We show that treatment of adult mice with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor 1 (rhIGF-1) induces striking modifications in lymphocyte number and function. 9-mo-old male mice received rhIGF-1 (4 mg/kg per d) or its excipient by subcutaneous infusion from osmotic minipumps for 7 or 14 d. Mice were weighed daily and bled at sacrifice; the spleen and thymus were harvested and single cell suspensions were made for analysis of cell phenotype and cell number. The responses of splenocytes to mitogens (concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide, and pokeweed mitogen), alloantigens and dinitrophenyl ovalbumin were measured. After either 7 or 14 d of treatment, rhIGF-1 had an overall whole-body anabolic effect, resulting in increased body and organ weights with prominent increases in the weight of the spleen and thymus. Furthermore, the rhIGF-1 treated mice were normoglycemic but had reduced blood urea nitrogens, again reflecting the anabolic activity of rhIGF-1. The increased spleen and thymus weights were associated with a large increase in the number of lymphocytes in both organs. In addition to an increase in T cells, specifically CD4+ T cells, a dramatic increase in splenic B cells was also observed. This increase was accompanied by an enhanced responsiveness to dinitrophenyl ovalbumin resulting in increased immunoglobulin production. However, despite the increases in cellularity, there was a decrease in the in vitro responses of spleen cells to mitogens after 7 d of rhIGF-1 treatment. In contrast, treatment with rhIGF-1 for 14 d increased both the cell number and mitogenic responses of splenocytes suggesting that some time is required for the cells populating the peripheral organs to gain mitogenic responsiveness. It is clear from these data that rhIGF-1, at doses that have whole-body anabolic activity, can expand cell number in lymphoid tissue in a normal adult mouse. These dual effects of rhIGF-1, of increasing lymphocyte number and activity, indicate that, in a normal adult animal, rhIGF-1 can cause major changes in lymphoid tissues that are of potential benefit to the functioning of the immune system.
R Clark, J Strasser, S McCabe, K Robbins, P Jardieu
Inbred DA (AG-B4, RT1a) and WF (AG-B2, RT1v) rats were used as donors and recipients of aortic allografts. The recipient rats were inoculated i.p. either on day 1 (early infection) or on day 60 (late infection) with 10(5) plaque-forming units of rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV). The control rats were left noninfected. The presence of viral infection was demonstrated by plaque assays from biopsies of the salivary glands, liver, and spleen at sacrifice. The rats received 300 microCi[3H]thymidine by i.v. injection 3 h before sacrifice, and the grafts were removed at various time points for histology, immunohistochemistry, and autoradiography. RCMV infection significantly enhanced the generation of allograft arteriosclerosis. Infection at the time of transplantation had two important effects. First, the infection was associated with an early, prominent inflammatory episode and proliferation of inflammatory cells in the allograft adventitia. Second, the viral infection doubled the proliferation rate of smooth muscle cells and the arteriosclerotic alterations in the intima. In late infection the impact of RCMV infection on the allograft histology was nearly nonexistent. RCMV infection showed no effect in syngeneic grafts. These results suggest that early infection is more important to the generation of accelerated allograft arteriosclerosis than late infection, and that an acute alloimmune response must be associated with virus infection, to induce accelerated allograft arteriosclerosis. RCMV-infected aortic allografts, as described here, provide the first experimental model to investigate the interaction between the virus and the vascular wall of the transplant.
K B Lemström, J H Bruning, C A Bruggeman, I T Lautenschlager, P J Häyry
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) bind rapidly and reversibly to endothelial cells induced to express P-selectin, a glycoprotein that mediates adhesive intercellular interactions. In addition, PMNs adherent to endothelium expressing P-selectin demonstrate an intracellular Ca2+ transient, functionally up-regulate beta-2-integrins (CD11/CD18 glycoproteins), become polarized in shape, and are primed for enhanced degranulation when subsequently stimulated with chemotactic factors. However, P-selectin induces none of these responses directly when used alone, when incorporated into model membranes, or when expressed by transfected cells. The absence of direct activation of the PMNs is not due to competing antiinflammatory effects of P-selectin; instead, purified P-selectin and P-selectin in membranes support agonist-stimulated PMN responses. Furthermore, tethering of PMNs to endothelial surfaces by P-selectin is required for priming to occur efficiently, as shown by experiments with blocking monoclonal antibodies. The priming event is directly mediated by the signaling molecule, platelet-activating factor (PAF), and is inhibited by blocking the PAF receptor on PMNs. Thus, P-selectin and PAF are components of an adhesion and activation cascade, but have distinct roles: P-selectin tethers and captures the PMN, whereas PAF mediates juxtacrine activation. In vivo, selectins may facilitate interaction of target cells with membrane-bound molecules that send intercellular signals, in addition to mediating rolling of leukocytes and other adhesive functions.
D E Lorant, M K Topham, R E Whatley, R P McEver, T M McIntyre, S M Prescott, G A Zimmerman
Electrophysiological techniques were used to determine the electrical properties of the collecting duct (CD) cell in the isolated cortical collecting duct from obstructed (UUOOK) and contralateral (UUOCK) kidneys in rabbits 24 h after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO); results were compared with those from sham-operated kidneys. The lumen-negative transepithelial voltage and the basolateral membrane voltage (VB) were decreased in the UUOOK, and increased in the UUOCK. The transepithelial conductance (GT) was decreased in parallel with an increase in the fractional apical membrane resistance (fRA) and a decrease in apical membrane conductance in the UUOOK. By contrast, the GT was increased in parallel with increases in apical and basolateral membrane conductances in the UUOCK. The amiloride-sensitive changes in apical membrane voltage (VA), GT and fRA were lower in the UUOOK, but greater in the UUOCK. The changes in VA and GT upon raising the perfusate K+ concentration and upon addition of luminal Ba2+ were decreased in the UUOOK, and increased in the UUOCK. Addition of ouabain to the bath resulted in a smaller depolarization of VB in the UUOOK, but in a greater depolarization in the UUOCK. Upon lowering bath Cl-, the change in basolateral membrane electromotive force (delta EMF) was increased in the UUOOK, and decreased in the UUOCK. Reversely, upon raising bath K+, the delta EMF was decreased in the UUOOK, and increased in the UUOCK. We conclude: (a) the conductances of Na+ and K+ in the apical membrane, and active Na(+)-K+ pump activity and relative K+ conductance in the basolateral membrane are decreased in the UUOOK, and increased in the UUOCK; (b) the relative basolateral membrane Cl- conductance was increased in the UUOOK, and decreased in the UUOCK.
S Muto, Y Miyata, Y Asano
Studies were carried out on a line of transgenic mice that expressed an internally deleted COL2A1 gene and developed a phenotype resembling human chondrodysplasias (Vandenberg et al. 1991. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 88:7640-7644. Marked differences in phenotype were observed with propagation of the mutated gene in an inbred strain of mice in that approximately 15% of the transgenic mice had a cleft palate and a lethal phenotype, whereas the remaining mice were difficult to distinguish from normal littermates. 1-d- and 3-mo-old transgenic mice that were viable showed microscopic signs of chondrodysplasia with reduced amounts of collagen fibrils in the cartilage matrix, dilatation of the rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in the chondrocytes, and decrease of optical path difference in polarized light microscopy. The transgenic mice also showed signs of disturbed growth as evidenced by lower body weight, lower length and weight of the femur, decreased bone collagen, decreased bone mineral, and decreased resistance of bone to breakage. Comparisons of mice ranging in age from 1 d to 15 mo demonstrated that there was decreasing evidence of a chondrodysplasia as the mice grew older. Instead, the most striking feature in the 15-mo-old mice were degenerative changes of articular cartilage similar to osteoarthritis.
H J Helminen, K Kiraly, A Pelttari, M I Tammi, P Vandenberg, R Pereira, R Dhulipala, J S Khillan, L Ala-Kokko, E L Hume
Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency causes severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) by interfering with the metabolism of deoxyadenosine, which is toxic to T lymphocytes at all stages of differentiation. Enzyme replacement with polyethylene glycol-modified ADA (PEG-ADA) has been previously shown to correct deoxyadenosine metabolism and improve mitogen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation. We studied the biochemical and immunologic effects of PEG-ADA in two infants with ADA-deficient SCID. While in a catabolic state, higher doses of PEG-ADA than previously described were required to normalize deoxyadenosine metabolism. After biochemical improvement, the patients recovered immune function in a pattern similar to that observed in normal thymic ontogeny and in patients with immunological reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation. Immune reconstitution was marked by the sequential appearance in the peripheral blood of phenotypic T lymphocytes corresponding to successive stages of thymic differentiation. Functional reconstitution was marked by the successive appearance of mitogen responses dependent on exogenous in vitro IL-2, mitogen responses not requiring exogenous IL-2, antigen-specific responses dependent on exogenous IL-2, and finally, antigen-specific responses not requiring exogenous IL-2. Natural killer function was tested in one patient and normalized with PEG-ADA therapy. Optimal PEG-ADA therapy appears to normalize thymic differentiation in ADA-deficient SCID, resulting in normal antigen-specific immune function.
K Weinberg, M S Hershfield, J Bastian, D Kohn, L Sender, R Parkman, C Lenarsky
Using the functionally differentiated colonic cell line, HT29-19A, we have examined sites at which inhibitory G-proteins mediate the antisecretory actions of somatostatin (SST) and the alpha 2-adrenergic agonist, clonidine (CLON) at the epithelial level. Both agents caused a dose-dependent inhibition (EC50:SST 35 nM; CLON 225 nM) of Cl- secretion (assessed by changes in short circuit current) activated by cAMP-mediated agonists, PGE2 and cholera toxin. Inhibition was accompanied by a reduction in intracellular cAMP accumulation and could be blocked by pretreatment with pertussis toxin at a concentration (200 ng/ml) which activated ADP-ribosylation of a 41-kD inhibitory G protein in HT29-19A membranes. Secretion stimulated by the permeant cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cAMP, was also inhibited by SST and CLON (30-50%; P < 0.005), indicating additional inhibitory sites located distal to cAMP production. Both agents were effective inhibitors of secretion mediated through the Ca2+ signaling pathway. SST (1 microM) and CLON (10 microM) reduced the Isc response to the muscarinic agonist, carbachol, by 60-70%; inhibition was reversed in pertussis toxin-treated cells. These effects did not, however, involve inhibition of the carbachol-induced increase in cellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate levels or the rise in cytosolic calcium, [Ca]i. Inhibition by SST of secretion induced by phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate but not by the calcium agonist, thapsigargin, suggests that SST may act at a distal inhibitory site in the Ca(2+)-dependent secretory process activated by protein kinase C. We conclude that SST and alpha 2-adrenergic agonists can act directly on intestinal epithelial cells to exert a comprehensive inhibition of Cl- secretion mediated through both cAMP and Ca2+/protein kinase C signaling pathways. Inhibition is mediated via pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins at sites located both proximal and distal to the production of second messengers.
G Warhurst, L A Turnberg, N B Higgs, A Tonge, J Grundy, K E Fogg
We analyzed the DNA sequence of the cDNA encoding the NH2 terminal region of beta spectrin from members of a kindred with autosomal dominant hereditary spherocytosis associated with defective protein 4.1 binding. We found a point mutation at codon 202 within the 272 amino acid NH2-terminal region of beta spectrin. TGG was changed to CGG, resulting in the replacement of tryptophan by arginine. The base change eliminates a normally occurring PvuII restriction site and creates a new MspI site. This finding enabled rapid detection or exclusion of the mutation at the DNA level among the family members, including one member for whom this analysis was performed prenatally. The mutation was found only in the affected family members and occurred as a de novo mutation in the proband. It has not been found in 20 other kindreds. The recombinant peptide derived from the normal cDNA retains the capacity to sediment with protein 4.1 and F-actin. The mutant peptide spontaneously degrades. This variant represents both the first point mutation and the first beta spectrin mutation demonstrated in autosomal dominant hereditary spherocytosis. Furthermore, the mutation is located within a conserved sequence among spectrinlike proteins and may define an amino acid critical for protein 4.1 binding activity.
