (KS)-rich aggrecan does not possess this property. We found that two CD4+ T cell hybridomas (TH5 and TH14) isolated from arthritic mice recognize bovine calf aggrecan and the purified G1 domain of this molecule, which also contains a portion of the interglobular domain to which KS is bound. These hybridoma responses to G1 are enhanced by partial removal of KS by the endoglycosidase keratanase or by cyanogen bromide cleavage of core protein. KS removal results in increased cellular uptake by antigen-present cells in vitro. After removal of KS by keratanase, G1 alone can induce a severe erosive polyarthritis and spondylitis in BALB/c mice identifying it as an arthritogenic domain of aggrecan. The presence of KS prevents induction of arthritis presumably as a result of an impaired immune response as observed in vitro. These observations not only identify the arthritogenic properties of G1 but they also point to the importance of glycosylation and proteolysis in determining the arthritogenicity of aggrecan and fragments thereof.
J Y Leroux, A Guerassimov, A Cartman, N Delaunay, C Webber, L C Rosenberg, S Banerjee, A R Poole
Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency is an example of a disease in which mutant phenotypes generate transport-incompetent molecules. Here, we analyze at the molecular level a phenotype of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency in which sucrase-isomaltase (SI) is not transported to the brush border membrane but accumulates as a mannose-rich precursor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, and the cis-Golgi, where it is finally degraded. A 6-kb clone containing the full-length cDNA encoding SI was isolated from the patient's intestinal tissue and from normal controls. Sequencing of the cDNA revealed a single mutation, A/C at nucleotide 3298 in the coding region of the sucrase subunit of the enzyme complex. The mutation leads to a substitution of the glutamine residue by a proline at amino acid 1098 (Q1098P). The Q1098P mutation lies in a region that is highly conserved between sucrase and isomaltase from different species and several other structurally and functionally related proteins. This is the first report that characterizes a point mutation in the SI gene that is responsible for the transport incompetence of SI and for its retention between the ER and the Golgi.
J Ouwendijk, C E Moolenaar, W J Peters, C P Hollenberg, L A Ginsel, J A Fransen, H Y Naim
To determine the respective roles of insulin and glucagon for hepatic glycogen synthesis and turnover, hyperglycemic clamps were performed with somatostatin [0.1 micrograms/(kg.min)] in healthy young men under conditions of: (I) basal fasting) portal vein insulinemia-hypoglucagonemia, (II) basal portal vein insulinemia-basal glucagonemia, and (III) basal peripheral insulinemia-hypoglucagonemia. Synthetic rates, pathway (direct versus indirect) contributions, and percent turnover of hepatic glycogen were assessed by in vivo 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy during [1-13C]glucose infusion followed by a natural abundance glucose chase in conjunction with acetaminophen to noninvasively sample the hepatic UDP-glucose pool. In the presence of hyperglycemia (10.4 +/- 0.1 mM) and basal portal vein insulinemia (192 +/- 6 pM), suppression of glucagon secretion (plasma glucagon, I:31 +/- 4, II: 63 +/- 8 pg/ml) doubled the hepatic accumulation of glycogen (Vsyn) compared with conditions of basal glucagonemia [I: 0.40 +/- 0.06, II: 0.19 +/- 0.03 mumol/(liter.min): P < 0.0025]. Glycogen turnover was markedly reduced (I: 19 +/- 7%, II: 69 +/- 12%; P < 0.005), so that net rate of glycogen synthesis increased approximately fivefold (P < 0.001) by inhibition of glucagon secretion. The relative contribution of gluconeogenesis (indirect pathway) to glycogen synthesis was lower during hypoglucagonemia (42 +/- 6%) than during basal glucagonemia (54 +/- 5%; P < 0.005). Under conditions of basal peripheral insulinemia (54 +/- 2 pM) and hypoglucagonemia (III) there was negligible hepatic glycogen synthesis and turnover. In conclusion, small changes in portal vein concentrations of insulin and glucagon independently affect hepatic glycogen synthesis and turnover. Inhibition of glucagon secretion under conditions of hyperglycemia and basal concentrations of insulin results in: (a) twofold increase in rate of hepatic glycogen synthesis, (b) reduction of glycogen turnover by approximately 73%, and (c) augmented percent contribution of the direct pathway to glycogen synthesis compared with conditions of basal glucagonemia.
M Roden, G Perseghin, K F Petersen, J H Hwang, G W Cline, K Gerow, D L Rothman, G I Shulman
Mutation of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene by homologous recombination caused alveolar proteinosis in mice. To further discern the role of GM-CSF in surfactant homeostasis, the synthesis of GM-CSF was directed to the respiratory epithelium of GM-CSF-hull mutant mice (GM-/-) with a chimeric gene expressing GM-CSF under the control of the promoter from the human surfactant protein-C (SP-C) gene. Transgenic mice bearing the SP-C-GM-CSF construct (SP-C-GM+) were bred to GM-/- mice resulting in complete correction of alveolar proteinosis in bitransgenic GM-/-, SP-C-GM+ mice. No effects of the transgene were found outside the lung. GM-CSF was increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the bitransgenic mice. Surfactant proteins-A and -B and phospholipid in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were normalized in the GM-/-, SP-C-GM+ mice. SP-A, -B, and -C mRNAs were unaltered in lungs from GM-CSF-deficient and -replete mice. Expression of GM-CSF in respiratory epithelial cells of transgenic mice restores surfactant homeostasis in GM-/- mice. From these findings, we conclude that GM-CSF regulates the clearance or catabolism rather than synthesis of surfactant proteins and lipids.
