A M Spiegel, L S Weinstein, A Shenker
To examine the relationship between the plasma glucose concentration (PG) and the pathways of hepatic glucose production (HGP), five groups of conscious rats were studied after a 6-h fast: (a) control rats (PG = 8.0 +/- 0.2 mM); (b) control rats (PG = 7.9 +/- 0.2 mM) with somatostatin and insulin replaced at the basal level; (c) control rats (PG = 18.1 +/- 0.2 mM) with somatostatin, insulin replaced at the basal level, and glucose infused to acutely raise plasma glucose by 10 mM; (d) control rats (PG = 18.0 +/- 0.2 mM) with somatostatin and glucose infusions to acutely reproduce the metabolic conditions of diabetic rats, i.e., hyperglycemia and moderate hypoinsulinemia; (e) diabetic rats (PG = 18.4 +/- 2.3 mM). All rats received an infusion of [3-3H]glucose and [U-14C]lactate. The ratio between hepatic [14C]UDP-glucose sp act (SA) and 2X [14C]-phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) SA (the former reflecting glucose-6-phosphate SA) measured the portion of total glucose output derived from PEP-gluconeogenesis. In control rats, HGP was decreased by 58% in hyperglycemic compared to euglycemic conditions (4.5 +/- 0.3 vs. 10.6 +/- 0.2 mg/kg.min; P < 0.01). When evaluated under identical glycemic conditions, HGP was significantly increased in diabetic rats (18.9 +/- 1.4 vs. 6.2 +/- 0.4 mg/kg.min; P < 0.01). In control rats, hyperglycemia increased glucose cycling (by 2.5-fold) and the contribution of gluconeogenesis to HGP (91% vs. 45%), while decreasing that of glycogenolysis (9% vs. 55%). Under identical plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, glucose cycling in diabetic rats was decreased (by 21%) and the percent contribution of gluconeogenesis to HGP (73%) was similar to that of controls (84%). These data indicate that: (a) hyperglycemia causes a marked inhibition of HGP mainly through the suppression of glycogenolysis and the increase in glucokinase flux, with no apparent changes in the fluxes through gluconeogenesis and glucose-6-phosphatase; under similar hyperglycemic hypoinsulinemic conditions: (b) HGP is markedly increased in diabetic rats; however, (c) the contribution of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to HGP is similar to control animals.
L Rossetti, A Giaccari, N Barzilai, K Howard, G Sebel, M Hu
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with sun sensitivity, markedly increased skin cancer susceptibility, and defective DNA repair without consistently identified symptoms of immune deficiency. We examined natural killer (NK) cell activity and interferon production in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of eight XP patients who had multiple primary skin cancers. The XP patients had normal numbers of T cells and NK cells, as well as normal lymphokine-activated killer cell activity and normal tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Unstimulated NK cell function was 40% of normal controls in five XP patients, but was normal in three other XP patients. However, PBL from all the XP patients tested showed no enhancement of NK activity by the interferon inducer, polyinosinic acid:polycytidilic acid (polyIC) but enhancement by interferon-alpha was normal, suggesting an impairment in interferon production. Parallel studies in non-XP skin cancer patients revealed that both unstimulated and polyIC-enhanced NK activity were normal. Further investigation using PBL from XP patients revealed that the production of interferon-gamma after stimulation with interferon inducers (polyIC, interleukin 2, or K562 tumor cells) was 13-43% of normals. These data indicate that XP lymphocytes have a defect in production of interferons and suggest that defective interferon production, as well as DNA repair defects, may play an important role in the susceptibility of XP patients to skin cancer.
A A Gaspari, T A Fleisher, K H Kraemer
Several types of transgenic mice were used to study the influence of hypertriglyceridemia and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) expression on high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, particle sizes, and metabolism. The presence of the CETP transgene in hypertriglyceridemic human apo CIII transgenic mice lowered HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) 48% and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I 40%, decreased HDL size (particle diameter from 9.8 to 8.8 nm), increased HDL cholesterol ester (CE) fractional catabolic rate (FCR) 65% with a small decrease in HDL CE transport rate (TR) and increased apo A-I FCR 15% and decreased apo A-I TR 29%. The presence of the CETP transgene in hypertriglyceridemic mice with human-like HDL, human apo A-I apo CIII transgenic mice, lowered HDL-C 61% and apo A-I 45%, caused a dramatic diminution of HDL particle size (particle diameters from 10.3 and 9.1 to 7.6 nm), increased HDL CE FCR by 107% without affecting HDL CE TR, and increased apo A-I FCR 35% and decreased apo A-I TR 48%. Moreover, unexpectedly, hypertriglyceridemia alone in the absence of CETP was also found to cause lower HDL-C and apo A-I levels primarily by decreasing TRs. Decreased apo A-I TR was confirmed by an in vivo labeling study and found to be associated with a decrease in intestinal but not hepatic apo A-I mRNA levels. In summary, the introduction of the human apo A-I, apo CIII, and CETP genes into transgenic mice produced a high-triglyceride, low-HDL-C lipoprotein phenotype. Human apo A-I gene overexpression caused a diminution of mouse apo A-I and a change from monodisperse to polydisperse HDL. Human apo CIII gene overexpression caused hypertriglyceridemia with a significant decrease in HDL-C and apo A-I levels primarily due to decreased HDL CE and apo A-I TR but without a profound change in HDL size. In the hypertriglyceridemic mice, human CETP gene expression further reduced HDL-C and apo A-I levels, primarily by increasing HDL CE and apo A-I FCR, while dramatically reducing HDL size. This study provides insights into the genes that may cause the high-triglyceride, low-HDL-C phenotype in humans and the metabolic mechanisms involved.
T Hayek, N Azrolan, R B Verdery, A Walsh, T Chajek-Shaul, L B Agellon, A R Tall, J L Breslow
Both platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) A- and B-chains are expressed in mammalian neurons, but their precise roles still remain to be clarified. In the present studies, we examined the expression of two PDGF receptor genes in human tumor cell lines derived from neural crest. The expression of alpha and/or beta PDGF receptors was detected in a wide variety of neural crest-derived human tumor cell lines such as neuroblastoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and Ewing's sarcoma by RNA blot analysis, and confirmed by immunoblot analysis. We have also demonstrated that PDGF receptors on the human neuroblastoma cell lines were biologically functional. Accordingly, chemotactic and mitogenic activities were induced by either PDGF-AA or PDGF-BB in serum-free medium. PDGF isoforms as well as nerve growth factor induced morphological changes showing neuronal cell maturation. Moreover, PDGF coordinately increased the levels of the transcript of the midsize neurofilament gene. The neuroblastoma cell lines also expressed the transcripts of PDGF A- and B-chains. These findings suggest that PDGF isoforms are involved not only in the promotion of the neuroblastoma cell growth, but also in neuronal cell migration, growth, and differentiation in human brain development.
T Matsui, K Sano, T Tsukamoto, M Ito, T Takaishi, H Nakata, H Nakamura, K Chihara
Insulin has been shown to attenuate pressor-induced vascular contraction, but the mechanism for this vasodilatory action is unknown. This study examines the effect of insulin on angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced increments in cytosolic calcium in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). 20-min incubations with insulin (10 microU/ml to 100 mU/ml) did not alter basal intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), but inhibited the response to 100 nM ANG II in a dose-dependent manner (ANG II alone, 721 +/- 54 vs. ANG II + 100 mU/ml insulin, 315 +/- 35 nM, P < 0.01). A similar effect of insulin on ANG II action was observed in calcium poor buffer. Moreover, insulin did not effect calcium influx. ANG II receptor density and affinity were not affected by 24-h incubation with insulin. To further clarify the mechanisms of these observations, we measured ANG II-induced production of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3), and IP3-releasable 45Ca. Insulin treatment did not alter ANG II-stimulated IP3 production. However, IP3-stimulated release of 45Ca in digitonin permeabilized cells was significantly reduced after 5-min incubations with 100 mU/ml insulin. Thapsigargin induced release of calcium stores was also blocked by insulin. Thus, insulin attenuates ANG II-stimulated [Ca2+]i primarily by altering IP3-releasable calcium stores. Insulin effects on ANG II-induced [Ca2+]i were mimicked by preincubation of VSMC with either sodium nitroprusside or 8-bromo-cGMP. As elevations in cGMP in vascular tissue lower [Ca2+]i, it is possible that insulin affects IP3 release of calcium by a cGMP-dependent mechanism that would contribute to its vasodilatory effects.
F Saito, M T Hori, M Fittingoff, T Hino, M L Tuck
The CD18 mAb 60.3 and the CD49d mAb HP1/2 were given at the time of intraperitoneal instillation of either protease peptone or live Escherichia coli bacteria and at 12 h. Leukocyte emigration was evaluated at 4 and 24 h. PMN emigration 4 h after protease peptone instillation and injection of both mAbs was 10% of that in saline treatment. It was 15% of that in saline treatment after mAb 60.3 alone and unchanged by mAb HP1/2. At 24 h PMN emigration in response to protease peptone was not prevented by either CD18 or CD49d mAbs, however, when given together emigration was 10% of saline-treated animals. Mononuclear cell emigration to protease peptone was enhanced at 4 h by both CD18 and CD49d mAbs. The CD18 mAb did not augment mononuclear emigration in response to live bacteria. At 24 h, neither the CD18 nor the CD49d mAb alone blocked emigration of mononuclear cells, but the combination of the two did. These studies demonstrate that: (a) early (4 h) PMN emigration is CD11/CD18 dependent; (b) late (24 h) PMN emigration is CD11/CD18 independent; and (c) mononuclear cells utilize the integrins CD18 and CD49d.