P S Becker, W T Tse, S E Lux, B G Forget
Aldose reductase (AR2), a putative "hypertonicity stress protein" whose gene is induced by hyperosmolarity, protects renal medullary cells against the interstitial hyperosmolarity of antidiuresis by catalyzing the synthesis of millimolar concentrations of intracellular sorbitol from glucose. Although AR2 gene induction has been noted in a variety of renal and nonrenal cells subjected to hypertonic stress in vitro, the functional significance of AR2 gene expression in cells not normally exposed to a hyperosmolar milieu is not fully understood. The physiological impact of basal AR2 expression in such cells may be limited to hyperglycemic states in which AR2 promotes pathological polyol accumulation, a mechanism invoked in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Since AR2 overexpression in the retinal pigment epithelium has been associated with diabetic retinopathy, the regulation of AR2 gene expression and associated changes in sorbitol and myo-inositol were studied in human retinal pigment epithelial cells in culture. The relative abundance of aldehyde reductase (AR1) and AR2 mRNA was quantitated by filter hybridization of RNA from several human retinal pigment epithelial cell lines exposed to hyperglycemic and hyperosmolar conditions in vitro. AR2 but not AR1 mRNA was significantly increased some 11- to 18-fold by hyperosmolarity in several retinal pigment epithelial cell lines. A single cell line with a 15-fold higher basal level of AR2 mRNA than other cell lines tested demonstrated no significant increase in AR2 mRNA in response to hypertonic stress. This cell line demonstrated accelerated and exaggerated production of sorbitol and depletion of myo-inositol upon exposure to 20 mM glucose. Therefore, abnormal AR2 expression may enhance the sensitivity of cells to the biochemical consequences of hyperglycemia potentiating the development of diabetic complications.
D N Henry, M Del Monte, D A Greene, P D Killen
Human neutrophils (PMN) demonstrated potent fungistatic activity against Histoplasma capsulatum (Hc) yeasts in a sensitive microassay that quantifies the growth of yeasts by the incorporation of [3H]leucine. At a PMN:yeast ratio of 1:2, PMN inhibited the growth of yeasts by 37%. Maximum inhibition of 85% to 95% was achieved at a PMN/yeast ratio of 10:1 to 50:1. Opsonization of the yeasts in fresh or heat-inactivated serum was required for PMN-mediated fungistasis, but ingestion of the yeasts was not required. Recognition and phagocytosis of opsonized yeasts was via PMN complement receptor (CR) type 1 (CR1), CR3, and FcRIII (CD16). PMN fungistatic activity was evident by 2 h, was maximum at 24 h, and persisted up to 5 d. In contrast, yeasts multiplied within monocytes to a greater extent than in culture medium alone. PMN from three patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) inhibited the growth of Hc yeasts by an average of 97%, compared with 86% in three normal controls. Furthermore, preincubation of PMN with the lysosomotropic agent NH4Cl inhibited fungistatic activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Finally, experiments with subcellular fractions of PMN demonstrated that the principal component of the fungistatic activity of PMN was localized in the azurophil granules. These data demonstrate that human PMN possess potent fungistatic activity against Hc yeasts and further show that fungistasis is mediated by antimicrobial agents contained in the azurophil granules.
S L Newman, L Gootee, J E Gabay
The development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats was studied over a period of 21 d after an intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. The expression of three small proteoglycans (biglycan, decorin, and fibromodulin), collagen III and TGF-beta 1 was studied by RNA-transfer blot analysis. The proteoglycans were also studied by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blots. TGF-beta 1 mRNA increased threefold already on day 3 and remained elevated until day 10. After the increase of TGF-beta 1 mRNA the messages for biglycan and collagen III steadily increased to reach a maximum 10 d after bleomycin instillation. The mRNA for biglycan increased maximally fourfold and that of collagen III 2.5-fold. Decorin mRNA, in contrast to biglycan decreased and reached 20% of control on day 10. The message for fibromodulin remained constant throughout the study period. The amounts of biglycan and decorin in the tissue changed in accordance with the mRNA levels. The results corroborate and extend previous in vitro studies concerning the effect of TGF-beta 1 on the metabolism of small proteoglycans and show that these macromolecules are regulated differently also in vivo. The marked alterations of biglycan and decorin during the development of fibrosis suggests that these proteoglycans have a regulating role in this process.
G Westergren-Thorsson, J Hernnäs, B Särnstrand, A Oldberg, D Heinegård, A Malmström
The levels of oxidized serum lipoproteins are increased in humans and animals with diabetes. We have examined the contribution of dietary oxidized lipids on the levels of oxidized lipoproteins. In both control and streptozocin induced diabetic rats, the oxidized lipid content of mesenteric lymph chylomicrons (CM) increased when increasing quantities of oxidized lipids were administered intragastrically. However, at all levels of administered oxidized lipids, the quantity of oxidized lipids in CM was greater in the diabetic animals. These results indicate that oxidized lipids are absorbed and packaged into CM and suggest that there is increased absorption of oxidized lipids in diabetic animals. In nondiabetic rats fed a fat-free diet, the levels of oxidized lipids in their serum lipoproteins were very low. When oxidized lipids were added to the diet, the quantity of peroxides in serum lipoproteins increased about fivefold. In diabetic animals fed a fat-free diet, there were also very low levels of oxidized lipids in their serum lipoproteins, and there was no difference between control and diabetic rats. However, when diabetic animals were fed a diet containing oxidized lipids, the quantity of oxidized lipids in their serum lipoproteins increased 16-fold and were significantly greater than in controls. Thus, in both control and diabetic rats the quantity of oxidized lipids in the diet largely determines the levels of oxidized lipids in circulating lipoproteins. However, in diabetic animals the effect of diet is more pronounced. Together with the CM studies, these results demonstrate that dietary oxidized lipids make a major contribution to the levels of oxidized lipids in circulating lipoproteins and indicate that increased absorption of oxidized lipids in diabetic animals may play a role in the elevation of oxidized lipoproteins observed in this disorder.
I Staprans, J H Rapp, X M Pan, K R Feingold
We have studied the influence of grass pollen immunotherapy on cellular infiltration and cytokine mRNA expression during allergen-induced late-phase cutaneous responses. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of immunotherapy in 40 adult hay fever sufferers, clinical improvement was accompanied by a decrease in the size of the late-phase skin response. When the immunotherapy-treated group was compared with the placebo group, analysis of skin biopsies obtained 24 h after intradermal allergen revealed a significant reduction in the number of infiltrating CD3+ (P = 0.04) and CD4+ (P = 0.009) cells and a trend for a decrease in EG2+ eosinophils (P = 0.08). Treatment did not influence allergen-induced recruitment of CD8+ cells, neutrophils, or macrophages. Unexpected increases in expression of CD25 (P = 0.006) and HLA-DR (P = 0.007) were observed in the actively treated group. In situ hybridization using a panel of riboprobes demonstrated "TH2-type" (IL-4, IL-5) cytokine mRNA responses in both groups of patients. In contrast, significant hybridization for IL-2 (8/16 patients, P = 0.02) and for interferon-gamma (6/16 patients, P = 0.04) was observed only in the actively treated group. These findings indicate that immunotherapy is associated with suppression of allergen-induced CD4+ T lymphocyte infiltration, but among the cells that are recruited, there is upregulation of CD25 and HLA-DR. At least in this model, immunotherapy does not appear to affect expression of TH2-pattern cytokines in response to allergen exposure, but expression of mRNA for Th1-type cytokines was enhanced in half of the patients. The results support the view that immunotherapy may possibly be working through induction of T cell tolerance.
V A Varney, Q A Hamid, M Gaga, S Ying, M Jacobson, A J Frew, A B Kay, S R Durham
The effects of age, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia on vascular function of the coronary circulation were studied by subselective intracoronary infusions of acetylcholine, which releases endothelium-derived relaxing factor, and papaverine, which directly relaxes vascular smooth muscle, in normal patients (n = 18; no risk factors for coronary artery disease), in patients with evidence of early atherosclerosis but normal cholesterol levels and normal blood pressure (n = 12), in patients with hypertension without left ventricular hypertrophy (n = 12), and in patients with hypercholesterolemia (n = 20). Papaverine-induced maximal increases in coronary blood flow were significantly greater in normals, but no differences were noted between the groups of patients with early atherosclerosis, with hypertension, and with hypercholesterolemia. The capacity of the coronary system to increase blood flow in response to acetylcholine was similar in normal and normocholesterolemic patients with epicardial atherosclerosis and/or hypertension but was significantly impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia, irrespective of evidence of epicardial atherosclerotic lesions. Age (r = -0.62, P < 0.0001) and total serum cholesterol levels (r = -0.70; P < 0.0001) were the only significant independent predictors of a blunted coronary blood flow response to acetylcholine. Thus, hypercholesterolemia and advanced age selectively impair endothelium-mediated relaxation of the coronary microvasculature in response to acetylcholine, whereas endothelial dysfunction is restricted to epicardial arteries in age-matched normocholesterolemic patients with evidence of coronary atherosclerosis and/or hypertension.
A M Zeiher, H Drexler, B Saurbier, H Just
Giant cells fully permissive for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) were found to circulate, at a variable proportion, in peripheral blood of 21 out of 25 immunocompromised patients with disseminated HCMV infection. Circulating endothelial giant cells (EGC) were identified by a specific monoclonal antibody of endothelial origin and shown to express immediate-early, early, and late viral proteins. Immunostaining patterns of different viral proteins were comparable to those detected in vitro in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. EGC counts > 10 were associated with high levels (> 100) of HCMV viremia and antigenemia, as well as with an overt clinical syndrome in transplanted patients, and to an untreated long lasting organ localization in AIDS patients. On the other hand, EGC counts were < 10 during disseminated HCMV infections of both transplant recipients with no apparent organ syndrome and AIDS patients with recent organ involvement. In tissue sections from AIDS patients, infected endothelial cells were found to progressively enlarge till detaching from the small vessel wall and entering blood stream. HCMV-infected EGC represent a new systemic parameter suitable for the diagnosis of HCMV organ involvement and for the study of the pathogenesis of disseminated infections.
E Percivalle, M G Revello, L Vago, F Morini, G Gerna
PDGF has been implicated as one of the principal mitogens involved in cutaneous wound healing. While it has been previously reported that both platelets and monocytes are a source of PDGF in human dermal wound repair, the production of PDGF by human keratinocytes has not yet been described. In this manuscript, we report the production of PDGF by cultured human keratinocytes. Both PDGF A and B chain mRNA can be detected in cultured cells. While only PDGF-AA polypeptide is found in significant levels in keratinocyte-conditioned culture media, all three PDGF isoforms (AA, AB, and BB) are present in detergent-solubilized cell extracts. No evidence of PDGF receptor expression was observed in cultured keratinocytes when analyzed for either mRNA levels or polypeptide expression, suggesting that PDGF does not play an autocrine role in keratinocyte growth. Analysis of cryosections of human cutaneous wounds by immunostaining for PDGF showed that both PDGF A and B chain is constitutively expressed in normal epidermis, as well as in newly reconstituted wound epidermis. No evidence for PDGF receptor polypeptide expression in the epidermis was detected by immunostaining of cryosections.