J A Huffman, W M Hull, G Dranoff, R C Mulligan, J A Whitsett
Expression of the dihydropyridine (DHP) receptor (alpha 1 subunit of L-type calcium channel) in heart is regulated by differentiation and innervation and is altered in congestive heart failure. We examined the transmembrane signaling pathways by which norepinephrine regulates DHP receptor expression in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Using a 1.3-kb rat cardiac DHP receptor probe, and Northern analysis quantified by laser densitometry, we found that norepinephrine exposure produced a 2.2-fold increase in DHP receptor mRNA levels at 2 h followed by a decline to 50% of control at 4-48 h (P < 0.02). The alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine and a phorbol ester produced a decline in mRNA levels (8-48 h). The beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol and 8-bromo-cAMP produced a transient increase in mRNA levels. After 24 h of exposure to isoproterenol, 3H-(+)PN200-110 binding sites increased from 410 +/- 8 to 539 +/- 39 fmol/mg (P < 0.05). The number of functional calcium channels, estimated by whole-cell voltage clamp experiments, was also increased after 24 h of exposure to isoproterenol. Peak current density (recordings performed in absence of isoproterenol) increased from -10.8 +/- 0.8 (n = 23) to -13.9 +/- 1.0 pA/pF (n = 27) (P < 0.01). Other characteristics of the calcium current (voltage for peak current, activation, and inactivation) were unchanged. Exposure for 48 h to phenylephrine produced a significant decline in peak current density (P < 0.01). We conclude that beta -adrenergic transmembrane signaling increases DHP receptor mRNA and number of functional calcium channels and that alpha - adrenergic transmembrane signaling produces a reciprocal effect. Regulation of cardiac calcium channel expression by adrenergic pathways may have physiological and pathophysiological importance.
T Maki, E J Gruver, A J Davidoff, N Izzo, D Toupin, W Colucci, A R Marks, J D Marsh
Water movement across the airway epithelium is important for regulation of the volume and composition of airspace fluid. A novel approach is reported here to measure osmotic and diffusional water permeability in intact airways. Small airways (100-200 microns diameter, 1-2 mm length) from guinea pig lung were microdissected and perfused in vitro using concentric glass holding and perfusion pipettes. For measurement of osmotic water permeability (Pf), the airway lumen was perfused wit PBS (300 mOsM) containing a membrane impermeable fluorophore, fluorescein sulfonate (FS), and the airway was bathed in solutions of specified osmolalities. Pf determination was based on the changes in FS fluorescence at the distal end of the airway resulting from transepithelial water transport. Pf was 4-5 x 10(-3) cm/s at 23 degrees C and independent of lumen flow rate (10-100 nl/min) and the magnitude and direction of the osmotic gradient (bath osmolality 50-600 mOsM). Temperature dependence measurements gave an activation energy of 4.4 kcal/mol (15-37 degrees C). Pf was not altered by 0.3 mM HgCl2 or 50 microM forskolin, but was increased to 31 x 10(-3) cm/s by 100 micrograms/ml amphotericin B, indicating that osmosis is not limited by unstirred layers. Diffusional water permeability (Pd) was measured by H2O/D2O (deuterium oxide) exchange using the H2O/D2O-sensitive fluorescent probe aminonapthelane trisulfonic acid in the lumen. Measured Pd was 3-6 x 10(-6) cm/s at 23 degrees C, indicating significant restriction to water diffusion by unstirred layers. Antibody localization of water channels showed strong expression of the mercurial-insensitive water channel (AQP-4) at the basolateral membrane of airway epithelial cells. These results provide functional evidence that water movement across the distal airway epithelium is mediated by water channels.
H G Folkesson, M A Matthay, A Frigeri, A S Verkman
Progressive loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes, accompanied by opportunistic infections characteristic of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, ahs been reported in the absence of any known etiology. The pathogenesis of this syndrome, a subset of idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia (ICL), is uncertain. We report that CD4+ T cells from seven of eight ICL patients underwent accelerated programmed cell death, a process facilitated by T cell receptor cross-linking. Apoptosis was associated with enhanced expression of Fas and Fas ligand in unstimulated cell populations, and partially inhibited by soluble anti-Fas mAb. In addition, apoptosis was suppressed by aurintricarboxylic acid, an inhibitor of calcium-dependent endonucleases and proteases, in cells from four of seven patients, The in vivo significance of these findings was supported by three factors: the absence of accelerated apoptosis in persons with stable, physiologic CD4 lymphopenia without clinical immune deficiency; detection of serum antihistone H2B autoantibodies, one consequence of DNA fragmentation, in some patients; and its selectivity, with apoptosis limited to the CD4 population in some, and occurring among CD8+ T cells predominantly in those individuals with marked depletion of both CD4+ T lymphocytes linked to clinical immune suppression have evidence for accelerated T cell apoptosis in vitro that may be pathophysiologic and amenable to therapy with apoptosis inhibitors.
J Laurence, D Mitra, M Steiner, D H Lynch, F P Siegal, L Staiano-Coico
Pristanic acid oxidation measurements proved a reliable tool for assessing complementation in fused heterokaryons from patients with peroxisomal biogenesis defects. We, therefore, used this method to determine the complementation groups of patients with isolated defects in peroxisomal beta-oxidation. The rate of oxidation of pristanic acid was reduced in affected cell lines from all of the families with inherited defects in peroxisomal beta-oxidation, thus excluding the possibility of a defective acyl CoA oxidase. Complementation analyses indicated that all of the patients belonged to the same complementation group, which corresponded to cell lines with bifunctional protein defects. Phytanic acid oxidation was reduced in fibroblasts from some, but not all, of the patients. Plasma samples were still available from six of the patients. The ratio of pristanic acid to phytanic acid was elevated in all of these samples, as were the levels of saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA). However, the levels of bile acid intermediates, polyenoic VLCFA, and docosahexaenoic acid were abnormal in only some of the samples. Pristanic acid oxidation measurements were helpful in a prenatal assessment for one of the families where previous experience had shown that cellular VLCFA levels were not consistently elevated in affected individuals.