R K Winn, J M Harlan
Missense and nonsense mutations in the glucokinase gene have recently been shown to result in maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), a subtype of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with early age of onset. Glucokinase catalyzes the formation of glucose-6-phosphate and is involved in the regulation of insulin secretion and integration of hepatic intermediary metabolism. Nucleotide sequence analysis of exon 4 and its flanking intronic regions of the glucokinase gene, in four hyperglycemic individuals of a MODY family, revealed a deletion of 15 base pairs, which removed the t of the gt in the donor splice site of intron 4, and the following 14 base pairs. This deletion resulted in two aberrant transcripts, which were analyzed by reverse transcription of RNA from lymphoblastoid cells obtained from a diabetic patient. In one of the abnormal transcripts, exon 5 is missing, while in the other, the activation of a cryptic splice site leads to the removal of the last eight codons of exon 4. This intronic deletion in a donor splice site seems to cause a more severe form of glucose intolerance, compared with point mutations described in glucokinase. This might be due to a more pronounced effect on insulin secretion.
F Sun, B Knebelmann, M E Pueyo, H Zouali, S Lesage, M Vaxillaire, P Passa, D Cohen, G Velho, C Antignac
Complement receptor 3 (CR3) is expressed on cells of the reticuloendothelial system and involved in the clearance of immune complexes. In this article a patient with a deficiency of the C3bi binding site of this receptor is described. Clinically this patient exhibited predominantly cutaneous manifestations of a systemic lupus erythematosus with an immune vasculitis and panniculitis. The deficiency of the CR3 epitope was demonstrated using flow cytometry. The functional relevance of this defect was demonstrated in a rosetting assay with C3bi-loaded erythrocytes. C3bi binding was found to be significantly decreased. Furthermore, there was an impairment of phagocytosis of opsonized Escherichia coli. The CR3 defect is not due to an autoantibody but is assumed to have a genetic basis. These data suggest that the defect of the CR3 may be involved in the pathogenesis of the immune vasculitis in this patient.
T Witte, F L Dumoulin, J E Gessner, J Schubert, O Götze, C Neumann, R F Todd 3rd, H Deicher, R E Schmidt
In cultured rat hepatocytes, cystine led to an inhibition of GSH efflux by lowering the Vmax by approximately 35% without affecting the Km. The cystine-mediated inhibition of GSH efflux was rapid in onset (< 1 h), with near maximum effect at 0.1 mM. Inhibition was still observed when cystine uptake was prevented. Cystine and sulfobromophthalein-GSH, a selective inhibitor of sinusoidal transport of GSH, did not exhibit additive inhibitory effects on GSH efflux. Depletion of ATP or membrane depolarization after cystine treatment were excluded as potential mechanisms. DTT not only reversed the cystine-mediated inhibition of GSH efflux, it stimulated GSH efflux up to 400-500%. The DTT effect was immediate in onset, reaching maximum after 30 min, and was partially reversed by cystine, suggesting that the two share a common site(s) of action. DTT treatment did not alter cellular ATP levels or change the membrane potential. In cultured hepatocytes, DTT treatment increased the Vmax of GSH efflux by approximately 500% without affecting the Km. Inhibition of microtubular function and vesicular acidification did not affect basal or DTT stimulated efflux. Both cystine and DTT effects on sinusoidal GSH efflux were confirmed in perfused livers. In summary, the capacity of the sinusoidal GSH transporter is markedly influenced by thiol-disulfide status.
S C Lu, J L Ge, H Y Huang, J Kuhlenkamp, N Kaplowitz
Histamine causes adjacent endothelial cells to retract from each another. We examined phosphorylation of the 20-kD myosin light chain (MLC20) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to histamine to determine if we could find evidence to support the hypothesis that retraction of these cells in response to histamine represents an actomyosin-initiated contraction of the endothelial cytoskeleton. We found that MLC20 in HUVECs was constitutively phosphorylated with approximately 0.2 mol phosphate/mol MLC20. Histamine increased MLC20 phosphorylation by 0.18 +/- 0.05 mol phosphate/mol MLC20. This peak increase in phosphorylation occurred 30 s after initiating histamine exposure, persisted through 90s, and returned to control levels by 5 min. Agents that increase HUVEC cAMP prevent cell retraction in response to histamine. An increase in HUVEC cAMP decreased MLC20 phosphorylation by 0.18 +/- 0.02 mol phosphate/mol MLC20 and prevented the increase in MLC20 phosphorylation after exposure to histamine. Tryptic peptide maps of phosphorylated myosin light chain indicated that myosin light chain kinase phosphorylated MLC20 in HUVECs under basal, cAMP-, and histamine-stimulated conditions. Phosphoaminoacid analysis of the monophosphorylated peptide indicated that, in contrast to smooth muscle cells, ser19 and thr18 monophosphorylation occurs in HUVECs. On the basis of our results, modulation of myosin light chain kinase activity may be an important regulatory step in the control of endothelial barrier function.
A B Moy, S S Shasby, B D Scott, D M Shasby
The human coagulation system continuously generates very small quantities of Factor Xa and thrombin. Current evidence suggests that basal level activation of the hemostatic mechanism occurs via Factor VIIa-dependent activation of Factor X, but direct proof has not been available for the participation of tissue factor in this pathway. To examine this issue, we infused relatively high concentrations of recombinant Factor VIIa (approximately 50 micrograms/kg body wt) into normal chimpanzees and observed significant increases in the plasma levels of Factor IX activation peptide, Factor X activation peptide, and prothrombin activation fragment F1+2. Metabolic turnover studies with radiolabeled Factor IX activation peptide, Factor X activation peptide, and F1+2 indicate that elevated levels of the activation peptides are due to accelerated conversion of the three coagulation system zymogens into serine proteases. The administration of a potent monoclonal antibody to tissue factor, which immediately neutralizes function of the Factor VIIa-tissue factor complex in vitro, abolishes the activation of Factor X and prothrombin mediated by the infused recombinant protein, and also suppresses basal level activation of Factor IX and Factor X. The above results suggest that recombinant Factor VIIa functions as a prohemostatic agent by interacting with endogenous tissue factor sites, but definitive proof will require studies in hemophilic animals using relevant hemostatic endpoints.
H ten Cate, K A Bauer, M Levi, T S Edgington, R D Sublett, S Barzegar, B L Kass, R D Rosenberg
Leucine-rich repeats are a conserved structural motif, of yet undefined significance, found in a group of proteins from different species. Among these are the four components of the human platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex, a membrane receptor that performs an essential role in the thrombogenic function of platelets by interacting with the adhesive protein, von Willebrand factor. We have found that a single amino acid substitution (Ala156-->Val) within one of the six leucine-rich repeats in the alpha-subunit of glycoprotein Ib results in a variant form of the congenital bleeding disorder, Bernard-Soulier syndrome, characterized by giant dysfunctional platelets. Genetic studies of the propositus and his family members were complemented by immunological and functional analysis of expressed recombinant GP Ib alpha fragments to demonstrate that the observed mutation is the cause of defective von Willebrand factor binding. These studies define the molecular basis of the Bernard-Soulier syndrome within this family and demonstrate that structural integrity of a leucine-rich repeat is necessary for normal function of the glycoprotein Ib-IX-V receptor complex and, possibly, for normal platelet morphology.
J Ware, S R Russell, P Marchese, M Murata, M Mazzucato, L De Marco, Z M Ruggeri
The overall objective of these studies was to determine whether IgG antibody to Pseudomonas aeruginosa would modify the acute lung and pleural injury that developed over 24 h after the instillation of 10(10) live P. aeruginosa into the distal airspaces of one lung in unanesthetized sheep. Using a quantitative experimental model to measure protein permeability across the alveolar epithelial, lung endothelial, and pleural mesothelial barriers, the effect of IgG antibody to P. aeruginosa was examined under four different experimental conditions. First, the effect of IgG antibody to P. aeruginosa in the circulation was examined by instilling 10(10) live P. aeruginosa in 5% ovine albumin in sheep that had been vaccinated. Under these conditions, the presence of circulating IgG antibody to P. aeruginosa reduced lung endothelial injury but did not modify the lung epithelial or pleural injury caused by intraalveolar P. aeruginosa. Therefore, the second experimental protocol determined the effect of instilling immune serum from a sheep that had been vaccinated so that IgG antibody to P. aeruginosa was present in both the circulation and in the airspaces along with instillation of live bacteria. Under these conditions, injury to the lung endothelium, alveolar epithelium, and pleural space was completely prevented. Therefore, the third protocol examined the protective effect of instillation of IgG antibody to P. aeruginosa in the airspaces concurrent with the live bacteria. Interestingly, intraalveolar IgG antibody to P. aeruginosa prevented all evidence of lung epithelial and pleural injury, and this effect was associated with a marked decrease in the number of viable bacteria in the lung after 24 h. Therefore, the fourth protocol examined the prophylactic effect of instillation of the specific IgG antibody to P. aeruginosa 24 h before instillation of the bacteria. With this prophylactic regimen, epithelial, endothelial, and pleural injury were prevented, and there was a significant decrease in the number of bacteria recovered from the lung. Thus, delivery of IgG antibody to P. aeruginosa the distal airspaces of the lung alone may provide a novel therapeutic approach to preventing acute pulmonary infection caused by P. aeruginosa.
J F Pittet, M A Matthay, G Pier, M Grady, J P Wiener-Kronish
The mechanism of Cl- exit was examined in the basolateral membrane of rabbit renal proximal tubule S3 segment with double-barreled, ion-selective microelectrodes. After the basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger was blocked by 2'-disulfonic acid, a bath K+ step from 5 to 20 mM induced 26.6 mV depolarization and 7.7 mM increase in intracellular Cl- activities ([Cl(-)]i). K+ channel blockers, Ba2+, and quinine strongly suppressed both the response in cell membrane potentials (Vb) and in (Cl-)i to the bath K+ step, while Cl- channel blockers, A9C (1 mM) and IAA-94 (0.3 mM) inhibited only the latter response by 49 and 74%, respectively. By contrast, an inhibitor of K(+)-Cl- cotransporter, H74, had no effect on the increase in (Cl-)i to the bath K+ step. Furosemide and the removal of bath Na+ were also ineffective, suggesting that (Cl-)i are sensitive to the cell potential changes. Bath Cl- removal in the presence of quinine induced a depolarization of more than 10 mV and a decrease in (Cl-)i, and IAA-94 inhibited these responses similarly in the bath K+ step experiments. These results indicate that a significant Cl- conductance exists in the basolateral membrane of this segment and functions as a Cl- exit mechanism.