J C Ansel, J P Tiesman, J E Olerud, J G Krueger, J F Krane, D C Tara, G D Shipley, D Gilbertson, M L Usui, C E Hart
Plasminogen activators are important mediators of extracellular metabolism. In the nervous system, plasminogen activators are thought to be involved in the remodeling events required for cell migration during development and regeneration. We have now explored the expression of the plasminogen activator/plasmin system in the adult murine central nervous system. Tissue-type plasminogen activator is synthesized by neurons of most brain regions, while prominent tissue-type plasminogen activator-catalyzed proteolysis is restricted to discrete areas, in particular within the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Our observations indicate that tissue-type plasminogen activator-catalyzed proteolysis in neural tissues is not limited to ontogeny, but may also contribute to adult central nervous system physiology, for instance by influencing neuronal plasticity and synaptic reorganization. The identification of an extracellular proteolytic system active in the adult central nervous system may also help gain insights into the pathogeny of neurodegenerative disorders associated with extracellular protein deposition.
A P Sappino, R Madani, J Huarte, D Belin, J Z Kiss, A Wohlwend, J D Vassalli
Microalbuminuria (26-250 mg/d) is considered to be an indicator of incipient diabetic nephropathy in humans in insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD). However, before microalbuminuria is observed, glomerular alterations, such as glycosylation of the glomerular basement membrane and glomerular hyperfiltration, in IDD may result in increased filtration of albumin before any observed increase in albumin excretion. Glomerular and tubular albumin kinetics were examined in streptozotocin (65 mg/kg body wt, i.v.) diabetic, Munich-Wistar rats at 7-10 (untreated) and 50-70 d (poorly controlled with small doses of insulin) after the onset of diabetes and compared with nondiabetic controls. Additional rats in each condition received acute lysine treatment to prevent tubular protein reabsorption. Urinary albumin excretion and nonvascular albumin distribution volumes were measured in the renal cortex and compared with morphometric measurements of interstitial space and the proximal tubule to assess intracellular uptake of albumin in the proximal tubule. Urinary albumin excretion under anesthesia was not different in 7-10-d IDD versus controls (19 +/- 3 vs. 20 +/- 3 micrograms/min) but increased in the 50-70-d IDD (118 +/- 13 micrograms/min, P < 0.05). Lysine treatment resulted in increased albumin excretion compared with respective nontreatment in 7-10-d IDD (67 +/- 10 micrograms/min, P < 0.05) but not in controls (30 +/- 6 micrograms/min) or in 50-70-d IDD (126 +/- 11 micrograms/min). Glomerular filtration rate was increased both in 7-10-d IDD (2.7 +/- 0.1 ml/min, P < 0.05) and in 50-70-d IDD (2.6 +/- 0.1 ml/min, P < 0.05) compared with control (2.2 +/- 0.1 ml/min). Calculated urinary space albumin concentrations increased early in IDD with 2.5 +/- 0.4 mg% in 7-10-d IDD and 4.9 +/- 0.6 mg% in 50-70-d IDD compared with control (1.4 +/- 0.3 mg%). The increase in filtration of albumin is in excess of that attributable to hyperfiltration before increased albumin excretion early in diabetes. In 50-70-d IDD, absolute tubular reabsorption of albumin is decreased, correlating to the decrease in brush border height of the proximal tubule.
B J Tucker, R Rasch, R C Blantz
To study the potential involvement of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) in the generation of growth hormone (GH) pulses in humans we have used a competitive antagonist to the GHRH receptor, (N-Ac-Tyr1,D-Arg2)GHRH(1-29)NH2(GHRH-Ant). Six healthy young men were given a bolus injection of GHRH-Ant 400 micrograms/kg body wt or vehicle at 2200 h and nocturnal GH concentrations were assessed by every 10-min blood sampling until 0800 h. Integrated total and pulsatile GH secretion were suppressed during GHRH-Ant treatment by 40 +/- 6 (SE) % and 75 +/- 5%, respectively. GHRH-Ant suppressed maximum (7.6 +/- 2.2 vs 1.8 +/- 0.5 micrograms/liter; P < 0.001) and mean (3.3 +/- 1.0 vs 1.1 +/- 0.2 micrograms/liter; P = 0.02) GH pulse amplitudes. There was no change in integrated nonpulsatile GH levels, pulse frequency, or interpulse GH concentration. GHRH-Ant 400 micrograms/kg also suppressed the GH responses to intravenous boluses of GHRH 0.33 micrograms/kg given 1, 6, 12, and 24 h later by 95, 81, 59, and 4%, respectively. In five healthy men, the responses to 10-fold larger GHRH boluses (3.3 micrograms/kg) were suppressed by 82 and 0%, 1 and 6 h after GHRH-Ant 400 micrograms/kg, respectively. These studies provide the first direct evidence that endogenous GHRH participates in the generation of spontaneous GH pulses in humans.
C A Jaffe, R D Friberg, A L Barkan
Lung carbonic anhydrase (CA) permits rapid pH responses when changes in regional ventilation or perfusion alter airway and alveolar PCO2. These pH changes affect airway and vascular resistances and lung compliance to optimize the balance of regional ventilation (VA) and perfusion (Q) in the lung. To test the hypothesis that these or other CA-dependent mechanisms contribute to VA/Q matching, we administered acetazolamide (25 mg/kg intravenously) to six anesthetized and paralyzed dogs and measured VA/Q relationships before and after CA inhibition by the multiple inert gas elimination technique. Four other groups of dogs were studied to control for possible confounding effects of time under anesthesia and nonselective CA inhibition by acetazolamide: (a) saline placebo as a control for duration of anesthesia, (b) 4% CO2 inhalation to mimic systemic CO2 retention, (c) 1 mg/kg benzolamide (a selective renal CA inhibitor) or 0.5 meq/kg HCl to mimic systemic metabolic acidosis, and (d) 500 mg/kg 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (an inhibitor of red cell band 3 protein) to mimic the respiratory acidosis arising from an intracapillary block to rapid mobilization of plasma HCO3- in CO2 exchange. Acetazolamide increased VA/Q mismatch and reduced arterial PO2 measured at equilibrium but these did not occur in the control group. There was no deterioration in VA/Q matching when systemic respiratory acidosis produced either by CO2 inhalation or 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate or metabolic acidosis (benzolamide or HCl) were imposed to mimic the effects of acetazolamide apart from its inhibition of lung CA. These results support the concept that lung CA subserves VA/Q matching in the normal lung.
E R Swenson, H T Robertson, M P Hlastala
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) has re-emerged in recent years as a cause of severe human disease. Because extracellular products are involved in streptococcal pathogenesis, we explored the possibility that a disease isolate expresses an uncharacterized superantigen. We screened culture supernatants for superantigen activity with a major histocompatibility complex class II-dependent T cell proliferation assay. Initial fractionation with red dye A chromatography indicated production of a class II-dependent T cell mitogen by a toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS) strain. The amino terminus of the purified streptococcal superantigen was more homologous to the amino termini of staphylococcal enterotoxins B, C1, and C3 (SEB, SEC1, and SEC3), than to those of pyrogenic exotoxins A, B, C or other streptococcal toxins. The molecule, designated SSA, had the same pattern of class II isotype usage as SEB in T cell proliferation assays. However, it differed in its pattern of human T cell activation, as measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction with V beta-specific primers. SSA activated human T cells that express V beta 1, 3, 15 with a minor increase of V beta 5.2-bearing cells, whereas SEB activated V beta 3, 12, 15, and 17-bearing T cells. Immunoblot analysis of 75 disease isolates from several localities detected SSA production only in group A streptococci, and found that SSA is apparently confined to only three clonal lineages as defined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis typing. Isolates of one of these lineages, (electrophoretic type 2) are strongly associated with TSLS. The data identify SSA as a novel streptococcal superantigen that appears to be more related structurally to staphylococcal enterotoxins than to streptococcal exotoxins. Because abundant SSA production is apparently confined to only three streptococcal clonal lineages, the data also suggest that the SSA gene has only recently been acquired by S. pyogenes.
J A Mollick, G G Miller, J M Musser, R G Cook, D Grossman, R R Rich
To determine whether hemodynamic changes can modulate insulin action in vivo, we administered angiotensin II (AII) to normal men under three separate, euglycemic conditions. First, in the presence of physiological hyperinsulinemia (approximately 115 microU/ml), infusion of AII at rates of 2, 10, and 20 ng/min per kg caused significant elevations of blood pressure, whole-body glucose clearance, and plasma insulin concentrations in an AII dose-dependent manner. Second, in the presence of plasma insulin concentrations that stimulate glucose transport maximally (approximately 5,000 microU/ml), AII infusions increased whole-body glucose clearance without enhancing glucose extraction across the leg. Third, in the presence of basal insulin concentrations (approximately 13 microU/ml), AII infusions had no effect on whole-body glucose turnover or leg glucose extraction. Thus, AII enhanced whole-body glucose utilization without directly stimulating glucose transport in a major skeletal muscle bed. To evaluate a possible hemodynamic mechanism for the effects of AII on glucose utilization, we measured blood flow to two areas that differ in their sensitivity to insulin: the kidneys and the leg. We found that AII redistributed blood flow away from the predominantly insulin-independent tissues of the kidney and toward the insulin-sensitive tissues of the leg during both sham and hyperinsulinemic glucose clamps. The redistribution of flow had no effect on whole-body glucose turnover when leg glucose uptake was unstimulated (sham clamps). However, when leg glucose uptake was activated by insulin, the redistribution of flow caused a net increase in whole-body glucose utilization. Our findings indicate that hemodynamic factors can modulate insulin action in vivo. Furthermore, our results suggest that variable activity of the renin-angiotensin system may contribute to inconsistencies in the association between insulin resistance and hypertension.
T A Buchanan, H Thawani, W Kades, J G Modrall, F A Weaver, C Laurel, R Poppiti, A Xiang, W Hsueh
Parathyroid hormone-like protein (PLP) was originally identified from tumors associated with hypercalcemia. Recently, it has been found to be expressed in a stretch-responsive manner in several types of smooth muscle. We studied adult rat heart muscle for the presence of the PLP. Using immunohistology and the PCR, we demonstrated the presence of PLP and its mRNA in all heart chambers. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated PLP in secretory vesicles of atrial mycocytes. Using immunoassay, we demonstrated that atria contained a higher concentration of PLP than ventricles. Furthermore, primary cultures of both chambers released PLP into conditioned medium, with atria secreting more than ventricles. Considered with studies of the role of PLP in other tissues, our observations suggest that the production and secretion of PLP by cardiac myocytes represents a calcium-related regulatory function for this stretch-responsive polypeptide in the cardiovascular system. PLP in the heart may be the calcium counterpart for the atrial natriuretic-sodium regulatory axis of the cardiovascular system.
L J Deftos, D W Burton, D W Brandt
Human airway smooth muscle possesses an inhibitory nonadrenergic noncholinergic neural bronchodilator response mediated by nitric oxide (NO). In guinea pig trachea both endogenous NO and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) modulate cholinergic neural contractile responses. To identify whether endogenous NO or VIP can modulate cholinergic contractile responses in human airways in vitro, we studied the effects of specific NO synthase inhibitors and the peptidase alpha-chymotrypsin on contractile responses evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS) at three airway levels. Endogenous NO, but not VIP, was shown to inhibit cholinergic contractile responses at all airway levels but this inhibition was predominantly in trachea and main bronchus and less marked in segmental and subsegmental bronchi. To elucidate the mechanism of this modulation we then studied the effects of endogenous NO on acetylcholine (ACh) release evoked by EFS from tracheal smooth muscle strips. We confirmed that release was neural in origin, frequency dependent, and that endogenous NO did not affect ACh release. These findings show that endogenous NO, but not VIP, evoked by EFS can inhibit cholinergic neural responses via functional antagonism of ACh at the airway smooth muscle and that the contribution of this modulation is less marked in lower airways.
