Early prediction of outcome after global hypoxia of the brain requires accurate determination of the nature and extent of neurological injury and is cardinal for patient management. Cerebral metabolites of gray and white matter were determined sequentially after near-drowning using quantitative 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in 16 children. Significant metabolite abnormalities were demonstrated in all patients compared with their age-matched normal controls. Severity of brain damage was quantified from metabolite concentrations and ratios. Loss of N-acetylaspartate, a putative neuronal marker, from gray matter preceded that observed in white matter and was more severe. Total creatine decreased, while lactate and glutamine/glutamate concentrations increased. Changes progressed with time after injury. A spectroscopic prognosis index distinguished between good outcome (n = 5) and poor outcome (n = 11) with one false negative (bad outcome after borderline MRS result) and no false positive results (100% specificity). The distinction was made with 90% sensitivity early (after 48 h) and became 100% later (by days 3 and 4). This compared with 50-75% specificity and 70-100% sensitivity based upon single clinical criteria. MRS performed sequentially in occipital gray matter provides useful objective information which can significantly enhance the ability to establish prognosis after near-drowning.
R Kreis, E Arcinue, T Ernst, T K Shonk, R Flores, B D Ross
IgM paraproteins associated with autoimmune peripheral neuropathy and anti-Pr cold agglutinins react with sialic acid epitopes present on disialylated gangliosides including GD1b, GT1b, GQ1b, and GD3. A causal relationship between the paraprotein and the neuropathy has never been proven experimentally. From peripheral blood B cells of an affected patient, we have cloned a human hybridoma secreting an antidisialosyl IgM mAb, termed Ha1, that shows identical structural and functional characteristics to its serum counterpart. Variable region analysis shows Ha1 is encoded by the same VH1 family heavy chain gene, V1-18, as the only other known anti-Pr antibody sequence and is somatically mutated, suggesting that it [correction of is] arose in vivo in response to antigenic stimulation. In the rodent peripheral nervous system, Ha1 immunolocalizes to dorsal root ganglia, motor nerve terminals, muscle spindles, myelinated axons, and nodes of Ranvier. After intraperitoneal injection of affinity-purified antibody into mice for 10 d, electrophysiological recordings from the phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation demonstrated impairment of nerve excitability and a reduction in quantal release of neurotransmitter. These data unequivocally establish that an antidisialosyl antibody can exert pathophysiological effects on the peripheral nervous system and strongly support the view that the antibody contributes to the associated human disease.
H J Willison, G M O'Hanlon, G Paterson, J Veitch, G Wilson, M Roberts, T Tang, A Vincent
The effect of diabetes mellitus on opiate-mediated inhibition of calcium current density (I(D Ca) [pA pF-1]) and cytosolic calcium response ([Ca2+]i nM) to depolarization with elevated KCl and capsaicin was assessed. Experiments were performed on isolated, acutely dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from diabetic, BioBreeding/Worcester (BB/W) rats and age-matched control animals. Sciatic nerve conduction velocity was significantly decreased in diabetic animals compared to controls. Mean I(DCa) and [Ca2+]i responses to capsaicin and elevated KCl recorded in DRGs from diabetic animals were significantly larger than those recorded in DRG neurons from controls. In neurons from diabetic animals, the opiate agonist dynorphin A (Dyn A; 1, 3, and 5 microM) had significantly less inhibitory effect on I(D Ca) and KCl-induced [Ca2+]i responses compared to controls. Omega-conotoxin GVIA (omega-CgTX; 10 microM) and pertussis toxin (PTX; 250 ng ml-1) abolished Dyn A-mediated inhibition of I(DCa) and [Ca2+]i in control and diabetic neurons, suggesting that Dyn A modulated predominantly N-type calcium channels coupled to opiate receptors via PTX-sensitive (Gi/o) inhibitory G proteins. These results suggest that opiate-mediated regulation of PTX-sensitive, G protein-coupled calcium channels is diminished in diabetes and that this correlates with impaired regulation of cytosolic calcium.
