B A Molitoris, W J Nelson
A MAb (TP-2) directed against human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) has been applied to the development of a competitive solid-phase RIA. Experiments with immobilized CETP have shown that upon incubation with plasma or HDL in the presence of Tween (0.05%) apo A-I (but not apo A-II) binds to CETP while TP-2 binding to CETP is concomitantly decreased. With high detergent concentration (0.5% Triton), the interference is eliminated and a specific RIA in which all plasma CETP fractions have the same affinity can be obtained. Plasma levels of CETP, apo A-I, lipids, and lipoproteins were measured in 50 normolipemic, healthy subjects of both sexes. CETP levels varied nearly fourfold with a mean value of 1.7 micrograms/ml. CETP was positively correlated only with apo A-I (r = 0.38) and HDL-triglyceride (r = 0.39). In 29 other normolipemic subjects, where several apolipoproteins were also measured, significant correlations of CETP with apo A-I (0.41), apo E (0.43), and HDL-cholesterol (0.41) were observed, but there was no significant relationship between CETP and either apo A-II, B, or D. In other experiments CETP was shown to be present mostly in HDL3 and VHDL, to display exclusively an alpha 2-electrophoretic migration, and to occur within discrete particles ranging in size from 129 to 154 kD. In conclusion, the association of CETP with apo A-I-containing lipoproteins probably explains the correlation between CETP and apo A-I levels. The relationship between CETP and apo E suggests either a common metabolism or a specific cooperative role in cholesterol ester transport for these proteins.
Y L Marcel, R McPherson, M Hogue, H Czarnecka, Z Zawadzki, P K Weech, M E Whitlock, A R Tall, R W Milne
Inheritance of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is polygenic, and at least one of the genes conferring susceptibility to diabetes is tightly linked to the MHC. Recent studies have suggested that DQB1 of humans and I-A beta of mice are closely associated with susceptibility and resistance to IDDM. For further characterization and localization of the MHC-linked diabetogenic gene, we studied the genomic sequence of the A beta gene of the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, an animal model of IDDM, in comparison with those of its sister strains, nonobese nondiabetic and cataract Shionogi (CTS) mice, and the original strain, outbred Imperial Cancer Research (ICR) mice. Genomic DNAs from these strains were amplified in vitro by the polymerase chain reaction with thermostable Taq polymerase. The amplified sequences were analyzed by restriction endonuclease digestion, hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotide probes, and direct sequencing. The unique I-A beta sequence of NOD mice was observed in the sister strain, CTS mice, and in one mouse of the original strain, outbred ICR mice. These data together with the results of MAb typing of MHC molecules and restriction mapping of the I-A region suggest that the unique class II MHC of NOD mice is not the result of a recent mutation, but is derived from the original strain. Since class I MHC of CTS mice is different from the MHC of NOD mice at both the K and D loci, CTS mice are a naturally occurring recombinant strain with NOD type class II MHC and non-NOD type class I MHC. Thus, breeding studies in crosses of NOD with CTS mice should provide biological information on whether the unique class II MHC of NOD mice is diabetogenic.
H Ikegami, G S Eisenbarth, M Hattori
Proximal duodenal bicarbonate secretion is an important factor in humans and animals protecting the mucosa against acid-peptic damage. This study examined the mechanisms responsible for the central nervous system regulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in unrestrained rats. Cerebroventricular administration of rat CGRP significantly inhibited basal duodenal bicarbonate secretion as well as the stimulatory effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide, neurotensin, a luminal PGE1 analogue, misoprostol, and hydrochloric acid. The inhibitory effects of cerebroventricular CGRP were abolished by ganglionic blockade with chlorisondamine, significantly attenuated by noradrenergic blockade with bretylium, and enhanced by vagotomy. Inhibition of duodenal bicarbonate secretion induced by CGRP coincided with significant increases in plasma norepinephrine (NE) and vasopressin concentrations. The alpha adrenergic receptor antagonist, phentolamine, and the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist, (1-deaminopenicillamine, 2-[O-methyl]Tyr, 8-Arg)-vasopressin, given intravenously reversed the central inhibitory effect of CGRP by approximately 50% each. Pretreatment of the animals with both phentolamine and the vasopressin antagonist completely abolished the central inhibitory effect of CGRP. Peripheral vasopressin and NE significantly decreased duodenal bicarbonate secretion, and their inhibitory effects were additive and prevented by phentolamine and the vasopressin antagonist, respectively. We conclude that cerebroventricular CGRP inhibits rat duodenal bicarbonate secretion by activation of sympathetic efferents and subsequent release of NE and vasopressin that act on alpha adrenergic and vasopressin receptors, respectively.
H J Lenz, M R Brown
Several of the heterogeneous clinical manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus have been associated with specific autoantibodies. Associations between HLA class II antigens and autoantibodies to the ribonucleoproteins Ro(SSA) and La(SSB) have been reported in these patients. Because HLA class II molecules present antigen to T cell receptors (TCRs), we have searched for a TCR gene associated with the production of anti-Ro(SSA) antibodies. A pair of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), one of which hybridizes to the TCR constant region C beta 1 and the other to the C beta 2 gene, has been identified, suggesting these may be genotypic markers for an extended region of the TCR beta locus. This RFLP pair occurs in 76% of patients with Ro(SSA) precipitins, 84% of anti-Ro(SSA)-positive patients lacking La(SSB) precipitins, but only 41% of the patients lacking both precipitins (P = 0.0004). This disproportionate occurrence in a subset of lupus patients indicates that these RFLPs are not disease susceptibility markers, but rather are important markers for TCR genes whose products are involved in the production of anti-Ro(SSA) antibodies. The majority of patients who have these RFLPs and HLA class II antigens previously associated with the anti-Ro(SSA) response make this antibody, suggesting that interactions between products of these loci occur in response to Ro(SSA).
M B Frank, R McArthur, J B Harley, A Fujisaku
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is an important serum regulator of erythropoiesis in vitro. We have now obtained evidence suggesting that PDGF-like molecules may also modulate erythropoiesis in vivo. Western blot analysis of cytoplasmic extracts from Rauscher murine erythroleukemia cells and phenylhydrazine-treated mouse splenic erythroid cells revealed the presence of several PDGF-like proteins. The presence of PDGF-like proteins in the cytoplasm of these two erythroid cell types was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. Using a serum-free biologic assay, PDGF-like biological activity was found in cell lysates and conditioned medium of both Rauscher cells and phenylhydrazine-treated mouse erythroid cells. Subcellular localization experiments revealed the biological activity to be concentrated in the cytosolic fraction. Using a series of antibodies to hematopoietic growth factors we demonstrated that PDGF-like biological activity was specifically immunoprecipitated by both monoclonal and polyclonal anti-human PDGF antibodies but not by antibodies to burst-promoting activity, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IL-3, or erythropoietin. Taken together, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that PDGF-like molecules play a role in the regulation of mammalian erythropoiesis in vivo.