J K Ward, M G Belvisi, A J Fox, M Miura, S Tadjkarimi, M H Yacoub, P J Barnes
The concentration of LDL in plasma is strongly influenced by the amount and the type of lipid in the diet. Recent studies in the hamster have shown that dietary fatty acids differentially affect circulating LDL levels primarily by altering receptor-dependent LDL uptake in the liver. To investigate the mechanistic basis of this effect, rates of receptor-dependent LDL transport in the liver were correlated with LDL receptor protein and mRNA levels in hamsters fed safflower oil or coconut oil and varying amounts of cholesterol. Hepatic LDL receptor activity was significantly lower in animals fed coconut oil than in animals fed safflower oil at all levels of cholesterol intake (26, 53, and 61% lower at cholesterol intakes of 0, 0.06, and 0.12%, respectively). These fatty acid-induced changes in hepatic LDL receptor activity were accompanied by parallel changes in hepatic LDL receptor protein and mRNA levels, suggesting that dietary fatty acids regulate the LDL receptor pathway largely at the mRNA level.
J D Horton, J A Cuthbert, D K Spady
Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) regulates cholesterol metabolism in vivo and in vitro. We studied the effects of M-CSF on enzyme activities of acidic cholesteryl ester (CE) hydrolase, neutral CE hydrolase, and acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), all of which are involved in cellular cholesterol metabolism in macrophages. During the differentiation of monocytes to macrophages, these enzyme activities were induced and further enhanced in response to M-CSF. M-CSF (100 ng/ml) enhanced acidic and neutral CE hydrolase and ACAT activities by 3.2-, 4-, and 2.3-fold, respectively, in the presence of acetyl LDL. The presence of acetyl LDL influenced these enzyme activities. ACAT and acidic CE hydrolase activities were increased and neutral CE hydrolase activity was decreased, indicating that these enzymes are regulated by intracellular cholesterol enrichment. M-CSF increased the ratios of acidic CE hydrolase to ACAT activity and of neutral CE hydrolase to ACAT activity. The results suggest that M-CSF enhances net hydrolysis of CE by stimulating the two CE hydrolases to a greater extent than ACAT, and M-CSF may reduce the rate of atherogenesis.
T Inaba, H Shimano, T Gotoda, K Harada, M Shimada, M Kawamura, Y Yazaki, N Yamada
To determine if the functional compensation in diffusing capacity of the remaining lung following pneumonectomy is due to structural growth, we performed morphometric analysis of the right lung in three adult foxhounds approximately 2 yr after left pneumonectomy (removal of 42% of lung) and compared the results to those in normal adult dogs previously studied by the same techniques. Diffusing capacity was calculated by an established morphometric model and compared to physiologic estimates at peak exercise in the same dogs after pneumonectomy. The major structural changes after left pneumonectomy are hyperinflation of the right lung, alveolar enlargement, and thinning of the alveolar-capillary tissue barrier. These changes confer significant functional compensation for gas exchange by reducing the overall resistance to O2 diffusion. The magnitude of compensation in diffusing capacity estimated either morphometrically or physiologically is similar. In spite of morphometric and physiologic evidence of functional compensation, there is no evidence of significant growth of structural components. After pneumonectomy, morphometric estimates of diffusing capacity are on average 23% higher than physiologic estimates in the same dogs at peak exercise. We conclude that the previously reported large differences between morphometric and physiologic estimates of diffusing capacity reflects the presence of large physiologic reserves available for recruitment.
C C Hsia, F Fryder-Doffey, V Stalder-Nayarro, R L Johnson Jr, R C Reynolds, E R Weibel
A chronic relapsing form of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (CR-EAE) was induced in SJL/J mice by adoptive transfer of lymph node cells (LNC) sensitized to guinea pig myelin basic protein (GMBP). We examined the efficacy of high dose immunosuppressive regimens (cyclophosphamide [CY] 300 mg/kg or total body irradiation [TBI] 900 cGy) followed by syngeneic bone marrow transplantation (SBMT) in prevention and treatment of already established CR-EAE. Treatment with TBI and SBMT on day 5 after the induction of CR-EAE, just before the onset of clinical signs, completely inhibited the appearance of the paralytic signs. The same treatment, applied 4 d after the clinical onset of the disease, led to a significant regression of the paralytic signs and to a total inhibition of spontaneous relapses during a follow-up period of 2 mo. Challenge of mice with GMBP+CFA 78 d after the passive induction of CR-EAE induced a relapse of the disease 7 d later in almost all of the untreated mice; in contrast, the same challenge given to TBI+SBMT-treated mice caused a delayed relapse (30 d later) in only a minority (3/7) of the challenged mice. In vitro lymphocytic proliferative responses to GMBP and purified protein derivative were significantly lower in TBI/SBMT-treated mice before and after the GMBP challenge, although these mice were fully immunocompetent, as evidenced by their normal lymphocytic proliferation to concanavalin A (ConA) and the FACS analysis of their lymphocytic subpopulations. A similar beneficial therapeutic effect was observed in mice treated with CY followed by SBMT, after the onset of CR-EAE. Our results could support possible clinical applications of similar therapeutic strategies, involving acute immunosuppression followed by stem cell transplantation and retolerization of the reconstituting immune cells in life-threatening neurological and multisystemic autoimmune diseases.
D M Karussis, U Vourka-Karussis, D Lehmann, H Ovadia, R Mizrachi-Koll, A Ben-Nun, O Abramsky, S Slavin
We have examined backcross progeny derived from a cross of Mus spretus with C57BL/6J, that range from 1 to 50% carcass lipid (n = 215), and from 22 to 130 mg/dl plasma total cholesterol (n = 238). Statistical analysis revealed that distal mouse chromosome 7 exhibits significant linkage both to plasma total cholesterol (likelihood of the odds [LOD] 5.8) and to carcass lipid (LOD 3.8). A locus on chromosome 6 also shows significant linkage to plasma total cholesterol (LOD 5.6), but no linkage to carcass lipid. Neither chromosomal region contains any previously mapped genes likely to influence lipoprotein metabolism, indicating that novel genetic factors contributing to plasma lipoprotein levels have been identified.
C H Warden, J S Fisler, M J Pace, K L Svenson, A J Lusis
Urinary tract infections activate a mucosal inflammatory response, which includes cytokine secretion and neutrophil influx. The mechanisms involved in the neutrophil influx have not been identified. Interleukin-8, a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils, is produced by urinary tract epithelial cell lines in vitro. This study analyzed the human IL-8 response to deliberate Escherichia coli infection of the urinary tract. Urine and serum samples were obtained before and after intravesical instillation of E. coli. Neutrophil numbers were determined on uncentrifuged urine, and IL-8 levels were measured by ELISA. A urinary IL-8 response was found in all patients after bacterial instillation, but no serum IL-8 was detected. There was a strong correlation between urinary IL-8 levels and urinary neutrophil numbers. The same E. coli strains used to colonize the patients stimulated IL-8 production in urinary tract epithelial cells. The level of IL-8 secreted by epithelial cell lines was influenced by the fimbrial properties of the E. coli. These results demonstrated that E. coli elicit a mucosal IL-8 response in humans, and suggested that IL-8 is involved in the onset of pyuria. Epithelial cells may be an important source of IL-8 during urinary tract infection.
W W Agace, S R Hedges, M Ceska, C Svanborg
Membrane-associated guanine nucleotide binding proteins regulate many receptor-mediated signals. Heterogeneity of biochemical and functional properties in nephron segments could be due to differences in G protein expression. To ascertain whether such heterogeneity of G proteins is present in various nephron segments, this study examines the distribution and relative abundance of G protein alpha chains in microdissected medullary thick ascending limb, cortical collecting tubules, outer medullary collecting tubules, proximal inner medullary tubules, and distal inner medullary tubules. Reverse transcription and polymerase chain reactions were employed using oligonucleotides encoding highly conserved regions of all known alpha chains. The cDNA was sequenced for alpha chain identification. The alpha i2 versus alpha s distribution was different in the outer medullary collecting tubules, when compared with the medullary thick ascending limb (P < 0.001) or the cortical collecting tubule, the proximal inner medullary tubules, and the distal inner medullary tubules (P < 0.05). These latter four segments did not significantly differ from each other. A similar analysis was applied to the frequently used line of kidney cells, LLC-PK1, whose exact cellular origin remains unclear. Interestingly, we detected both alpha i2 and alpha i3, while only alpha i2 was detected in the rat distal nephron. No alpha o or alpha z reverse transcription PCR products were detected. In contrast alpha 11 and alpha 14 members of the more recently described alpha q family were detected in the outer medullary collecting tubules and the proximal inner medullary tubules, respectively. We conclude that the majority of nephron segments have a relatively constant distribution of G protein alpha chains.
S I Senkfor, G L Johnson, T Berl
The permeability barrier is mediated by a mixture of ceramides, sterols, and free fatty acids arranged as extracellular lamellar bilayers in the stratum corneum. Whereas prior studies have shown that cholesterol and ceramides are required for normal barrier function, definitive evidence for the importance of nonessential fatty acids is not available. To determine whether epidermal fatty acid synthesis also is required for barrier homeostasis, we applied 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furancarboxylic acid (TOFA), an inhibitor of acetyl CoA carboxylase, after disruption of the barrier by acetone or tape stripping. TOFA inhibits epidermal fatty acid by approximately 50% and significantly delays barrier recovery. Moreover, coadministration of palmitate with TOFA normalizes barrier recovery, indicating that the delay is due to a deficiency in bulk fatty acids. Furthermore, TOFA treatment also delays the return of lipids to the stratum corneum and results in abnormalities in the structure of lamellar bodies, the organelle which delivers lipid to the stratum corneum. In addition, the organization of secreted lamellar body material into lamellar bilayers within the stratum corneum interstices is disrupted by TOFA treatment. Finally, these abnormalities in lamellar body and stratum corneum membrane structure are corrected by coapplication of palmitate with TOFA. These results demonstrate a requirement for bulk fatty acids in barrier homeostasis. Thus, inhibiting the epidermal synthesis of any of the three key lipids that form the extracellular, lipid-enriched membranes of the stratum corneum results in an impairment in barrier homeostasis.
M Mao-Qiang, P M Elias, K R Feingold
Autosomal dominant long QT syndrome (LQT) is an inherited disorder that causes syncope and sudden death from cardiac arrhythmias. In genetic linkage studies of seven unrelated families we mapped a gene for LQT to the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p15.5), near the Harvey ras-1 gene (H ras-1). To determine if the same locus was responsible for LQT in additional families, we performed linkage studies with DNA markers from this region (H ras-1 and MUC2). Pairwise linkage analyses resulted in logarithm of odds scores of -2.64 and -5.54 for kindreds 1977 and 1756, respectively. To exclude the possibility that rare recombination events might account for these results, we performed multipoint linkage analyses using additional markers from chromosome 11p15.5 (tyrosine hydroxylase and D11S860). Multipoint analyses excluded approximately 25.5 centiMorgans of chromosome 11p15.5 in K1756 and approximately 13 centiMorgans in K1977. These data demonstrate that the LQT gene in these kindreds is not linked to H ras-1 and suggest that mutations in at least two genes can cause LQT. While the identification of locus heterogeneity of LQT will complicate genetic diagnosis, characterization of additional LQT loci will enhance our understanding of this disorder.