B C Paton, P C Sharp, D I Crane, A Poulos
High titers of cryptococcal polysaccharides in the serum and spinal fluid and the lack of cellular infiltrates in the infected tissues are hallmarks of disseminated cryptococcosis. Cryptococcal polysaccharides given intravenously to mice inhibit the influx of leukocytes into sites injected with inflammatory mediators. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if cryptococcal polysaccharides, i.e., glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), galactoxylomannan, and mannoprotein, affect expression of molecules on the surface of neutrophils that are important in extravasation. GXM in the absence of serum was shown to induce human neurophils to shed L-selectin, a molecule needed in the first step of neutrophil movement into tissues. In the presence of serum, GXM caused a further shedding of L-selectin. Shedding of L-selectin was evident by reduced amounts of L-selectin on the neutrophils treated with GXM and by increased levels of soluble L-selectin in the GXM-treated neutrophil supernatants. GXM also stimulated neutrophils to have reduced expression of TNF receptor. In contrast, GXM-treated neutrophils showed increased levels of CD15 and CD11b, and unchanged CD16 expression. In the absence of serum, galactoxylomannan and mannoprotein did not affect L-selectin, TNF receptor, CD15, CD11b, or CD16 on neutrophils but did induce loss of L-selectin in the presence of serum. Our results indicate that cryptococcal polysaccharides, especially GXM, can cause shedding of L-selectin from the surface of neutrophils, and this may prevent neutrophils from attaching to the endothelial cell surfaces. Blockage of this early step in cell migration from the vessels into tissues may be responsible in part for reduced cellular infiltration into infected tissues of individuals with disseminated cryptococcosis.
Z M Dong, J W Murphy
Carney complex is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple neoplasias, including myxomas at various sites and endocrine tumors, and lentiginosis. The genetic defect(s) responsible for the complex remain(s) unknown. We studied 101 subjects, including 51 affected members, from 11 North American kindreds with Carney complex. Blood samples were collected from patients and their family members. Hospital records, photographs, and tissue specimens of deceased individuals were reviewed. DNA was extracted from blood samples, patient-derived cell lines, and/or paraffin-embedded tissues. Linkage analysis was performed with highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, distributed over areas of the human genome harboring the most likely candidate genes. The most prevalent clinical manifestation in patients with Carney complex was spotty skin pigmentation, similar to that observed in Peutz-Jeghers and other lentiginosis syndromes. Skin and cardiac myxomas, Cushing syndrome, and acromegaly were present in 62, 30, 31 and 8 percent of the patients, respectively. Linkage was obtained for three markers on the short arm of chromosome 2 (2p16), with a maximum two-point lod score of 5.97 at theta = 0.03 for the marker CA-2 (odds in favor of linkage 10(6):1. The flanking markers CA7 and D2S378 defined a region of approximately 6.4 cM that is likely to contain the gene(s) associated with Carney complex. Candidate genes in the proximity, including the propiomelanocortin and the DNA-mismatch repair hMSH2 genes, were excluded. We conclude that the genetic defect(s) responsible for Carney complex map(s) to the short arm of chromosome 2 (2p16). This region has exhibited cytogenetic aberrations in atrial myxomas associated with the complex, and has been characterized by microsatellite instability in human neoplasias.
C A Stratakis, J A Carney, J P Lin, D A Papanicolaou, M Karl, D L Kastner, E Pras, G P Chrousos
Heat shock protein (hsp) induction by stressful stimuli such as heat and ischemia is known to protect cardiac cells from severe stress. The ability to induce hsp's in the heart directly by "nonstressful" means would potentially have important clinical implications. In noncardiac cells, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin-A has been shown to induce the 72-kD hsp. We therefore examined whether herbimycin-A and another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, could induce 70-kD hsp's in primary cultures of rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, and whether these treatments protect against severe stress. Primary cardiomyocytes were incubated with herbimycin-A or genistein. hsp induction was measured 16-20 h later by Western blotting. Cell survival after subsequent lethal heat stress or simulated ischemia was assessed using trypan blue exclusion and released lactate dehydrogenase activity. Our results indicate that, in cardiac cells, herbimycin-A induces 70-kD hsp's but not hsp90, -60, -25, or glucose-regulated protein 78, whereas genistein has no effect on hsp's. Moreover, hsp induction correlated with the ability of herbimycin-A to protect cells against severe stress, whereas genistein has no protective effects. This suggests that herbimycin-A may induce 70-kD hsp's via a tyrosine kinase-independent mechanism. These results indicate the possibility of a pharmacological approach to HSP70 induction and cardiac protection, which may ultimately be of clinical relevance.
S D Morris, D V Cumming, D S Latchman, D M Yellon
Short-term preexposure of mononuclear cells to epinephrine inhibits LPS-induced production of TNF, whereas preexposure for 24 h results in increased TNF production. To assess the effects of epinephrine infusions of varying duration on in vivo responses to LPS, the following experiments were performed: (a) Blood obtained from eight subjects at 4-24 h after the start of a 24-h infusion of epinephrine (30 ng/kg per min) produced less TNF after ex vivo stimulation with LPS compared with blood drawn before the start of the infusion, and (b) 17 healthy men who were receiving a continuous infusion of epinephrine (30 ng/kg per min) started either 3 h (EPI-3; n = 5) or 24 h (EPI-24; n = 6) were studied after intravenous injection of LPS (2 ng/kg, lot EC-5). EPI-3 inhibited LPS-induced in vivo TNF appearance and also increased IL-10 release (both P < 0.005 versus LPS), whereas EPI-24 only attenuated TNF secretion (P = 0.05). In separate in vitro experiments in whole blood, epinephrine increased LPS-induced IL-10 release by a combined effect on alpha and beta adrenergic receptors. Further, in LPS-stimulated blood, the increase on IL-10 levels caused by epinephrine only marginally contributed to concurrent inhibition of TNF production. Epinephrine, either endogenously produced or administered as a component of sepsis treatment, may have a net antiinflammatory effect on the cytokine network early in the course of systemic infection.