A J Sytkowski, C O'Hara, G Vanasse, M J Armstrong, S Kreczko, N Dainiak
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) leukocytes fail to express decay-accelerating factor (DAF) but contain DAF mRNA transcripts resembling those in normal cells. To further investigate the nature of the DAF defect in affected cells, patients' polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes (PMN and MNC) were biosynthetically labeled and newly synthesized DAF proteins examined. Analyses of greater than 98% surface DAF-negative PMN and MNC from a patient with PNH III erythrocytes showed precursor DAF protein approximately 3 kD smaller in each cell type than in normal cells. The proportion of precursor to mature (O-glycosylated) DAF protein was increased and soluble DAF protein was detected in the medium. Studies of 70-80% surface DAF-negative PMN and MNC from four patients with type II erythrocytes showed mixtures of the 3 kD smaller and normal DAF precursors. Partitioning with Triton X-114 detergent and biosynthetic labeling with the anchor precursor [3H]ethanolamine indicated that the abnormal peptides lacked glycosyl-inositolphospholipid membrane-anchoring structures. Thus, in PNH cells nascent DAF polypeptides are synthesized. Some of the abnormal pro-DAF molecules are processed in the Golgi and some are released extracellularly.
D J Carothers, S V Hazra, S W Andreson, M E Medof
To determine if MYB protein is preferentially required during specific stages of normal human hematopoiesis we incubated normal marrow mononuclear cells (MNC) with c-myb antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. Treated cells were cultured in semisolid medium under conditions designed to favor the growth of specific progenitor cell types. Compared with untreated controls, granulocyte-macrophage (GM) CFU-derived colonies decreased 77% when driven by recombinant human (rH) IL-3, and 85% when stimulated by rH GM colony-stimulating factor (CSF); erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E)- and CFU-E-derived colonies decreased 48 and 78%, respectively. In contrast, numbers of G-CSF-stimulated granulocyte colonies derived from antisense treated MNC were unchanged from controls, though the numbers of cells composing these colonies decreased approximately 90%. Similar results were obtained when MY10+ cells were exposed to c-myb antisense oligomers. When compared with untreated controls, numbers of CFU-GM and BFU-E colonies derived from MY10+ cells were unchanged, but the numbers of cells composing these colonies were reduced approximately 75 and greater than 90%, respectively, in comparison with controls. c-myc sense and antisense oligomers were without significant effect in these assays. Using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, c-myb mRNA was detected in developing hematopoietic cells on days 0-8. At day 14 c-myb expression was no longer detectable using this technique. These results suggest that c-myb is required for proliferation of intermediate-late myeloid and erythroid progenitors, but is less important for lineage commitment and early progenitor cell amplification.
D Caracciolo, D Venturelli, M Valtieri, C Peschle, A M Gewirtz, B Calabretta
Adjuvant intravesical Calmette-Guerin bacillus (BCG) is an effective treatment for superficial bladder cancer. The mechanisms by which BCG mediates antitumor activity are not known. We investigated the initial interaction of BCG with the bladder mucosa to determine whether binding was essential for the development of antitumor activity. Herein, we show that bladder urothelial disruption induced by acrolein, adriamycin, or electrocautery resulted in BCG binding in areas of urothelial damage. Binding induced by each method was inhibited by anti-fibronectin (FN) antibodies but not by antibodies to the basement membrane component laminin. Intravesical BCG binding also was inhibited by pretreating BCG with soluble FN. Inhibition of intravesical FN-mediated BCG attachment prevented immunization via the intravesical route. Moreover, the expression of both delayed hypersensitivity in the bladder of BCG-immunized mice and antitumor activity was inhibited by blocking FN-mediated intravesical BCG attachment. These data suggest that intralumenal attachment of BCG appears to be mediated by FN. Moreover, these data suggest that intravesical FN mediated attachment of BCG is a requisite step in BCG-mediated antitumor activity in the murine bladder tumor model.
L R Kavoussi, E J Brown, J K Ritchey, T L Ratliff
To determine whether chronic hypoxemia secondary to an intracardiac right-to-left shunt alters regulation of the myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor/adenylate cyclase system, we produced chronic hypoxemia in nine newborn lambs by creating right ventricular outflow obstruction and an atrial septal defect. Oxygen saturation was reduced to 65-74% for 2 wk. Eight lambs served as normoxemic controls. beta-receptor density (Bmax) and ligand affinity (KD) were determined with the radio-ligand [125I]iodocyanopindolol and adenylate cyclase activity determined during stimulation with isoproterenol, sodium fluoride (NaF), and forskolin. During chronic hypoxemia, Bmax decreased 45% (hypoxemic, 180.6 +/- 31.5 vs. control, 330.5 +/- 60.1 fmol/mg) in the left ventricle (exposed to hypoxemia alone) but was unchanged in the right ventricle (exposed to hypoxemia and pressure overload). KD was not different from control in either ventricle. Left ventricular isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was decreased by 39% (30.0 +/- 4.3% increase vs. 44.1 +/- 9.5% increase) whereas right ventricular adenylate cyclase activity was unchanged. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase with NaF or forskolin was not different from control in either ventricle. Circulating epinephrine was increased fourfold whereas circulating and myocardial norepinephrine were unchanged. These data demonstrate a down-regulation of the left ventricular beta-adrenergic receptor/adenylate cyclase system during chronic hypoxemia secondary to an intracardiac right-to-left shunt.
D Bernstein, E Voss, S Huang, R Doshi, C Crane
Several common pulmonary disorders characterized by mucus hypersecretion and airway obstruction may relate to increased levels of inhaled or endogenously generated oxidants (O2 metabolites) in the respiratory tract. We found that O2 metabolites stimulated release of high-molecular-weight glycoconjugates (HMG) by respiratory epithelial cells in vitro through a mechanism involving cyclooxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid. Noncytolytic concentrations of chemically generated O2 metabolites (purine + xanthine oxidase) stimulated HMG release by cell and explant cultures of rodent airway epithelium, an effect which is inhibitable by coaddition of specific O2 metabolite scavengers or inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism. Addition of O2 metabolites to epithelial cells provoked production of PGF2a, an effect also inhibitable by coaddition of O2 metabolite scavengers or inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism. Finally, addition of exogenous PGF2a to cell cultures stimulated HMG release. We conclude that O2 metabolites increase release of respiratory HMG through a mechanism involving cyclooxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid with production mainly of PGF2a. This mechanism may be fundamental to the pathogenesis of a variety of lung diseases associated with hypersecretion of mucus and/or other epithelial fluids, as well as a basic cellular response to increased oxidants.