K E Hall, A A Sima, J W Wiley
Treatment of quiescent rat aortic smooth muscle cells with either alpha-thrombin or a thrombin receptor-derived agonist peptide (SFLLRNP) resulted in pronounced increases in [3H]thymidine incorporation that were concentration dependent and reached a maximum of approximately 15-fold above serum-starved controls. However, in contrast to FBS, PDGF-BB, or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), that initiated DNA synthesis promptly after 16-19 h, thymidine incorporation in response to thrombin was delayed by an additional 3-6 h. Delayed mitogenesis correlated with the appearance of a potent mitogenic activity in conditioned media samples obtained from thrombin-stimulated rat aortic smooth muscle cells, as assayed using Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. This activity was not inhibited by neutralizing antibodies directed against PDGF or bFGF. Furthermore, in the Swiss 3T3 cells, simple addition of either alpha-thrombin or SFLLRNP failed to elicit a significant mitogenic response. In signal transduction studies, both thrombin and SFLLRNP treatment led to rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins with apparent molecular masses of 42, 44, 75, 120, and 190 kD, respectively, as assessed by antiphosphotyrosine immunoblotting. The overall pattern of protein tyrosine phosphorylation was distinct from that observed after PDGF-BB addition. Activation of Raf-1 and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases p44mapk and p42mapk was also observed. However, the time course and duration of Raf-1/MAP kinase activation after thrombin stimulation were similar to those elicited by PDGF-BB. Taken together, our results indicate that thrombin-stimulated vascular smooth muscle proliferation is delayed and requires the de novo expression of one or more autocrine mitogens. In addition, the rapid induction of discrete intracellular signaling mechanisms by thrombin, including the Raf-1/MAP kinase pathway, appears to be insufficient alone to promote vascular smooth muscle cell mitogenesis.
C J Molloy, J E Pawlowski, D S Taylor, C E Turner, H Weber, M Peluso
Apolipoprotein E3-Leiden (APOE*3-Leiden) transgenic mice have been studied to identify factors modulating chylomicron and VLDL remnant lipoprotein metabolism. Transient elevated levels of VLDL/LDL-sized lipoproteins occurred in these mice with maximal levels during the period of rapid growth (optimum at 45 d of age). After about 100 d of age, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels stabilized to slightly elevated levels as compared to control mice. The expression of the APOE*3-Leiden transgene was not age-dependent. In young mice the in vivo hepatic production of VLDL-triglycerides was 50% increased as compared to older mice. This is sustained by in vivo VLDL-apo B turnover studies showing increased (75%) VLDL-apo B secretion rates in young mice, whereas the VLDL-apo B clearance rate appeared not to be age dependent. On a high fat/cholesterol diet, females displayed significantly higher cholesterol levels than males (10 versus 7.0 mmol/liter, respectively). Serum levels of VLDL/LDL sized lipoproteins increased upon administration of estrogens, whereas administration of testosterone gave the opposite result. As compared to male mice, in female mice the hepatic VLDL-triglyceride production rate was significantly elevated. Injection of estrogen in males also resulted in increased VLDL-triglyceride production, although not statistically significant. In vivo VLDL-apo B turnover experiments showed that the VLDL secretion rate tended to be higher in females. Although, the fractional catabolic rate of VLDL-apo B is not different between males and females, administration of estrogens in males resulted in a decreased clearance rate of VLDL, whereas administration of testosterone in females resulted in an increased clearance rate of VLDL. The latter presumably due to an inhibiting effect of testosterone on the expression of the APOE*3-Leiden transgene. We conclude that hyperlipidemia in APOE*3-Leiden transgenic mice is strongly affected by age via its effect on hepatic VLDL production rate, whereas gender influences hyperlipidemia by modulating both hepatic VLDL production and clearance rate.
B J van Vlijmen, H B van 't Hof, M J Mol, H van der Boom, A van der Zee, R R Frants, M H Hofker, L M Havekes
Receptor-recognized forms of alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M*) bind to two macrophage receptors: an endocytic receptor, the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/alpha 2M receptor (LRP/alpha 2MR), and a G protein-coupled receptor, the alpha 2M signaling receptor (alpha 2MSR). Binding of alpha 2M* to LRP/alpha 2MR but not alpha 2MSR is inhibited by receptor-associated protein. We now present binding characteristics of alpha 2MSR (kD approximately 50 pm; 1,530 sites/cell) using Scatchard analysis. We also demonstrate that chemical modification of alpha 2M* with cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (cis-DDP) does not significantly alter binding to either receptor or signaling characteristics as compared with unmodified alpha 2M*. However, internalization by LRP/alpha 2MR is greatly affected. Cis-DDP-modified alpha 2M* (cis-DDP-alpha 2M*) and alpha 2M* show comparable internalization during a single round of endocytosis; however, cis-DDP modification of alpha 2M* results in a > or = 82% reduction in internalization involving receptor recycling and multiple rounds of endocytosis. Results from pH 5.0 dissociation and receptor recycling experiments suggest that the mechanism of decreased internalization of cis-DDP-alpha 2M* involves poor dissociation from the receptor in endosomes and a decrease in available surface receptors over the time of exposure to the ligand.
