J F Gusella
Epidemiologic studies suggest that women who smoke have lower endogenous estrogen than nonsmokers. To explore the possible link between cigarette smoking and decreased endogenous estrogens, we have examined the effects of constituents of tobacco on estrogen production in human choriocarcinoma cells and term placental microsomes. In choriocarcinoma cell cultures, nicotine, cotinine (a major metabolite of nicotine), and anabasine (a minor component of cigarette tobacco) all inhibited androstenedione conversion to estrogen in a dose-dependent fashion. Removal of nicotine, cotinine, and anabasine from the culture medium resulted in the complete reversal of the inhibition of aromatase. In the choriocarcinoma cell cultures, a supraphysiologic concentration of androstenedione (73 microM) in the culture medium blocked the inhibition of aromatase caused by nicotine, cotinine, and anabasine. In preparations of term placental microsomes, nicotine, cotinine, and anabasine inhibited the conversion of testosterone to estrogen. Kinetic analysis demonstrated the inhibition to be competitive with respect to the substrate. These findings suggest that some nicotinic alkaloids directly inhibit aromatase. This mechanism may explain, in part, the decreased estrogen observed in women who smoke.
R L Barbieri, J Gochberg, K J Ryan
Complementary DNA coding for human monocyte interleukin 1 (IL-1), pI 7 form, was expressed in Escherichia coli. During purification, IL-1 activity on murine T cells was associated with the recombinant protein. Homogeneous human recombinant IL-1 (hrIL-1) was tested in several assays to demonstrate the immunological and inflammatory properties attributed to this molecule. hrIL-1 induced proliferative responses in a cloned murine T cell in the presence of suboptimal concentrations of mitogen, whereas no effect was observed with hrIL-1 alone. At concentrations of 0.05 ng/ml, hrIL-1 doubled the response to mitogen (5 X 10(6) half maximal units/mg). Human peripheral blood T cells depleted of adherent cells underwent a blastogenic response and released interleukin 2 in the presence of hrIL-1 and mitogen. hrIL-1 was a potent inflammatory agent by its ability to induce human dermal fibroblast prostaglandin E2 production in vitro and to produce monophasic (endogenous pyrogen) fever when injected into rabbits or endotoxin-resistant mice. These studies establish that the dominant pI 7 form of recombinant human IL-1 possesses immunological and inflammatory properties and acts on the central nervous system to produce fever.
C A Dinarello, J G Cannon, J W Mier, H A Bernheim, G LoPreste, D L Lynn, R N Love, A C Webb, P E Auron, R C Reuben
The c-fms gene product is related, and possibly identical, to the receptor for the mononuclear phagocyte colony stimulating factor, CSF-1. Using antisera to a recombinant v-fms--coded polypeptide, glycoproteins encoded by the human c-fms locus were detected in mononuclear cells from normal peripheral blood and in promyelocytic HL-60 cells 24 h after induction of monocytic differentiation with phorbol ester. The 150-kD human c-fms--coded glycoprotein was expressed at the cell surface, was active as a tyrosine-specific protein kinase in vitro, and shared primary structural features with the product of the feline retroviral v-fms oncogene. A biochemically indistinguishable glycoprotein was detected in human choriocarcinoma cell lines. Like peripheral blood mononuclear cells and phorbol ester-treated HL-60 cells, the choriocarcinoma cells expressed high affinity binding sites for human CSF-1. In addition to serving as a lineage specific growth factor in hematopoiesis, CSF-1 may play a role in normal trophoblast development.
C W Rettenmier, R Sacca, W L Furman, M F Roussel, J T Holt, A W Nienhuis, E R Stanley, C J Sherr
To investigate the possible role of insulin per se in the thermic response to glucose/insulin infusions, respiratory exchange measurements were performed on eight healthy young men for 45 min before and 210 min after somatostatin infusion. Two tests were performed on separate days and each had two consecutive phases of 90 min each. Test 1. Two different rates of glucose uptake were imposed, one at euglycemia (phase 1) and the other at hyperglycemia (phase 2) while insulinemia was maintained constant throughout. Test 2. Glucose uptake was maintained constant throughout while insulin was infused at two different rates: 1 mU/kg per min with hyperglycemia (phase 1) and 6.45 mU/kg per min with "euglycemia" (phase 2). The thermic effect of glucose and insulin, obtained from phase 1 in both tests, was 5.9 +/- 1.2 and 5.8 +/- 0.5% (NS) of the energy infused, respectively. A step increase in glucose uptake alone, test 1, phase 2, (0.469 +/- 0.039 to 1.069 +/- 0.094 g/min) caused an increase in energy expenditure of 0.14 +/- 0.03 kcal/min (thermic effect 5.9 +/- 1.1%). When insulin was increased by 752 +/- 115 microU/ml, with no change in glucose uptake, energy expenditure rose by 0.05 +/- 0.02 kcal/min, which correlated with the increase in plasma catecholamines. It is concluded that a large proportion of the thermic response to glucose/insulin infusions is due to glucose metabolism alone. The thermic effect of insulin is small and appears to be mediated by the sympathetic nervous system; thus at physiological insulin concentrations, the thermic effect of insulin per se is negligible.
L Christin, C A Nacht, O Vernet, E Ravussin, E Jéquier, K J Acheson
22 homosexual or narcotic addict patients at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or with AIDS, were studied for the presence of antiimmunoglobulin antibodies and circulating immune complexes (20 were thrombocytopenic, 6 had AIDS). Circulating immune complex levels were 10-fold higher than levels in normal subjects. IgG anti-F(ab')2 antibodies were noted in homosexual as well as narcotic addict patients. Of 16 homosexual patients, 7 had IgG anti-F(ab')2 antibody of moderate to marked titer with broad reactivity against autologous, homologous, and control F(ab')2 fragments. Three others demonstrated limited reactivity against one or two F(ab')2 fragments. The remaining six patients were negative. Six of six narcotic addict patients had IgG anti-F(ab')2 antibody, five with limited reactivity, one with broad reactivity. In contrast, neither elevated circulating immune complexes nor anti-F(ab')2 antibodies were detectable in six autoimmune thrombocytopenic patients. Anti-F(ab')2 antibody could be affinity purified from serum or circulating immune complexes. Anti-F(ab')2 reactivity correlated with circulating immune complex levels, r = 0.83, P less than 0.01.
J R Yu, E T Lennette, S Karpatkin
Circulating osteocalcin, which normally reflects the rate of bone formation, is elevated in uremia. In 18 patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis, serum osteocalcin levels were directly related to the bone formation rate (r = 0.88, P less than 0.001), osteoblastic osteoid surface density (r = 0.65, P less than 0.01), and osteoclastic resorptive surface density (r = 0.75, P less than 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that osteocalcin levels remained positively correlated with osteoclastic resorption when the bone formation rate was held constant (P less than 0.01). The intimation that the coupling of bone formation and resorption could not explain the relationship between osteocalcin and resorption led us to determine whether fragments of this abundant matrix protein are released by bone resorption and retained in uremia. Sera from dialysis patients with renal osteodystrophy were fractionated by sequential gel filtration and HPLC, and assayed for immunoreactive osteocalcin. When normal serum was analyzed, a single sharp peak was found. In pooled sera from patients with high osteoclastic resorptive surfaces identified by histomorphometry, we found five additional immunoreactive peaks, while three additional peaks were detected in sera from patients with lower osteoclastic surfaces. Bio-Gel P-10 chromatography showed that these multiple peaks were of lower molecular weight than intact osteocalcin. We suggest that the liberation of bone matrix by osteoclasts contributes to the circulating osteocalcin immunoreactivity in uremia.