K B Adler, W J Holden-Stauffer, J E Repine
The administration of certain monoclonal anti-Sm antibodies (2G7, 7.13) induced most MRL/lpr mice to become anti-Sm positive by 5 mo of age, although other anti-Sm monoclonals (Y2, Y12) suppressed the spontaneous response. Positive anti-Sm antibody enhancement occurred efficiently only in MRL/lpr mice and not in other systemic lupus erythematosus mice that have little spontaneous anti-Sm production. The enhancement by anti-Sm antibodies was specific for the anti-Sm response. The mechanism of the passive antibody enhancement was apparently not isotype- or idiotype-related. The fine specificity of the anti-Sm monoclonal antibody may be essential to its enhancing or suppressing effects, since both enhancing monoclonals recognized only the D Sm polypeptide, whereas both suppressing monoclonals saw the D and the B polypeptides. Furthermore, analysis of serial bleeds from unmanipulated MRL mice that developed anti-Sm positivity showed that the D specificity almost always appeared first. We hypothesize, therefore, that those animals in which an anti-Sm response is initiated by D-specific B-cell clones can become serologically positive with the aid of a positive feedback loop. In contrast, animals in which the initial specificity is for both B and D peptides would be prevented from developing a full anti-Sm response.
R A Eisenberg, D S Pisetsky, S Y Craven, J P Grudier, M A O'Donnell, P L Cohen
Generalized thyroid hormone resistance (GTHR) is a disorder of thyroid hormone action that we have previously shown to be tightly linked to one of the two thyroid hormone receptor genes, c-erbA beta, in a single kindred, A. We now show that in two other kindreds, B and D, with differing phenotypes, there is also linkage between c-erbA beta and GTHR. The combined maximum logarithm of the odds score for all three kindreds at a recombination fraction of 0 was 5.77. In vivo studies had shown a triiodothyronine (T3)-binding affinity abnormality in nuclear receptors of kindred A, and we therefore investigated the defect in c-erbA beta in this kindred by sequencing a major portion of the T3-binding domain in the 3'-region of fibroblast c-erbA beta cDNA and leukocyte c-erbA beta genomic DNA. A base substitution, cytosine to adenine, was found at cDNA position 1643 which altered the proline codon at position 448 to a histidine. By allelic-specific hybridization, this base substitution was found in only one allele of seven affected members, and not found in 10 unaffected members of kindred A, as expected for a dominant disease. Also, this altered base was not found in kindreds B or D, or in 92 random c-erbA beta alleles. These results and the fact that the mutation is predicted to alter the secondary structure of the crucial T3-binding domain of the c-erbA beta receptor suggest this mutation is an excellent candidate for the genetic cause of GTHR in kindred A. Different mutations in the c-erbA beta gene are likely responsible for the variant phenotypes of thyroid hormone resistance in kindreds B and D.
S J Usala, G E Tennyson, A E Bale, R W Lash, N Gesundheit, F E Wondisford, D Accili, P Hauser, B D Weintraub
Thyroid hormone (T3) has been shown to regulate the level of its receptor in a number of tissues and cell lines. Recently, proteins encoded by the protooncogene c-erbA have been identified as T3 receptors. In the rat, four c-erbA gene products have been isolated, three of which, r-erbA alpha-1, r-erbA beta-1, and r-erbA beta-2, encode biologically active T3 receptors; the fourth, r-erbA alpha-2, may play an inhibitory role in T3 action. The present work examines the molecular nature of T3 receptor autoregulation using probes specific for each c-erbA mRNA. Rats were rendered hypothyroid with propylthiouracil and then treated with either saline or T3. Northern blot analyses reveal marked tissue-specific and differential regulation of the multiple c-erbA mRNAs by T3. In the pituitary the levels of r-erbA beta-1 mRNA increase, whereas the levels of the pituitary-specific r-erbA beta-2 mRNA decrease with T3 treatment. In heart, kidney, liver, and brain the levels of r-erbA beta-1 are unaffected by thyroidal status. The levels of both r-erbA alpha mRNAs decrease with T3 treatment in all tissues examined except for the brain, where there is no change. In addition, we find that changes in the mRNAs encoding specific subpopulations of T3 receptors do not always parallel changes in total nuclear T3 binding. Differential regulation of the specific c-erbA mRNA species could have important consequences for T3 action.
R A Hodin, M A Lazar, W W Chin
The effects of beta-adrenergic agonists on ATP utilization and adenine nucleotide breakdown in human adipocytes were examined. The catecholamine-induced increase in cAMP was associated with an enhancement of adenine nucleotide catabolism resulting in an increase in release of inosine and hypoxanthine which can not be reutilized for adenine nucleotide synthesis. Therefore, one-third of total cellular adenine nucleotides were irreversibly lost in the presence of 1 mumol/liter isoproterenol. The catecholamine-induced increase in purine release could be blocked by phosphodiesterase inhibitors, suggesting that cAMP is the main precursor of purines in the presence of beta-adrenergic agonists. However, epinephrine (in the simultaneous presence of the alpha 2-adrenergic blocking agent, yohimbine) and isoproterenol were 10 times more potent in stimulating purine release than in elevating cAMP. In addition, purine release ceased when cAMP was still markedly increased, suggesting a compartmentation of the cyclic nucleotide and/or involvement of the hormone-sensitive, low Km cAMP phosphodiesterase. The results document that white fat cells have an enormous potential for dissipating energy, and demonstrate that the pathway involving cAMP formation and hydrolysis constitutes the principle route of adenine nucleotide catabolism in the presence of beta-adrenergic agonists.
To test the hypothesis that chronic infusion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) instituted before hypoxic exposure attenuates the development of pulmonary hypertension in hypoxia adapted rats, ANP (0.2 and 1.0 microgram/h) or vehicle was administered intravenously via osmotic minipump for 4 wk beginning before exposure to 10% O2 or to room air. Low dose ANP increased plasma ANP levels by only 60% of vehicle controls after 4 wk and significantly decreased mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) (P less than 0.01), the ratio of right ventricular weight to body weight (RV/BW) (P less than 0.01), and the wall thickness of small (50-100 microns) pulmonary arteries (P = 0.01) in hypoxia-adapted rats. ANP did not alter any of these parameters in air-control rats. High dose ANP increased plasma ANP levels by 230% of control and produced greater reductions in MPAP (P less than 0.001) and RV/BW) (P less than 0.05), but not in pulmonary arterial wall thickness, than the low dose. Neither dose of ANP altered mean systemic arterial pressure in either hypoxic or normoxic rats. The data demonstrate that chronic infusion of exogenous ANP at a dose that does not affect MPAP or RV weight in air-control rats attenuates the development of pulmonary hypertension and RV enlargement in rats adapted to chronic hypoxia.