G C Howard, U K Misra, D L DeCamp, S V Pizzo
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) plays a pivotal role in the cellular and humoral immune responses directed against foreign antigens. We characterized the in vitro and in vivo properties of a chimeric protein consisting of mouse IL-2 fused to the mouse IgG2b Fc domains. This fusion protein binds to IL-2 and Fc receptors and supports IL-2-dependent cell proliferation but does not mediate lysis of IL-2 receptor-positive cells in the presence of murine complement in vitro. However, in vivo the IL2-IgG2b fusion protein suppresses both cellular and humoral immune responses after immunization with sheep erythrocytes. Surprisingly, delayed hypersensitivity is inhibited despite a dramatic increase of splenic CD3+ and NK1.1+ lymphocytes, indicating that altered homing of IL2-IgG2b-activated lymphocytes rather than cytolysis prevents these cells from accumulating in areas of inflammation. Although in vitro the IL2-IgG2b fusion protein does not alter proliferation of B cells in response to mitogenic stimulation, IgM production in response to sheep erythrocytes is profoundly inhibited in mice treated with the IL2-IgG2b fusion protein. Since no side effects are observed, the IL2-IgG2b fusion protein may expand the therapeutic repertoire of reagents used for the treatment of allograft rejection and autoimmune diseases.
U Kunzendorf, T Pohl, S Bulfone-Paus, H Krause, M Notter, A Onu, G Walz, T Diamantstein
The human multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP confers resistance to various cytotoxic drugs by lowering the intracellular drug concentration. Recent evidence indicates that MRP can also transport glutathione S-conjugates across membranes. To study the transport properties of MRP in intact cells, we have expressed human MRP cDNA in the polarized pig kidney epithelial cell line LLC-PK1. MRP mainly localized to the basolateral plasma membrane of these cells, and not to the apical membrane, as determined by immunocytochemistry using confocal laser scanning and electron microscopy. In accordance with this localization, MRP caused increased transport of the glutathione S-conjugate S-(2, 4-dinitrophenyl)-glutathione and of the anticancer drug daunorubicin to the basal side of the epithelial cell layer. Sulfinpyrazone and probenecid, known inhibitors of multispecific organic anion transport, inhibited this basolateral transport, but not the apical transport of daunorubicin mediated by the apically localized human MDR1 P-glycoprotein in MDR1-transfected LLC-PK1 cells. Probenecid and sulfinpyrazone may therefore be useful lead compounds for the development of clinical reversal agents specific for MRP-mediated drug resistance.
R Evers, G J Zaman, L van Deemter, H Jansen, J Calafat, L C Oomen, R P Oude Elferink, P Borst, A H Schinkel
In a phase I clinical trial on the effects of preoperative adjuvant IL-2 therapy given to patients undergoing hepatic resection of colorectal adenocarcinoma metastases, we monitored the putative induction of T cell clonal expansion in both tissues and blood. The presence of T cell clonotypes was analyzed with a PCR-based method that determines V-D-J junction size patterns in T cell receptor (TCR) V beta subfamilies in samples before and after a 5-d IL-2 infusion. This high resolution method analyzing CDR3 sizes of TCR transcripts was used in conjunction with FACS analysis of the corresponding T cell subpopulations with TCR V beta-specific mAb. At time of surgery (day 8 after starting IL-2), we found in the three patients analyzed with V beta-C beta primers multiple dominant T cell clonotypes in the tumor and peritumoral tissues which had probably expanded as a result of therapy. In three control patients not treated with IL-2, multiple oligoclonal patterns were not observed with this set of primers. In the fourth control patient a unique V beta 21-C beta CDR3 pattern which corresponds to two dominant clonotypes was found in the tumor. The same dominant clonotypes identified in the tumor after IL-2 were also detectable in the blood and comparison of the profiles obtained before and after IL-2 therapy indicates that they were induced by IL-2. The relative expansion of the corresponding T cell subpopulations was maintained for varying periods of time after surgery (4-7 d and almost 2 yr in one case). Together, these results indicate that IL-2 induces marked expansion of several T cell clones. Systemic IL-2 administration may represent, either alone or as a vaccine adjuvant, an appropriate way of boosting antigen-specific immune responses.