T van der Poll, S M Coyle, K Barbosa, C C Braxton, S F Lowry
Macrophage stimulating protein (MSP), which is secreted as biologically inactive pro-MSP, is activated to MSP by cleavage at a single peptide bond. Our objectives were to determine the form of MSP in circulating blood and to study proteolytic activation of pro-MSP by its target cell. Western blot of immunoaffinity-purified serum MSP showed that all the protein was pro-MSP, without detectable MSP. The circulating form of the protein is therefore pro-MSP, and conversion to MSP does not occur when blood is shed. Incubation of radiolabeled pro-MSP with murine peritoneal macrophages caused proteolytic cleavage to predominantly inactive fragments. Among several protease inhibitors, soybean trypsin inhibitor was one of two that inhibited nonspecific cleavage and revealed a macrophage proteolysis of pro-MSP, and certain concentrations enhanced cleavage to mature MSP. Macrophage membranes had nonspecific and specific pro-MSP proteolytic activity, which was not present in macrophage culture fluids. The results suggest that control of MSP activity can occur at the level of the target cell by proteolytic cleavage of pro-MSP to mature MSP or to inactive fragments.
M H Wang, A Skeel, E J Leonard
The chronic contact of glucose-containing dialysate and proteins results in the deposition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on peritoneal tissues in patients treated by peritoneal dialysis (PD), yet plasma levels of the AGE pentosidine are significantly lower in PD than in hemodialysis (HD). We measured glycation of peritoneal proteins in patients on PD over the time course of intraperitoneal equilibration of fresh peritoneal dialysate. The glycated content of peritoneal proteins (furosine method) was initially identical to plasma but increased 200% within 4 h due to in situ glycation as also demonstrated in vitro. In contrast, peritoneal proteins contained a 2-4 x greater content of the AGE pentosidine at all equilibrium time points. Plasma protein furosine content was identical in patients on PD and on HD. Fractionation by gel filtration of serum from patients on PD and HD revealed that > 95% of the pentosidine was linked to proteins > 10,000 mol wt; < 1% to proteins < 10,000 mol wt; and < 1%, free. Neither HD nor PD affected protein-bound pentosidine. The HD treatment decreased free and < 10,000 mol wt bound pentosidine. However clearance of protein-associated pentosidine by the peritoneal membrane may explain lower steady state levels in patients treated by PD.
M A Friedlander, Y C Wu, A Elgawish, V M Monnier
Defective tissue perfusion and nitric oxide production and altered myo-inositol metabolism and protein kinase C activation have been invoked in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications including neuropathy. The precise cellular compartmentalization and mechanistic interrelationships of these abnormalities remain obscure, and nitric oxide possesses both neurotransmitter and vasodilator activity. Therefore the effects of ambient glucose and myo-inositol on nitric oxide-dependent cGMP production and protein kinase C activity were studied in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, a cell culture model for peripheral cholinergic neurons. D-Glucose lowered cellular myo-inositol content, phosphatidylinositol synthesis, and phosphorylation of an endogenous protein kinase C substrate, and specifically reduced nitric oxide-dependent cGMP production a time- and dose-dependent manner with an apparent IC50 of approximately 30 mM. The near maximal decrease in cGMP induced by 50 mM D-glucose was corrected by the addition of protein kinase C agonists or 500 microM myo-inositol to the culture medium, and was reproduced by protein kinase C inhibition or downregulation, or by myo-inositol deficient medium. Sodium nitroprusside increased cGMP in a dose-dependent fashion, with low concentrations (1 microM) counteracting the effects of 50 mM D-glucose or protein kinase C inhibition. The demonstration that elevated D-glucose diminishes basal nitric oxide-dependent cGMP production by myo-inositol depletion and protein kinase C inhibition in peripheral cholinergic neurons provides a potential metabolic basis for impaired nitric oxide production, nerve blood flow, and nerve impulse conduction in diabetes.
H Shindo, T P Thomas, D D Larkin, A K Karihaloo, H Inada, T Onaya, M J Stevens, D A Greene
To determine to what extent intravenous nutrition can reduce proteolysis in very immature and normal newborns, and to assess the capacity of preterm and normal newborns to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine, phenylalanine and leucine kinetics were measured under basal conditions and during parenteral nutrition in clinically stable, extremely premature (approximately 26 wk of gestation) infants and in normal term newborns. In response to parenteral nutrition, there was significantly less suppression (P < 0.001) of endogenous leucine and phenylalanine rate of appearance in extremely premature infants compared with term infants. Phenylalanine utilization for protein synthesis during parenteral nutrition increased significantly (P < 0.01) and by the same magnitude (approximately 15%) in both extremely premature and term infants. Phenylalanine was converted to tyrosine at substantial rates in both extremely premature and term infants; however, this conversion rate was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in extremely premature infants during both the basal and parenteral nutrition periods. These data provide clear evidence that there is no immaturity in the phenylalanine hydroxylation pathway. Furthermore, although parenteral nutrition appears to produce similar increases in protein synthesis in extremely premature and term infants, proteolysis is suppressed much less in extremely premature newborns. The factors responsible for this apparent resistance to suppression of proteolysis in the very immature newborn remain to be elucidated.