C M Gundberg, R S Weinstein
Insulinlike growth factors (IGF) act qualitatively like insulin on insulin target tissues in vitro. In the circulation in vivo they are bound to specific carrier proteins. In this form or when continuously infused into hypophysectomized (hypox) rats they do not exert acute insulinlike effects on glucose homeostasis. This study definitively shows that intravenous bolus injections of pure IGF I or II act acutely on glucose homeostasis: they lower the blood sugar, enhance the disappearance of U-[14C]glucose from serum and increase its incorporation into diaphragm glycogen in normal and hypox rats in the presence of antiinsulin serum. The same effects were obtained with recombinant human IGF I injected intravenously either with or without antiinsulin serum into normal rats. Free fatty acid levels decreased transiently only in normal animals. Lipid synthesis from glucose in adipose tissue was not stimulated in hypox and barely stimulated in normal rats. The half-life of injected IGF I or II in normal rats (approximately 4 h) is strikingly different from that in hypophysectomized rats (20-30 min) and appears to depend on the growth hormone-induced 150,000-200,000-mol wt IGF carrier protein that is lacking in hypophysectomized rats. 15 min after the bolus serum IGF I and II concentrations were similar to steady state levels during long-term infusion in hypox rats. Free IGF was barely detectable, however, in the infused animals, whereas 40-100% was found free 15 min after the bolus. These observations for the first time confirm the hypothesis that only free IGF, but not the IGF carrier protein complex, is bioavailable to insulin target tissues.
J Zapf, C Hauri, M Waldvogel, E R Froesch
We have previously demonstrated low levels of immunoreactive (ir)-beta-endorphin (beta-EP) and ir-ACTH in a subpopulation of mouse spleen macrophages, which is consistent with an involvement of opioid peptides in modulation of immune responses. Gel chromatography studies suggested the presence of an approximately 3.5,000-molecular weight (mol wt) species, putatively beta-EP, an approximately 11.5,000-mol-wt species, putatively beta-lipotropin, and a higher molecular weight species (putative beta-EP precursor, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). In this study we have extended our original findings by demonstrating the presence of messenger RNA for POMC by the use of a complementary DNA probe and Northern blot analysis of extracts of mouse and rat spleen. In addition, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we have shown that the major endorphin species in mouse spleen macrophages is beta-EP1-31, and that there are smaller amounts of each of the acetylated forms, N-acetyl-beta-EP1-16 (alpha-endorphin), N-acetyl-beta-EP1-17 (gamma-endorphin), N-acetyl-beta-EP1-27, and N-acetyl-beta-EP1-31. We interpret these studies as showing that (a) the spleen is an organ of POMC synthesis and that (b) the predominant COOH-terminal product of macrophage POMC is the opiate-receptor active species beta-EP1-31.
S J Lolait, J A Clements, A J Markwick, C Cheng, M McNally, A I Smith, J W Funder
The present study was designed to determine the effects of pulmonary vascular pressure, vascular injury, and pulmonary edema on regional blood volume (Vr) and regional red blood cell (RBC) transit time (Tr) in the lung. The experiments were carried out in 15 dogs. Six served as controls, six had oleic acid-induced pulmonary edema (OAPE), and three had high pressure pulmonary edema (HPPE). Regional blood flow (Qr) was measured with 99mTc macroaggregates, Vr with 51Cr homologous RBC, and regional transit time was calculated (Vr/Qr). The dogs were killed, and the lungs removed and sampled completely. Regional extravascular lung water (EVLW) was measured in grams per gram of dry lung and ranged from 3.7 +/- 1.1 in the control group to 6.0 +/- 1.3 in OAPE and 5.6 +/- 0.6 in HPPE. The data show that in normal lungs, increased Qr was associated with a recruitment of blood volume. In OAPE, data show that regional blood volume was decreased and that vascular injury and edema formation interfered with a further increase in Vr as Qr increased. In HPPE, Vr has already fully distended and it changed little with increased blood flow. We conclude that oleic acid-induced pulmonary injury and edema interfere with vascular recruitment and shorten regional RBC transit times. HPPE, on the other hand, is associated with normal regional RBC transit times because the vessels are fully recruited.
J Y Tsang, J S Montaner, J C Hogg
The present study was designed to compare high pressure pulmonary edema (HPPE) and oleic acid-induced low pressure pulmonary edema (OAPE) in dogs when similar amounts of extra vascular water were present in the lung. The high pressure edema was produced by intravenous fluid overload and by inflating an aortic balloon catheter (n = 6). The low pressure edema was produced by the injecting 0.08 mg/kg oleic acid suspended in 5 ml saline (n = 6). Comparison of the difference between initial control measurements and final measurements in the edematous states showed that the animals with OAPE had a greater fall in percent oxygen saturation and a greater increase in shunt fractions. The light microscopic studies showed that OAPE was associated with greater amounts of alveolar flooding than HPPE where the edema fluid was located to a greater extent in the peribronchial interstitial space. The electron microscopy studies showed that the alveolar flooding in OAPE was associated with epithelial disruption, and tracer studies carried out in rabbits showed that dextran (150,000 mol wt) could pass from blood to airspace and that dextran (40,000 mol wt) could pass from air-space to blood in OAPE. We conclude that epithelial disruption is responsible for the excessive alveolar flooding in OAPE and that this results in a greater impairment in gas exchange.
J S Montaner, J Tsang, K G Evans, J B Mullen, A R Burns, D C Walker, B Wiggs, J C Hogg
To determine whether a resistance to insulin in type 1, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is extended to both glucose and amino acid metabolism, six normal subjects and five patients with IDDM, maintained in euglycemia with intravenous insulin administration, were infused with L-[4,5-3H]leucine (Leu) and [1-14C]alpha ketoisocaproate (KIC). Steady-state rates of leucine-carbon appearance derived from protein breakdown (Leu + KIC Ra) and KIC (approximately leucine) oxidation were determined at basal and during sequential euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic (approximately 40, approximately 90 and approximately 1,300 microU/ml) clamps. In the euglycemic postabsorptive diabetic patients, despite basal hyperinsulinemia (24 +/- 6 microU/ml vs. 9 +/- 1 microU/ml in normals, P less than 0.05), Leu + KIC Ra (2.90 +/- 0.18 mumol/kg X min), and KIC oxidation (0.22 +/- 0.03 mumol/kg X min) were similar to normal values (Leu + KIC Ra = 2.74 +/- 0.25 mumol/kg X min) (oxidation = 0.20 +/- 0.02 mumol/kg X min). During stepwise hyperinsulinemia, Leu + KIC Ra in normals decreased to 2.08 +/- 0.19, to 2.00 +/- 0.17, and to 1.81 +/- 0.16 mumol/kg X min, but only to 2.77 +/- 0.16, to 2.63 +/- 0.16, and to 2.39 +/- 0.08 mumol/kg X min in the diabetic patients (P less than 0.05 or less vs. normals at each clamp step). KIC oxidation decreased in normal subjects to a larger extent than in the diabetic subjects. Glucose disposal was reduced at all insulin levels in the patients. In summary, in IDDM: (a) Peripheral hyperinsulinemia is required to normalize both fasting leucine metabolism and blood glucose concentrations. (b) At euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps, lower glucose disposal rates and a defective suppression of leucine-carbon appearance and oxidation were observed. We conclude that in type 1 diabetes a resistance to the metabolic effects of insulin on both glucose and amino acid metabolism is present.