H Jin, R H Yang, Y F Chen, R M Jackson, S Oparil
IL-6 is a cytokine with a number of biological functions, including stimulation of immunoglobulin synthesis and proliferation of early hematopoietic stem cells. We showed that lymphotoxin stimulated accumulation of IL-6 mRNA in human fibroblasts (W138) in a dose-responsive fashion; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was about threefold more potent than lymphotoxin. Further experiments suggested that stimulation by lymphotoxin was independent of protein kinase C activity, did not require new protein synthesis, and was at least in part a result of increased stabilization of IL-6 mRNA. t1/2 of the IL-6 transcripts increased from 0.3 h in unstimulated cells to 0.85 h in cells stimulated with lymphotoxin. In addition, stimulators of protein kinase C, including phorbol esters and teleocidin, enhanced accumulation of IL-6 mRNA. Cycloheximide (CHX), inhibitor of protein synthesis, also markedly increased levels of IL-6 mRNA. Both CHX and activators of protein kinase C increased by greater than 16-fold the stability of IL-6 mRNA. Further, dose-response studies showed that sodium fluoride (NaF), activator of G-binding proteins, and ouabain, inhibitor of Na+/H+ pump, increased levels of IL-6 mRNA. NaF stimulated IL-6 mRNA levels independent of protein kinase C activity. These results suggest that stimulators of several pathways of signal transduction increase levels of IL-6 mRNA and posttranscriptional stabilization is, in part, the mechanism that many of these signals, including lymphotoxin, use to increase levels of IL-6 RNA.
M Akashi, A H Loussararian, D C Adelman, M Saito, H P Koeffler
After the addition of a CD3 monoclonal antibody to peripheral T cells that have been previously stimulated with phytohemagglutinin, inositol phosphates are produced at a rapid rate for 2 min and at a much slower rate thereafter. Stimulation of CD5 allows CD3-mediated production of inositol phosphates to be sustained at a brisk rate for greater than 20 min and augments the initial CD3-mediated increase in inositol trisphosphate and release of intracellular Ca2+. Thus, perturbation of CD5 by monoclonal antibody enhances the ability of the CD3-antigen receptor complex to couple to the inositol phospholipid pathway. This effect of CD5 is independent of any direct effect of the CD5 monoclonal antibody on the levels of inositol phosphates.
J B Imboden, C H June, M A McCutcheon, J A Ledbetter
We were able to detect clinically normal carriers of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) genes with coded samples of either peripheral blood lymphocytes or skin fibroblasts, using a cytogenetic assay shown previously to detect individuals with cancer-prone genetic disorders. Metaphase cells of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated T-lymphocytes from eight individuals who are obligate heterozygotes for XP were compared with those from nine normal controls at 1.3, 2.3, and 3.3 h after x-irradiation (58 R) during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Lymphocytes from the XP heterozygotes had twofold higher frequencies of chromatid breaks or chromatid gaps than normal (P less than 10(-5)) when fixed at 2.3 or 3.3 h after irradiation. Lymphocytes from six XP homozygotes had frequencies of breaks and gaps threefold higher than normal. Skin fibroblasts from an additional obligate XP heterozygote, when fixed approximately 2 h after x-irradiation (68 R), had a twofold higher frequency of chromatid breaks and a fourfold higher frequency of gaps than fibroblasts from a normal control. This frequency of aberrations in cells from the XP heterozygote was approximately half that observed in the XP homozygote. The elevated frequencies of chromatid breaks and gaps after G2 phase x-irradiation may provide the basis of a test for identifying carriers of the XP gene(s) within known XP families.
R Parshad, K K Sanford, K H Kraemer, G M Jones, R E Tarone
The major determinant of meal-stimulated gastric acid secretion is the antral hormone gastrin. Decarboxylated amine derivatives of amino acids have been proposed as the final common mediators of gastrin secretion stimulated by a meal. We explored the cellular basis for this hypothesis using a recently developed isolated canine G-cell model. Both amino acids and, more potently, their corresponding amines, directly stimulated gastrin release. Amino acid-stimulated gastrin secretion was unaffected by decarboxylase inhibitors (alpha methyldopa, aminooxyacetic acid, and 4-deoxypyridoxine) but enhanced by bombesin, isobutylmethylxanthine, and dibutyryl cAMP. Somatostatin inhibited amino acid-stimulated gastrin release via a pertussis toxin-sensitive GTP-binding protein. In contrast, gastrin secretion induced by amines was unaltered by any of the various treatments. Our data indicate that amino acids and amines, either as primary constituents of an ingested meal or as metabolites of dietary proteins, act directly via separate mechanisms to stimulate gastrin secretion from G-cells.
J DelValle, T Yamada
Diets that reduce atherosclerosis risk lower levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), but the significance of this is unclear. To better understand the mechanism of this phenomenon we studied the turnover of HDL apolipoproteins A-I and A-II in 13 subjects on two contrasting metabolic diets. Upon changing from high to low intake of saturated fat and cholesterol the mean HDL-C decreased 29% from 56 +/- 13 (SD) to 40 +/- 10 mg/dl, while apo A-I levels fell 23% from 139 +/- 22 to 107 +/- 22 mg/dl (both P less than 0.001). Mean apo A-II levels did not change. The fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of apo A-I increased 11% from 0.228 +/- 0.048 to 0.254 +/- 0.063 pools/d, while its absolute transport rate (TR) decreased 14% from 12.0 +/- 2.7 to 10.3 +/- 3.4 mg/kg per d (both P = 0.005). The decrease in HDL-C and apo A-I levels correlated with the decrease in apo A-I TR (r = 0.79 and 0.83, respectively; P less than 0.001), but not with the increase in apo A-I FCR (r = -0.04 and -0.02, respectively). In contrast, within each diet the HDL-C and apo A-I levels were inversely correlated with apo A-I FCR both on the high-fat (r = -0.85 and -0.77, P less than 0.001 and = 0.002, respectively) and low-fat diets (r = -0.67 and -0.48, P = 0.012 and 0.098, respectively) but not with apo A-I TR. In summary, diet-induced changes in HDL-C levels correlate with and may result from changes in apo A-I TR. In contrast, differences in HDL-C levels between people on a given diet correlate with and may result from differences in apo A-I FCR. Therefore, the mechanism of dietary effects on HDL levels differs substantially from the mechanism explaining the differences in levels between individuals on a fixed diet. In assessing coronary heart disease risk, it may be inappropriate to conclude that diet-induced decreases in HDL are equivalent to low HDL within a given diet.