S C Denne, C A Karn, J A Ahlrichs, A R Dorotheo, J Wang, E A Liechty
We developed a stroma cell culture system that suppresses apoptosis of malignant cells from cases of B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia. By multiparameter flow cytometric measurements of cell recovery after culture on stromal layers, we assessed the growth potential of 70 cases of newly diagnosed B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia and related the findings of treatment outcome in a single program of chemotherapy. The numbers of leukemic cells recovered after 7 d of culture ranged from < 1 to 292% (median, 91%). The basis of poor cell recoveries from stromal layers appeared to be a propensity of the lymphoblasts to undergo apoptosis. The probability of event-free survival at 4 yr of follow-up was 50 +/- 9% (SE) among patients with higher cell recoveries ( > 91%), and 94 +/- 6% among those with reduced cell recoveries (+/- 91%; P = 0.0003). The prognostic value of leukemic cell recovery after culture exceeded estimates for all other recognized high-risk features and remained the most significant after adjustment with all competing covariates. Thus, the survival ability of leukemic cells on bone marrow-derived stromal layers reflects aggressiveness of the disease and is a powerful, independent predictor of treatment outcome in children with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
M Kumagai, A Manabe, C H Pui, F G Behm, S C Raimondi, M L Hancock, H Mahmoud, W M Crist, D Campana
Proteolysis of triple-helical collagen is an important step in the progression toward irreversible tissue damage in osteoarthritis. Earlier work on the expression of enzymes in cartilage suggested that collagenase-1 (MMP-1) contributes to the process. Degenerate reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction experiments, Northern blot analysis, and direct immunodetection have now provided evidence that collagenase-3 (MMP-13), an enzyme recently cloned from human breast carcinoma, is expressed by chondrocytes in human osteoarthritic cartilage. Variable levels of MMP-13 and MMP-1 in cartilage was significantly induced at both the message and protein levels by interleukin-1 alpha. Recombinant MMP-13 cleaved type II collagen to give characteristic 3/4 and 1/4 fragments; however, MMP-13 turned over type II collagen at least 10 times faster than MMP-1. Experiments with intact type II collagen as well as a synthetic peptide suggested that MMP-13 cleaved type II collagen at the same bond as MMP-1, but this was then followed by a secondary cleavage that removed three amino acids from the 1/4 fragment amino terminus. The expression of MMP-13 in osteoarthritic cartilage and its activity against type II collagen suggest that the enzyme plays a significant role in cartilage collagen degradation, and must consequently form part of a complex target for proposed therapeutic interventions based on collagenase inhibition.
P G Mitchell, H A Magna, L M Reeves, L L Lopresti-Morrow, S A Yocum, P J Rosner, K F Geoghegan, J E Hambor
Studies in vitro have suggested that inflammatory cytokines may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about their effects in vivo. Thus, the present study was designed to determine in vivo what histological and functional changes may be induced by chronic treatment with IL-1 beta, one of the major inflammatory cytokines, and also to clarify what mechanisms are involved in those changes. Under aseptic conditions, proximal segments of the left porcine coronary arteries were gently wrapped with cotton mesh absorbing Sepharose beads either with or without recombinant human IL-1 beta. From 1 to 4 wk after the operation, coronary vasospastic responses to intracoronary serotonin or histamine were noted at the IL-1 beta-treated site but not at the control site. Histologically, intimal thickening was greater at the IL-1 beta-treated site than at the control site. Those functional and histological changes induced by the chronic treatment with IL-1 beta were significantly inhibited by the simultaneous treatment with a neutralizing antibody to either IL-1 beta or PDGF. These results indicate that chronic treatment with Il-1 beta induces coronary intimal lesions and vasospastic responses in porcine coronary arteries in vivo and also suggest that these changes are substantially mediated by PDGF.
H Shimokawa, A Ito, Y Fukumoto, T Kadokami, R Nakaike, M Sakata, T Takayanagi, K Egashira, A Takeshita
A genetic map for rat chromosome 1 was constructed using 66 microsatellite markers typed on either or both of two populations derived from inbred Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rats: F2(LEW x S) n = 151, and F2(WKY x S) n = 159. These populations had been raised on a high salt (8% NaCl) diet. Systolic blood pressure and heart weight were found to be genetically linked to two separate regions on rat chromosome 1 in the F2(LEW x S) population. One region was centered around the anonymous SA locus and accounted for 24 mmHg of blood pressure. The other region was 55 cM from the SA locus centered around a cluster of cytochromes P450 loci, and accounted for 30 mmHg of blood pressure. Since blood pressure and heart weight were highly correlated these same regions were also linked to heart weight. These results were cross-specific as linkage of these chromosome 1 regions to blood pressure and heart weight was not observed in several other F2 populations derived by crossing S and other normotensive control strains. This is presumably due to different alleles and/or different genetic backgrounds in the various populations. The SA region of chromosome 1 was found to influence body weight in F2(LEW x S) rats. Combining the present data with our previously published data on the F2(LEW x S) population showed that four separate quantitative trait loci with additive effects accounted for 106 mmHg and 38% of the total variance of blood pressure and for 506 mg and 34% of the total variance of heart wt.
L Gu, H Dene, A Y Deng, B Hoebee, M T Bihoreau, M James, J P Rapp
HIV-1 associated central nervous system (CNS) disease involves neuronal damage and prominent reactive astrocytosis, the latter characterized by strong upregulation of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in astrocytes. Similar alterations are found in transgenic mice expressing the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 in the CNS. Because alterations of astrocyte functions could contribute to neuronal impairment, we compared brains of gp120 transgenic mice and gp120-transfected C6 astrocytoma cells with controls and found that gp120 induced a prominent elevation of steady state GFAP mRNA levels, primarily due to transcript stabilization. Increased levels of GFAP mRNA were also found in nontransfected C6 cells exposed to recombinant gp120. Exposure of C6 cells or primary mouse astrocytes to soluble gp120 led to activation of PKC as indicated by redistribution and increase in PKC immunoreactivity at the single cell level. gp120 effects were diminished by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) but not inhibitors of protein kinase A. PKC activity was upmodulated in gp120-transfected C6 cells and in the CNS of gp120 transgenic mice. Further, brain tissue from patients with HIV-1 encephalitis and from gp120 transgenic mice showed increased PKC immunoreactivity. Taken together, these results indicate that gp120-induced increases in PKC activity may contribute to the gliosis seen in gp120 transgenic mice as well as in HIV-1-infected humans and raise the question of whether dysregulation of signal transduction pathways represents a general mechanism of HIV-associated pathogenesis.