M Curran, D Atkinson, K Timothy, G M Vincent, A J Moss, M Leppert, M Keating
Activated platelets and stimulated endothelial cells express P-selectin, an integral membrane protein receptor that binds monocytes and neutrophils. P-selectin mediates adhesion to glycoproteins with carbohydrate structures containing sialyl-Lewis X. Since many carcinoma cells also express these carbohydrate structures and are known to interact with platelets, we asked whether P-selectin may mediate this interaction. Both small cell lung cancer and neuroblastoma cell lines bound to activated platelets, and this interaction was blocked with inhibitory anti-P-selectin antibodies and by pretreatment of these cancer cells with neuraminidase or trypsin. Platelet binding to the small cell lung cancer cells was not inhibited with anti-GP IIb-IIIa antibody or Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptide. Pretreatment of the neuroblastoma cells with inhibitors of N-linked carbohydrate biosynthesis had little effect on binding to P-selectin, indicating that relevant carbohydrate ligand(s) may be O-linked. In addition, lipospheres containing P-selectin specifically bound to cryostat sections derived from a small cell lung tumor and two neuroblastoma tumors, but not to sections of normal lung. These observations demonstrate that P-selectin mediates binding of platelets to small cell lung cancer and to neuroblastoma and suggest a possible role for this lectin in metastasis.
J P Stone, D D Wagner
The 230-kD bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPAG1), a hemidesmosomal protein, is encoded by a gene at the human chromosomal locus 6p11-12. We have elucidated the exon-intron organization of the entire human BPAG1 gene, including approximately 2.6 kb of 5'-flanking DNA. Seven overlapping genomic clones, spanning approximately 20 kb, contained the entire approximately 9 kb coding sequence of BPAG1 and consisted of 22 separate exons, which varied from 78 to 2,810 bp in size. The 5' flanking region of DNA, upstream from the ATG initiation codon for translation, was found to contain several putative transcriptional response elements. Most interestingly, two motifs potentially conferring keratinocyte specific expression to the gene were detected. The presence of such elements was suggested by approximately 20-fold higher expression of a promoter/chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) construct in normal human epidermal keratinocytes that express the endogenous gene, as compared to several non-expressing cell types. Transient transfections with 5'-deletion clones of the promoter/reporter gene (CAT) constructs identified a region containing a putative tissue specific element, KRE2, which also conferred tissue specificity to the expression of the truncated promoter downstream from this element, however, a mutated derivative of KRE2 was not functional. Detailed knowledge of the structure and regulation of the BPAG1 gene will aid in further elucidation of diseases affecting the cutaneous basement membrane zone.
K Tamai, D Sawamura, H C Do, Y Tamai, K Li, J Uitto
Ryanodine (RYA) at a low concentration (several tens of nM) is known to selectively bind to Ca2+ release channels in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and to fix them open. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of the selective change in Ca2+ release channel activity on cardiac mechanoenergetics as a model of Ca(2+)-leaky SR observed in pathological hearts. We analyzed the negative inotropic effect of RYA at a low concentration (up to 30 +/- 13 nM) on left ventricular (LV) mechanoenergetics using frameworks of LV Emax (a contractility index) and the myocardial oxygen consumption (LV VO2)-systolic pressure-volume area (PVA) (a measure of total mechanical energy) relation in 11 isolated, blood-perfused dog hearts. RYA significantly decreased Emax by 42%, whereas PVA-independent VO2 remained disproportionately high (93% of control). This oxygen-wasting effect of RYA was quite different from ordinary inotropic drugs, which alter Emax and PVA-independent VO2 proportionally. The present result suggests that RYA suppresses force generation of cardiac muscle for a given amount of total sequestered Ca2+ by SR in a similar way to myocardial ischemia and stunning. We speculate about the underlying mechanism that RYA makes SR leaky for Ca2+ and thereby wastes energy for Ca2+ handling by SR.
T Takasago, Y Goto, O Kawaguchi, K Hata, A Saeki, T Nishioka, H Suga
The effect of aspartate and glutamate on myocardial function during reperfusion is controversial. A beneficial effect has been attributed to altered delivery of carbon into the citric acid cycle via substrate oxidation or by stimulation of anaplerosis, but these hypotheses have not been directly tested. 13C isotopomer analysis is well suited to the study of myocardial metabolism, particularly where isotopic and metabolic steady state cannot be established. This technique was used to evaluate the effects of aspartate and glutamate (amino acids, AA) on anaplerosis and substrate selection in the isolated rat heart after 25 min of ischemia followed by 30 or 45 min of reperfusion. Five groups of hearts (n = 8) provided with a mixture of [1,2-13C]acetate, [3-13C]lactate, and unlabeled glucose were studied: control, control plus AA, ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion, ischemia plus AA followed by 30 min of reperfusion, and ischemia followed by 45 min of reperfusion. The contribution of lactate to acetyl-CoA was decreased in postischemic myocardium (with a significant increase in acetate), and anaplerosis was stimulated. Metabolism of 13C-labeled aspartate or glutamate could not be detected, however, and there was no effect of AA on functional recovery, substrate selection, or anaplerosis. Thus, in contrast to earlier reports, aspartate and glutamate have no effect on either functional recovery from ischemia or on metabolic pathways feeding the citric acid cycle.
M E Jessen, T E Kovarik, F M Jeffrey, A D Sherry, C J Storey, R Y Chao, W S Ring, C R Malloy
D C Montefiori, B S Graham, J Zhou, J Zhou, R A Bucco, D H Schwartz, L A Cavacini, M R Posner
Oncostatin-M (OSM) is a potent mitogen for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cells. We studied signaling by the OSM receptor in three AIDS-related KS lines and show induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of 145-, 120-, 85-, and 42-kD substrates. The 42-kD substrate was identified as p42MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), also known as ERK-2. This serine/threonine kinase relays mitogenic signals from receptor tyrosine protein kinases (TPKs) or receptor-associated TPKs to transcriptional activators. The OSM dose dependence for MAP kinase activation and induction of KS cell growth were almost identical, suggesting functional linkage. MAP kinase activation was dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation, and both OSM-induced MAP kinase activity and KS cell growth could be suppressed by TPK inhibitors, genistein and geldanomycin. OSM also stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of similar substrates and MAP kinase activity in human vein endothelial cells. While it has been proposed that the OSM receptor may include the gp130 subunit of the IL-6 receptor and alpha-chain of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor, neither LIF nor r.IL-6 induced tyrosine protein phosphorylation or p42MAPK activation in KS cells. However, r.IL-6 did stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation and p42MAPK activity in the human B cell line, AF-10, while OSM and LIF exerted no effects. Our results indicate that, although the OSM and IL-6 receptors share a common signaling pathway, this pathway is selectively activated by OSM in Kaposi's cells.
M C Amaral, S Miles, G Kumar, A E Nel
The effect of acid-base disturbances on sodium/proton (Na+/H+) exchange has been examined in animal models; however, few data are available from human studies. To test the effect of metabolic acidosis on Na+/H+ exchange in man, as well as to examine the relationship between Na+/H+ exchange and cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i), we measured both variables in patients with decreased renal function with mild metabolic acidosis (pH 7.34 +/- 0.06), in normal control subjects (pH 7.41 +/- 0.02), and in subjects before (pH 7.40 +/- 0.01), and after (pH 7.26 +/- 0.04) ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) 15 g for 5 d. Lymphocytes and platelets were loaded with the cytosolic pH (pHi) indicator 2'-7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein and acidified to pH approximately 6.6 with propionic acid. To quantitate Na+/H+ exchange, dpHi/dt was determined at 1 min. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura-2. Na+/H+ exchange was significantly increased only in lymphocytes of patients with renal insufficiency. Neither intracellular pH (pHi) nor [Ca2+]i was different from controls. NH4Cl resulted in a significant increase in Na+/H+ exchange in lymphocytes, but not in platelets of normal subjects. Values of pHi and [Ca2+]i in either cell type remained unaffected. Since metabolic acidosis influenced Na+/H+ only in lymphocytes, but not in platelets, it is possible that protein synthesis may be involved in increasing Na+/H+ exchange.
H P Reusch, R Reusch, D Rosskopf, W Siffert, J F Mann, F C Luft
Dystrophin, the protein product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene, is a cytoskeletal protein tightly associated with a large oligomeric complex of sarcolemmal glycoproteins including dystroglycan, which provides a linkage to the extracellular matrix component, laminin. In DMD, the absence of dystrophin leads to a drastic reduction in all of the dystrophin-associated proteins, causing the disruption of the linkage between the subsarcolemmal cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix which, in turn, may render muscle cells susceptible to necrosis. The COOH-terminal domains (cysteine-rich and carboxyl-terminal) of dystrophin have been suggested to interact with the sarcolemmal glycoprotein complex. However, truncated dystrophin lacking these domains was reported to be localized to the sarcolemma in four DMD patients recently. Here we report that all of the dystrophin-associated proteins are drastically reduced in the sarcolemma of three DMD patients in whom dystrophin lacking the COOH-terminal domains was properly localized to the sarcolemma. Our results indicate that the COOH-terminal domains of dystrophin are required for the proper interaction of dystrophin with the dystrophin-associated proteins and also support our hypothesis that the loss of the dystrophin-associated proteins in the sarcolemma leads to severe muscular dystrophy even when truncated dystrophin is present in the subsarcolemmal cytoskeleton.
K Matsumura, F M Tomé, V Ionasescu, J M Ervasti, R D Anderson, N B Romero, D Simon, D Récan, J C Kaplan, M Fardeau
Recent studies suggest a permissive requirement for guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) in insulin release, based on the use of GTP synthesis inhibitors (such as myocophenolic acid) acting at inosine monophosphate (IMP) dehydrogenase; herein, we examine the glucose dependency of GTP synthesis. Mycophenolic acid inhibited insulin secretion equally well after islet culture at 7.8 or 11.1 mM glucose (51% inhibition) but its effect was dramatically attenuated when provided at < or = 6.4 mM glucose (13% inhibition; P < 0.001). These observations were explicable by a stimulation of islet GTP synthesis derived from IMP since, at high glucose: (a) total GTP content was augmented; (b) a greater decrement in GTP (1.75 vs. 1.05 pmol/islet) was induced by mycophenolic acid; and (c) a smaller "pool" of residual GTP persisted after drug treatment. Glucose also accelerated GTP synthesis from exogenous guanine ("salvage" pathway) and increased content of a pyrimidine, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), suggesting that glucose augments production of a common regulatory intermediate (probably 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate). Pathway-specific radiolabeling studies confirmed that glucose tripled both salvage and de novo synthesis of nucleotides. We conclude that steep changes in the biosynthesis of cytosolic pools of GTP occur at modest changes in glucose concentrations, a finding which may have relevance to the adaptive (patho) physiologic responses of islets to changes in ambient glucose levels.