P Tessari, R Nosadini, R Trevisan, S V De Kreutzenberg, S Inchiostro, E Duner, G Biolo, M C Marescotti, A Tiengo, G Crepaldi
The treatment of verapamil toxicity was examined in lightly sedated dogs. Verapamil, administered as a bolus (0.72 mg/kg) followed by a continuous infusion (0.11 mg/kg per min), decreased cardiac output (CO) from 3.1 +/- 0.1 to 1.7 +/- 0.1 liter/min (P less than 0.001), heart rate (HR) from 85 +/- 4 to 57 +/- 3 beats/min (P less than 0.001), left ventricular derivative of pressure with respect to time (LV dP/dt) from 2,085 +/- 828 to 783 +/- 78 mm Hg/s (P less than 0.001), mean aortic pressure (AO) from 77 +/- 4 to 38 +/- 2 mm Hg (P less than 0.001) and stroke volume from 39 +/- 3 to 28 +/- 2 ml/beat (P less than 0.01). In verapamil-toxic animals isoproterenol increased HR, CO, LV dP/dt, and AO; calcium chloride increased LV dP/dt and AO; norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine increased CO, AO, and LV dP/dt, atropine increased HR, CO, and AO. Phenylephrine (13-55 micrograms/kg per min) produced no changes except a small increase in AO while very high dose phenylephrine (300 micrograms/kg per min) increased AO, CO, and LV dP/dt. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) increased HR, CO, LV dP/dt, and AO. When administered prior to verapamil, 4-AP prevented the development of verapamil toxicity as shown by the significantly higher AO (P less than 0.001), CO (P less than 0.01), and LV dP/dt (P less than 0.01) when 4-AP followed by verapamil was compared to verapamil alone. In conclusion, there does not appear to be a single specific therapy for verapamil toxicity, however it can be partially corrected by presently available pharmacologic therapy and 4-AP.
R Gay, S Algeo, R Lee, M Olajos, E Morkin, S Goldman
In vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that human complement component C5a plays a key role in neutrophil injury in the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). First, using leukocyte aggregometry, we demonstrated that the addition of a recently developed rabbit anti-human polyclonal antibody to C5a des arg to endotoxin-activated plasma prevented leukocyte aggregation in vitro. We then administered the anti-C5a des arg antibody to septic primates (Macaca fascicularis). Three groups of primates, control, septic, and anti-C5a antibody treated septic, were studied (n = 4 in each group). A 30-min infusion of Escherichia coli (1 X 10(10)/kg) resulted in severe sepsis and ARDS. Primates were killed 4 h after completion of the E. coli infusion. Septic animals not treated with anti-C5a antibody had 75% mortality (3/4), decreased oxygenation, severe pulmonary edema, and profound hypotension. Septic primates treated with anti-C5a antibodies did not die and did not develop decreased oxygenation (P less than 0.05) or increased extravascular lung water (P less than 0.05). They also had a marked recovery in their mean arterial blood pressure (P less than 0.05). This study demonstrates that treatment with rabbit anti-human C5a des arg antibodies attenuates ARDS and some of the systemic manifestations of sepsis in nonhuman primates.
J H Stevens, P O'Hanley, J M Shapiro, F G Mihm, P S Satoh, J A Collins, T A Raffin
The well-recognized "big" forms (45,000-100,000 mol wt) of immunoreactive human growth hormone (hGH) in human serum have been reported to be random aggregates or formal polymers. However, we have now investigated the possibility that they are protein-bound forms. After incubation of monomeric 125I-hGH with normal serum, gel chromatography indicated a peak of bound 125I-hGH (at approximately 120,000 mol wt), which was completely displaced by excess unlabeled hGH. When serum alone was chromatographed two peaks of specific binding were subsequently detected, the major peak, eluting between 74,000 and 85,000 mol wt corresponded to the 125I-hGH-binding protein complex observed at approximately 120,000 mol wt. Using a mini-gel filtration system for separating bound from free hormone, binding of 125I-hGH by normal human serum was dependent on time (equilibrium was reached in 2 h at 21 degrees C), temperature (21 degrees C greater than 37 degrees C), Ca2+ and serum concentrations. Binding was reversible and highly specific for hGH, not being displayed by GH or prolactins from several species. Scatchard analysis revealed linear plots with an affinity (KA) of 0.32 +/- 0.06 X 10(9) M-1 (n = 7). Human serum with low endogenous hGH levels, when added to rabbit liver membranes, decreased the binding of 125I-hGH in this tissue in a dose-dependent manner. These data indicate that human sera contain a specific, high affinity binding protein for hGH and that this may account, at least in part, for the known size heterogeneity of GH in serum. Its effect on GH binding to target tissues may indicate a role for the binding protein in the regulation of GH action.
A C Herington, S Ymer, J Stevenson
In 30 of 33 human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) sera and in 10 sera from MRL/l mice with spontaneous SLE, antibodies against heparan sulfate were detected. The anti-heparan sulfate titers showed a significant correlation with the anti-DNA antibody titers. By inhibition studies it was demonstrated that heparan sulfate could inhibit the binding of anti-DNA antibodies to DNA, whereas DNA could block the binding to heparan sulfate. That this reaction is due to crossreactivity of anti-DNA antibodies was further substantiated by the finding that two monoclonal anti-DNA antibodies also bound to heparan sulfate. Antibodies eluted from human and mouse kidneys with diffuse SLE glomerulonephritis showed a similar binding to DNA and heparan sulfate when these eluted antibodies were tested in vitro. Heparan sulfate is the major glycosaminoglycan constituent of the glomerular basement membrane. Our findings suggest that heparan sulfate might serve as a target antigen in vivo for cross-reactive anti-DNA antibodies.