E A Brinton, S Eisenberg, J L Breslow
No well-defined Blastomyces-specific antigens are currently available. We used sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting to identify immunologically active molecules in the cell wall of B. dermatitidis. A major immunoreactive 120-kD protein (WI-1) was present in all five strains studied and comprised 5% of the protein in the cell wall extract obtained after freezing and thawing yeast cells. WI-1 was recognized by serum from all 10 patients with blastomycosis but by none of those from 5 patients with histoplasmosis. It was purified by electroelution, radiolabeled with 125I, and incorporated into a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for serodiagnosis of blastomycosis. Antibody to WI-1 was detected in 58 (85%) of 68 patients with blastomycosis (geometric mean titer, 1:2,981), in two (3%) of 73 patients with histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, sporotrichosis, or candidiasis (titers, 1:86 and 1:91) and in none of 44 healthy persons. WI-1 was shown to be a surface molecule abundant on B. dermatitidis yeasts that were indirectly stained with serum from a rabbit immunized with WI-1. Approximately 0.93 pg of WI-1 or 4.7 x 10(6) WI-1 molecules were found on the surface of an individual yeast using an antigen-inhibition RIA; none was found on Histoplasma capsulatum or Candida albicans yeasts. We conclude that WI-1 is a novel, immunologically active surface molecule on the invasive form of B. dermatitidis and that WI-1 can be used to reliably detect antibody and study the immunopathogenesis of blastomycosis.
B S Klein, J M Jones
Cultured skin fibroblasts or lymphoblastoid cells from eight patients with clinical symptoms of prolidase deficiency were analyzed in terms of enzyme activity, presence of material crossreacting with specific antibodies, biosynthesis of the polypeptide, and mRNA corresponding to the enzyme. There are at least two enzymes that hydrolyze imidodipeptides in these cells and these two enzymes could be separated by an immunochemical procedure. The specific assay for prolidase showed that the enzyme activity was virtually absent in six cell strains and was markedly reduced in two (less than 3% of controls). The activities of the labile enzyme that did not immunoprecipitate with the anti-prolidase antibody were decreased in the cells (30-60% of controls). Cell strains with residual activities of prolidase had immunological polypeptides crossreacting with a Mr 56,000, similar to findings in the normal enzyme. The polypeptide biosynthesis in these cells and the controls was similar. Northern blot analyses revealed the presence of mRNA in the polypeptide-positive cells, yet it was absent in the polypeptide-negative cells. The substrate specificities analyzed in the partially purified enzymes from the polypeptide-positive cell strains differed, presumably due to different mutations. Thus, there seems to be a molecular heterogeneity in prolidase deficiency. There was no apparent relation between the clinical symptoms and the biochemical phenotypes, except that mental retardation was present in the polypeptide-negative patients. The activities of the labile enzyme may not be a major factor in modifying the clinical symptoms.
F Endo, A Tanoue, A Kitano, J Arata, D M Danks, C M Lapière, Y Sei, S K Wadman, I Matsuda
The effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril and the neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitors thiorphan and SCH 32615 on the changes in airway opening pressure (PaO) and the recovery of offered peptide were studied after intratracheal administration of substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) in isolated guinea pig lungs superfused through the trachea. Pao changes and the recovery of offered peptide were significantly greater in NEP inhibitor-treated lungs than in control lungs. Captopril did not cause a significant change in the physiological effects or the recovery of SP and NKA. HPLC analysis of [3H]Pro2,4-SP and 125I-Histidyl1-NKA perfused through the airways showed major cleavage products consistent with NEP action. We conclude that there is significant degradation of both SP and NKA after tracheal infusion of peptides by NEP-like but not by ACE activity; this effect significantly influences the physiological effects of these peptides.
M A Martins, S A Shore, N P Gerard, C Gerard, J M Drazen
Defects of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain are important causes of neurological disease. We report studies that demonstrate a severe deficiency of complex I activity with less severe abnormalities of complexes III and IV (less than 5, 63, and 30% of control values, respectively) in a skeletal muscle mitochondrial fraction from a 22-yr-old female with weakness, lactic acidemia, and the deposition of intramuscular neutral lipid. The observation that lipid accumulates in this and other patients with complex I deficiency suggests impaired mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. To investigate this mechanism we have shown impaired flux through beta-oxidation [( U-14C]hexadecanoate oxidation was 66% of control rate) and accumulation of specific acyl-CoA ester intermediates. The changes in fatty acid metabolism in complex I deficiency are secondary to the reduced state within the mitochondrial matrix with low NAD+/NADH ratios.
N J Watmough, L A Bindoff, M A Birch-Machin, S Jackson, K Bartlett, C I Ragan, J Poulton, R M Gardiner, H S Sherratt, D M Turnbull
IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene expression is induced by LPS (endotoxin) in monocytes/macrophages and in some monocytic cell lines. IFN gamma and 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3) are important macrophage-activating factors. They induce changes in the human monocyte cell line U937 that reflect cellular differentiation. We have studied the effect of IFN-gamma and of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the expression of IL-1 and TNF-alpha messenger RNA in response to LPS. The induction of these genes by LPS is immediate and transient, with a maximum in 3 h. Preincubation of the cells with IFN-gamma or with 1,25(OH)2D3 increases these mRNA responses to LPS about fourfold. More importantly, cells exposed to IFN-gamma for 72 h exhibit a drastically different and unexpected pattern of IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta gene response to LPS. Instead of the normal transient response, one then observes a sustained increase in IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta gene expression over at least 16 h after LPS stimulation. This was measured both at the level of mRNA and by direct transcription assays (run-off). This striking effect of IFN-gamma on the kinetics of IL-1 gene response does not apply to the TNF-alpha gene. Interestingly, 1,25(OH)2D3, which shares with IFN-gamma a number of important effects on monocytes/macrophages, does not affect the kinetics of IL-1 gene response to LPS. In view of the biological relevance of endotoxin as a macrophage activator, the potential clinical implication of this prolonged induction of IL-1 gene expression is discussed.