S A Metz, M Meredith, M E Rabaglia, A Kowluru
S Ishibashi, M S Brown, J L Goldstein, R D Gerard, R E Hammer, J Herz
The bovine scavenger receptor was truncated at amino acid 266 or 310 to delete either all or part, respectively, of the collagen-like domain. The truncated receptors were inactive in the binding and internalization of acetyl (Ac) low density lipoprotein (LDL). Coexpression of truncated receptor with the native receptor dramatically reduced the percentage of cells internalizing fluorescently labeled Ac LDL, compared with cells expressing the native receptor alone. The mutant truncated at amino acid 266 was most effective in receptor inactivation, resulting in a 42% or 80% decrease in the percentage of cells expressing active receptor when transfected in a 1:1 or 1:2 molar ratio (native:mutant), respectively, with native receptor. Degradation of 125I-Ac LDL was reduced up to 90% when the native and truncated mutant receptors were coexpressed. Scavenger receptor inhibition was specific because the activity of the LDL receptor was not altered. Transient transfection of the mouse macrophage cell line P388D1 with truncated scavenger receptor resulted in a 65% decrease in the uptake and degradation of Ac LDL but did not decrease the degradation of beta-migrating very low density lipoprotein, which is LDL receptor-mediated. These results demonstrate that expression of truncated bovine scavenger receptor inactivates both the native bovine and murine scavenger receptors, producing a dominant negative phenotype in vitro.
S Dejager, M Mietus-Snyder, A Friera, R E Pitas
The synthesis of dihydrotestosterone is catalyzed by steroid 5 alpha-reductase isozymes, designated types 1 and 2. Mutation of type 2 results in male pseudohermaphroditism, in which the external genitalia are phenotypically female at birth. Two striking and unexplained features of this disorder are that external genitalia of affected males undergo virilization during puberty and that these individuals have less temporal hair regression. The tissue-specific and developmental expression patterns of the 5 alpha-reductase isozymes were investigated by immunoblotting. The type 1 isozyme is not detectable in the fetus, is transiently expressed in newborn skin and scalp, and permanently expressed in skin from the time of puberty. There was no qualitative difference in 5 alpha-reductase type 1 expression between adult balding vs. nonbalding scalp. The type 2 isozyme is transiently expressed in skin and scalp of newborns. Type 2 is the predominant isozyme detectable in fetal genital skin, male accessory sex glands, and in the prostate, including benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate adenocarcinoma tissues. Both isozymes are expressed in the liver, but only after birth. These results are consistent with 5 alpha-reductase type 1 being responsible for virilization in type 2-deficient subjects during puberty, and suggest that the type 2 isozyme may be an initiating factor in development of male pattern baldness.
A E Thigpen, R I Silver, J M Guileyardo, M L Casey, J D McConnell, D W Russell
We measured biliary and fecal sterol outputs in 12 human subjects on a metabolic ward in four randomly allocated, 6-7 wk periods: (a) lovastatin (40 mg b.i.d.) + low cholesterol diet (mean 246 mg/d), (b) lovastatin + high cholesterol diet (mean 1,071 mg/d), (c) low cholesterol diet alone, (d) high cholesterol diet alone. In addition to lowering serum LDL cholesterol, lovastatin significantly lowered biliary secretion of cholesterol, fecal output of endogenous neutral sterols, cholesterol balance, and systemic cholesterol input (the sum of cholesterol synthesis and absorbed dietary cholesterol). The high cholesterol diet significantly lowered cholesterol balance, but significantly increased systemic cholesterol input and fecal output of acidic sterols. There was no significant interaction between lovastatin and dietary cholesterol for any parameter measured. Judging from these data, the primary action of lovastatin is to lower cholesterol synthesis and systemic cholesterol input, the main compensatory response being reduced biliary cholesterol secretion. Conversely, increased dietary cholesterol appears to increase systemic cholesterol input, the major compensatory response being increased bile acid synthesis. There appears to be no interaction between these two perturbations of systemic cholesterol input.
W C Duane
Development of an effective vaccine for prevention of infection with HIV would provide an important mechanism for controlling the AIDS epidemic. In the current study, the first clinical trial of a candidate HIV-1 vaccine initiated in the United States, the safety and immunogenicity of escalating doses (10-1,280 micrograms) of recombinant gp160 (rgp160), were evaluated in 138 HIV-negative volunteers. Maximal antibody responses, as evaluated by ELISA, were seen after immunization with three doses of 1,280 micrograms rgp160. Responses to some specific epitopes of HIV gp160, including the second conserved domain and the CD4 binding site, were seen more frequently than after natural infection. Neutralizing antibodies to the homologous HIV strain, but not heterologous strains, were induced by this regimen. Blastogenic responses to rgp160 were seen in most volunteers receiving at least two doses of > or = 20 micrograms. These envelope-specific T cell responses were also seen against heterologous strains of HIV. No major adverse reactions were seen after immunization. Thus, rgp160 is a safe and immunogenic candidate HIV vaccine; further studies are needed to determine if it will provide any clinical benefit in preventing HIV infection.
J A Kovacs, M B Vasudevachari, M Easter, R T Davey, J Falloon, M A Polis, J A Metcalf, N Salzman, M Baseler, G E Smith
The formation of glomerular ultrafiltrate is dependent on the prevailing hemodynamic forces within the glomerular microcirculation and the intrinsic properties of the filtration barrier. However, direct assessment of the permeability barrier is difficult with most available techniques. We used confocal microscopy to image 1-micron thick optical cross-sections of isolated intact glomeruli and glomeruli denuded of cells and quantitated dextran (70,000 mol wt) diffusion from the capillary lumen. Dextran permeance was 11 times greater for the acellular filtration barrier than the intact peripheral capillary. Consideration of the basement membrane and cells as series resistors demonstrated that cells of the filtration barrier contribute 90% of the total resistance to macromolecular permeance. Using a different approach, dextran sieving coefficients for acellular glomeruli consolidated as a multilayer sheet in a filtration cell were similar to those for intact glomeruli in vivo at radii 30-36 A and approximately 50 times greater at a dextran radius of 60 A. The presence of cells significantly reduced hydraulic permeability determined on consolidated intact or acellular glomeruli in an ultrafiltration cell with 50 mmHg applied pressure. The glomerular basement membrane does restrict macromolecular permeability but cells are important determinants of the overall macromolecular and hydraulic permeability of the glomerulus.
B S Daniels, W M Deen, G Mayer, T Meyer, T H Hostetter
Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is a plasma serine protease that catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step in the fibrinolytic cascade. t-PA is widely used as a thrombolytic agent in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. However, its use has been impaired by its rapid hepatic clearance from the circulation following intravenous administration. Studies with both rat hepatoma MH1C1 cells (G. Bu, S. Williams, D. K. Strickland, and A. L. Schwartz, 1992. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 89:7427-7431) and human hepatoma HepG2 cells (G. Bu, E. A. Maksymovitch, and A. L. Schwartz. 1993. J. Biol. Chem. 28:13002-13009) have shown that binding of t-PA to its clearance receptor, the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor, is inhibited by a 39-kD protein that copurifies with this receptor. Herein we investigated whether administration of purified recombinant 39-kD protein would alter t-PA clearance in vivo. We found that intravenous administration of purified 39-kD protein to rats prolonged the plasma half-life of 125I-t-PA from 1 min to approximately 5-6 min. The plasma half-life of t-PA enzymatic activity was similarly prolonged following intravenous administration of purified 39-kD protein. In addition we found that the 39-kD protein itself was rapidly cleared from the circulation in vivo. Clearance of 125I-39-kD protein was a biphasic process with half-lives of 30 s and 9 min and the liver was the primary organ of clearance. Preadministration of excess unlabeled 39-kD protein slowed 125I-39-kD protein clearance in rats in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that specific clearance receptors were responsible for this process. Administration of increasing doses of unlabeled 39-kD protein along with labeled 39-kD protein resulted in a decrease in the amount of labeled 39-kD protein associating with the liver and a concomitant increase in the amount of labeled 39-kD protein associating with the kidneys, indicating two clearance mechanisms exist for the 39-kD protein.
I Warshawsky, G Bu, A L Schwartz
K D O'Brien, M D Allen, T O McDonald, A Chait, J M Harlan, D Fishbein, J McCarty, M Ferguson, K Hudkins, C D Benjamin
Glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule 1 (GlyCAM 1) is a mucinlike endothelial glycoprotein that acts as an adhesive ligand for L selectin by presenting one or more O-linked carbohydrates to the lectin domain of this leukocyte cell surface selectin. The GlyCAM 1 glycoprotein has been previously shown to be expressed specifically by the endothelial cells of peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes and in an unknown site in lung. Here we report that this protein is also expressed during lactation by mammary epithelial cells. Northern blot analysis has shown that the mRNA for GlyCAM 1 appears to be induced during pregnancy in a manner similar to that previously described for hormonally induced milk proteins. In situ hybridization analysis reveals that the site of GlyCAM 1 synthesis in the mammary gland is in the epithelial cells that produce these same milk proteins. Immunohistochemistry of mammary glands using antisera directed against GlyCAM 1 peptides demonstrates that these epithelial cells contain GlyCAM 1 protein, and that this protein is also found lumenally in the milk of the secreting mammary gland. Analysis of murine milk shows that immunoreactive GlyCAM 1 is found in the soluble whey fraction. Finally, labeling analysis of milk GlyCAM 1 has demonstrated that this form of the glycoprotein lacks the sulfate-modified carbohydrate that has recently been shown to be required for the ligand binding activity to L selectin. The nonsulfated mammary GlyCAM 1 is unable to interact with L selectin, consistent with the hypothesis that milk GlyCAM 1 has a different function than endothelial GlyCAM 1. These data thus suggest that milk GlyCAM 1 is a hormonally regulated milk protein that is part of the milk mucin complex. In addition, the finding that the mammary form of GlyCAM 1 contains different carbohydrate modifications than the endothelial form suggests that this glycoprotein may be a scaffold for carbohydrates that mediate functions in addition to cell adhesion.
D Dowbenko, A Kikuta, C Fennie, N Gillett, L A Lasky
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), the principal neuropeptide regulator of pituitary ACTH secretion, is also produced at peripheral inflammatory sites, where it acts as a proinflammatory cytokine, and by the Leydig cell of the testis, where it exerts autocrine inhibition of testosterone biosynthesis. Because key ovarian functions, such as ovulation and luteolysis, represent aseptic inflammatory responses, and because the theca cell is the functional equivalent of the Leydig cell, we explored the CRH presence in the ovary, first, by specific CRH immunohistochemistry of adult cycling female Sprague-Dawley rat ovaries. We detected cytoplasmic immunoreactive CRH (IrCRH) in theca and stromal cells and in cells within the corpora lutea, at all phases of the estrous cycle. Using a specific radioimmunoassay, we measured IrCRH in extracts of rat ovaries (0.042-0.126 pmol/g wet tissue). The mobility of the ovarian IrCRH molecule was similar to that of rat/human CRH by reverse phase HPLC. To investigate the CRH action in the ovary, we identified, characterized, and localized CRH receptors in the rat ovary. Binding was linear with increasing tissue concentration, saturable, and of high affinity. Scatchard analysis of 125I-Tyr-ovine CRH competitive displacement curves indicated a high affinity binding site with a Kd of approximately 6 nM and a Bmax value of approximately 61 fM/mg protein. Autoradiographic studies revealed CRH receptors primarily in ovarian theca and stroma. We conclude that IrCRH and CRH receptors are present in rat ovaries, suggesting that this neuropeptide may play a regulatory role in this gonad, perhaps through its proinflammatory properties and/or by participating in the auto/paracrine regulation of steroid biosynthesis. Functional studies are necessary to define the role(s) of CRH in the ovary.