P Faaber, T P Rijke, L B van de Putte, P J Capel, J H Berden
The lung alveolar surface is composed of types I and II epithelial cells. Extremely attenuated type I cells cover 90% of the surface and are prone to necrosis during acute lung injury. After denudation of type I cells, the alveolar epithelium is restored by proliferation of type II cells. During reepithelialization in vivo the type II cells have been observed to reorganize on an extracellular matrix that contains fibronectin. We thus sought to determine whether type II cells would adhere to purified fibronectin. Adherence assays of primary rat type II cells were performed in protein-coated bacteriologic microtiter wells for 24 h at 37 degrees C. Concentrations of fibronectin from 1 to 300 micrograms/ml mediated type II cell adherence, 10 micrograms/ml gave maximal adherence, and 4 micrograms/ml gave 50% maximal adherence. Adherence progressively increased from 1 to 72 h. Adherence on fibronectin was at least 50% greater than adherence on laminin, types I and III collagen, or IV collagen. Little or no adherence was observed on bacteriologic plastic or albumin. Spreading on these various substrata paralleled adherence. Adherence to fibronectin, laminin, and fibrinogen was specifically blocked by their respective polyclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to the fibronectin cell-attachment domain blocked adherence to fibronectin, whereas MoAb to other domains did not. From the data reported here and the previously mentioned in vivo study we propose that fibronectin is an important functional component of the extracellular matrix that supports type II cells during alveolar reepithelialization.
R A Clark, R J Mason, J M Folkvord, J A McDonald
Secretory component (SC) is a glycoprotein that mediates the transcellular transport of polymeric immunoglobulins into external secretions. SC is synthesized and inserted into the plasma membrane of epithelial cells and hepatocytes as a transmembrane protein, where it serves as a receptor for polymeric immunoglobulins. SC is posttranslationally cleaved to a soluble protein before secretion into external fluids. In the rat jejunum, we observed that the molecular weights of both the major membrane and soluble forms of SC were 10,000-20,000 smaller than the comparable hepatic forms of the glycoprotein. We therefore set out to determine the reason for the differences in size of SC between these two tissues. The smaller size of jejunal SC was not due to the action of pancreatic proteases or differential glycosylation but was due to proteolysis by a jejunal brush border protease. The protease was characterized as a metalloprotease, with a pH optimum of approximately 5. It is present in jejunal, ileal, and renal tubular brush borders as an integral membrane constituent. When the protease was inhibited in vivo, conversion of jejunal secretory component to the smaller size was partially prevented. Thus, in the rat jejunum, SC undergoes two posttranslational proteolytic events: conversion of membrane secretory component to the soluble form and conversion of soluble SC to a smaller size by a previously undescribed brush border protease.
D J Ahnen, J R Singleton, T C Hoops, T M Kloppel
We examined the kinetically distinct characteristics of estradiol's effects upon pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release in response to pulses of exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in healthy postmenopausal individuals. The putative self-priming actions of GnRH on LH and FSH release were tested by intravenous injections of equal paired doses of GnRH (10 micrograms) before and after 1, 5, 10, and 30 d of pure estradiol-17 beta delivery via an intravaginal silastic ring. Self-priming actions of GnRH, as defined by heightened gonadotropin release in response to the second pulse of GnRH compared with the first, were completely absent in the hypoestrogenemic state. However, estradiol administration unmasked GnRH self-priming in a time-dependent fashion, with maximal expression after 5 and 10 d of steroid replacement, followed by attenuation by 30 d. Since estradiol's modulation of GnRH action was expressed differentially on LH and FSH release, we suggest that such facilitation of GnRH-stimulated pituitary LH and FSH release may provide an additional mechanism for dissociated secretion of gonadotropic hormones in health or disease.
J D Veldhuis, W S Evans, A D Rogol, L Kolp, M O Thorner, P Stumpf
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity (GM-CSA) can be produced by a variety of normal cell types including mononuclear phagocytes, activated T lymphocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. Recent evidence shows that a major role of the monocyte-macrophage is the recruitment of environmental cells, i.e., fibroblasts, to produce GM-CSA. In this study we have identified interleukin 1 (IL-1) as a monokine that stimulates fibroblasts to produce and release GM-CSA and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Both purified human monocyte-derived IL-1 and human recombinant IL-1 (10(-10) M) can be substituted for monocyte-conditioned medium in stimulating fibroblast GM-CSA and PGE2 production. Both forms of IL-1 stimulate fibroblasts to produce GM-CSA and PGE2 in a dose-dependent fashion. The fibroblast-stimulating activity found in monocyte-conditioned medium was completely blocked by anti-IL-1. We conclude that monocytes produce IL-1, and that monocyte-derived IL-1 induces fibroblasts to produce GM-CSA and PGE2.
J R Zucali, C A Dinarello, D J Oblon, M A Gross, L Anderson, R S Weiner
Sitosterolemia and xanthomatosis together are a disease characterized by premature cardiovascular disease, and by elevated plasma concentrations of total sterols and of plant sterols, especially sitosterol which is hyperabsorbed. In order to determine whether this abnormal metabolism also involved other sterols, a patient with sitosterolemia was fed a diet high in shellfish that contain significant quantities of noncholesterol sterols, some of which are less well absorbed than cholesterol in humans. Compared with control subjects (n = 8), the sitosterolemic subject had an increased absorption of 22-dehydrocholesterol (71.5% vs. 43.8 +/- 11.4%, mean +/- SD), C-26 sterol (80.6% vs. 49.3 +/- 11.4%), brassicasterol (51.8% vs. 4.8 +/- 4.2%), and 24-methylene cholesterol (60.5% vs. 16.0 +/- 8.3%). This enhanced absorption was associated with an increased plasma total shellfish sterol level (13.1 mg/dl vs. 1.9 +/- 0.7 mg/dl in normals). In the sitosterolemic subject, as in normals, the shellfish sterols were not preferentially concentrated in any lipoprotein class, and 50-65% of these sterols were in the esterified form in plasma. Bile acids and neutral sterols were quantitated in bile obtained by duodenal aspiration. The bile acid composition did not differ significantly in the sitosterolemic subject compared with the normal controls. The sitosterolemic subject, though, was unable to concentrate normally the neutral shellfish sterols in bile. The normal controls concentrated the shellfish sterols in bile 6.3 +/- 1.7-fold relative to the plasma shellfish sterol concentration whereas the study subject was only able to concentrate them 2.1-fold. We propose that sitosterolemia and xanthomatosis occur from a generalized abnormality in the usual ability of the gut mucosa and other tissues of the body to discriminate among many different sterols. This has important implications for the understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease and for therapeutic recommendations.
R E Gregg, W E Connor, D S Lin, H B Brewer Jr
We produced an antiserum by immunizing rabbits with purified human megakaryocyte colony stimulating factor (Meg-CSF). With the use of an anti-Meg-CSF IgG fraction (AM-IgG), we detected immunoreactive Meg-CSF both in human aplastic anemia serum (AAS) and normal serum. Based on our immunological and biological analyses, Meg-CSF appeared to be antigenically as well as functionally distinct from human urinary erythropoietin (EPO) and thrombopoietic stimulating factor. The AM-IgG fraction was able to suppress the ability of both aplastic anemia serum and purified Meg-CSF to promote megakaryocyte colony formation. In addition, the supernatant formed after immune precipitation of the AAS with AM-IgG no longer possessed Meg-CSF-like activity. The AM-IgG did not suppress the ability of EPO, phytohemagglutinin-stimulated leukocyte conditioned medium (PHA-LCM), or PHA-LCM + EPO to promote erythroid, granulocyte-macrophage, or mixed colony formation, respectively. The use of this antibody has further defined the dependency of human megakaryocytopoiesis on Meg-CSF.