C Ucla, P Roux-Lombard, S Fey, J M Dayer, B Mach
A population of circulating mononuclear cells from patients with AIDS was identified which expressed interleukin 2 receptors (IL-2R). By dual-fluorescence flow microfluorometry, the patients' IL-2R+ cells were further identified as Leu M3+ monocytes (29.4 +/- 5.2% of the Leu M3+ cells were IL-2R+, n = 15), whereas Leu M3+ monocytes from normal subjects were IL-2R negative (2.0 +/- 0.42%; P less than 0.001). By Northern analysis, monocytes from AIDS patients, but not control subjects, constitutively expressed steady-state levels of IL-2R mRNA. Functionally, the IL-2R+ monocytes were capable of depleting IL-2 from culture supernatants, suggesting a mechanism for the reduced IL-2 levels commonly seen in AIDS patients. IL-2R+ monocytes also expressed increased levels of surface HLA-DR which may favor monocyte T-cell interactions and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In additional studies, normal monocytes were infected with a macrophage-tropic HIV isolate in vitro and monitored for IL-2R and HLA-DR expression. Within 24-48 h after exposure to HIV in vitro, but before evidence of productive infection, greater than 25% of the monocytes became IL-2R+ with increasing numbers of IL-2R+ cells and HLA-DR levels through day 6. These early signaling effects of HIV could be mimicked by adding purified HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the monocytes. This stimulation of monocytes before or independent of productive infection of the cells by HIV is consistent with in vivo observations of activated and/or abnormal functions by monocytes that do not appear to be infected with HIV in AIDS patients.
J B Allen, N McCartney-Francis, P D Smith, G Simon, S Gartner, L M Wahl, M Popovic, S M Wahl
By direct analysis of the polypeptide constituents of leukemic cells, we have previously detected several polypeptides that are restricted in their expression to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this study, we provide evidence that two polypeptides designated L2 and L4 are structurally related and represent novel markers for common ALL. Partial amino acid sequence analysis did not uncover differences between L2 and L4. The sequences obtained correspond to a previously cloned human gene designated hsp 27 that is expressed, following heat shock treatment, in a variety of cells. 32Pi incorporation studies indicate that L4 is an unphosphorylated form and L2 is a phosphorylated form of hsp27. The two forms were inducible by heat shock in leukemic and nonleukemic lymphoid cells. Thus, in acute leukemia, the common ALL subtype is uniquely characterized by the constitutive expression of a polypeptide that represents a major cellular phosphoprotein.
J R Strahler, R Kuick, C Eckerskorn, F Lottspeich, B C Richardson, D A Fox, L M Stoolman, C A Hanson, D Nichols, H J Tueche
Previous in vivo studies demonstrated that clearance of encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae from blood is associated with the deposition of C3 on these bacteria and is independent of the later complement components (C5-C9). Since clearance of encapsulated bacteria is determined by phagocytosis of bacteria by fixed tissue macrophages, we studied the interaction of H. influenzae type b with macrophages in vitro. Organisms bound to macrophages in the presence of nonimmune serum. Binding was not evident in heat-treated serum or in serum from complement depleted animals and was inhibited by F(ab')2 fragments of antibody to C3 and by blockade of the macrophage complement receptor type 3. The majority of organisms bound in the presence of complement alone remained extracellular. Antibody in the form of convalescent serum or an IgG1 monoclonal to type b capsule did not increase the total number of organisms associated with macrophages, but did increase the number of organisms ingested. Furthermore, complement enhanced antibody-mediated ingestion. This in vitro study demonstrates that complement largely mediates binding of H. influenzae to macrophages. This binding may be critical in determining the early clearance of these bacteria from blood and may be an important mechanism of defense in the nonimmune, as well as the immune host.
G J Noel, D M Mosser, P J Edelson
The molecular diagnosis of Gaucher disease has been difficult due to the existence of several different point mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene and due to the presence of a tightly linked, highly homologous pseudogene. We now report the occurrence of a "Lepore-like" glucocerebrosidase fusion gene in which the 5' end is the functional gene and the 3' end is the pseudogene. This further complicates the molecular diagnosis of Gaucher disease but sheds light on the molecular anatomy of the glucocerebrosidase gene complex and on the pathogenesis of this important storage disease.
A Zimran, J Sorge, E Gross, M Kubitz, C West, E Beutler
Phagocytosis of Histoplasma capsulatum (Hc) yeasts and microconidia by human macrophages (M phi) was quantified by a fluorescence quenching technique. Phagocytosis of unopsonized Hc yeasts by monocyte-derived M phi and human alveolar M phi (AM) was rapid. After 60 min, 79% of cultured M phi and 59% of AM had ingested an average of 9.8 and 11 yeasts/M phi, respectively. In contrast, only 26% of monocytes ingested 4.5 yeasts/cell after 60 min. Phagocytosis of unopsonized microconidia by cultured M phi and by AM was equivalent. Monoclonal antibodies specific for the alpha-chains and beta-chain of the CD18 family of adhesion receptors inhibited the binding of Hc yeasts and microconidia to cultured M phi and AM. Thus, the M phi CD18 complex mediates recognition of both phases of this dimorphic fungus. Disruption of actin microfilaments with cytochalasin D inhibited both attachment and ingestion of yeasts by M phi. In contrast, nocodazole, which prevents polymerization of microtubules, did not inhibit binding or ingestion. Both drugs inhibited ingestion, but neither drug inhibited binding of C3b- and C3bi-coated sheep erythrocytes to complement receptors type one (CR1) or type three (CR3), respectively. Therefore, different signal transducing mechanisms for phagocytosis appear to be triggered by the binding of Hc yeasts to CD18, and by the binding of EC3bi to CD11b/CD18, respectively.
S L Newman, C Bucher, J Rhodes, W E Bullock
In dietary phosphate (Pi) deprivation and in aging there is an inverse correlation between renal proximal tubular brush border membrane (BBM) cholesterol (Chol) content, BBM fluidity, and BBM sodium gradient-dependent Pi transport activity (Na-Pi cotransport). The purpose of this study was to determine whether in vitro enrichment of renal BBM with Chol has a direct modulating effect on Na-Pi cotransport. 12 and 24 mol % increases in Chol content caused dose-dependent decreases in Na-Pi cotransport activity, 2,000 in control, vs. 1,450 in Chol (+12%), vs. 900 pmol/5 s/mg BBM protein in Chol (+24%), all P less than 0.01, which was paralleled by dose-dependent increases in the fluorescence anisotropy of diphenylhexatriene, rDPH, i.e., decrease in BBM fluidity, 0.203 in control, vs. 0.210 in Chol (+12%), vs. 0.219 in Chol (+24%), all P less than 0.01. We found that increasing ambient temperature, which increases BBM fluidity independent of changes in Chol content, increased Na-Pi cotransport. When Na-Pi cotransport was analyzed as a function of BBM fluidity, 1/rDPH, we found that at an equivalent BBM fluidity BBM Chol enrichment still resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in Na-Pi cotransport. Finally, in BBM isolated from rats fed a low Pi diet in vitro enrichment with Chol completely reversed the adaptive increases in Na-Pi cotransport and fluidity. Our study therefore, indicates that Chol is a direct modulator of renal BBM Na-Pi cotransport activity, and that in vivo alterations in BBM Chol content most likely plays an important role in the regulation of renal tubular Pi transport.