T Wyss-Coray, E Masliah, S M Toggas, E M Rockenstein, M J Brooker, H S Lee, L Mucke
Hepatic lipase (HL) is an endothelial-bound lipolytic enzyme which functions as a phospholipase as well as a triacylglycerol hydrolase and is necessary for the metabolism of IDL and HDL. To evaluate the feasibility of replacing an enzyme whose in vivo physiologic function depends on its localization on the vascular endothelium, we have infused recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus vectors expressing either human HL (HL-rAdV; n = 7) or luciferase cDNA (Lucif-rAdV; n = 4) into HL-deficient mice with pretreatment plasma cholesterol, phospholipid, and HDL cholesterol values of 176 +/- 9, 314 +/- 12, and 129 +/- 9, respectively. After infusion of HL-rAdV, HL could be detected in the postheparin plasma of HL-deficient mice by immunoblotting and postheparin plasma HL activities were 25,700 +/- 4,810 and 1,510 +/- 688 nmol/min/ml on days 5 and 15, respectively. Unlike the mouse HL, 97% of the newly synthesized human HL was heparin releasable, indicating that the human enzyme was virtually totally bound to the mouse vascular endothelium. Infusion of HL-rAdV in HL-deficient mice was associated with a 50-80% decrease in total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipids, cholesteryl ester, and HDL cholesterol (P < 0.001) as well as normalization of the plasma fast protein liquid chromatography lipoprotein profile by day 8. These studies demonstrate successful expression and delivery of a lipolytic enzyme to the vascular endothelium for ultimate correction of the HL gene defect in HL-deficient mice and indicate that recombinant adenovirus vectors may be useful in the replacement of endothelial-bound lipolytic enzymes in human lipolytic deficiency states.
D Applebaum-Bowden, J Kobayashi, V S Kashyap, D R Brown, A Berard, S Meyn, C Parrott, N Maeda, R Shamburek, H B Brewer Jr, S Santamarina-Fojo
Signal transduction pathways shared by different autocrine growth factors may provide an efficient approach to accomplish clinically significant control of lung cancer growth. In this study, we demonstrate that two autocrine growth factors activate 5-lipoxygenase action of the arachidonic acid metabolic pathway in lung cancer cell lines. Both growth factors increased the production of 5(S)-hydrooxyeicosa-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-tetraeno ic acid (5-HETE), a major early 5-lipoxygenase metabolic product. Exogenously added 5-HETE stimulated lung cancer cell growth in vitro. Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase metabolism by selective antagonists resulted in significant growth reduction for a number of lung cancer cell lines. Primary clinical specimens and lung cancer cell lines express the message for the 5-lipoxygenase enzymes responsible for the generation of active metabolites. In vivo evaluation demonstrated that interruption of 5-lipoxygenase signaling resulted in enhanced levels of programmed cell death. These findings demonstrate that 5-lipoxygenase activation is involved with growth factor-mediated growth stimulation for lung cancer cell lines. Pharmacological intervention with lipoxygenase inhibitors may be an important new clinical strategy to regulate growth factor-dependent stages of lung carcinogenesis.
I M Avis, M Jett, T Boyle, M D Vos, T Moody, A M Treston, A Martínez, J L Mulshine
The role of differentiated vascular myocytes are neointimal formation in canine carotid artery was investigated. Using antibodies and cDNA probes, cells were characterized in situ and after isolation. In situ characterization indicated the majority of medial cells expressed both smooth muscle myosin and alpha actin but many cells were negative to these markers. All adventitial cells were negative for these proteins. The muscle protein-positive cells were designated differentiated, vascular myocytes (VSMC). The others were designated type 2 cells. Sequential enzyme digestion from lumenal surface yielded VSMC ( > 90%) while digestions from the adventitial surface yielded type 2 cells ( > 90%). VSMC were viable in culture but did not spread, proliferate, or alter expression of muscle proteins. Type 2 cells proliferated and increased their expression of muscle actin but did not express muscle myosin. Characterization of neointimal cells from injured carotid arteries indicated they were morphologically and immunologically identical to cultured type 2 cells. We concluded that: (a) canine carotid artery media consists of a heterogeneous cell population: (b) serum does not stimulate isolated VSMC to undergo phenotypic modulation or proliferate: and (c) type 2 cells may be responsible for neointimal formation because they proliferate and acquire a phenotype identical to in situ neointimal cells.
B Holifield, T Helgason, S Jemelka, A Taylor, S Navran, J Allen, C Seidel
We have achieved significant improvement of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) in a mouse model through adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of the human ornithine transcarbamylase cDNA. Substantial reduction in orotic aciduria was observed within 24 h of treatment. Metabolic correction was later associated with phenotypic correction and moderate increase in enzymatic activity. In an effort to identify the level of gene expression required to achieve wild-type levels of enzyme activity we uncovered a dominant negative effect of the endogenous mutant protein on the activity of the delivered recombinant wild-type protein. This phenomenon is relevant to homomultimeric protein defects such as OTCD, represent a challenging category of disorders for gene therapy. Thus, although our findings indicate that adenoviral-mediated gene transfer may have potential as a short-term treatment for OTCD in humans and may be effective especially during catabolic crisis, the observations in this study suggest that careful patient selection based on mutation class may be essential for initial OTCD gene therapy trials, and perhaps, for other homomultimeric enzyme deficiencies being considered as gene therapy targets.
M A Morsy, J Z Zhao, T T Ngo, A W Warman, W E O'Brien, F L Graham, C T Caskey
CTLA4Ig, a fusion protein that blocks CD28-B7 costimulation, was studied in a LEW to F344 rat model of chronic cardiac rejection. In rats treated with a single dose of CTLA4Ig (0.5 mg intraperitoneally) 2 d after transplantation, allografts survived significantly longer ( > 70 d in 64%) than in untreated controls or rats treated with control Ig (all rejected within 25 d). Only 25% of grafts from rats treated with a single, high dose of cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg, 2 d after transplantation) survived longer than 70 d. Reverse transcriptase PCR and immunostaining analyses of tissue from 75-d, CTLA4Ig-treated allografts showed reduced expression of the T cell factor IFN-gamma and macrophage activation factors monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine macrophage lectin, as well as TGF-beta. Grafts from longterm survivors ( > 120 d) treated with CTLA4Ig showed significant reductions in the frequency and severity of arteriosclerosis in comparison with cyclosporine A-treated rats. Thus, T cell activation is a proximal event in the cascade that culminates in the arteriosclerosis of chronic rejection. Strategies for blocking T cell costimulation may help prevent chronic rejection in clinical transplantation.