A Kumar, F Farace, C Gaudin, F Triebel
Pathologic water loss from sickle erythrocytes concentrates the abnormal hemoglobin and promotes sickling. The Ca2+-activated K+ channel (Gardos channel) contributes to this deleterious dehydration in vitro, and blockade of K+ and water loss via this channel could be a potential therapy in vivo. We treated five subjects who have sickle cell anemia with oral clotrimazole, a specific Gardos channel inhibitor. Patients were started on a dose of 10 mg clotrimazole/kg/d for one week. Protocol design allowed the daily dose to be escalated by 10 mg/kg each week until significant changes in erythrocyte density and K+ transport were achieved. Blood was sampled three times a week for hematological and chemical assays, erythrocyte density, cation content, and K+ transport. At dosages of 20 mg clotrimazole/kg/d, all subjects showed Gardos channel inhibition, reduced erythrocyte dehydration, increased cell K+ content, and somewhat increased hemoglobin levels. Adverse effects were limited to mild/moderate dysuria in all subjects, and a reversible increase in plasma alanine transaminase and aspartic transaminase levels in two subjects treated with 30 mg clotrimazole/kg/d. This is the first in vivo evidence that the Gardos channel causes dehydration of sickle erythrocytes, and that its pharmacologic inhibition provides a realistic antisickling strategy.
C Brugnara, B Gee, C C Armsby, S Kurth, M Sakamoto, N Rifai, S L Alper, O S Platt
We examined the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme for hexosamine biosynthesis, glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFA) in human skeletal muscle cultures (HSMC), from 17 nondiabetic control and 13 subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. GFA activity was assayed from HSMC treated with low (5 mM) or high (20 mM) glucose and low (22 pM) or high (30 microM) concentrations of insulin. In control subjects GFA activity decreased with increasing glucose disposal rate (r = -0.68, P < 0.025). In contrast, a positive correlation existed between GFA and glucose disposal in the diabetics (r = 0.86, P < 0.005). Increased GFA activity was also correlated with body mass index in controls but not diabetics. GFA activity was significantly stimulated by high glucose (22%), high insulin (43%), and their combination (61%). GFA activity and its regulation by glucose and insulin were not significantly different in diabetic HSMC. We conclude that glucose and insulin regulate GFA activity in skeletal muscle. More importantly, our results are consistent with a regulatory role for the hexosamine pathway in human glucose homeostasis. This relationship between hexosamine biosynthesis and the regulation of glucose metabolism is altered in non-insulin-dependent diabetes.
M C Daniels, T P Ciaraldi, S Nikoulina, R R Henry, D A McClain
We reported that the Os mutation in ROP mice induced a 50% reduction in nephron number, glomerular hypertrophy, and severe glomerulosclerosis. We examined two mouse strains with the Os mutation, ROP Os/+ and C57 Os/+ mice, to determine whether the genetic background influenced the development of glomerulosclerosis. Nephron number was decreased by 50% in both ROP Os/+ and C57 Os/+ mice, and a glomerular volume and labeling index were two- to threefold increased in both. Whereas glomerulosclerosis was severe in ROP Os/+ mice, it was absent or minimal in C57 Os/+ mice. ROP Os/+ glomeruli had two- to threefold more type IV collagen, laminin, and tenascin than C57 Os/+ by immunofluorescence microscopy. Glomerular alpha 1IV collagen and tenascin mRNA levels were increased (2.8- and 1.7-fold) in ROP Os/+ and in C57 Os/+ (1.7- and 1.4-fold) mice. Both ROP Os/+ and C57 Os/+ mice had a slight increase (1.5- and 1.7-fold) in 72-kD collagenase mRNA levels. Whereas laminin B1 mRNA levels were twofold higher in ROP +/+ than in C57 +/+ mice, there was no further change in the presence of the Os mutation. Thus, the response to the Os mutation depended on the mouse strain, since severe glomerulosclerosis occurred only in ROP Os/+ mice, even though cell proliferation and glomerular hypertrophy also were present in C57 Os/+ mice.
C He, C Esposito, C Phillips, R K Zalups, D A Henderson, G E Striker, L J Striker
Mutation of a critical carboxy-terminal cysteine residue (C105V) in the thyrotropin-beta (TSH-beta) subunit gene was found in two related families with central hypothyroidism. Affected patients had low thyroid hormone levels and radioactive iodine uptake in the thyroid gland associated with measurable serum TSH. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated TSH secretion did not increase thyroid hormone production in these patients as compared to their unaffected siblings, suggesting that the mutant TSH was biologically inactive in vivo. Recombinant TSH harboring this mutation was confirmed to be biologically inactive in an in vitro bioassay. Based on crystallographic structure of chorionic gonadotropin, a disulfide bond between C19 and C105 in the TSH-beta subunit is predicted to form the "buckle" of a "seat belt" that surrounds the common alpha subunit and maintains the conformation and bioactivity of the hormone. This natural mutation of the TSH-beta subunit confirms the importance of the seat belt in the family of pituitary and placental glycoprotein hormones.