G Seki, S Taniguchi, S Uwatoko, K Suzuki, K Kurokawa
Obesity could be due to excess energy intake or decreased energy expenditure (EE). To evaluate this, we studied 18 obese females (148 +/- 8% of ideal body weight [IBW], mean +/- SD) before and after achieving and stabilizing at IBW for at least 2 mo and a control group of 14 never obese females (< 110% of IBW or < 30% fat). In the obese, reduced obese, and never obese groups, the percent of body fat was 41 +/- 4%, 27 +/- 4%, and 25 +/- 3%; total energy expenditure (TEE) was 2704 +/- 449, 2473 +/- 495, and 2259 +/- 192 kcal/24 h; while resting metabolic rate was 1496 +/- 169, 1317 +/- 159, and 1341 +/- 103 kcal/24 h, respectively. 15 obese subjects who withdrew from the study had a mean initial body composition and EE similar to the subjects who were successful in achieving IBW. In 10 subjects followed for at least one year after stabilizing at IBW there was no significant relationship between the deviation from predicted TEE at IBW and weight regain. These studies indicate that, in a genetically heterogeneous female population, neither the propensity to become obese nor to maintain the obese state are due to an inherent metabolic abnormality characterized by a low EE.
J M Amatruda, M C Statt, S L Welle
beta 2-Microglobulin (beta 2M) is a major constituent of amyloid fibrils in hemodialysis-associated amyloidosis, a complication of long-term hemodialysis patients. Amyloid fibril proteins were isolated from connective tissues forming carpal tunnels in hemodialysis patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting demonstrated that most of the beta 2M forming amyloid fibrils exhibited a more acidic pI value than normal beta 2M. This acidic beta 2M was also found in a small fraction of beta 2M in sera and urine from these patients, whereas heterogeneity was not observed in healthy individuals. We purified acidic and normal beta 2M from the urine of long-term hemodialysis patients and compared their physicochemical and immunochemical properties. Acidic beta 2M, but not normal beta 2M, was brown in color and fluoresced, both of which are characteristics of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) of the Maillard reaction. Immunochemical studies showed that acidic beta 2M reacted with anti-AGE antibody and also with an antibody against an Amadori product, an early product of the Maillard reaction, but normal beta 2M did not react with either antibody. Incubating normal beta 2M with glucose in vitro resulted in a shift to a more acidic pI, generation of fluorescence, and immunoreactivity to the anti-AGE antibody. The beta 2M forming amyloid fibrils also reacted with anti-AGE antibody. These data provided evidence that AGE-modified beta 2M is a dominant constituent of the amyloid deposits in hemodialysis-associated amyloidosis.
T Miyata, O Oda, R Inagi, Y Iida, N Araki, N Yamada, S Horiuchi, N Taniguchi, K Maeda, T Kinoshita
Leukotriene (LT) B4 is a major chemical activator of PMN. Inhibitory effects of oral administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on LTB4 synthesis by PMN are known. We intravenously infused tridocosahexaenoyl-glycerol (DHA-TG) emulsion into rabbits in three different doses, namely 0.8, 0.4, or 0.2 g DHA/kg, and investigated the changes in LTB4/5 production by ionophore-activated PMN. The averaged LTB4 production by PMN was significantly reduced to 57 and 59% of baseline at 6 h after the infusion of 0.8 and 0.4 g DHA/kg, respectively (P < 0.05), but not after the infusion of 0.2 g DHA/kg or 0.8 g soybean oil/kg. The combined concentrations of both DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid in the PMN phospholipid fraction were significantly increased at 6 h after the infusion of 0.8 or 0.4 g DHA/kg but not after the infusion of 0.2 g DHA/kg or 0.8 g soybean oil/kg. Oral administration of 0.8 g DHA/kg did not increase DHA or eicosapentaenoic acid in the PMN phospholipid fraction and did not decrease LTB4 production by PMN at 6 h after administration. We suggest that the infusion of 0.4-0.8 g DHA/kg might be beneficial to patients who suffer from diseases that are related to the acute elevation of LTB4 production.
N Nakamura, T Hamazaki, K Yamazaki, H Taki, M Kobayashi, K Yazawa, F Ibuki
In X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) the urine of male patients is not concentrated after the administration of the antidiuretic hormone arginine-vasopressin. This disease is due to mutations in the V2 receptor gene that maps to chromosome region Xq28. In 1969, Bode and Crawford suggested that most NDI patients in North America shared common ancestors of Ulster Scot immigrants who arrived in Halifax in 1761 on the ship Hopewell. A link between this family and a large Utah kindred was also suggested. DNA was obtained from 17 affected male patients from the "Hopewell" kindred and from four additional families from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick who shared the same Xq28 NDI haplotype. The Utah kindred and two families (Q2, Q3) from Quebec were also studied. The "Hopewell" mutation, W71X, is a single base substitution (G-->A) that changes codon 71 from TGG (tryptophan) to TGA (stop). The W71X mutation was found in affected members of the Hopewell and of the four satellite families. The W71X mutation is the cause of X-linked NDI for the largest number of related male patients living in North America. Other families (Utah, Q2 and Q3) that are historically and ethnically unrelated bear other mutations in the V2 receptor gene.
D G Bichet, M F Arthus, M Lonergan, G N Hendy, A J Paradis, T M Fujiwara, K Morgan, M C Gregory, W Rosenthal, A Didwania
Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is thought to be triggered by an alloreactive response to the donor coronary vasculature, resulting in smooth muscle cell proliferation and ultimate occlusion of the donor coronary arteries. To determine whether allogeneic lymphocytes are capable of regulating endothelial-derived smooth muscle cell (SMC) growth factors, human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were exposed to allogeneic lymphocytes. The HAEC-lymphocyte co-cultures were assessed for (a) lymphocyte proliferation in response to the allogeneic HAECs; (b) release of soluble factors that stimulate human aortic SMC proliferation; and (c) alteration of HAEC mRNA levels for a panel of known SMC growth factors. Co-culture conditioned medium increased SMC proliferation, compared to medium conditioned by HAECs alone. HAECs exposed to allogeneic lymphocytes increased their expression of mRNA for basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factors alpha and beta, and platelet derived growth factor A and B chains. These results demonstrate that allogeneic lymphocytes are capable of inducing HAECs to increase mRNA levels for several mesenchymal growth factors and to release bioactive products capable of stimulating SMC cell proliferation in vitro. Additionally, the data support the hypothesis that alloreactive lymphocytes can stimulate allogeneic donor endothelial cells to produce growth factors that may contribute to the intimal thickening seen in cardiac allograft vasculopathy.
C R Wagner, T E Morris, G D Shipley, J D Hosenpud
It has become increasingly clear that RNA-binding proteins play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. The presence in rat lung of a specific, redox-sensitive catalase RNA-binding protein was recently reported (Clerch, L. B., and D. Massaro, 1992. J. Biol. Chem. 267:2853). In order to determine if specific manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) RNA-binding proteins exist, we tested whether protein in rat lung extract would bind to 32P-labeled MnSOD RNA. Using a gel mobility shift assay we show rat lung protein forms specific complexes with a 216 b fragment of the 3' untranslated region of MnSOD RNA and the binding requires the presence of free sulfhydryl groups. Competition studies indicate MnSOD RNA-binding protein is different from catalase RNA-binding protein. Furthermore, unlike catalase RNA-binding protein, rat lung MnSOD RNA-binding protein activity is developmentally regulated; there is less MnSOD RNA-protein binding activity in adult rat lung extract compared to prenatal or neonatal rat lung extracts. We conclude the lung contains developmentally regulated MnSOD mRNA-binding protein that is redox sensitive.
H Fazzone, A Wangner, L B Clerch
Most patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVI) have normal numbers of circulating B cells but low concentrations of serum Ig. To determine if the hypogammaglobulinemia is caused by an intrinsic B cell defect, we studied B cell function of 22 CVI patients. Cultured B cells from all CVI patients underwent normal proliferation and synthesized normal quantities of IgE in the presence of anti-CD40 and IL-4. If cultured with anti-CD40 and IL-10, four patterns of Ig isotype synthesis were observed. Six CVI patients produced normal amounts of IgM, IgG, and IgA. Four patients produced normal quantities of IgM and IgG. Of the remaining 12 patients who failed to synthesize IgG and IgA, 8 produced normal and 4 synthesized decreased amounts of IgM. Analysis of the IgG subclasses produced by 10 patients with IgG-secreting B cells revealed that IgG4 was the most affected subclass, followed by IgG2; synthesis of IgG3 and IgG1 remained normal. Similarly, in the six IgA producing patients, IgA2 was more often affected than IgA1. The hierarchy of Ig isotype and subclass synthesis corresponds to Ig heavy chain constant region gene location on chromosome 14. Thus, circulating B cells of CVI patients are committed to synthesize one or more Ig isotypes or subclasses, and under proper conditions can proliferate, mature into Ig-secreting cells, and undergo class switch to IgE.