M Levi, B M Baird, P V Wilson
Although the presence of anti-DNA antibody is a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), neither the subsets of B cells that secrete anti-DNA antibody nor the stimuli responsible for the induction of anti-DNA secretion is known. In particular, the role of CD5+ B cells in human SLE, a distinct subpopulation of antibody-secreting cells shown previously to be a source of anti-DNA antibody in murine models of SLE, is unknown. To approach these questions, we developed a sensitive enzyme-linked immunospot (ELIspot) assay to measure spontaneous secretion of antibody to single-stranded (ss) DNA, double-stranded (ds) DNA, tetanus toxoid, and polyclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) by purified CD5+ and CD5- B cells of 15 SLE patients and 15 healthy control subjects. The B cells of only 1 of 15 healthy subjects secreted a significant level of anti-ssDNA antibody, and none secreted anti-dsDNA. By contrast, in the majority of SLE patients both CD5+ and CD5- B cells secreted IgG and/or IgM anti-ssDNA as well as anti-dsDNA antibody. Further analysis of the anti-ssDNA response revealed that the level of IgG and IgM anti-DNA antibody secretion by CD5- B cells correlated closely with the level of polyclonal Ig production by the same subpopulation (r = 0.81 and 0.70, respectively). In contrast, production of anti-DNA by CD5+ B cells occurred independently of polyclonal Ig production by both CD5+ and CD5- B cell subpopulations. These results suggest that in human SLE there exist two anti-DNA antibody-producing B cell subpopulations with distinct induction mechanisms: one (CD5+), which independently secretes anti-DNA, and another (CD5-), which produces anti-DNA as an apparent consequence of polyclonal B cell activation.
N Suzuki, T Sakane, E G Engleman
The mechanisms responsible for decreased serum albumin levels in patients with cachexia-associated infection, inflammation, and cancer are unknown. Since tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) is elevated in cachexia-associated diseases, and chronic administration of TNF alpha induces cachexia in animal models, we assessed the regulation of albumin gene expression by TNF alpha in vivo. In this animal model of cachexia, Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the functional gene for human TNF alpha were inoculated into nude mice (TNF alpha mice). TNF alpha mice became cachectic and manifested decreased serum albumin levels, albumin synthesis, and albumin mRNA levels. However, even before the TNF alpha mice lost weight, their albumin mRNA steady-state levels were decreased approximately 90%, and in situ hybridization revealed a low level of albumin gene expression throughout the hepatic lobule. The mRNA levels of several other genes were unchanged. Hepatic nuclei from TNF alpha mice before the onset of weight loss were markedly less active in transcribing the albumin gene than hepatic nuclei from control mice. Therefore, TNF alpha selectively inhibits the genetic expression of albumin in this model before weight loss.
D A Brenner, M Buck, S P Feitelberg, M Chojkier
Protein catabolic states (i.e., sepsis and trauma) are thought to be associated with accelerated oxidation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD), the rate-limiting enzyme for BCAA oxidation by muscle, is regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. Skeletal muscle BCKAD was only 2-4% active in control rats. Intravenous injection of Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin (0.25-10 mg/kg) did not change total BCKAD activity, but increased the percent active enzyme in muscle three- to four-fold in 4-6 h. Identical results were observed in adrenalectomized rats pretreated with one dose of alpha-methylprednisolone (2.5 mg/kg i.p.) 30-60 min before saline or endotoxin injection, indicating that endotoxin's effect was not mediated by hypersecretion of adrenal hormones. Cortisone pretreatment of normal rats (100 mg/kg per d) for 2 d prevented endotoxin-induced activation of muscle BCKAD, suggesting that endogenous secretion products mediated BCKAD activation by endotoxin. Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor-alpha and/or IL-1 beta or alpha (50 micrograms/kg) increased muscle BCKAD activation two- to fourfold in normal rats 4-6 h after intravenous injection. We conclude that cytokine-mediated activation of muscle BCKAD may contribute to accelerated BCAA oxidation in septicemia.
M D Nawabi, K P Block, M C Chakrabarti, M G Buse
L-arginine is required for the fungistatic action of murine macrophages in vitro. To further investigate this requirement, L-arginine metabolism by macrophages was measured under conditions where fungistasis either succeeded or failed. Macrophage fungistasis correlated with metabolism of L-arginine to citrulline, nitrite, and nitrate. The metabolic rate was dependent on extracellular L-arginine concentration, reaching a maximum of 67 nmol nitrite/h per mg protein. It accounted for one-third of arginine consumed by fungistatic macrophages. Equimolar amounts of citrulline and total nitrite plus nitrate accumulated in medium. This was consistent with the hypothesis that one of the equivalent guanidino nitrogens of L-arginine was oxidized to both nitrite and nitrate leaving L-citrulline as the amino acid reaction product. The analogue, NG-mono-methyl-L-arginine, selectively inhibited nitrogen oxidation and it was shown previously that it inhibited fungistatic capability. Resident macrophages were not fungistatic and their nitrogen oxidation was low. Once macrophages began producing nitrite/nitrate, protein synthesis was not required during the next 8 h for either fungistasis or nitrogen oxidation. Two-thirds of L-arginine consumption was due to macrophage arginase yielding L-ornithine and urea, which accumulated in medium. This activity was dissociated from macrophage fungistasis. Nitrogen oxidation metabolism by macrophages is linked to a mechanism that inhibits proliferation of fungi. This may involve synthesis of an intermediate compound(s) that has antimicrobial properties.
D L Granger, J B Hibbs Jr, J R Perfect, D T Durack
The cortical collecting tubule (CCT) is an important nephron segment for Na+, K+, water and acid-base transport. Differential loading characteristics of the pH sensitive dye 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5(and-6)carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) and basolateral Cl- removal were used to identify and study intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in each of three cell types involved in this transport. Both principal cells and beta-intercalated cells were found to have a basolateral Na+/H+ exchanger based on the Na+ and amiloride sensitivity of pHi recovery from acid loads. Intercalated cells demonstrated abrupt pHi changes with basolateral Cl- removal. alpha-intercalated cells alkalinized; beta-intercalated cells acidified. In the beta-intercalated cells, luminal Cl- removal blocked changes in pHi in response to changes in luminal HCO3- or peritubular Cl-, providing direct evidence for a luminal Cl-/HCO3- exchanger. In principal cells, brief removal of either peritubular or luminal Cl- resulted in no change in pHi; however, return of peritubular Cl- after prolonged removal resulted in a rapid fall in pHi consistent with a basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, which may be relatively inactive under baseline conditions. Therefore, Cl-/HCO3- exchange is present in all three cell types but varies in location and activity.