G Medeiros-Neto, D T Herodotou, S Rajan, S Kommareddi, L de Lacerda, R Sandrini, M C Boguszewski, A N Hollenberg, S Radovick, F E Wondisford
Members of a domestic cat colony with chylomicronemia share many phenotypic features with human lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency. Biochemical analysis reveals that these cats do have defective LPL catalytic activity and have a clinical phenotype very similar to human LPL deficiency. To determine the molecular basis underlying this biochemical phenotype, we have cloned the normal and affected cat LPL cDNAs and shown that the affected cat has a nucleotide change resulting in a substitution of arginine for glycine at residue 412 in exon 8. In vitro mutagenesis and expression studies, in addition to segregation analysis, have shown that this DNA change is the cause of LPL deficiency in this cat colony. Reduced body mass, growth rates, and increased stillbirth rates are observed in cats homozygous for this mutation. These findings show that this LPL deficient cat can serve as an animal model of human LPL deficiency and will be useful for in vivo investigation of the relationship between triglyceride rich lipoproteins and atherogenic risk and for the assessment of new approaches for treatment of LPL deficiency, including gene therapy.
D G Ginzinger, M E Lewis, Y Ma, B R Jones, G Liu, S D Jones
An in vivo model system to understand the mechanism of xenograft rejection was established using human peripheral blood leukocyte-reconstituted SCID (hu-PBL-SCID) mice. Human xenoreactive natural antibodies (XNA), of IgM and IgG subtypes, capable of binding to pig aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) were detected in the sera of hu-PBL-SCID by ELISA and flowcytometric methods. Western blot analysis of PAEC lysates showed that IgM and IgG XNA from hu-PBL-SCID recognized xenoantigens with similar molecular mass as those recognized by XNA from normal human serum (NHS). This result demonstrated that hu-PBL-SCID contained XNA representing the same repertoire as that of the NHS. XNA from NHS and hu-PBL-SCID were also able to induce intracellular Ca2+ signals in cultured PAEC several fold above the basal level. This result revealed their functional similarity and demonstrated for the first time that XNA in the absence of C can activate PAEC, which may lead to the pathology of xenograft rejection. In vivo, PAEC transplanted under the kidney capsule of hu-PBL-SCID mice showed deposition of human IgM and mouse C. In summary, the present study demonstrates that hu-PBL-SCID can serve as a useful model to characterize innate immunity against xenograft.
B Naziruddin, R Shiroki, S Shishido, T Howard, T Mohanakumar
H19 is a developmentally regulated gene with putative tumor suppressor activity, and loss of H19 expression may be involved in Wilms' tumorigenesis. In this report, we have performed in situ hybridization analysis of H19 expression during normal rabbit development and in human atherosclerotic plaques. We have also used cultured smooth muscle cells to identify H19 regulatory factors. Our data indicate that H19 expression in the developing skeletal and smooth muscles correlated with specific differentiation events in these tissues. Expression of H19 in the skeletal muscle correlated with nonproliferative, actin-positive muscle cells. In the prenatal blood vessel, H19 expression was both temporally and spatially regulated with initial loss of expression in the inner smooth muscle layers adjacent to the lumen. We also identified H19-positive cells within the adult atherosclerotic lesion and we suggest that these cells may recapitulate earlier developmental events. These results, along with the identification of the insulin family of growth factors as potent regulatory molecules for H19 expression, provide additional clues toward understanding the physiological regulation and function of H19.
D K Han, Z Z Khaing, R A Pollock, C C Haudenschild, G Liau
Endothelin (ET) is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide which is elevated in plasma in congestive heart failure. Recent studies suggest an important role for angiotensin II (AII) in the activation of ET in cultured cardiomyocytes. Chronic thoracic inferior vena caval constriction (TIVCC) is a model of reduced cardiac output that mimics the neurohumoral activation observed in congestive heart failure. We hypothesized that activation of the renin-angiotensin system in TIVCC plays a role in the activation of ET and that the elevation of endogenous ET contributes to the systemic and renal vasoconstriction that characterizes this model of venous congestion. We studied conscious dogs after 7 d of TIVCC in the presence or absence of chronic angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition with enalapril. TIVCC resulted in marked activation of plasma AII and ET in plasma, right atrium, lung, and renal medulla which was further localized to cardiomyocytes, pulmonary, and renal epithelial cells. Chronic angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition abolished the increases in plasma AII and ET during TIVCC. Acute endothelin A receptor blockade with FR-139317 resulted in significant decreases in mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance in TIVCC. We conclude that activation of the renin-angiotensin system contributes to the activation of circulating and local ET in TIVCC and that this activation plays an important role in the regulation of arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance in this model of congestive failure.