S Nonoyama, M Farrington, H Ishida, M Howard, H D Ochs
To define the molecular mechanism(s) that activate insulin receptor gene transcription during cell differentiation, we tested nuclear extracts from BC3H-1 muscle cells for their binding to the 5'-flanking region of the human insulin receptor gene. DNA binding activity of nuclear extracts was low in undifferentiated BC3H-1 cells and increased significantly during differentiation. Gel retardation assays, combined with DNase I footprinting, showed that the increased insulin receptor gene transcription occurring during differentiation was directly correlated with the appearance of DNA binding proteins that specifically interacted with two AT-rich sequences of the regulatory region of the insulin receptor gene. Fibroblast growth factor, a known inhibitor of the transcription of muscle-specific DNA binding proteins, did not inhibit the appearance of these insulin receptor DNA binding proteins. When 3T3-L1 cells differentiate from preadipocytes to adipocytes, insulin receptor gene transcription significantly increases. In differentiated adipocytes, the same two insulin receptor DNA binding proteins markedly increased. Reporter gene analysis with the two AT-rich sequences demonstrated that both of these regions of the insulin receptor gene had the characteristics of promoter rather than enhancer elements. Thus, these proteins interacting with these AT-rich sequences may have major importance in regulating the expression of the insulin receptor in target tissues.
A Brunetti, D Foti, I D Goldfine
HLA class II alleles were determined using the PCR-RFLP method in Japanese systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) patients with (n = 28) or without (n = 34) anti-topoisomerase I antibodies (anti-topo I). Either the DQB1*0601 or *0301 allele was recognized in all anti-topo I positive patients, compared with 44% of anti-topo I negative patients (P < 0.00001, relative risk [RR] > 41) or 58% of Japanese healthy control subjects (P < 0.00001, RR > 24). Tyrosine at position 26 in the second hypervariable region in the beta 1 domain of the DQB1 gene is common to these two alleles and is not present in any other known DQB1 alleles. We also examined immunoreactivities of anti-topo I positive sera to four different autoantigenic B cell epitopes of topo I molecule that were expressed as recombinant fusion proteins. One major B cell epitope, located within the region corresponding to amino acid residues 74-248, was perfectly associated with the amino acid sequence FLEDR at positions 67-71 in the beta 1 domain of the DRB gene. Two other epitopes, corresponding to 316-441 or 658-700, were associated with the serologically defined HLA-DR52 antigen. Patients with both FLEDR and DR52 demonstrated higher anti-topo I antibody titers. These results suggest that the HLA-DR and DQ genes together control the autoimmune response to topo I in systemic sclerosis.
M Kuwana, J Kaburaki, Y Okano, H Inoko, K Tsuji
Antibodies to topoisomerase-I are present in approximately 26% of patients with scleroderma and are rarely found in patients with other diseases. In the current study, the expression of the antitopoisomerase-I (antitopo-I) idiotype from two scleroderma patients (E.M. and S.G.) and from a healthy individual (N.M.) were studied. Idiotype EM-SCL was restricted to the three classes of antitopo-I, whereas idiotypes SG-SCL and NM were found in all classes of antitopo-I as well as in their non-antitopo-I Igs. Sera from 9 of 10 antitopo-I-positive unrelated scleroderma patients expressed idiotype SG-SCL and some also expressed idiotype NM. Sera from N.M.'s 3 daughters and from 7 of 18 nonrelated normals expressed idiotype NM in the three immunoglobulin classes of non-antitopo-I. Two of the antitopo-I antibodies expressed a cross-reacting idiotype (CRI) that is present in non-antitopo-I antibodies from the same donor. Contrary to the natural CRI, SG-SCL's CRI is closely associated with the antigen binding site. Antitopo-I idiotypes are on the heavy chains. Like many other autoantibodies, Id-SG-SCL use VH4.2-1, DXP1, and JH4 in germline configuration.
D Vazquez-Abad, V Pascual, M Zanetti, N F Rothfield
The effects of secretin on ion transport mechanisms involved in regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) and HCO3- excretion were characterized in bile duct epithelial (BDE) cells isolated from normal rat liver. pHi was measured with 2,7-bis(carboxy-ethyl)-5(6)-carboxy-fluorescein-acetomethylester (BCECF-AM) using a microfluorimetric method. Basal pHi of BDE was 7.04 +/- 0.06 in Hepes and 7.16 +/- 0.10 in KRB and was unaffected by secretin (50-200 nM). Recovery rates from an acid load in Hepes or in KRB media (with and without amiloride) were also not altered by secretin, indicating that Na+/H+ exchange and Na+/HCO3- cotransport were not affected by this hormone. After acute Cl- removal, pHi rose 0.24 +/- 0.08 pHU at a maximal rate of 0.125 +/- 0.06 pHU/min (H+ flux rates = 6.02 +/- 3.27 mM/min) and recovered after Cl- readmission (0.188 +/- 0.08 pHU/min; H+ flux rates = 11.82 +/- 5.34 mM/min). Pretreatment with 1 mM DIDS inhibited the effects of Cl- removal, while valinomycin, which induces cell depolarization, enhanced these effects, probably by stimulating electrogenic HCO3- influx. Secretin significantly increased both the maximal rate of alkalinization after Cl- removal (P < 0.012) and of pHi recovery after Cl- readmission (P < 0.025), indicating stimulation of Cl-/HCO3- exchange activity. These findings were reproduced with N6,2'-O-Dibutyryladenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (DBcAMP). The Cl- channel blocker 5-nitro-2'-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB, 10 microM) significantly decreased the effects of secretin and DBcAMP on the pHi changes promoted by acute Cl- removal/readmission. These findings establish that secretin stimulates the activity of the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger in BDE cells, probably by activating Cl- channels via the intracellular messenger cAMP. This in turn depolarizes the cell, stimulating electrogenic Na+/HCO3- symport. The cell depolarization induced by Cl- channel activation should enhance HCO3- entrance through electrogenic Na+/HCO3- symport, which in turn stimulates the Cl-/HCO3- exchange. These mechanisms could account for secretin stimulated bicarbonate secretion in bile.
D Alvaro, W K Cho, A Mennone, J L Boyer
Deoxygenation of erythrocytes from sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients alters membrane phospholipid distribution with increased exposure of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer leaflet. This study investigated whether altered membrane phospholipid exposure on sickle erythrocytes results in complement activation. In vitro deoxygenation of sickle but not normal erythrocytes resulted in complement activation measured by C3 binding. Additional evidence indicated that this activation was the result of the alterations in membrane phospholipids. First, complement was activated by normal erythrocytes after incubation with sodium tetrathionate, which produces similar phospholipid changes. Second, antibody was not required for complement activation by sickle or tetrathionate-treated erythrocytes. Third, the membrane regulatory proteins, decay-accelerating factor (CD55) and the C3b/C4b receptor (CD35), were normal on sickle and tetrathionate-treated erythrocytes. Finally, insertion of PE or PS into normal erythrocytes induced alternative pathway activation. SCA patients in crisis exhibited increased plasma factor Bb levels compared with baseline, and erythrocytes isolated from hospitalized SCA patients had increased levels of bound C3, indicating that alternative pathway activation occurs in vivo. Activation of complement may be a contributing factor in sickle crisis episodes, shortening the life span of erythrocytes and decreasing host defense against infections.
R H Wang, G Phillips Jr, M E Medof, C Mold
Activation of HIV-1 requires the binding of host cell transcription factors to cis elements in the proviral long terminal repeat (LTR). This study identifies c-fos-responsive sequence motifs in the U5 transcribed noncoding leader sequences downstream of the viral transactivator responsive (TAR) element. These DNA sequence motifs are the most downstream regulatory elements described thus far in the HIV-1 LTR. Functional studies, using human colon epithelial cell lines, demonstrate that the downstream elements are transactivated by expression of the c-fos protooncogene and can transmit PMA and TNF alpha activation signals to the viral LTR. Moreover, the c-fos-responsive elements mediate HIV-1 LTR transcription independent of Tat and the NF kappa B-binding enhancer element. Nuclear extracts of colon epithelial cells form distinct gel mobility shift complexes with the c-fos-responsive elements. These complexes comigrate with a gel shift complex formed on a classical CRE oligonucleotide and are competed by CRE oligonucleotides. These data indicate that the HIV-1 LTR contains previously unrecognized functional DNA cis-regulatory elements downstream of TAR in the transcribed noncoding 5' leader sequence and suggest that early response genes such as c-fos play a role in the activation of HIV-1 gene expression.
K A Roebuck, D A Brenner, M F Kagnoff
T C Wang, S Bonner-Weir, P S Oates, M Chulak, B Simon, G T Merlino, E V Schmidt, S J Brand
Unstimulated neutrophils inhibited activation and recruitment of thrombin- or collagen-stimulated platelets in an agonist-specific manner. This occurred under conditions of close physical cell-cell contact, although biochemical adhesion between the cells as mediated by P-selectin was not required. Moreover, in the presence of monoclonal P-selectin antibodies that blocked biochemical platelet-neutrophil adhesion, thrombin-stimulated platelets were more efficiently downregulated by neutrophils. This suggested a prothrombotic role for P-selectin under these circumstances. The neutrophil downregulatory effect on thrombin-stimulated platelets was amplified by lipoxygenase inhibition with 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid. In contrast, the neutrophil inhibitory effect on platelets was markedly reduced by platelet-derived 12S-hydroxy-5,8-cis, 10-trans, 14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid (12S-HETE), as well as by the platelet-neutrophil transcellular product, 12S,20-dihydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (12S,20-DiHETE), but not by another comparable metabolite, 5S,12S-dihydroxy-6-trans, 8-cis, 10-trans, 14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid (5S,12S-DiHETE), or the neutrophil-derived hydroxy acid leukotriene B4. The neutrophil downregulatory effect on thrombin-induced platelet reactivity was enhanced by aspirin treatment. This may represent a novel action of aspirin as an inhibitor of platelet function. These results provide in vitro biochemical and functional evidence for the thromboregulatory role of neutrophils and emphasize the multicellular aspect of hemostasis and thrombosis.