H H Yang, E Bruno, R Hoffman
Two daughters of a propositus with documented McArdle's disease were shown by enzyme assay, gel electrophoresis, and immunoblotting to be partially deficient in skeletal muscle phosphorylase and, presumably, heterozygous for the trait. Both exhibited only the adult form of the skeletal muscle isozyme. By 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance, both heterozygotes showed a greater production of acid during fully aerobic exercise than when blood flow was occluded in ischemic exercise. This pattern is in contrast to that of control subjects, where there is significantly greater acid production in ischemic versus aerobic exercise, and distinct from that of phosphorylase-negative patients in which no acid is produced in either circumstance. We suggest that these heterozygotes may have adapted to their diminished phosphorylase by enhancing utilization of plasma glucose. If so, this mechanism could account for the observation that most of the symptoms of McArdle's disease are often manifest only in adulthood. These studies also show that although there are very high concentrations of phosphorylase in skeletal muscle (approximately 2% of the soluble protein), such a high level is essential for normal muscle glycogenolysis.
R T Bogusky, R G Taylor, L J Anderson, K L Angelos, J S Lieberman, D A Walsh
Serum oxalate rises in uremia because of decreased renal clearance, and crystals of calcium oxalate occur in the tissues of uremic patients. Crystal formation suggests that either uremic serum is supersaturated with calcium oxalate, or local oxalate production or accumulation causes regional supersaturation. To test the first alternative, we ultrafiltered uremic serum and measured supersaturation with two different methods previously used to study supersaturation in urine. First, the relative saturation ratio (RSR), the ratio of the dissolved calcium oxalate complex to the thermodynamic calcium oxalate solubility product, was estimated for 11 uremic (before and after dialysis) and 4 normal serum samples using a computer program. Mean ultrafiltrate oxalate predialysis was 89 +/- 8 microM/liter (+/- SEM), 31 +/- 4 postdialysis, and 10 +/- 3 in normals. Mean RSR was 1.7 +/- 0.1 (predialysis), 0.7 +/- 0.1 (postdialysis), and 0.2 +/- 0.1 (normal), where values greater than 1 denote supersaturation, less than 1, undersaturation. Second, the concentration product ratio (CPR), the ratio of the measured calcium oxalate concentration product before to that after incubation of the sample with calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal, was measured in seven uremic and seven normal serum ultrafiltrates. Mean oxalate was 91 +/- 11 (uremic) and 8 +/- 3 (normal). Mean CPR was 1.4 +/- 0.2 (uremic) and 0.2 +/- 0.1 (normal). Predialysis, 17 of 18 uremic ultrafiltrates were supersaturated with respect to calcium oxalate. The degree of supersaturation was correlated with ultrafiltrate oxalate (RSR, r = 0.99, r = 29, P less than 0.001; CPR, r = 0.75, n = 11, P less than 0.001). A value of ultrafiltrate oxalate of 50 microM/liter separated undersaturated from supersaturated samples and occurred at a creatinine of approximately 9.0 mg/dl.
E M Worcester, Y Nakagawa, D A Bushinsky, F L Coe
We examined two inhibitors of DNA synthesis, hydroxyurea (HU) and aphidicholin (APC), and two inhibitors of prostaglandin cyclooxygenase, indomethacin and flufenamic acid, for their effects on the resorptive responses of fetal rat long-bone cultures to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). As we have previously found, HU decreased unstimulated 45Ca release but had little effect on the resorptive response to PTH. HU also did not block resorption stimulated by EGF. Addition of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, did not alter the resorptive responses of unstimulated or PTH-treated cultures in either the presence or absence of HU or the resorptive response of bones cultured with EGF alone. However, indomethacin completely blocked the resorptive response to EGF of bones that were cultured with HU. The effects of indomethacin on EGF-mediated resorption in HU-treated cultures appeared to be related to an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis since flufenamic acid had similar effects. However, the effects of HU on the resorptive response to EGF may not have resulted solely from its inhibitory action on DNA synthesis since APC, in the absence of cyclooxygenase inhibitors, completely blocked EGF-mediated resorption without significantly affecting the response to PTH. These results demonstrate that the mechanisms regulating PTH- and EGF-mediated resorption in fetal rat long-bone cultures differ, and imply that a component of EGF-mediated resorption in these cultures is dependent on sustained DNA synthesis.
J A Lorenzo, J Quinton, S Sousa, L G Raisz
Clonal proliferation of freshly isolated human fetal chondrocytes and adult chondrocytes in response to human insulinlike growth factors I and II (IGF I, IGF II), human biosynthetic insulin, and human growth hormone (GH) was assessed. IGF I (25 ng/ml) stimulated clonal growth of fetal chondrocytes (54 +/- 12 colonies/1,000 inserted cells, mean +/- 1 SD), but IGF II (25 ng/ml) was significantly more effective (106 +/- 12 colonies/1,000 inserted cells, P less than 0.05, unstimulated control: 14 +/- 4 colonies/1,000 inserted cells). In contrast, IGF I (25 ng/ml) was more effective in adult chondrocytes (42 +/- 6 colonies/1,000 inserted cells) than IGF II (25 ng/ml) (21 +/- 6 colonies/1,000 inserted cells; P less than 0.05, unstimulated control: 6 +/- 3 colonies/1,000 inserted cells). GH and human biosynthetic insulin did not affect clonal growth of fetal or adult chondrocytes. The clonal growth pattern of IGF-stimulated fetal and adult chondrocytes was not significantly changed when chondrocytes were first grown in monolayer culture, harvested, and then inserted in the clonal culture system. However, the adult chondrocytes showed a time-dependent decrease of stimulation of clonal growth by IGF I and II. This was not true for fetal chondrocytes. The results are compatible with the concept that IGF II is a more potent stimulant of clonal growth of chondrocytes during fetal life, whereas IGF I is more effective in stimulating clonal growth of chondrocytes during postnatal life.
U Vetter, J Zapf, W Heit, G Helbing, E Heinze, E R Froesch, W M Teller
Vascular endothelium possesses multiple procoagulant properties, including synthesis and expression of Factor V. We studied the effects of homocysteine on the regulation of endothelial cell Factor V activity. Elevated levels of homocysteine are associated with the congenital thrombotic disorder homocystinuria. Treatment of cultured endothelial cells with 0.5-10 mM homocysteine had no effect on cell morphology, but did increase Factor V activity and prothrombin activation by Factor Xa. A radioimmunoassay for endothelial cell Factor V demonstrated that homocysteine treatment did not increase Factor V antigen levels. 125I-prothrombin was activated by treated endothelial cells and Factor Xa in the presence of thrombin inhibitors. Exogenous 125I-Factor V was cleaved by homocysteine-treated but not control endothelial cells. 125I-Factor V cleavage products distinct from those generated by thrombin and Factor Xa were identified. These data provide evidence for regulation of endothelial cell Factor V activity, and indicate that increased Factor V activity associated with homocysteine-treated vascular endothelium results primarily from induction of an activator of Factor V.