G Mastorakos, E L Webster, T C Friedman, G P Chrousos
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mediate aspects of normal lung growth and development and are important in the restoration of normal alveolar architecture after lung injury. To determine if fibroblasts are a source of soluble growth factors for alveolar type II cells, we investigated the effect of fibroblast-conditioned medium (CM) on alveolar type II cell DNA synthesis. Serum-free CM from confluent adult human lung fibroblasts was concentrated fivefold by lyophilization. Type II cells were isolated from adult rats by elastase dissociation and incubated with [3H]thymidine and varying dilutions of concentrated CM and serum from day 1 to 3 of culture. Stimulation of type II cell DNA synthesis by fibroblast-CM was maximal after 48 h of conditioning and required the presence of serum. The activity of the CM was eliminated by boiling and by treatment with trypsin, pepsin, or dithiothreitol and was additive with saturating concentrations of acidic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and insulin. The growth factor activity bound to heparin-Sepharose and was eluted with 0.6 and 1.0 M NaCl. Neutralizing antibody studies demonstrated that the primary mitogens isolated in the 0.6 and 1.0 M NaCl fractions were keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, fibroblast growth factor 7) and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), respectively. HGF/SF was demonstrated in the crude CM and KGF was detected in the 0.6 M NaCl eluent by immunoblotting. Northern blot analysis confirmed that the lung fibroblasts expressed both KGF and HGF/SF transcripts. Human recombinant KGF and HGF/SF induced a concentration- and serum-dependent increase in rat alveolar type II cell DNA synthesis. We conclude that adult human lung fibroblasts produce at least two soluble heparin-binding growth factors, KGF and HGF/SF, which promote DNA synthesis and proliferation of rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. KGF and HGF/SF may be important stimuli for alveolar type II cell proliferation during lung growth and after lung injury.
R J Panos, J S Rubin, K G Csaky, S A Aaronson, R J Mason
Plasminogen activators produced locally in the skin have been implicated in blistering skin diseases. To explore whether plasminogen activators convert their substrate plasminogen into plasmin locally in the lesional skin we have analyzed the autoimmune blistering skin disease bullous pemphigoid. Enzyme activity was detected in bullous pemphigoid skin blister fluid by using a low molecular weight chromogenic substrate for plasmin. Enzyme activity was detected neither in suction blister fluid raised on normal skin nor in normal plasma. Immunoprecipitation or fractionation by molecular sieve chromatography of bullous pemphigoid skin blister fluid followed by testing in immunoassays disclosed putative plasmin/alpha 2-macroglobulin complexes and plasmin/alpha 2-antiplasmin complexes. Enzyme activity detected in bullous pemphigoid skin blister fluid by the low molecular weight chromogenic peptide assay was ascribed to the putative plasmin pha 2-macroglobulin complexes. Because formation of plasmin-inhibitor complexes requires the active plasmin, our findings indicate previous activation of plasminogen to plasmin in skin lesions. There was no evidence for free plasmin (i.e., plasmin not complexed to inhibitors) in bullous pemphigoid blister fluid, suction blister fluid, or plasma.
M D Kramer, J Reinartz
Autoantibodies against nuclear proteins like RNA polymerase I (RNA pol I) are produced in a number of rheumatic autoimmune diseases. Production of antibodies specific for the 190-kD subunit of RNA pol I appears to be characteristic in the patients with systemic sclerosis. Previous investigations have shown that the tight skin (TSK) mouse is an experimental model for systemic sclerosis. In the present study we show that the TSK mice produce high titers of anti-RNA pol I antibodies, both of IgM and IgG classes. To characterize the immunochemical properties of these antibodies we obtained a large panel of hybridomas from these mice. Analysis of these hybridomas revealed that clonal frequency of autoreactive B cells specific for RNA pol I are higher in the TSK mice that in the controls. mAbs obtained from the TSK mice were specific for the 190-kD subunit and cross-reacted with Escherichia coli and phage T7 RNA polymerases (155-, 150-, and 107-kD polypeptides). We have also demonstrated that these antibodies bind better to the phosphorylated enzymes. The anti-RNA pol I mAbs were divided into three groups in terms of their functional property. The first group of antibodies increased the catalytic activity of the enzyme whereas the antibodies of the second group inhibited the enzymatic activity. Competitive inhibition RIAs showed that these two groups of antibodies bound to distinct epitopes. The third group of antibodies was neutral and had no activity on the enzyme function. These results suggest that TSK mouse anti-RNA pol I antibodies recognize three or more conserved epitopes. To understand the molecular basis of the generation of such autoreactive antibodies we analyzed their V gene repertoire. Northern analysis of RNAs of 14 TSK hybridomas showed that the VH genes encoding these antibodies were mainly from VH J558 family. It is possible that these genes were derived from a single germline gene or from a set of related genes of a single subgroup.
S Shibata, T Muryoi, Y Saitoh, T D Brumeanu, C A Bona, K N Kasturi
Transmurally localized 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was used to study the effect of severe pressure overload left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) on myocardial high energy phosphate content. Studies were performed on 8 normal dogs and 12 dogs with severe left ventricular hypertrophy produced by banding the ascending aorta at 8 wk of age. Spatially localized 31P-NMR spectroscopy provided measurements of the transmural distribution of myocardial ATP, phosphocreatine (CP), and inorganic phosphate (Pi); spectra were calibrated from measurements of ATP content in myocardial biopsies using HPLC. Blood flow was measured with microspheres. In hypertrophied hearts during basal conditions, ATP was decreased by 42%, CP by 58%, and the CP/ATP ratio by 32% in comparison with normal. Increasing myocardial blood flow with adenosine did not correct these abnormalities, indicating that they were not the result of persistent hypoperfusion. Atrial pacing at 200 and 240 beats per min caused no change in high energy phosphate content in normal hearts but resulted in further CP depletion with Pi accumulation in the inner left ventricular layers of the hypertrophied hearts. These changes were correlated with redistribution of blood flow away from the subendocardium in LVH hearts. These findings demonstrate that high energy phosphate levels and the CP/ATP ratio are significantly decreased in severe LVH. These abnormalities are proportional to the degree of hypertrophy but are not the result of persistent abnormalities of myocardial perfusion. In contrast, depletion of CP and accumulation of Pi during tachycardia in LVH are closely related to the pacing-induced perfusion abnormalities and likely reflect subendocardial ischemia.
J Zhang, H Merkle, K Hendrich, M Garwood, A H From, K Ugurbil, R J Bache
Oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) is a known chemoattractant for monocytes. Here we demonstrate, using a modified Boyden chamber assay, that human peripheral blood T lymphocytes, but not B lymphocytes, also respond chemotactically to Ox-LDL, showing a threefold increase over control and an optimum response at 10 micrograms/ml. Copper and endothelial cell-oxidized LDL and beta-VLDL were used and gave similar results. The activity was not chemokinetic and native LDL possessed no chemoattractant activity. The chemoattractant activity was found to reside in the lipid fraction of Ox-LDL. Lysophosphatidylcholine is a major phospholipid component of Ox-LDL and is known to be chemotactic for monocytes. We show that lysophosphatidylcholine is also chemotactic for T lymphocytes with a maximal fourfold increase at 10 microM. Nonmetabolizable analogues of lysophosphatidylcholine had no such chemotactic effect. Thus, Ox-LDL, by virtue of its lysophosphatidylcholine content, may contribute to the recruitment of both T lymphocytes and monocytes into developing atherosclerotic lesions.
H F McMurray, S Parthasarathy, D Steinberg
Apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV is a polymorphic, intestinally derived apolipoprotein that is genetically linked to and similar in structure to apoA-I, the major apolipoprotein in high density lipoproteins (HDL). ApoA-IV plays a potentially important role in lipoprotein metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport, but its in vivo metabolism is poorly understood. In order to gain insight into factors modulating apoA-IV metabolism in humans, the in vivo kinetics of the two major human apoA-IV isoproteins apoA-IV-1 and apoA-IV-2 were investigated in normolipidemic human subjects. 131I-apoA-IV-1 and 125I-apoA-IV-2 were reassociated with autologous plasma and injected into study subjects. Analysis of the kinetic data revealed a rapid mean fractional catabolic rate (FCR) for apoA-IV-1 of 2.42 +/- 0.11 d-1. The mean production, or transport, rate of apoA-IV-1 was 16.3 +/- 1.4 mg/kg per d. Plasma apoA-IV concentrations were highly correlated with apoA-IV production rate (r = 0.84, P < 0.001) and not correlated with apoA-IV fractional catabolic rate (r = 0.25, P = NS). The mean FCR of apoA-IV-2 was 2.21 +/- 0.10 d-1. In the ten subjects in whom 131I-apoA-IV-1 and 125I-apoA-IV-2 were simultaneously injected, the FCR of apoA-IV-2 was significantly slower by paired t test (P = 0.003). The FCR of apoA-IV-2 in an apoA-IV-2/2 homozygote was only 1.49 d-1, substantially slower than in all other subjects. We conclude that: (a) apoA-IV is a rapidly catabolized apolipoprotein in humans, with a fractional catabolic rate more than 10 times greater than that of apoA-I; (b) apoA-IV has a high absolute transport rate similar to that of apoA-I; (c) plasma levels of apoA-IV are primarily determined by apoA-IV production rate in normolipidemic subjects; and (d) the fractional catabolic rate of the common variant apoA-IV-2 is slower than that of the wild-type apoA-IV-1.
D J Rader, J Schäfer, P Lohse, B Verges, M Kindt, L A Zech, A Steinmetz, H B Brewer Jr
Placenta and endometrium carry out steroidogenic biotransformation reactions such as 6-beta-hydroxylation of cortisol, a reaction characteristic of the dominant family of cytochromes P450 in human liver, CYP3A. To investigate the possible role in these extrahepatic tissues of the CYP3A microsomal hemoproteins, we analyzed placental and endometrial microsomes on Western blots developed with an anti-human CYP3A antibody. We found an immunoreactive 51,500 D protein that migrated between CYP3A3 (HLp) and CYP3A5 (HLp2) identical with CYP3A7 (HFLa). CYP3A7, a form found prominently in human fetal liver microsomes, was first isolated as a liver 16-alpha-dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate hydroxylase. Northern blot analysis of total RNA isolated from placenta or from endometrium demonstrated a single band that cross-hybridized with a CYP3A7 cDNA. Amplification of the same RNA samples with the use of primers specific for CYP3A7, produced a 552-bp segment that had the predicted size and the same DNA sequence as does liver CYP3A7 cDNA. Hybridizable endometrial CYP3A7 mRNA was detected more frequently (six of seven samples) and in higher amounts (approximately 12-fold higher) in pregnant compared with nonpregnant women (4 of 12 samples). In addition, during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle CYP3A7 expression was sixfold higher than in the one sample from the proliferative phase that had detectable CYP3A7 mRNA. Moreover, the amounts of placental and endometrial CYP3A7 mRNA and protein increased substantially from the first to the second trimester of pregnancy. We conclude that placenta and endometrium express the same P450 as is found in fetal liver. These tissues represent a previously unrecognized and quantitatively important site for 6-beta-hydroxylation and 16-alpha-hydroxylation of specific steroid precursors, possibly for protection of the fetus from the toxic effects of endogenous steroids and foreign substrates.