J Valles, M T Santos, A J Marcus, L B Safier, M J Broekman, N Islam, H L Ullman, J Aznar
Previous studies by our group have demonstrated that angiotensin II (ANG II), as a single factor in serum-free medium, induces cellular hypertrophy of a cultured murine proximal tubular cell line (MCT). The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that this growth effect was mediated by activation of endogenous transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Exogenous TGF-beta 1 (1 ng/ml) mimicked the growth effects observed with 10(-8) M ANG II (inhibition of DNA synthesis and induction of cellular hypertrophy). A neutralizing anti-TGF-beta antibody attenuated the ANG II-induced increase in de novo protein and total RNA synthesis as well as total protein content. This antibody also abolished the ANG II-mediated inhibition of [3H]thymidine incorporation into quiescent MCT cells. Control IgG or an unrelated antibody had no effect. A bioassay for TGF-beta using mink lung epithelial cells revealed that MCT cells treated with ANG II released active TGF-beta into the cell culture supernatant. Northern blot analysis and semi-quantitative cDNA amplification demonstrated increases in steady-state levels for TGF-beta 1 mRNA after ANG II stimulation of MCT cells, but not in a syngeneic murine mesangial cell line. Our data indicate that the ANG II-induced hypertrophy in MCT cells is mediated by synthesis and activation of endogenous TGF-beta. It is intriguing to speculate that TGF-beta may play a role in the early tubular cell hypertrophy and the subsequent interstitial scarring observed in several models of chronic renal injury that are characterized by increased activity of intrarenal ANG II.
G Wolf, E Mueller, R A Stahl, F N Ziyadeh
In the current study, we investigated whether Staphylococcus aureus grown from affected skin of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients secreted identifiable toxins that could act as allergens to induce IgE-mediated basophil histamine release. The secreted toxins of S. aureus grown from AD patients were identified by ELISA using antibodies specific for staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) exfoliative toxin (ET), or toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1). S. aureus isolates from 24 of 42 AD patients secreted identifiable toxins with SEA, SEB, and TSST accounting for 92% of the isolates. 32 of 56 AD sera (57%) tested contained significant levels of IgE primarily to SEA, SEB, and/or TSST. In contrast, although SEA, SEB, or TSST secreting S. aureus could be recovered from the skin of psoriasis patients, their sera did not contain IgE antitoxins. Freshly isolated basophils from 10 AD patients released 5-59% of total histamine in response to SEA, SEB, or TSST-1 but only with toxins to which patients had specific IgE. Basophils from eight other AD patients and six normal controls who had no IgE antitoxin failed to demonstrate toxin-induced basophil histamine release. Stripped basophils sensitized with three AD sera containing IgE to toxin released 15-41% of total basophil histamine only when exposed to the relevant toxin, but not to other toxins. Sensitization of basophils with AD sera lacking IgE antitoxin did not result in release of histamine to any of the toxins tested. These data indicate that a subset of patients with AD mount an IgE response to SEs that can be grown from their skin. These toxins may exacerbate AD by activating mast cells, basophils, and/or other Fc epsilon-receptor bearing cells armed with the relevant IgE antitoxin.
D Y Leung, R Harbeck, P Bina, R F Reiser, E Yang, D A Norris, J M Hanifin, H A Sampson
Previous studies showed that homocysteine, a thrombo-atherogenic and atherogenic agent, inhibits an endothelial thrombomodulin-protein C anticoagulant pathway. We examined whether homocysteine might affect another endothelial anticoagulant mechanism; i.e., heparin-like glycosaminoglycan-antithrombin III interactions. Incubations of porcine aortic endothelial cell cultures with homocysteine reduced the amount of antithrombin III bound to the cell surface in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. The inhibitory effect was observed at a homocysteine concentration as low as 0.1 mM, and the maximal suppression occurred at 1 mM of homocysteine after 24 h. In contrast with a marked reduction in the maximal antithrombin III binding capacity (approximately 30% of control), the radioactivity of [35S]sulfate incorporated into heparan sulfate on the cell surface was minimally (< 15%) reduced. The cells remained viable after homocysteine treatment. Although neither net negative charge nor proportion in total glycosaminoglycans of cell surface heparan sulfate was altered by homocysteine treatment, a substantial reduction in antithrombin III binding capacity of heparan sulfate isolated from homocysteine-treated endothelial cells was found using both affinity chromatography and dot blot assay techniques. The antithrombin III binding activity of endothelial cells decreased after preincubation with 1 mM homocysteine, cysteine, or 2-mercaptoethanol; no reduction in binding activity was observed after preincubation with the same concentration of methionine, alanine, or valine. This sulfhydryl effect may be caused by generation of hydrogen peroxide, as incubation of catalase, but not superoxide dismutase, with homocysteine-treated endothelial cells prevented this reduction, whereas copper augmented the inhibitory effects of the metabolite. Thus, our data suggest that the inhibited expression of anticoagulant heparan sulfate may contribute to the thrombogenic property resulting from the homocysteine-induced endothelial cell perturbation, mediated by generation of hydrogen peroxide through alteration of the redox potential.
M Nishinaga, T Ozawa, K Shimada
In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the high diagnostic value of serum antibodies to the stratum corneum of rat esophagus epithelium has been widely reported. These so-called "antikeratin antibodies," detected by indirect immunofluorescence, were found to be autoantibodies since they also labeled human epidermis. Despite their name, the actual target of these autoantibodies was not known. In this study, a 40-kD protein (designated as 40K), extracted from human epidermis and specifically immunodetected by 75% of RA sera, was purified and identified as a neutral/acidic isoform of basic filaggrin, a cytokeratin filament-aggregating protein, by peptide mapping studies and by the following evidences: (a) mAbs specific for filaggrin reacted with the 40K protein; (b) the autoantibodies, affinity-purified from RA sera on the 40K protein, immunodetected purified filaggrin; (c) the reactivity of RA sera to the 40K protein was abolished after immunoadsorption with purified filaggrin; (d) the 40K protein and filaggrin had similar amino acid compositions. Furthermore, autoantibodies against the 40K protein and the so-called "antikeratin antibodies" were shown, by immunoadsorption experiments, to be largely the same. The identification of filaggrin as a RA-specific autoantigen could contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease and, ultimately, to the development of methods for preventing the autoimmune response.
M Simon, E Girbal, M Sebbag, V Gomès-Daudrix, C Vincent, G Salama, G Serre
We investigated the presence of autoantibodies to baculovirus-expressed human recombinant 65- and 67-kD isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67) in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). In the immunoprecipitation test using [35S]methionine-labeled GADs antibodies to GAD65 were detected in 13/15 (87%) islet cell antibody (ICA)-positive and in 1/35 (2.9%) ICA-negative first-degree relatives of patients with IDDM, in 6/11 (54.5%) ICA-positive nondiabetic schoolchildren, and in 35/50 (70%) patients with newly diagnosed IDDM. GAD67 antibodies were positive only in five (33%) of the ICA-positive relatives (P < 0.05) and in nine (18%) IDDM patients at onset (P < 0.00001). After onset of IDDM antibodies to GAD65 and GAD67 declined but were still positive in 25 and 9.4% of subjects with long-standing IDDM (> 10 yr). In all study groups antibodies to GAD67 were only detected in GAD65 antibody-positive sera. An immunotrapping enzyme activity assay for GAD65 antibodies was positive in 64/75 (85.3%) of sera that were GAD antibody positive in the immunoprecipitation test (r = 0.870, P < 0.0001). In two (2.7%) sera GAD65 antibodies that block GAD enzyme activity were found. Our data suggest that antibodies to GAD65 but not to GAD67 represent sensitive markers for preclinical and overt IDDM. The immunotrapping assay here described represents a valuable technique for specific and sensitive screening for GAD antibodies.
J Seissler, J Amann, L Mauch, H Haubruck, S Wolfahrt, S Bieg, W Richter, R Holl, E Heinze, W Northemann
Homocystinuria due to homozygous cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by a high incidence of thrombosis and premature atherosclerosis. We evaluated TXA2 biosynthesis in vivo and several in vitro tests of platelet function in 11 homocystinuric patients and 12 healthy controls. In vitro, patients' platelet aggregation was within control values as were TXB2 formation, fibrinogen binding, and ATP secretion in response to thrombin. In contrast, the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXB2, a major enzymatic derivative of TXA2, was > 2 SD of controls in all patients (1,724 +/- 828 pg/mg creatinine, mean +/- SD, in patients vs. 345 +/- 136 in controls, P < 0.001). The administration to four patients of low-dose aspirin (50 mg/d for 1 wk) reduced metabolite excretion by > 80%. The recovery of 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion over the 10 d that followed aspirin cessation occurred with a pattern consistent with the entry into the circulation of platelets with intact cyclooxygenase activity. Prolonged partial reduction in the abnormally high excretion of both 11-dehydro-TXB2 and 2,3-dinor-TXB2, was also observed in seven patients who ingested 500 mg daily for 3 wk of the antioxidant drug probucol. These results provide evidence for enhanced thromboxane biosynthesis in homocystinuria and for its partial dependence on probucol-sensitive mechanisms. Furthermore, the elevated TXA2 formation in homocystinuria is likely to reflect, at least in part, in vivo platelet activation.
G Di Minno, G Davì, M Margaglione, F Cirillo, E Grandone, G Ciabattoni, I Catalano, P Strisciuglio, G Andria, C Patrono
The accumulation of advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs) on collagen and the subsequent stiffening of this matrix protein in diabetes has been described many years ago. Structural modification of collagen in the arterial wall might have important effects on arterial elasticity. Aminoguanidine is known to decrease the formation of AGEs. In this study we evaluated the effects of aminoguanidine treatment on different parameters reflecting arterial wall elasticity in diabetic rats. We demonstrated that treatment of diabetic rats with aminoguanidine resulted in a significant increase in carotid static compliance (+39%, P < 0.01 under control conditions, and +27%, P < 0.01 after abolition of vascular tone by KCN), and a decrease in characteristic aortic input impedance (-40%, P < 0.01). The arterial pulse pressure in aminoguanidine-treated rats was decreased (-15%, P < 0.05) and the pulsatile component of left ventricular power output was relatively diminished (-35%, P < 0.05). In addition, we observed a lower fluid filtration across the carotid wall. These results indicate an increased vascular elasticity, an improved left ventricular-arterial coupling, and a decreased vascular permeability in diabetic rats after aminoguanidine treatment, suggesting that AGE-accumulation on collagen negatively affects arterial wall properties in experimental diabetes.