G M Rodgers, W H Kane
Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM), obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from 47 individuals, reduced hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and decreased its mutagenicity. Their specific activity--mostly mediated by cytosolic, enzyme-catalyzed mechanisms--was significantly higher than in corresponding preparations of mixed-cell populations from human peripheral lung parenchyma or bronchial tree, or from rat lung or liver. At equivalent number of PAM, Cr(VI) reduction, total protein, and some oxidoreductase activities were significantly increased in smokers. No appreciable variation could be detected between lung cancer and noncancer patients. In rats, the Cr(VI)-reducing activity of PAM preparations was induced by Aroclor 1254. Thus, alveolar macrophages provide crucial defense mechanisms not only by phagocytizing metals, but also by metabolically reducing Cr(VI). The epithelial-lining fluid (ELF) also displayed some Cr(VI) reduction. Together with already investigated metabolic processes occurring inside lung cells, these mechanisms are expected to determine thresholds in the pulmonary carcinogenicity of chromium.
F L Petrilli, G A Rossi, A Camoirano, M Romano, D Serra, C Bennicelli, A De Flora, S De Flora
Two groups of adult male Munich-Wistar rats and a third group of nondiabetic age-matched and weight-matched normal control rats underwent micropuncture study 1 mo, and morphologic studies 14 mo, after induction of streptozotocin diabetes or sham treatment. All animals were fed standard rat chow. Diabetic rats received daily ultralente insulin to maintain stable moderate hyperglycemia (approximately 350 mg/dl). In addition, one group of diabetic rats was treated with the angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, 15 mg/liter of drinking water. Average kidney weight, whole kidney and single-nephron glomerular filtration rate, and glomerular plasma flow rate were elevated to similar values in both groups of diabetic rats, relative to normal control rats. Non-enalapril-treated diabetic rats exhibited significant elevations in mean glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure and transcapillary hydraulic pressure gradient, compared with the other groups studied, and only this group eventually developed marked and progressive albuminuria. Likewise, histological examination of the kidneys at 14 mo disclosed a high incidence of glomerular structural abnormalities only in non-enalapril-treated diabetic rats. These findings indicate that prevention of glomerular capillary hypertension in rats with diabetes mellitus effectively protects against the subsequent development of glomerular structural injury and proteinuria. This protection is afforded despite pronounced hyperglycemia and elevated levels of glucosylated hemoglobin, further supporting our view that hemodynamic rather than metabolic factors predominate in the pathogenesis of diabetic glomerulopathy.
R Zatz, B R Dunn, T W Meyer, S Anderson, H G Rennke, B M Brenner
Circulating immune complexes (CIC) containing IgA and C3 were elevated in 48% of IgA nephropathy patients; IgA1 was the predominant subclass. IgA1-IgG CIC were detected in 44%, IgA2-IgG CIC in 7%, and IgM-IgA1 CIC in 16% of the patients. No IgM-IgA2 CIC were detectable. Sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation indicated that IgG-IgA1 CIC were predominantly of intermediate (13-19S) size whereas IgA1-C3 CIC sedimented from 11S to 19S. At acid pH, isolated CIC revealed the presence of substantial amounts of 7S IgA. One third of the patients had elevated serum IgA rheumatoid factor (RF) of both polymeric and monomeric forms despite normal levels of IgM-RF; 87% of patients with elevated IgA-RF had IgA1-IgG CIC. These results indicate that the IgA1 component of CIC in patients with IgA nephropathy is not necessarily of mucosal origin and suggest that a portion of these CIC consists of IgA RF immunologically complexed with autologous IgG.
C Czerkinsky, W J Koopman, S Jackson, J E Collins, S S Crago, R E Schrohenloher, B A Julian, J H Galla, J Mestecky
Triggered human neutrophils were able to maintain released elastase in an active form in the presence of purified alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha-1-PI), serum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). The accumulation of free elastase activity was associated with a decrease in the ability of the alpha-1-PI to inhibit porcine pancreatic elastase, an increase in proteinase activity associated with alpha-2-macroglobulin, and the oxidation of alpha-1-PI to a molecule containing four methionine sulfoxide residues. Neutrophils used both hypochlorous acid and long-lived N-chloroamines to oxidize the alpha-1-PI, but hypochlorous acid was preferentially used for suppressing the activity of the antiproteinase over short distances whereas the N-chloroamines were effective even when the phagocytes and alpha-1-PI were physically separated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified alpha-1-PI, serum, or BAL that had been incubated with triggered neutrophils revealed that the released neutrophil elastase was not complexed with the antiproteinase and that a portion of the alpha-1-PI had undergone proteolysis. These data suggest that the presence of free neutrophil elastase as well as inactive, oxidized, and proteolyzed alpha-1-PI in fluids recovered from inflammatory sites in vivo could be directly mediated by triggered neutrophils alone.
P J Ossanna, S T Test, N R Matheson, S Regiani, S J Weiss
To evaluate the contribution of mononuclear phagocytes, and particularly alveolar macrophages, to alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) production in normal and alpha 1AT-deficient individuals, Northern analysis with a human alpha 1AT complementary DNA was used to demonstrate that alpha 1AT messenger RNA (mRNA) can be detected in liver, blood monocytes, and alveolar macrophages. Quantification of alpha 1AT mRNA expression demonstrated that: (a) type PiMM monocytes and alveolar macrophages expressed, respectively, 200-fold and 70-fold less alpha 1AT mRNA per cell than the liver; (b) the level of expression of the alpha 1AT gene was increased during the in vitro maturation of blood monocytes; and (c) blood monocyte and alveolar macrophage levels of expression of the alpha 1AT gene were the same in PiMM and PiZZ individuals. However, the amount of newly synthesized alpha 1AT secreted by ZZ alveolar macrophages was 10 times lower than that secreted by MM alveolar macrophages. Thus, mononuclear phagocytes of PiZZ individuals express a secretory defect in alpha 1AT in a fashion similar to hepatocytes. Not only do mononuclear phagocytes provide a readily accessible cell to evaluate the regulation of alpha 1AT gene expression, but these cells may contribute to the levels of alpha 1AT present in the lower respiratory tract in the normal and ZZ states.