A L Clavell, M T Mattingly, T L Stevens, A Nir, S Wright, L L Aarhus, D M Heublein, J C Burnett Jr
The aim of this study was to examine the role of lymphocytes in regulating expression of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway in monocytes. When monocytes were cultured over a period of days with lymphocytes, calcium ionophore-stimulated 5-lipoxygenase activity was enhanced. If lymphocytes alone were activated with lectins and their supernatants added to monocytes, stimulated 5-lipoxygenase activity was increased, whereas supernatants from lymphocytes cultured without lectins had no effect. Increased immunoreactive protein and mRNA for 5-lipoxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase activating protein were present in cells conditioned with lectin-activated lymphocyte supernatants. The effect of activated-lymphocyte supernatants could be mimicked by either GM-CSF or IL-3, but there was no additive effect with both cytokines. Both GM-CSF and IL-3 were present in the supernatant from lectin-activated lymphocytes at concentrations above their ED50, but were undetectable in the supernatant from nonactivated lymphocytes. The effect of lectin-activated lymphocyte supernatant could be inhibited by neutralizing antibodies to both cytokines, but not to either cytokine alone. We conclude that lymphocytes can regulate the expression of 5-lipoxygenase in monocytes, over a period of days, via the release of soluble factors, primarily GM-CSF and IL-3.
W L Ring, C A Riddick, J R Baker, D A Munafo, T D Bigby
We have characterized the mechanism whereby a G protein-coupled receptor, the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor, promotes cellular AA release via the activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK-D1) cells. Stimulation of cells with the receptor agonist epinephrine or with the protein kinase C (PKC) activator PMA increased AA release in intact cells and the activity of PLA2 in subsequently prepared cell lysates. The effects of epinephrine were mediated by alpha 1-adrenergic receptors since they were blocked by the alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin. Epinephrine- and PMA-promoted AA release and activation of the PLA2 were inhibited by AACOCF3, an inhibitor of the 85-kD cPLA2. The 85-kD cPLA2 could be immunoprecipitated from the cell lysate using a specific anti-cPLA2 serum. Enhanced cPLA2 activity in cells treated with epinephrine or PMA could be recovered in such immunoprecipitates, thus directly demonstrating that alpha 1-adrenergic receptors activate the 85-kD cPLA2. Activation of cPLA2 in cell lysates by PMA or epinephrine could be reversed by treatment of lysates with exogenous phosphatase. In addition, both PMA and epinephrine induced a molecular weight shift, consistent with phosphorylation, as well as an increase in activity of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. The time course of epinephrine-promoted activation of MAP kinase preceded that of the accumulation of released AA and correlated with the time course of cPLA2 activation. Down-regulation of PKC by overnight incubation of cells with PMA or inhibition of PKC with the PKC inhibitor sphingosine blocked the stimulation of MAP kinase by epinephrine and, correspondingly, epinephrine-promoted AA release was inhibited under these conditions. Similarly, blockade of MAP kinase stimulation by the MAP kinase cascade inhibitor PD098059 inhibited epinephrine-promoted AA release. The sensitivity to Ca2+ was similar, although the maximal activity of cPLA2 was enhanced by treatment of cells with epinephrine or PMA. The data thus demonstrate that in MDCK-D1 cells alpha 1-adrenergic receptors regulate AA release through phosphorylation-dependent activation of the 85-kD cPLA2 by MAP kinase subsequent to activation of PKC. This may represent a general mechanism by which G protein-coupled receptors stimulate AA release and formation of products of AA metabolism.