M E Russell, W W Hancock, E Akalin, A F Wallace, T Glysing-Jensen, T A Willett, M H Sayegh
Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) has two homologous active NH2- and COOH-terminal domains and displays activity toward a broad range of substrates. The tetrapeptide N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) has been shown to be hydrolyzed in vitro by ACE and to be a preferential substrate for its NH2-terminal active site. This peptide is a regulatory factor of hematopoiesis which reversibly stem cells and normal early progenitors into S-phase. We found that a single oral dose of 50 mg of the ACE inhibitor, captopril, when administered to eight healthy subjects in a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study, massively increased the plasma level of Ac-SDKP. ACE inhibition by captopril induced a 90-99% inhibition of in vitro [3H]Ac-SDKP hydrolysis and a long-lasting 5.5-fold (range: 4-8.5-fold) increase in the plasma levels of Ac-SDKP. These results demonstrate that Ac-SDKP is the first natural peptide hydrolyzed by the NH2-terminal domain of ACE not only in vitro but also in vivo, confirming that both catalytic sites of ACE are physiologically active. Our data suggest that ACE may also be implicated in the process of hematopoietic stem cell regulation, by permanently degrading this natural circulating inhibitor of cell entry into S-phase.
M Azizi, A Rousseau, E Ezan, T T Guyene, S Michelet, J M Grognet, M Lenfant, P Corvol, J Ménard
The presence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) negative strand RNA in extrahepatic compartments based on PCR detection assays has been suggested in many reports with a very heterologous detection rate (from 0 to 100%). In this study, we have analyzed the presence of HCV negative strand in hepatic (liver biopsies, n = 20) and extrahepatic (sera, n = 32; PBMC, n = 26 and fresh bone marrow cells, n = 8) compartments from infected patients with three different reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR-based assays using primers located in the 5' noncoding region, with or without a tag selected to display different viral loads (10(5)-3 x 10(7) genomic equivalent/ml or gram) and viral genotypes (n = 5). Using synthetic as well as biological templates, we could document extensive artifactual detection of negative strand RNA, due to self priming and mispriming events, even either 5' noncoding region primer pair was used, whereas both artifacts were dramatically reduced (mispriming) or eliminated (selfpriming) using CAP-based RT-PCR assay. Mispriming artifacts were directly correlated to the titer of positive strand RNA present in the sample. Using the CAP-PCR assay, the presence of HCV negative strand RNA was found in 75% of livers (16:20) and only 8% of PBMC, independent of the genotype involved, but could not be documented in sera (0:32) and fresh bone marrow cells (0:6). These findings suggest that caution regarding the type of RT-PCR assay used and the level of HCV positive strand RNA present in the biological sample analyzed has to be taken to avoid false identification of viral reservoirs. The findings suggest that hematopoietic peripheral cells can support HCV replication, although in a very limited number of carriers.
H Lerat, F Berby, M A Trabaud, O Vidalin, M Major, C Trépo, G Inchauspé
Using flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation (IP), we have investigated the deleted in colon cancer (DCC) protein expression on the bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) cells of 16 normal subjects, 17 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, and 10 acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients. With regard to the BM mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) of normal subjects, the DCC protein expression ranged from 6.6 to 57.0%. Two-color flow cytometry revealed that among the IBM-MNCs the DCC protein was clearly expressed on the CD14+, CD13+, and factor 8+ cells, whereas it was low on the CD19+ and CD7+ cells and did not express on the CD34+, CD8+, and the glycophorin A+ cells. Further, the DCC protein expression was not seen on the PB CD11b+ and CD13+ cells. The IP results revealed that the 180-kD DCC protein was detected on the MNCs of both the BM and PB cells by the antibodies AF5, specific for the DCC extracellular domain, and G97-449, specific for the cytoplasmic domain. In contrast, flow cytometry did not detect the DCC protein on any BM-MNC MDS lineages (0.1-1.5%) or on AML leukemic cells (0.1-0.9%). The IP results indicated that the AF5 antibody did not detect the DCC protein on BM-MNCs of three of five MDS patients and four of five AML patients; however, the G97-449 antibody detected the 180-kD DCC protein in two MDS patients in whom AF5 had detected greatly reduced DCC band. These findings suggest that the DCC protein presence appears to be associated with normal hematopoiesis, and that its absence on the surfaces of the BM-MNCs and AML cells may contribute to the MDS and AML pathogenesis.
K Inokuchi, K Miyake, H Takahashi, K Dan, T Nomura
Apo(a) is a large glycoprotein of unknown function that circulates in plasma as part of lipoprotein(a). Apo(a) is structurally related to plasminogen and contains at least 10 kringle (K)4 repeats (type 1-10), a K5 repeat and sequences similar to the protease domain of plasminogen. Plasminogen generates two biologically active peptides: plasmin and angiostatin, a kringle-containing peptide. As a first step in determining if apo(a) generates a similar kringle-containing peptide, human urine was immunologically examined. Fragments ranging in size from 85 to 215 kD were immunodetected using antibodies directed against epitopes in the K4-type 2 repeat, but not the K4-type 9 repeat or protease domain, NH2-terminal sequence analysis revealed sequences specific for the K4-type 1 repeat, confirming that the fragments are from the NH2 terminus of the K4 array. The amount of urinary apo(a) rose in proportion to the plasma lipoprotein(a) concentration. Even individuals with trace to no apo(a) in plasma had immunodetectable apo(a) fragments in their urine. Intravenous administration of the human urinary apo(a) into mice resulted in the urine. These findings suggest that the apo(a) fragments found in urine are formed extrarenally and then excreted by the kidney.