J F Mornex, A Chytil-Weir, Y Martinet, M Courtney, J P LeCocq, R G Crystal
The inflammation within the lower respiratory tract of individuals with pulmonary sarcoidosis is dominated by large numbers of helper T lymphocytes that proliferate and spontaneously release interleukin 2 (IL-2). To identify the lymphocyte subpopulation that releases IL-2 in this disorder, lung lymphocytes recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage were characterized using the monoclonal antibodies Leu4 (T lymphocyte), Leu3 (helper/inducer), Leu2 (suppressor/cytotoxic), and anti-HLA-DR, and separated by panning and flow cytometry. The majority of the IL-2 spontaneously released by T cells in the sarcoid lung was contributed by the Leu3+ cell population (Leu3+65 +/- 23 IL-2 units released/10(6) cells per 24 h; Leu2+ 9 +/- 8, P less than 0.04). Further characterization of the lung Leu3+ T cells in sarcoid demonstrated that 30 +/- 3% were expressing HLA-DR molecules on their surface compared with 6 +/- 1% in normals (P less than 0.01). Importantly, the subpopulation of Leu3+ lung T lymphocytes expressing a high intensity of HLA-DR molecules on their surface was responsible for the majority of the release of IL-2 in the sarcoid lung (Leu3+ high-intensity DR 42 +/- 17 U/10(6) cells per 24 h, Leu3+ low-intensity DR 8 +/- 1 U/10(6) cells per 24 h; P less than 0.01). Thus, the spontaneous release of IL-2 in the lung of sarcoid patients appears to be localized to a subset of Leu3+ high-intensity DR ("activated" lung helper/inducer) T lymphocytes. Because the sarcoid lung is characterized by markedly increased numbers of these cells, it is likely that this compartmentalized T cell population plays a major role in sustaining the exaggerated localized immune processes of this disorder.
C Saltini, J R Spurzem, J J Lee, P Pinkston, R G Crystal
The aim of this study was to determine how luteal cells of the hormone-primed (luteinized) ovary process low density lipoproteins (LDL). Ovary uptake of perfused 125I-LDL was assessed by tissue levels of radioactivity; the distribution of LDL protein in cells was assessed on autoradiograms of the fixed tissue; and the level of stimulation of steroidogenesis, as well as degradation of LDL protein, was assessed on effluent perfusion samples. Human LDL ligand used in these studies was rigorously defined biochemically and physiologically. Homologous (rat) LDL was used as a special ligand control. Other tissue controls included the use of perfused or in vivo-infused luteinized ovaries from animals pretreated to reduce circulating lipoprotein levels, perfused ovaries from a second hormone-primed model, perfused liver from estrogen-treated rats, and isolated and cultured cells from the same ovarian tissues used in the perfusion experiments. The results show that perfused LDL promptly stimulates steroidogenesis. However, the labeled protein moiety of the LDL is not interiorized by the luteal cells, nor is there evidence of LDL protein degradation in the effluent samples. In contrast, internalization of the ligand occurs when luteal cells are incubated with the ligand in vitro. We have observed also that uptake of the 125I-LDL by the ovary can be displaced equally well by excess unlabeled LDL or HDL3. Overall, these experiments suggest that in the intact luteinized ovary, LDL binds to the same sites on the cell surface where HDL "binds," and that LDL cholesterol must be obtained by these steroid hormone-producing cells by a mechanism that does not require internalization of the intact lipoprotein particle.
E Reaven, Y D Chen, M Spicher, S F Hwang, C E Mondon, S Azhar
The objectives of this study were to identify filarial antigens which induce enhanced clearance of circulating microfilariae and to establish if human antibody reactivity with these molecules correlates with the apparent parasite burdens of residents of an endemic area of Bancroftian filariasis. Mice immunized with an extract of Brugia malayi microfilariae develop IgG antibodies to four major filarial antigens with an apparent molecular weight (Mr) of approximately 112,000, 60,000, 45,000, and 25,000. Animals immunized with gel slices containing the approximately 25,000-Mr antigen are resistant to intravenous challenge with live microfilariae (78-98% reduction in parasitemia vs. controls, P less than 0.01). A group of 22 amicrofilaremic humans had a significantly higher (P less than 0.025) mean antibody titer to the Mr 25,000-Mr antigen (1: 424) than 16 microfilaremic individuals (1:95). There were no significant differences between the two groups in antibody titers to filarial antigens of Mr approximately 112,000, 60,000, and 45,000 Mr. These data suggest that a high degree of reactivity to the 25,000-Mr antigen in humans with lymphatic filariasis correlates with a parasitologic status that is least conducive to transmission of infection.
J W Kazura, H Cicirello, K Forsyth
Micropuncture and morphologic studies were performed in six groups of male Munich-Wistar rats after removal of the right kidney and segmental infarction of two-thirds of the left kidney. Groups 1 and 4 received no specific therapy. Groups 2 and 5 were treated with the angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, 50 mg/liter, in the drinking water. Groups 3 and 6 were treated with reserpine (5 mg/liter), hydralazine (80 mg/liter), and hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg/liter). All rats were fed standard chow. Groups 1-3 underwent micropuncture study 4 wk after renal ablation. Untreated group 1 rats exhibited systemic hypertension and elevation of the single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) due to high average values for the mean glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure gradient (delta P) and glomerular plasma flow rate (QA). In group 2 rats, treatment with enalapril prevented systemic hypertension and maintained delta P at near-normal levels without significant reduction in SNGFR and QA. In contrast, triple drug therapy normalized systemic hypertension, but failed to lower delta P in group 3 rats. Groups 4-6 were followed for 12 wk after renal ablation. Untreated group 4 rats demonstrated continuous systemic hypertension, progressive proteinuria, and glomerular structural lesions, including mesangial expansion and frequent areas of segmental sclerosis. In group 5 rats, treatment with enalapril maintained systemic blood pressure at normal levels over the 12-wk period and dramatically limited the development of proteinuria and glomerular lesions. Despite equivalent systemic blood pressure control in group 6 rats, failure of triple drug therapy to control glomerular hypertension was associated with progressive proteinuria and glomerular lesions comparable to those seen in untreated group 4 rats. Thus, unless glomerular capillary hypertension is corrected, control of systemic blood pressure is insufficient to prevent progressive renal injury in rats with reduced renal mass.
S Anderson, H G Rennke, B M Brenner
Glu-plasminogen, the native form of plasminogen, interacts in a specific and saturable manner with unstimulated human platelets, and the binding is enhanced fivefold by thrombin stimulation (Miles and Plow, 1985. J. Biol. Chem. 260:4303). This study characterizes the nature of the Glu-plasminogen binding sites by analyzing platelets deficient in selected proteins and functions. Platelets from patients with afibrinogenemia, Gray platelet syndrome, and the Cam Variant of thrombasthenia, a form of thrombasthenia with near normal levels of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa), showed minimal augmentation of plasminogen binding to thrombin-stimulated platelets but normal binding to unstimulated platelets. This selective deficiency indicates that two distinct mechanisms are involved in the interaction of plasminogen with platelets. These abnormal platelets share a deficiency in fibrinogen. Surface expression of platelet fibrinogen, however, was not sufficient for enhanced plasminogen binding to stimulated platelets, and experiments with alpha-thrombin and gamma-thrombin indicated that fibrin formation on the platelet surface is necessary for the augmented plasminogen binding. Unstimulated and stimulated thrombasthenic platelets deficient in GPIIb/IIIa bound markedly reduced levels of plasminogen, which suggests a role for GPIIb/IIIa in plasminogen binding to unstimulated platelets. Treatment of platelets to dissociate the heterodimeric complex of GPIIb/IIIa did not significantly perturb plasminogen binding to unstimulated platelets, but the complex may be necessary for thrombin-stimulated plasminogen binding via its interaction with platelet fibrin.