M S Huijberts, B H Wolffenbuttel, H A Boudier, F R Crijns, A C Kruseman, P Poitevin, B I Lévy
M S Donnenberg, C O Tacket, S P James, G Losonsky, J P Nataro, S S Wasserman, J B Kaper, M M Levine
M S Donnenberg, S Tzipori, M L McKee, A D O'Brien, J Alroy, J B Kaper
Extracellular matrix proteins and their cellular receptors, integrins, play a fundamental role in keratinocyte adhesion and migration. During wound healing, keratinocytes detach, migrate until the two epithelial sheets confront, and then regenerate the basement membrane. We examined the expression of different integrins and their putative ligands in keratinocytes during human mucosal wound healing. Migrating keratinocytes continuously expressed kalinin but not the other typical components of the basement membrane zone: type IV collagen, laminin, and type VII collagen. When the epithelial sheets confronted each other, these missing basement membrane components started to appear gradually through the entire wound area. The expression of integrin beta 1 subunit was increased in keratinocytes during migration. The beta 1-associated alpha 2 and alpha 3 subunits were expressed constantly by wound keratinocytes whereas the alpha 5 subunit was present only in keratinocytes during reepithelialization. Furthermore, migrating cells started to express alpha v-integrins which were not present in the nonaffected epithelium. All keratinocytes also expressed the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin during migration. In the migrating cells, the distribution of integrins was altered. In normal mucosa, beta 1-integrins were located mainly on the lateral plasma membrane and alpha 6 beta 4 at the basal surface of basal keratinocytes in the nonaffected tissue. In wounds, integrins were found in filopodia of migrating keratinocytes, and also surrounding cells in several cell layers of the migrating sheet. The results indicate that migrating keratinocytes, in deep human wounds enlarge their integrin repertoire. The changes in integrin expression take place concomitantly with changes in the basement membrane composition, suggesting a close interplay of these two groups of molecules during wound healing.
H Larjava, T Salo, K Haapasalmi, R H Kramer, J Heino
The resistance of parathyroid cells to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in uremic hyperparathyroidism is thought to be caused, in part, by a 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor (VDR) deficiency in the parathyroids. However, results of biochemical studies addressing VDR numbers in the parathyroids are controversial. Several studies have found VDR content to be decreased in the parathyroids of uremic patients and animals, while others have found no such decrease in the parathyroids of uremic animals. To clarify the role of VDR, we investigated VDR distribution in surgically-excised parathyroids obtained from chronic dialysis patients by immunohistochemistry. We classified the parathyroids as exhibiting nodular or diffuse hyperplasia. Our studies demonstrated a lower density of VDR in the parathyroids showing nodular hyperplasia than in those showing diffuse hyperplasia. Even in the parathyroids showing diffuse hyperplasia, nodule-forming areas were present; these areas were virtually negative for VDR staining. A significant negative correlation was found between VDR density and the weight of the parathyroids. These findings indicate that the conflicting results of biochemical studies may be caused by the heterogeneous distribution of VDR; the decreased VDR density in parathyroids may contribute to the progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism and to the proliferation of parathyroid cells that is seen in uremia.
N Fukuda, H Tanaka, Y Tominaga, M Fukagawa, K Kurokawa, Y Seino
The clonal composition of EBV-infected cells was examined in three cases of EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome by analysis of the heterogeneity of terminal repetitive sequences in the EBV genome, indicating monoclonal expansion of EBV-infected cells in all cases. Involvement of T lymphoid cells was determined by in situ hybridization using 35S-labeled RNA probes specific for the small EBV-encoded nuclear RNAs, EBER1 and EBER2, in combination with immunostaining for the TCR-beta chain, CD45RO, CD20, CD30 and CD68 antigens in these three cases. The majority of lymphoid cells showing EBER transcripts were stained by antibodies against CD45RO and T cell receptor-beta. In contrast, EBER-specific signals were not detectable on B cells or hemophagocytic cells. These data support the concept that EBV-associated T cell proliferation is a primary feature of EBV-AHS.
H Kawaguchi, T Miyashita, H Herbst, G Niedobitek, M Asada, M Tsuchida, R Hanada, A Kinoshita, M Sakurai, N Kobayashi
Complement activation is associated with a variety of immunologically-mediated renal diseases. Proximal tubular epithelial cells in situ constitutively express messenger RNA for C4 of the complement system. These same epithelial cells in culture have been reported to contain message for C3 and to secrete this protein when stimulated by IL-2. The present study compared the in situ localization of C3 and C4 message in parallel in a variety of renal biopsy and nephrectomy specimens. All adequate tissue samples (n = 23) had C4 mRNA throughout in the cortical tubular epithelium. Although C3 message was also expressed in tubular epithelial cells, there was much greater variation in its distribution. mRNA for C3 was not detected in histologically normal specimens (n = 4) either by in situ or Northern hybridization. Focal C3 message correlated with focal histologic abnormalities (e.g., focal glomerulosclerosis), while more generalized C3 signal occurred in specimens with more diffuse inflammatory processes (e.g., SLE). Infiltrating inflammatory cells and cells of the glomeruli were uniformly negative for C3 (and C4) message. Tubular C3 and C4 mRNA appeared to be translated, since selected specimens showed cytoplasmic staining by monoclonal antibodies to C3c and C4c. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that local production of inflammatory mediators could induce C3 synthesis in the renal interstitium, with the possibility that subsequent complement activation could enhance the pathogenic process.
T R Welch, L S Beischel, D P Witte
The effects of nicotinamide (NIC) on human fetal and adult endocrine pancreatic cells were studied in tissue culture. Treatment of the fetal cells with 10 mM NIC resulted in a twofold increase in DNA content and a threefold increase in insulin content. This was associated with the development of beta cell outgrowths from undifferentiated epithelial cell clusters and an increase in the expression of the insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin genes. DNA synthesis was stimulated only in the undifferentiated cells. Half-maximal doses for the insulinotropic and mitogenic effects of NIC were 5-10 and 1-2 mM, respectively. Islet-like cell clusters cultured with NIC responded to glucose stimulation with a biphasic increase in insulin release (fourfold peak), whereas control cells were unresponsive to glucose. Both control and NIC-treated cells developed into functional islet tissue after transplantation into athymic nude mice. As compared with adult islets, the insulinotropic action of NIC could only be demonstrated in the fetal cells. Our results indicate that NIC induces differentiation and maturation of human fetal pancreatic islet cells. This model should be useful for the study of molecular mechanisms involved in beta cell development.
T Otonkoski, G M Beattie, M I Mally, C Ricordi, A Hayek
The subcellular localization of Mac-1 was determined in resting and stimulated human neutrophils after disruption by nitrogen cavitation and fractionation on two-layer Percoll density gradients. Light membranes were further separated by high voltage free flow electrophoresis. Mac-1 was determined by an ELISA with monoclonal antibodies that were specific for the alpha-chain (CD11b). In unstimulated neutrophils, 75% of Mac-1 colocalized with specific granules including gelatinase granules, 20% with secretory vesicles and the rest with plasma membranes. Stimulation with nanomolar concentrations of FMLP resulted in the translocation of Mac-1 from secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane, and only minimal translocation from specific granules and gelatinase granules. Stimulation with PMA or Ionomycin resulted in full translocation of Mac-1 from secretory vesicles and gelatinase granules to the plasma membrane, and partial translocation of Mac-1 from specific granules. These findings were corroborated by flow cytometry, which demonstrated a 6-10-fold increase in the surface membrane content of Mac-1 in response to stimulation with FMLP, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, IL-8, leukotriene B4, platelet-activating factor, TNF-alpha, and zymosan-activated serum, and a 25-fold increase in response to Ionomycin. Thus, secretory vesicles constitute the most important reservoir of Mac-1 that is incorporated into the plasma membrane during stimulation with inflammatory mediators.
H Sengeløv, L Kjeldsen, M S Diamond, T A Springer, N Borregaard
Recent evidence supports a role for T lymphocytes in allergic airway responses. We hypothesized that reducing blood T suppressor cells (Ts) might increase the late airway response (LR). Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were sensitized with ovalbumin (OA). On days 8, 10, and 12, post-sensitization test SD (n = 14) received monoclonal antibody intravenously (OX-8; 1 mg) specific to rat Ts. Controls received saline (n = 7) or mouse ascites IgG (n = 7). On day 14, animals were challenged with OA aerosol (5% wt/vol) for 5 min, lung resistance was recorded for 8 h (n = 18) and bronchoalveolar lavage was performed. The LR was determined from the area under the lung resistance vs time curve from 75 to 480 min after challenge. In the remaining 10 rats, airway lymphocyte subsets were measured 8 h after OA aerosol challenge in minced and digested lungs. A decrease in percentage of blood and airway Ts, respectively, in test animals was observed vs controls (blood: 6.27 +/- 0.84 vs 32.95 +/- 1.94, P < 0.001); (airway: 5.05 +/- 0.66 vs 24.5 +/- 3.05, P < 0.02). Blood and airway helper T lymphocytes did not differ between test and control animals. The LR was significantly increased in test (22.89 +/- 3.92) vs controls (4.22 +/- 2.18, P < 0.001). Bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes, and serum OA-specific IgE were also significantly elevated (P < 0.05) in test animals. We conclude that Ts play an important role in attenuating the LR in SD rats.