I D Weiner, L L Hamm
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous disorder of type I collagen of which OI type I, an autosomal dominant condition, is the mildest and most common form. Affected individuals have blue sclerae, normal stature, bone fragility without significant deformity and osteopenia. Fibroblasts from most affected individuals produce about half the expected amount of structurally normal type I collagen as a result of decreased synthesis of one of its constituent chains, pro alpha 1(I), but the nature of the mutations which result in OI type I are unknown. We describe a three generation family with OI type I in which all affected members have one normal COL1A1 allele and another from which the intragenic Eco RI restriction site near the 3' end of the gene is missing. Amplification by polymerase chain reaction and sequence determination of the normal allele and of the mutant allele in the domain that normally contains the Eco RI site demonstrated a 5-bp deletion from the mutant allele. The deletion changes the translational reading-frame beginning at the Eco RI site and predicts the synthesis of a pro alpha 1(I) chain that extends 84 amino acids beyond the normal termination. Although the mutant pro alpha 1(I) chain is synthesized in an in vitro translation system, we are unable to detect its presence in intact cells, suggesting that it is unstable and rapidly destroyed in one of the cell's degradative pathways. Our analysis of individuals with OI type I from 20 families indicates that this is a unique mutation and suggests that the phenotype can result from multiple mechanisms that decrease the synthesis of normal type I procollagen molecules, including those that alter protein stability.
M C Willing, D H Cohn, P H Byers
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) are regulatory peptides that have considerable sequence homology with pancreatic polypeptide. Because (a) NPY has been shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in peripheral as well as central catecholaminergic neurons, and (b) alpha 2-adrenergic receptors of adipocytes play a major role in the regulation of lipolysis, we investigated the effect of NPY and PYY on isolated fat cells. In human fat cells NPY and PYY promoted a dose-dependent inhibition of lipolysis elicited by 2 micrograms/ml adenosine deaminase (removal of adenosine) whatever the lipolytic index used (glycerol or nonesterified fatty acids). In dog fat cells NPY and PYY inhibited adenosine deaminase-, isoproterenol- and forskolin-induced lipolysis. In humans and dogs the effects of NPY or PYY were abolished by treatment of cells with Bordetella pertussis toxin, clearly indicating the involvement of a Gi protein in the antilipolytic effects. This study indicates that, in addition to alpha 2-adrenergic agonists, NPY and PYY are also involved in the regulation of lipolysis in human and dog adipose tissue as powerful antilipolytic agents. Further studies are needed to characterize the pharmacological nature of the receptor mediating the inhibitory effect of NPY and PYY in fat cells.
P Valet, M Berlan, M Beauville, F Crampes, J L Montastruc, M Lafontan
Fogo selvagem (FS) is an autoimmune disease caused by IgG autoantibodies to desmoglein I (DG-I), a desmosomal glycoprotein. We have previously shown that the autoantibodies in these patients are pathogenic and restricted mainly to the IgG4 subclass. The purpose of this study was to determine if the Fc domain or the valence of FS autoantibodies were relevant in the induction of epidermal disease in neonatal mice. IgG4 was prepared from sera of FS patients by anion exchange chromatography, and digested with pepsin to yield F(ab')2 fragments. Monovalent FS Fab' were made by reduction and alkylation of FS F(ab')2. Intact FS IgG4, FS F(ab')2, and FS Fab' fragments were injected into neonatal mice. Intact FS IgG4 and both FS IgG fragments were pathogenic. The disease in the animals was dose dependent, and on the molar basis, FS Fab' fragments were more potent and efficient in producing disease than whole FS IgG. These results suggest: (a) simple binding of FS autoantibodies to DG-I may trigger keratinocyte detachment and epidermal disease; (b) DG-I may represent a keratinocyte cell adhesion molecule; and (c) complement activation and surface cross-linking may not be relevant in keratinocyte detachment.
B Rock, R S Labib, L A Diaz
To study the proliferative response of hematopoietic cells to growth factors at the molecular level, we developed a cell-free system for growth factor-dependent initiation of genomic DNA replication. Nuclei were isolated from the IL-3-dependent cell line NFS/N1-H7 after a 10-h period of IL-3 deprivation. Cytosolic and membrane-containing subcellular fractions were prepared from proliferating NFS/N1-H7 cells. Nuclei from the nonproliferating cells (+/- IL-3) showed essentially no incorporation of [3H]thymidine during a 16-h incubation with a mixture of unlabeled GTP, ATP, UTP, CTP, dGTP, dATP, dCTP, and [3H]dTTP. When the combination of IL-3, a cytosolic fraction, and a membrane-containing fraction from proliferating cells was added to nuclei from nonproliferating cells, a burst of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA began after a 12-h lag period, attained a maximal rate at 16 h, and reached a level of 860 pmol thymidine/10(6) nuclei at 24 h (corresponding to replication of approximately 56% total mouse genomic DNA). This DNA synthesis was inhibited approximately 90% by the specific DNA polymerase alpha inhibitor aphidicolin. Deletion of a single cellular component or IL-3 from the system resulted in a marked reduction of DNA replication (-membrane, 80 +/- 4%; -cytosol, 90% +/- 4%; -IL-3, 74 +/- 7% inhibition). This model requires a growth factor (IL-3), a sedimentable cell fraction containing its receptor and possibly additional membrane-associated components, and a cytosolic fraction. It appears to recapitulate the molecular events required for progression from early G1 to S phase of the cell cycle induced by IL-3 binding to its receptor.
N C Munshi, T G Gabig
A decrease in the myocardial level of the mRNA encoding the Ca2(+)-ATPase of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) has been recently reported during experimental cardiac hypertrophy and failure. To determine if such a deficit occurs in human end-stage heart failure, we compared the SR Ca2(+)-ATPase mRNA levels in left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) specimens from 13 patients undergoing cardiac transplantation (6 idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathies; 4 coronary artery diseases with myocardial infarctions; 3 diverse etiologies) with control heart samples using a rat cardiac SR Ca2(+)-ATPase cDNA probe. We observed a marked decrease in the mRNA for the Ca2(+)-ATPase relative to both the 18S ribosomal RNA and the myosin heavy chain mRNA in LV specimens of patients with heart failure compared to controls (-48%, P less than 0.01 and -47%, P less than 0.05, respectively). The LV ratio of Ca2(+)-ATPase mRNA to 18S RNA positively correlated with cardiac index (P less than 0.02). The RV ratio correlated negatively with systolic, diastolic and mean pulmonary arterial pressures (P less than 0.02, P less than 0.02, and P less than 0.01, respectively). We suggest that a decrease of the SR Ca2(+)-ATPase mRNA in the myocardium plays an important role in alterations of Ca2+ movements and myocardial relaxation reported during human end-stage heart failure.
J J Mercadier, A M Lompré, P Duc, K R Boheler, J B Fraysse, C Wisnewsky, P D Allen, M Komajda, K Schwartz