L A Miles, M H Ginsberg, J G White, E F Plow
Fc-receptor-mediated clearance and nonspecific phagocytic clearance were assessed after the infusion of monomeric human IgG, heat-aggregated human IgG, and a monoclonal anti-mouse macrophage FcII receptor antibody (2.4G2) into normal mice. Each agent blocked Fc-receptor function in vivo, but 2.4G2 was much more potent per microgram than the other agents. Monomeric IgG in blocking doses did not affect other aspects of immune function. In contrast, aggregated IgG, and to a lesser extent, 2.4G2 reduced serum complement levels. In addition, these agents also caused moderate reductions in nonspecific phagocytic function. Monoclonal anti-mouse macrophage C3bi receptor antibody (Mac-1), another monoclonal antibody which binds to macrophage CR3 receptors without interfering with Fc-receptor function, also reduced serum complement and inhibited nonspecific phagocytic function. Complement depletion alone (produced by infusion of cobra venom factor) could not account for the observed changes in Fc receptor or nonspecific phagocytic function. We conclude that both monomeric IgG and anti-Fc-receptor antibodies can markedly inhibit Fc-receptor function in vivo; however, the pattern of physiologic changes produced by these agents differs.
R J Kurlander, J Hall
The association of class I and II HLA antigens with rheumatic fever and its manifestations was examined in 72 patients, including 48 blacks and 24 Caucasians. No significant association was found between class I antigens and rheumatic fever. In contrast, HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR4 phenotypes were encountered in a significantly higher frequency in black and Caucasian patients with rheumatic fever, respectively, compared with the control populations (P less than 0.005). The most significant association (P less than 0.005) of these DR antigens with a major manifestation of rheumatic fever was found for mitral insufficiency. In addition, a significant association was encountered between persistent elevation of antibody to the group A streptococcal carbohydrate and HLA-DR4 in Caucasian patients (P less than 0.04) or HLA-DR2 in the black patients (P less than 0.001). The frequency of HLA-DR2/4 heterozygotes among patients with rheumatic fever did not differ significantly from controls. These findings support the concept of a genetically determined susceptibility to rheumatic fever and, particularly, to rheumatic heart disease. The association of the clinical manifestations of rheumatic fever and the immune hyperresponsiveness to a streptococcal antigen could be ascribed to a disease-associated immune-response gene which is in linkage disequilibrium with the DR2 and DR4 alleles of HLA-DR locus on chromosome six.
E M Ayoub, D J Barrett, N K Maclaren, J P Krischer
Monocyte-derived interleukin 1 (IL-1) was found to be a potent inducer of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in cultured human vascular endothelial cells (HEC). The product was identified as PAF by its behavior in chromatographic systems, its recovery of biological activity, and its physico-chemical properties and susceptibility to lipases. The response of HEC to IL-1 was concentration-dependent, took more than 2 h to become apparent, and decreased after 18 h of incubation. Most of the PAF produced was cell-associated and only a small amount (about 25% of the total) was released in the culture medium. To study the mechanism of IL-1-induced HEC-PAF production we tested the activity of 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine:acetyl/coenzyme A acetyltransferase in HEC. Acetyltransferase activity measured in IL-1-stimulated HEC lysates showed a three to five times greater maximum velocity, but the same Michaelis constant, as untreated cells. The regulation of PAF generation in HEC by IL-1 may be an important aspect of the two-way interaction between immunocompetent cells and vascular tissue.
F Bussolino, F Breviario, C Tetta, M Aglietta, A Mantovani, E Dejana
To assess the effects of aging on glucose-mediated glucose disposal and glucose transport, glucose disposal rates were measured in 10 nonelderly (32 +/- 4 yr) and 11 elderly (64 +/- 4 yr) subjects at five different plasma glucose concentrations. Glucose disposal was decreased by 30-35% in the elderly at each level of glycemia (100-350 mg/dl) in the presence of similar levels of hyperinsulinemia (approximately 100 microU/ml), and the 50% effective concentration (EC50) was similar in both the nonelderly (100 +/- 9) and elderly (103 +/- 5 mg/dl). The Michaelis constant (Km) of 3-O-methyl glucose transport in adipocytes was unchanged with aging (3.8 +/- 0.5 vs. 3.2 +/- 0.2 mM) while the maximum velocity of insulin stimulated transport was reduced by 34% in the elderly (8.3 +/- 1.3 vs. 12.6 +/- 1.5 pmol/5 X 10(4) cells per s, P less than 0.05). The insulin resistance of aging is therefore due to a reduction in the capacity of the glucose uptake system, while the affinity of glucose utilization (EC50 and Km) is unchanged. This supports the hypothesis that a reduction in the number of glucose transport and metabolic units occurs with aging, but that each unit functions normally.
R I Fink, P Wallace, J M Olefsky
Feedback regulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion occurs in rats. Whether such a system exists in man remains unsettled and the responsible mechanism is unknown. To investigate this question gastrointestinal intubation and perfusion were performed in 12 healthy subjects. Intraduodenal perfusion of trypsin-inhibited phenylalanine-, oleic acid-, and meal-stimulated chymotrypsin and lipase outputs in a dose-related manner. The minimal concentration of bovine trypsin needed to inhibit pancreatic enzyme secretion was 0.5 g/liter. 1 g/liter caused a maximal suppression of 35 +/- 4% of the phenylalanine-stimulated chymotrypsin release. This inhibitory effect was protease-specific. Intraduodenal perfusion of phenylalanine and oleic acid increased plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) from a basal level of 0.9 +/- 0.06 to 5.3 +/- 0.9 pM and 7.2 +/- 1.3 pM, respectively. Addition of bovine trypsin to the perfusates significantly reduced the plasma CCK level to basal values. This inhibitory effect of trypsin on CCK release was dose dependent and specific to proteases. Therefore, the present studies indicate that feedback regulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion is operative in man and it is mediated by release of CCK.
C Owyang, D S Louie, D Tatum
Initial synthesis of von Willebrand factor (vWf) by cultured human endothelial cells proceeds by formation of a dimer of pro-vWf subunits. These subunits are found only within the cell and have an apparent molecular weight of 240,000-260,000, as measured by electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Posttranslational modifications, including proteolytic cleavage, glycosylation, and sulfation, result in the appearance of two additional vWf subunits. The major one migrates with the subunit of plasma vWf at an apparent molecular weight of 220,000-225,000 and the other migrates more slowly than pro-vWf at an apparent molecular weight of 260,000-275,000. These subunits oligomerize to form a set of vWf multimers, which are subsequently secreted into the culture medium. We isolated individual vWf oligomer species from the agarose gel bands and show that vWf minor, or satellite, species differ from major species in subunit composition.
D C Lynch, T S Zimmerman, E H Ling, P J Browning