R Olivenstein, P M Renzi, J P Yang, P Rossi, S Laberge, S Waserman, J G Martin
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) causes biphasic changes in vascular resistance in human forearms; vasoconstriction at lower doses and vasodilation at higher doses. Vasoconstriction is mediated by the V1 receptor. However, the mechanism of AVP-induced vasodilation is not known. We investigated whether AVP-induced vasodilation is mediated by nitric oxide (NO) in human forearms by examining the effects of L-arginine (a precursor of NO) and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, a blocker of NO synthase) on AVP-induced vasodilation. AVP was infused intraarterially at doses of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 ng/kg per min (n = 8). The lower doses of AVP (< or = 0.1 ng/kg per min) increased, whereas the higher doses of AVP (> or = 0.5 ng/kg per min) decreased forearm vascular resistance (FVR) (P < 0.01). Intraarterially infused L-arginine at 10 mg/min did not alter arterial pressure, baseline FVR, or heart rate. L-arginine did not alter the magnitude of AVP-induced vasoconstriction at the lower doses, but L-arginine augmented the magnitude of AVP-induced vasodilation at doses of 0.2 (P < 0.05), 0.5 (P < 0.01), and 1.0 (P < 0.05) ng/kg per min. In another group (n = 6), intraarterially infused L-NMMA (4 mumol/min for 5 min) increased baseline FVR without systemic effects, and inhibited acetylcholine-induced vasodilation (P < 0.01). L-NMMA at this dose inhibited AVP-induced vasodilation (P < 0.01) but did not affect vasoconstriction. L-arginine reversed the inhibitory effect of L-NMMA. Our results suggest that the vasodilatory effect of AVP may be mediated by NO in human forearms.
T Tagawa, T Imaizumi, T Endo, M Shiramoto, Y Hirooka, S Ando, A Takeshita
The present study was conducted to examine the effect of activin A on growth of rat hepatocytes. EGF induced a 10-fold increase in DNA synthesis as assessed by [3H]thymidine incorporation in cultured hepatocytes. When activin A was added together with EGF, DNA synthesis induced by EGF was markedly inhibited. Inhibition was detected at a concentration of 10(-10) M, and 5 x 10(-9) M activin A almost completely blocked EGF-mediated DNA synthesis. Similarly, activin A completely blocked DNA synthesis induced by hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. Activin A was capable of inhibiting EGF-mediated DNA synthesis, even when added 36 h after the addition of EGF. With the same time interval, TGF-beta also blocked EGF-induced DNA synthesis. Although both activin A and TGF-beta inhibited growth of hepatocytes in a similar manner, either activin A or TGF-beta did not compete with each other in their binding when assessed by competitive binding using an iodinated ligand. When hepatocytes were incubated with EGF, release of bioactivity of activin A into culture medium was detected after 48 h or later. Activity of activin A was released from parenchymal cells but not from nonparenchymal cells. mRNA for beta A subunit of activin was detected only slightly in unstimulated hepatocytes, but markedly increased at 48 h after the addition of EGF. To determine whether endogenously produced activin A affects DNA synthesis, we examined the effect of follistatin, an activin-binding protein that blocks the action of activin A. An addition of follistatin significantly enhanced EGF-induced DNA synthesis. Finally, in partial hepatectomized rat, expression of mRNA for beta A subunit in liver was markedly increased 24 h after the partial hepatectomy. These results indicate that activin A inhibits initiation of DNA synthesis in hepatocytes by acting on its own receptor and that activin A acts as an autocrine inhibitor of DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes.
H Yasuda, T Mine, H Shibata, Y Eto, Y Hasegawa, T Takeuchi, S Asano, I Kojima
Transgenic mice were prepared that expressed a dysfunctional apo E variant, apo E (Arg-112, Cys-142), which is associated with dominant inheritance of type III hyperlipoproteinemia (type III HLP) in humans. Among eight founder mice, plasma apo E (Arg-112, Cys-142) levels varied 100-fold and directly correlated with plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. On a normal chow diet, mice expressing high levels (> 70 mg/dl) of the dysfunctional apo E had grossly elevated plasma lipids, with cholesterol levels of up to 410 mg/dl and triglyceride levels of up to 1,210 mg/dl. Upon agarose electrophoresis, plasma from these mice demonstrated beta-very low density lipoproteins (beta-VLDL). Mice expressing low (< 2.5 mg/dl) or intermediate (21 mg/dl) levels of the apo E variant had much less severe hyperlipidemia and did not have beta-VLDL. Although the transgenic mouse beta-VLDL were enriched in cholesteryl esters compared with normal mouse VLDL, they were not as cholesterol enriched as human beta-VLDL from type III HLP subjects. Transgenic mouse beta-VLDL injected into normal mice were cleared from plasma at a significantly slower rate than normal mouse VLDL, demonstrating the impaired catabolism of beta-VLDL. Thus, transgenic mice expressing high levels of the dysfunctional apo E (Arg-112, Cys-142) variant have many characteristics of the human type III HLP phenotype and appear to be a suitable animal model for this disorder.
S Fazio, Y L Lee, Z S Ji, S C Rall Jr
Previous studies in vitro have shown an important role for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in adherence interactions of canine neutrophils with canine jugular vein endothelial cells and in cytotoxicity of canine neutrophils for adult cardiac myocytes. To evaluate the regulation of ICAM-1 in myocardial inflammation and its role in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, a series of in vivo and ex vivo studies were performed in canine animals. Systemic administration of LPS elicited ICAM-1 mRNA in several tissues, including myocardium, which demonstrated increasing ICAM-1 staining on intercalated discs of cardiac myocytes. In ischemia and reperfusion protocols: (a) ICAM-1 mRNA was found in ischemic segments within 1 h of reperfusion and in both ischemic and normally perfused segments by 24 h of reperfusion; (b) expression of ICAM-1 was detected in cardiac myocytes in the ischemic region by 6 h of reperfusion; increased expression was seen thereafter as a function of time; (c) post-ischemic (but not preischemic) cardiac lymph collected at intervals from 1 to 24 h after reperfusion elicited ICAM-1 mRNA, ICAM-1 expression, and ICAM-1-dependent neutrophil adhesion in canine jugular vein endothelial cells and in cardiac myocytes with peak cytokine activity seen by 1 h; (d) extravascular localization of neutrophils was detected in ischemic areas only, and was associated with endothelium bearing high levels of ICAM-1 within 1 h of reperfusion; infiltration increased thereafter in association with increasing levels of ICAM-1 mRNA in myocardial segments and increasing levels of ICAM-1 expression on cardiac myocytes. These findings provide the first direct evidence for inflammatory regulation of ICAM-1 in ischemic and reperfused canine myocardium. They support the hypothesis that ICAM-1 participates in neutrophil-mediated myocardial damage.
G L Kukielka, H K Hawkins, L Michael, A M Manning, K Youker, C Lane, M L Entman, C W Smith, D C Anderson
Inbred mouse strains differ in their capacity to deiodinate iododioxin and iodothyronines, with strains segregating into high or low activity groups. Metabolism of iododioxin occurs via the type I iodothyronine 5'deiodinase (5'DI), one of two enzymes that metabolize thyroxine (T4) to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3). Recombinant inbred strains derived from crosses between high and low activity strains exhibit segregation characteristic of a single allele difference. Hepatic and renal 5'DI mRNA in a high (C57BL/6J) and low (C3H/HeJ) strain paralleled enzyme activity and concentration, in agreement with a recent report. 5'DI-deficient mice had twofold higher serum free T4 but normal free T3 and thyrotropin. Brown adipose tissue 5'DII was invariant between the two strains. Southern analyses using a 5'DI probe identified a restriction fragment length variant that segregated with 5'DI activity in 33 of 35 recombinant inbred strains derived from four different pairs of high and low activity parental strains. Recombination frequencies using previously mapped loci allowed assignment of the 5'DI gene to mouse chromosome 4 and identified its approximate chromosomal position. We propose the symbol Dio1 to denote the mouse 5'DI gene. Conserved linkage between this segment of mouse chromosome 4 and human HSA1p predicts this location for human Dio1.
M J Berry, D Grieco, B A Taylor, A L Maia, J D Kieffer, W Beamer, E Glover, A Poland, P R Larsen
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) samples in 155 sera, from patients with chronic non-A, non-B liver disease and blood donors, were grouped into four genotypes (I, II, III, and IV) by amplification of core-gene sequences by polymerase chain reaction with type-specific primers. HCV genotypes were compared with various HCV-associated antibodies detectable by the first-generation ELISA (ELISA-1) with C100-3 protein and a second-generation immunoblot assay with four recombinant HCV proteins. Antibodies to C100-3 protein and those to its subsequence (5-1-1) were detected in 13 (93%) and 12 (86%), respectively, of 14 sera with genotype I HCV; 56 (79%) and 58 (82%) of 71 sera with genotype II; 13 (34%) and 6 (16%) of 38 sera with genotype III; and 11 (34%) and 4 (13%) of 32 sera with genotype IV. Amino acid sequences of C100-3 of genotype I HCV are conserved by approximately 90% in genotype II, but only by approximately 75% in genotypes III and IV. The sensitivity of ELISA-1, therefore, would be influenced by heterogeneity in C100-3 sequences of different genotypes.