M Xing, P A Insel
Ectopic ACTH secretion occurs in highly differentiated and rather indolent tumors like bronchial carcinoids or, in contrast, in various types of aggressive and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. We explored this phenomenon using the recently cloned human pituitary V3 vasopressin receptor as an alternate molecular marker of the corticotroph phenotype. Expression of V3 receptor, corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) receptor, and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) genes was examined in tumors of pituitary and nonpituitary origin. A comparative RT-PCR approach revealed signals for both V3 receptor and CHR receptor mRNAs in 17 of 18 ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, and 6 of 6 normal pituitaries; in six growth hormone- or prolactin-secreting adenomas, a very faint V3 receptor signal was observed in three cases, and CRH receptor signal was undetected in all. Six of eight bronchial carcinoids responsible for the ectopic ACTH syndrome had both POMC and V3 receptor signals as high as those in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas; in contrast, no POMC signal and only a very faint V3 receptor signal were detected in six of eight nonsecreting bronchial carcinoids. Northern blot analysis showed V3 receptor mRNA of identical size in ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids and pituitary tumors. Other types of nonpituitary tumors responsible for ectopic ACTH syndrome presented much lower levels of both POMC and V3 receptor gene expression than those found in ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids. In contrast with the V3 receptor, CRH receptor mRNA was detected in the majority of neuroendocrine tumors irrespective of their POMC status. These results show that expression of the V3 receptor gene participates in the corticotroph phenotype. Its striking association with ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids defines a subset of nonpituitary tumors in which ectopic POMC gene expression is but one aspect of a wider process of corticotroph cell differentiation, and opens new possibilities of pharmacological investigations and even manipulations of this peculiar ACTH hypersecretory syndrome.
Y de Keyzer, F Lenne, C Auzan, S Jégou, P René, H Vaudry, J M Kuhn, J P Luton, E Clauser, X Bertagna
In human skeletal muscle, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) exerts both growth hormone-like (increase in protein synthesis) and insulin-like (decrease in protein degradation and increase in glucose uptake) actions and augments forearm blood flow two- to threefold. This study was designed to address whether (a) the increase in blood flow due to IGF-I could be blocked by an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase; and (b) the metabolic actions of IGF-I were altered by use of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Forearm blood flow, glucose, lactate, oxygen, nitrite, and phenylalanine balances and phenylalanine kinetics were studied in a total of 17 healthy, adult volunteers after an overnight fast in two different protocols. In protocol 1, after basal samples IGF-I was infused alone for 4 h with samples repeated during the last 30 min. After the 4-h sample period, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) was infused into the brachial artery for 2 h to bring flow back to baseline and repeat samples were taken (6 h). In response to IGF-I alone, forearm blood flow rose from 3.8 +/- 1.0 (bas) to 7.9 +/- l.9 (4 h) ml/min/100 ml (P < 0.01) and was reduced back to baseline by L-NMMA at 6 h (P < 0.01). In protocol 1, IGF-I alone increased forearm nitrite release at 4 h (P < 0.03), which was reduced back to baseline by L-NMMA at 6 h (P < 0.05). Despite the reduction in flow with L-NMMA, IGF+L-NMMA yielded increases in glucose uptake (P < 0.005), lactate release (P < 0.04), oxygen uptake (P < 0.01), and a positive shift in phenylalanine balance (P < 0.01) due to both an increase in muscle protein synthesis (P < 0.02) and a decrease in protein degradation (P < 0.03). In protocol 2, L-NMMA was coinfused with IGF-I for 6 h, with the dose titrated to keep blood flow +/- 25% of baseline. Coinfusion of L-NMMA restrained blood flow to baseline and also yielded the same, significant metabolic effects, except that no significant increase in muscle protein synthesis was detected. These observations suggest: (a) that IGF-I increases blood flow through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism; (b) that total blood flow does not affect the insulin-like response of muscle to IGF-I; and (c) that nitric oxide may be required for the protein synthetic (growth hormone-like) response of muscle to IGF-I.
D A Fryburg
The frequent inflammatory responses to implanted medical devices are puzzling in view of the inert and nontoxic nature of most biomaterials. Because implant surfaces spontaneously adsorb host proteins, this proteinaceous film is probably important in the subsequent attraction of phagocytes. In fact, earlier we found that acute inflammatory responses to experimental polyethylene terephthalate implants in mice require the precedent adsorption of one particular host protein, fibrinogen. The present investigations were aimed at defining the molecular determinants of fibrinogen-mediated acute inflammatory responses to implanted biomaterials. We find: (a) plasmin degradation of purified fibrinogen into defined domains reveals that the proinflammatory activity resides within the D fragment, which contains neither the fibrin cross-linking sites nor RGD sequences; (b) the major (and, perhaps, exclusive) proinflammatory sequence appears to be fibrinogen gamma 190-202, previously shown to interact with CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1). The chemically synthesized peptide, cross-linked to albumin (which itself does not promote inflammatory responses), mimics the proinflammatory effect of adsorbed native fibrinogen; and (c) this sequence probably promotes inflammatory responses through interactions with Mac-1 because phagocyte accumulation on experimental implants is almost completely abrogated by administration of recombinant neutrophil inhibitory factor (which blocks CD11b-fibrin(ogen) interaction). We conclude that improved knowledge of such surface-protein-phagocyte interactions may permit the future development of more biocompatible implantable materials.
