Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor is a key molecule in hemostasis as its abnormality leads to bleeding disorders. Two isoforms of the human TXA2 receptor have been cloned; one from placenta and the other from endothelium, here referred to as TXR alpha and TXR beta, respectively. These isoforms differ only in their carboxyl-terminal tails. We report that both isoforms are present in human platelets. The two isoforms expressed in cultured cells show similar ligand binding characteristics and phospholipase C (PLC) activation but oppositely regulate adenylyl cyclase activity; TXR alpha activates adenylyl cyclase, while TXR beta inhibits it. The Arg60 to Leu mutant of TXR alpha, which has been shown to impair PLC activation (Hirata, T., A. Kakizuka, F. Ushikubi, I. Fuse, M. Okuma, and S. Narumiya. 1994. J. Clin. Invest. 94: 1662-1667), also impairs adenylyl cyclase stimulation, whereas that of TXR beta retains its activity to inhibit adenylyl cyclase. These findings suggest that the pathway linked to adenylyl cyclase inhibition might be involved in some of the TXA2-induced platelet responses such as shape change and phospholipase A2 activation which remain unaffected in the patients with this mutation.
T Hirata, F Ushikubi, A Kakizuka, M Okuma, S Narumiya