R Nagayama, F Tsuda, H Okamoto, Y Wang, T Mitsui, T Tanaka, Y Miyakawa, M Mayumi
Diaphragm atrophy and weakness occur after administration of massive doses of corticosteroids for short periods. In the present study the effects of prolonged administration of moderate doses of fluorinated and nonfluorinated steroids were investigated on contractile properties and histopathology of rat diaphragm. 60 rats received saline, 1.0 mg/kg triamcinolone, or 1.25 or 5 mg/kg i.m. prednisolone daily for 4 wk. Respiratory and peripheral muscle mass increased similarly in control and both prednisolone groups, whereas triamcinolone caused severe muscle wasting. Maximal tetanic tension averaged 2.23 +/- 0.54 kg/cm2 (SD) in the control group. An increased number of diaphragmatic bundles in the 5-mg/kg prednisolone group generated maximal tetanic tensions < 2.0 kg/cm2 (P < 0.05). In addition, fatigability during the force-frequency protocol was most pronounced in this group (P < 0.05). In contrast, triamcinolone caused a prolonged half-relaxation time and a leftward shift of the force-frequency curve (P < 0.05). Histological examination of the diaphragm showed a normal pattern in the control and 1.25-mg/kg prednisolone group. Myogenic changes, however, were found in the 5-mg/kg prednisolone group and, more pronounced, in the triamcinolone group. Selective type IIb fiber atrophy was found in the latter group, but not in the prednisolone groups. In conclusion, triamcinolone induced type IIb fiber atrophy, resulting in reduced respiratory muscle strength and a leftward shift of the force-frequency curve. In contrast, 5 mg/kg prednisolone caused alterations in diaphragmatic contractile properties and histological changes without fiber atrophy.
P N Dekhuijzen, G Gayan-Ramirez, V de Bock, R Dom, M Decramer
We have previously characterized an activity from human plasma that markedly stimulates triglyceride synthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts and human adipocytes. Based on its in vitro activity we named the active component acylation stimulating protein (ASP). The molecular identity of the active serum component has now been determined. NH2-terminal sequence analysis, ion spray ionization mass spectroscopy, and amino acid composition analysis all indicate that the active purified protein is a fragment of the third component of plasma complement, C3a-desArg. As well, reconstitution experiments with complement factors B, D, and complement C3, the components necessary to generate C3a, have confirmed the identity of ASP as C3a. ASP appears to be the final effector molecule generated by a novel regulatory system that modulates the rate of triglyceride synthesis in adipocytes.
A Baldo, A D Sniderman, S St-Luce, R K Avramoglu, M Maslowska, B Hoang, J C Monge, A Bell, S Mulay, K Cianflone
G Y Koh, M G Klug, M H Soonpaa, L J Field
Platelets exposed to shear stress aggregate in the absence of exogenously added agonists, utilizing distinct platelet membrane receptors and ligands depending upon the level of shear stress applied. Using a modified cone and plate type viscometer, we previously demonstrated that, under low shear stress (18 dyn/cm2), aggregation is mediated by platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa and fibrinogen, whereas aggregation induced by high shear stress (108 dyn/cm2) requires the binding of von Willebrand factor (vWF) to both GPIb-IX and GPIIb-IIIa (Ikeda, Y., M. Handa, K. Kawano, T. Kamata, M. Murata, Y. Araki, H. Anbo, Y. Kawai, K. Watanabe, I. Itagaki, et al. 1991. J. Clin. Invest. 87:1234-1240). Here we report that vWF-dependent aggregation occurs under low shear stress in citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from two types of congenital bleeding disorders, platelet-type von Willebrand disease (vWD) and type IIB vWD, in both of which ristocetin-induced aggregation is known to be heightened. Aggregation induced by low shear stress was enhanced in both types of disorders compared to normal controls, and the enhancement was completely abolished by anti-vWF monoclonal antibody NMC-4, which blocks the GPIb-binding site on vWF. Under high shear stress, the extent of maximal aggregation was not different between controls and the patient groups although maximal aggregation was reached much more quickly in the latter. When citrated PRP was exposed to a gradient of shear stress (6 to 108 dyn/cm2 over a 5-min period), vWF-dependent aggregation, as judged from the inhibitory effect of NMC-4, first occurred at 14 dyn/cm2 in platelet-type vWD and at 10-12 dyn/cm2 in type IIB vWD, as compared with more than 81 +/- 20.1 dyn/cm2 in control platelets. These results suggest that an abnormality in either vWF or GPIb-IX triggers the aggregation-inducing interaction of the two molecules under low shear stress, which might explain the intravascular platelet clumping, that presumably underlies the thrombocytopenia observed in these bleeding disorders.
M Murata, M Fukuyama, K Satoh, Y Fujimura, A Yoshioka, H Takahashi, M Handa, Y Kawai, K Watanabe, Y Ikeda
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a glycoprotein that regulates lymphocyte precursor growth and differentiation. However, the exact mechanism whereby the IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) mediates these cell growth signals remains unknown. One of the earliest metabolic events linked to mitogenic responses in other growth factor receptor systems is the activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3 kinase). We demonstrate here that ligation of the IL-7R results in dose- and time-dependent increases in PI-3 kinase activity. These results suggest that PI-3 kinase is involved in signal transduction via the IL-7R in human thymocytes.
H K Dadi, C M Roifman
The potential involvement of reactive oxygen species in the expression of genes involved in immune response was examined in mesangial cells. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and aggregated (aggr.) IgG increased mRNA levels for the monocyte chemoattractant protein, JE/MCP-1, and the colony-stimulating factor, CSF-1. Scavengers for free radicals such as di- and tetra-methylthiourea (DMTU and TMTU) attenuated the increase in mRNA levels in response to TNF-alpha and aggr. IgG. Generation of superoxide anion by xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine increased mRNA levels of these genes, but exogenous H2O2 did not. Addition of NADPH to activate a membrane-bound NADPH-oxidase generated superoxide and caused a dose-dependent increase in mRNA levels and further enhanced the stimulation by TNF-alpha or aggr. IgG. An inhibitor of NADPH-dependent oxidase 4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy-acetophenone attenuated the rise in mRNA levels in response to TNF-alpha and aggr. IgG. By nuclear run-on experiments TNF-alpha, aggr. IgG and NADPH increased the transcription rates for JE/MCP-1 and CSF-1, effects inhibited by TMTU. We conclude that generation of reactive oxygen species, possibly by NADPH-dependent oxidase, are involved in the induction of the JE/MCP-1 and CSF-1 genes by TNF-alpha and IgG complexes. The concerted expression of leukocyte-directed cytokines represents a general response to tissue injury.
J A Satriano, M Shuldiner, K Hora, Y Xing, Z Shan, D Schlondorff
Eicosanoids derived from lipoxygenase (LO)-catalyzed reactions play important roles in pulmonary inflammation. Here, we examined formation of LO-derived products by human alveolar macrophages (HAM). HAM converted [1-14C]-arachidonic acid to a product carrying 14C-radiolabel that was identified as 15(S)-hydroxy-5,8,11-cis-13-trans-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) by physical methods. 15-LO mRNA was demonstrated in HAM by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Incubation of HAM for 3 d with interleukin 4(IL-4) before exposure to [1-14C]arachidonic acid led to both increased mRNA for 15-LO and a 4-fold increase in 15-HETE formation. In contrast, 5(S)-hydroxy-6-trans-8,11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid generation was not significantly altered by prior exposure to IL-4. Additionally, lipoxins (LXA4 and LXB4) were detected from endogenous substrate, albeit in lower levels than leukotriene B4 (LTB4), in electrochemical detection/high performance liquid chromatography profiles from HAM incubated in the presence and absence of the chemotactic peptide (FMLP) or the calcium ionophore (A23187). Exposure of HAM to leukotriene A4 (LTA4) resulted in a 2-fold increase in LXA4 and 10-fold increase in LXB4. These results demonstrate the presence of 15-LO mRNA and enzyme activity in HAM and the production of LXA4 and LXB4 by these cells. Along with 5-LO-derived products, the biosynthesis of 15-LO-derived eicosanoids by HAM may also be relevant in modulating inflammatory responses in the lung.
B D Levy, M Romano, H A Chapman, J J Reilly, J Drazen, C N Serhan
100% of primary human hepatocytes infected with an adenoviral vector carrying beta-galactosidase expressed the exogenous gene. Expression was also achieved in > 40% of adult mouse hepatocytes in vivo. Normal levels of activity were achieved in mouse ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC)-deficient primary hepatocytes using another adenoviral vector carrying human OTC cDNA. Study of OTC-deficient primary human hepatocytes from a single patient confirmed the utility of adenoviral delivery of OTC. We describe adenoviral-mediated exogenous gene expression in human and mouse hepatocytes in vitro and in mouse liver in vivo. Data suggest that adenoviral vectors may be useful for correcting OTC deficiency.
M A Morsy, E L Alford, A Bett, F L Graham, C T Caskey
The present study was designed to investigate whether in vivo and in vitro erythropoietin (EPO) production is modulated by nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP). Serum levels of EPO in ex-hypoxic polycythemic mice were significantly increased after injections of 200 micrograms/kg sodium nitroprusside for 4 d. One injection of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) produced a significant dose-related decrease in serum levels of EPO in ex-hypoxic polycythemic mice in response to hypoxia. When EPO producing Hep3B cells were incubated in 1% O2 for 30 min, cGMP levels in the Hep3B cells were significantly elevated, compared with cells incubated in 20% O2. The elevation of cGMP by hypoxia was inhibited by L-NAME (100 microM). Sodium nitroprusside (10 and 100 microM) and NO (2 microM) also significantly increased cGMP levels in Hep3B cells. L-NAME, LY 83583 (6-Anilino-5,8-quinolinedione, a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor), and Rp-8-Bromo-cGMPS (Rp-8-Bromo-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate, a cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor) significantly inhibited the hypoxia-induced increase in medium levels of EPO in Hep3B cells. 8-Bromo-cGMPS produced a dose-dependent decrease in EPO messenger RNA levels in Hep3B cells in response to hypoxia. 8-Bromo-cGMP (10(-3) M) produced significant increases in medium levels of EPO in Hep3B cell cultures incubated under normoxic conditions, which was enhanced by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (0.2 mM). These results suggest that NO and cGMP may interact in modulating hypoxic stimulation of EPO production.
T Ohigashi, J Brookins, J W Fisher