V Mooser, M C Seabra, M Abedin, K T Landschulz, S Marcovina, H H Hobbs
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is increasingly used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and the prevention of infections and of graft versus host reactions in recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplants. The immunomodulatory effects of IVIg are largely dependent on their ability to interact with membrane molecules of lymphocytes. We report here that IVIg recognizes the B07.75-84 peptide, corresponding to a conserved region of the alpha I helix of the first domain of HLA-B7 01, which represents a nonpolymorphic determinant of HLA class I molecules. Intact IVIg and its F(ab')2 fragments bound to the peptide as well as to purified soluble HLA and to HLA on a human T cell line. Binding of IVIg to HLA was assessed by ELISA, immunofluorescence, and real-time analysis of the interaction using the BIAlite system. The binding of antipeptide antibodies to HLA was inhibited by free peptide. Antipeptide antibodies isolated from IVIg by affinity chromatography inhibited CD8 cell-mediated cytotoxicity of an influenza virus-specific human T cell line. The presence in IVIg of antibodies to critical regions of HLA class 1 molecules suggests a possible role for IVIg in modulation of class-I-restricted cellular interactions in the immune response.
S Kaveri, T Vassilev, V Hurez, R Lengagne, C Lefranc, S Cot, P Pouletty, D Glotz, M D Kazatchkine
Mice homozygously deficient for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) receptor (u-PAR-1-) were generated by homologous recombination in D3, embryonic stem cells. The genomic sequences comprising exon 2 through 5 of the u-PAR gene were replaced by the neomycin resistance gene, resulting in inactivation of both u-PAR splice variants. The inactivated u-PAR allele was transmitted via mendelian inheritance, and fertility. Inactivation of u-PAR was confirmed by the absence of binding of rabbit anti-murine u-PAR or of an aminoterminal fragment of murine u-PA (mu-PA.1-48) to u-PAR-1- embryonic fibroblasts and macrophages. u-PAR-1- mice displayed normal lysis of a murine plasma clot injected via the jugular vein. Invasion of macrophages into the peritoneal cavity after thioglycollate stimulation was similar in u-PAR-1- and u-PAR-1- mice. u-PAR-1- peritoneal macrophages had a threefold decreased initial rate of u-PA-mediated plasminogen activation in vitro but degraded extracellular matrix proteins in vitro as efficiently as u-PAR-1- macrophages.
M Dewerchin, A V Nuffelen, G Wallays, A Bouché, L Moons, P Carmeliet, R C Mulligan, D Collen
Skeletal muscle contractile function is impaired during acute ischemia such as that experienced by peripheral vascular disease patients. We therefore, examined the effects of dichloroacetate, which can alter resting metabolism, on canine gracilis muscle contractile function during constant flow ischemia. Pretreatment with dichloroacetate increased resting pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity and resting acetylcarnitine concentration by approximately 4- and approximately 10-fold, respectively. After 20-min contraction the control group had demonstrated an approximately 40% reduction in isomeric tension whereas the dichloroacetate group had fatigued by approximately 25% (P < 0.05). Dichloroacetate resulted in less lactate accumulation (10.3 +/- 3.0 vs 58.9 +/- 10.5 mmol.kg-1 dry muscle [dm], P < 0.05) and phosphocreatine hydrolysis (15.6 +/- 6.3 vs 33.8 +/- 9.0 mmol.kg-1 dm, P < 0.05) during contraction. Acetylcarnitine concentration fell during contraction by 5.4 +/- 1.8 mmol.kg-1 dm in the dichloroacetate group but increased by 10.0 +/- 1.9 mmol.kg-1 dm in the control group. In conclusion, dichloroacetate enhanced contractile function during ischemia, independently of blood flow, such that it appears oxidative ATP regeneration is limited by pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity and acetyl group availability.
J A Timmons, S M Poucher, D Constantin-Teodosiu, V Worrall, I A Macdonald, P L Greenhaff
Oxidation of lipids and lipoproteins by macrophages is an important event during atherogenesis. Activation of monocytic cells by zymosan and other agonists results in the release of multiple oxidant species and consequent oxidation of LDL. We now show evidence that ceruloplasmin, a copper-containing acute phase reactant, is secreted by zymosan-activated U937 monocytic cells, and that the protein has an important role in LDL oxidation by these cells. In one approach, ceruloplasmin has been shown to exhibit oxidant activity under the appropriate conditions. Exogenous addition of purified human ceruloplasmin stimulates U937 cell oxidation of LDL to nearly the same extent as activation by zymosan. In contrast to previous cell-free experiments (Ehrenwald, E., G.M. Chisom, and P.L. Fox. 1994. Intact human ceruloplasmin oxidatively modifies low density lipoprotein. J. Clin. Invest. 93:1493-1501.) in which ceruloplasmin by itself (in PBS) oxidizes LDL, under the conditions of the current experiments (in RPMI 1640 medium) ceruloplasmin only oxidizes LDL in the presence of cells; the mechanism by which cells overcome the inhibition by medium components has not been ascertained. As further evidence for a role of ceruloplasmin, activation of U937 cells with zymosan induces ceruloplasmin mRNA and ceruloplasmin protein synthesis after a 5-6 h lag that is consistent with that preceding LDL oxidation. Finally, neutralization by a highly specific polyclonal antibody to human ceruloplasmin inhibits LDL oxidation by at least 65%. Moreover, multiple antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeted to different regions of the ceruloplasmin mRNA block LDL oxidation by up to 95%. The specific action of the antisense oligonucleotides has been verified by showing inhibition of ceruloplasmin synthesis and by the ability of exogenous ceruloplasmin to overcome the inhibition. In summary, these results are consistent with a mechanism in which cell-derived ceruloplasmin participates in oxidation of LDL by U937 monocytic cells. The data also show that cellular factors in addition to ceruloplasmin, possibly active oxygen species and/or lipoxygenases, are essential and act synergistically with ceruloplasmin to oxidize LDL.
E Ehrenwald, P L Fox