J D Schuetz, S Kauma, P S Guzelian
Conscious dogs undergoing a 15-min coronary occlusion were given alpha-phenyl N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and the local coronary venous plasma was analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. A prolonged myocardial release of PBN radical adducts was observed, which exhibited a burst in the initial minutes of reflow (peaking at 3 min) and then abated but continued for 1-3 h after reperfusion. Computer simulation revealed the presence of at least two PBN adducts (aN = 15.2 G and a beta H = 6.0 G; aN = 14.6 G and a beta H = 3.0 G), both consistent with the trapping of secondary carbon-centered radicals. No appreciable PBN adduct production was observed when collateral flow exceeded 30-40% of nonischemic flow, indicating that a flow reduction of at least 60% is necessary to trigger free radical reactions. There was a direct relationship between the magnitude of PBN adduct production and the severity of contractile dysfunction (r = 0.77), suggesting that the radicals generated upon reperfusion play a causal role in the subsequent stunning. The total release of PBN adducts after 3 h of reperfusion following a 15-min coronary occlusion was found to be approximately five times greater in open-chest compared with conscious dogs; at the same time, the recovery of wall thickening was markedly less in open-chest dogs. This study represents the first application of spin trapping to a conscious animal model of myocardial ischemia. The results demonstrate (a) that free radicals are generated in the stunned myocardium in the absence of the artificial or abnormal conditions associated with previously used models (isolated hearts, open-chest preparations), and (b) that both the severity of postischemic dysfunction and the magnitude of the attendant free radical production are greatly exaggerated in the open-chest dog, implying that previous conclusions derived from this model may not be applicable to conscious animals or to humans. This investigation also provides a method to measure free radicals in awake animals.
X Y Li, P B McCay, M Zughaib, M O Jeroudi, J F Triana, R Bolli
Secretory proteins are targeted into either constitutive (secreted upon synthesis) or regulated (stored in vesicles and released in response to a secretagogue) pathways. To investigate mechanisms of protein targeting into catecholamine storage vesicles (CSV), we stably expressed human chromogranin A (CgA), the major soluble protein in human CSV, in the rat pheochromocytoma PC-12 cell line. Chromaffin cell secretagogues (0.1 mM nicotinic cholinergic agonist, 55 mM K+, or 2 mM Ba++) caused cosecretion of human CgA and catecholamines from human CgA-expressing cells. Sucrose gradients colocalized human CgA and catecholamines to subcellular particles of the same buoyant density. Chimeric proteins, in which human CgA (either full-length [457 amino acids] or truncated [amino-terminal 226 amino acids]) was fused in-frame to the ordinarily nonsecreted protein chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), were expressed transiently in PC-12 cells. Both constructs directed CAT activity into regulated secretory vesicles, as judged by secretagogue-stimulated release. These data demonstrate that human CgA expressed in PC-12 cells is targeted to regulated secretory vesicles. In addition, human CgA can divert an ordinarily non-secreted protein into the regulated secretory pathway, consistent with the operation of a dominant targeting signal for the regulated pathway within the peptide sequence of CgA.
R J Parmer, X P Xi, H J Wu, L J Helman, L N Petz
We tested the response of CD4+ cells and/or total lymphocytes from the blood of 22 myasthenic patients and 10 healthy controls to overlapping synthetic peptides, 20 residues long, to screen the sequence of the gamma and delta subunits of human muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR). The gamma subunit is part of the AChR expressed in embryonic muscle and is substituted in the AChRs of most adult muscles by an epsilon subunit. The delta subunit is present in both embryonic and adult AChRs. Adult extrinsic ocular muscles, which are preferentially and sometimes uniquely affected by myasthenic symptoms, and thymus, which has a still obscure but important role in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis, express the embryonic gamma subunit. Anti-AChR CD4+ responses were more easily detected after CD8+ depletion. All responders recognized epitopes on both the gamma and delta subunits and had severe symptoms. In four patients the CD4+ cell response was tested twice, when the symptoms were severe and during a period of remission. Consistently, the response was only detectable, or larger, when the patients were severely affected.
A A Manfredi, M P Protti, M W Dalton, J F Howard Jr, B M Conti-Tronconi
It has been shown in various mammal species that clonidine, a well known centrally acting hypotensive agent, acts through the activation of imidazoline receptors (IRs) in the nucleus reticularis lateralis (NRL) of the brainstem. Specific binding sites sensitive to imidazolines and insensitive to catecholamines have been detected in rat and bovine, as well as human brains. An endogenous ligand, other than catecholamines, should exist for these IRs. Such a ligand could play a role in the pathophysiology of human essential hypertension. Therefore, we developed two RIAs with polyclonal and monoclonal anticlonidine antibodies. These antibodies presented specificity spectra similar to that of the IRs: they bound imidazolines and not catecholamines at all. These RIAs were used to detect imidazoline-like immunoreactivity in the human serum. Immunoreactive substance was measured in 26 normotensive subjects' sera, and specificity of interaction between antibodies and sera was verified. None of the known endogenous substances tested so far were able to interact with the two antibodies. Immunoreactivity in 32 essential hypertensive patients' sera proved higher in approximately 30% of cases. Values of immunoreactivity positively correlated with the mean arterial pressure values. This study demonstrates the existence of an "imidazoline-like" immunoreactive substance in the human serum with high levels in some hypertensive patients.
M Dontenwill, A Molines, A Verdun, G Bricca, S Laurent, P Bousquet
Urinary kallikrein excretion (UKE) is decreased in rats with passive Heymann nephritis (PHN), but increases after converting enzyme inhibition (CEI). Although CEI potentiates bradykinin activity, neither the effect of CEI on kallikrein secretion nor the abnormal renal kallikrein metabolism in PHN has been examined previously. To determine the mechanism by which CEI increases UKE, normal rats and PHN received enalapril, 40 mg/kg per d orally for 4 d. UKE was 85% lower in PHN than in normals and increased in both groups after CEI, although UKE in PHN remained significantly less than in normals. Kallikrein mRNA was significantly lower in PHN compared to normals but not in PHN treated with CEI and did not change in normal rats. Renin mRNA was significantly lower in PHN, and was stimulated by CEI only in normals. Renal kallikrein and renin content were not different and were not altered by CEI. Both kallikrein and renin genes appear to be transcriptionally suppressed in rats with PHN and the depressed kallikrein mRNA levels can be reversed by CEI. The modest increase in UKE despite normalization of kallikrein mRNA after CEI suggests that there is also a posttranscriptional defect in synthesis and/or secretion of kallikrein.
F N Hutchison, S K Webster, A A Jaffa
Newly described distinct associations of HLA class II genes with ulcerative colitis (UC) (DR2) and Crohn's disease (CD) (DR1/DQ5) provide strong evidence for genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility between these two forms of inflammatory bowel disease. A familial distribution of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs, a subclinical marker of UC) in UC families has further implied the existence of heterogeneity within UC. To test the hypothesis that the heterogeneity within UC indicated by ANCAs has a genetic basis that resides within the HLA region, we studied 89 UC cases and an ethnically matched control group (n = 50). Serological and molecular typing techniques were applied to define HLA class II genes (DR, DQ). ANCAs were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and positive values were confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence. We observed that ANCA-positive UC patients (n = 70) had a significantly increased frequency of DR2 compared with ANCA-negative controls (n = 46) (44% vs 22%, P = 0.01). In contrast, the frequency of DR2 in ANCA-negative UC cases (21%) was virtually identical to that in controls (22%, P = 0.9). Furthermore, the ANCA-negative UC patients had an increase in the DR4 allele compared with ANCA-positive UC (P = 0.004). Thus, with the combination of a subclinical marker (ANCAs) and molecular genetic markers, genetic heterogeneity has been demonstrated within UC: ANCA-positive UC associated with DR2, and ANCA-negative UC likely associated with DR4.
H Yang, J I Rotter, H Toyoda, C Landers, D Tyran, C K McElree, S R Targan
Currently, treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory arthropathies is often ineffective in ameliorating the progression of the disease, particularly the invasive destruction of cartilage and bone by rheumatoid synovium. Multiple aspects of this inflammatory process are mediated by the synovial lining cells (synoviocytes). Genetic modification of these cells in vivo represents a potential method for the treatment of these conditions. In this report, we describe a novel technique for the genetic transduction of synovial lining cells in vivo using recombinant adenoviral vectors and intraarticular injection techniques. Purified high titer suspensions of a recombinant adenoviral vector containing the gene for Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (AdCMVlacZ) were directly injected into the hind knees of New Zealand white rabbits. Synovial tissues were then examined for transgenic lacZ expression using a combination of in situ staining for beta-galactosidase activity, immunohistochemical staining, and transmission electron microscopy. High efficiency gene transfer and lacZ expression was observed in both type A and type B synoviocytes throughout the articular and periarticular synovium of the rabbit knee, with continued expression of transgenic lacZ detected for > or = 8 wk after infection.
B J Roessler, E D Allen, J M Wilson, J W Hartman, B L Davidson
There is evidence that nitric oxide, an endothelium-derived relaxing factor, may be produced by the macula densa, as well as by blood vessels, within the kidney. To examine the role of nitric oxide in macula densa control of glomerular hemodynamics directly, we performed in vitro microperfusions of both rabbit afferent arterioles (with the glomerulus intact) and adherent tubular segments consisting of portions of the thick ascending limb, macula densa, and early distal tubule. While keeping afferent arteriolar pressure constant at 60 mmHg, we examined the effect of Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, added to a macula densa perfusate. When the macula densa perfusate was changed from low to high NaCl, the diameter of the arterioles decreased from 16.3 +/- 1.0 to 14.0 +/- 1.1 microns (n = 10; P < 0.001). Addition of 10(-5) M L-NAME to the high NaCl solution further decreased the diameter to 11.9 +/- 1.1 microns (P < 0.001). In contrast, when macula densa perfusion was maintained with the low NaCl solution, addition of L-NAME had no effect. L-NAME-induced constriction was completely reversed by adding 10(-3) M L-arginine (the precursor of nitric oxide) but not D-arginine (an inactive isomer) to the macula densa perfusate. We confirmed that perfusing the macula densa with L-NAME did not affect the vasodilator action of acetylcholine added to the lumen of the afferent arteriole, indicating that NO synthesis by the arteriole was not altered. Thus, our findings suggest that the macula densa may produce nitric oxide, which in turn modulates the afferent arteriolar constriction induced by high concentrations of NaCl at the macula densa.
S Ito, Y Ren
The role of the kidney in initiating hypertension has been much debated. Here we demonstrate that a recently identified gene of yet unknown function, termed SA, which is differentially expressed in the kidney of the spontaneously hypertensive rat, cosegregates with an increase in blood pressure in F2 rats derived from a cross of the spontaneously hypertensive rat with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats, accounting for 28 and 21% of the genetic variability in systolic and diastolic blood pressures, respectively. Further, the genotype at this locus appears to determine the level of expression of the gene in the kidney. The findings provide strong evidence for a primary genetic involvement of the kidney in hypertension.
N J Samani, D Lodwick, M Vincent, C Dubay, M A Kaiser, M P Kelly, M Lo, J Harris, J Sassard, M Lathrop
Human anti-La/SS-B autoantibodies are known to react with highly conserved epitopes suggested to be functional or active sites on the La/SS-B polypeptide. This study was designed to determine whether the autoantibodies also react with poorly conserved regions of La/SS-B as predicted by an antigen-driven autoimmune response. Binding of human autoantibodies to purified human, mouse, and bovine recombinant fragments representing immunodominant regions of the La/SS-B polypeptide was compared using Western blotting and ELISA. A cross-reactive epitope was located in the highly conserved NH2-terminal region of La/SS-B. Significantly, human-specific epitopes were identified in both the conserved RNA-recognition motif and a poorly conserved COOH-terminal fragment, providing direct evidence for an autoantigen-driven response. The lack of autoantibody cross-reactivity with a conserved domain of mouse and bovine La/SS-B implies that a small number of residues in human autoepitopes may be critical for autoimmunogenicity.
Y M Weng, J McNeilage, F Topfer, J McCluskey, T Gordon