L Tang, T P Ugarova, E F Plow, J W Eaton
Identification of expanded clones engaged in immune and autoimmune responses is still imperfect, since they are often diluted by irrelevant cells expressing diverse specificities. To efficiently characterize T cell receptors expressed by clonally expanded lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory conditions, we developed an assay system, termed sequence enrichment nuclease assay (SENA). Key elements of SENA are the efficiency of heat-denatured DNA strand reassociation, which increases exponentially with concentration, and the elimination of unhybridized sequences by single-strand-specific DNase. T cell clonal expansions were identified primarily in synovial fluids, but also in peripheral blood of RA patients. Synovial fluids had more prominent expansions in the CD8 than the CD4 subset, whereas clonal expansions in the CD4 subset predominated among peripheral blood lymphocytes. Dominant clones exhibited diverse sequences with no clear conservation of junctional motifs, although the same amino acid sequence was identified in two patients. In most instances, dominant clones in the blood were discordant to those in the corresponding synovial fluid, suggesting local stimulation or preferential sequestration of T cells displaying particular specifities.
R González-Quintial, R Baccalá, R M Pope, A N Theofilopoulos
We studied 24-h profiles of circulating leptin levels using a sensitive and specific RIA in lean controls and obese subjects with or without non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) during normal routine activity. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in obese (41.7 +/- 9.0 ng/ml; n = 11) and obese NIDDM (30.8 +/- 6.7; n = 9) subjects compared with those in lean controls (12.0 +/- 4.4, n = 6). In all the three groups, serum leptin levels were highest between midnight and early morning hours and lowest around noon to midafternoon. The nocturnal rise in leptin levels was significant when data were analyzed by ANOVA (lean: F = 3.17, P < 0.0001, n = 4; obese: F = 2.02, P < 0.005, n = 11; and obese NIDDM: F = 4.9, P < 0.0001, n = 5). The average circadian amplitude between acrophase and nadir was 75.6% in lean, 51.7%, in obese and 60.7% in obese NIDDM groups, respectively. No significant correlations (P > 0.05) were observed between circulating levels of leptin and either insulin or glucose levels in any of the 20 subjects studied for 24-h profiles. The nocturnal rise in leptin observed in the present study resembles those reported for prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and free fatty acids. We speculate that the nocturnal rise in leptin could have an effect in suppressing appetite during the night while sleeping.
M K Sinha, J P Ohannesian, M L Heiman, A Kriauciunas, T W Stephens, S Magosin, C Marco, J F Caro
Allelic variants of Fc gamma R confer distinct phagocytic capacities providing a mechanism for heritable susceptibility to immune complex disease. Human Fc gamma RIIa has two codominantly expressed alleles, R131 and H131, which differ substantially in their ability to ligate human IgG2. The Fc gamma RIIa-H131 is the only human Fc gamma R which recognizes IgG2 efficiently and optimal IgG2 handling occurs only in the homozygous state. Therefore, since immune complex clearance is essential in SLE, we hypothesized that Fc gamma RIIA genes are important disease susceptibility factors for SLE, particularly lupus nephritis. In a two-stage cross-sectional study, we compared the distribution of Fc gamma RIIA alleles in African Americans with SLE to that in African American non-SLE controls. A pilot study of 43 SLE patients and 39 controls demonstrated a skewed distribution of Fc gamma RIIA alleles, with only 9% of SLE patients homozygous for Fc gamma RIIa-H131 compared with 36% of controls (odds ratio, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.05-0.69, P = 0.009). This was confirmed with a multicenter study of 214 SLE patients and 100 non-SLE controls. The altered distribution of Fc gamma RIIA alleles was most striking in lupus nephritis. Trend analysis of the genotype distribution showed a highly significant decrease in Fc gamma RIIA-H131 as the likelihood for lupus nephritis increased (P = 0.0004) consistent with a protective effect of the Fc gamma RIIA-H131 gene. The skewing in the distribution of Fc gamma RIIA alleles identifies this gene as a risk factor with pathophysiologic importance for the SLE diathesis in African Americans.
J E Salmon, S Millard, L A Schachter, F C Arnett, E M Ginzler, M F Gourley, R Ramsey-Goldman, M G Peterson, R P Kimberly