D J Prockop
The in vitro growth of T cells obtained from localized anatomic sites of pathology may offer a new approach to the investigation of certain human autoimmune diseases. However, if interleukin-2-dependent T cell cloning is to be useful in helping to elucidate putative pathogenetic antigens in these diseases, the expansion of the small number of T cells obtainable from localized anatomic sites of pathology will often have to be accomplished in the absence of these, as yet undetermined, antigens. At present, it is a generally held belief that antigen-responsive, interleukin-2-dependent T cell lines and clones will lose antigen responsiveness if propagated in the absence of specific antigen. Thus, the use of T cell cloning might be viewed as being of limited usefulness in the investigation of certain human autoimmune diseases. In this report we demonstrate that, when propagated in the absence of antigen, human tetanus toxoid-specific, interleukin-2-dependent T cell lines will indeed lose antigen reactivity. However, if propagated in the absence of antigen but in the presence of antigen-presenting cells, the tetanus toxoid reactivity of a subset of such lines can be maintained. Moreover, the propagation with OKT3 antibody, in addition to antigen-presenting cells, may be even more effective in maintaining antigen reactivity. These results may suggest a new approach to the use of T cell cloning technology in the investigation of certain autoimmune diseases.
S J Padula, M K Pollard, E G Lingenheld, R B Clark
Metabolic acidosis due to organic acids infusion fails to elicit hyperkalemia. Although plasma potassium levels may rise, the increase is smaller than in mineral acid acidosis. The mechanisms responsible for the different effects of organic acid acidosis and mineral acid acidosis remain undefined, although dissimilar hormonal responses by the pancreas may explain dissimilar hormonal responses by the pancreas may explain the phenomena. To test this hypothesis, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (7 meq/kg) or hydrochloric acid (3 meq/kg) was infused over 30 min into conscious dogs (n = 12) with chronically implanted catheters in the portal, hepatic, and systemic circulation, and flow probes were placed around the portal vein and hepatic artery. Acid infusion studies in two groups of anesthetized dogs were also done to assess the urinary excretion of potassium (n = 14), and to evaluate the effects of acute suppression of renal electrolyte excretion on plasma potassium and on the release/uptake of potassium in peripheral tissues of the hindleg (n = 17). Ketoacid infusion caused hypokalemia and a significant increase in portal vein plasma insulin, from the basal level of 27 +/- 4 microU/ml to a maximum of 84 +/- 22 microU/ml at 10 min, without changes in glucagon levels. By contrast, mineral acid acidosis of similar severity resulted in hyperkalemia and did not increase portal insulin levels but enhanced portal glucagon concentration from control values of 132 +/- 25 pg/ml to 251 +/- 39 pg/ml at 40 min. A significant decrease in plasma glucose levels due to suppression of hepatic release was observed during ketoacid infusion, while no changes were observed with mineral acid infusion. Plasma flows in the portal vein and hepatic artery remained unchanged from control values in both acid infusion studies. Differences in renal potassium excretion were ruled out as determinants of the disparate kalemic responses to organic acid infusion compared with HCl acidosis. Evaluation of the arteriovenous potassium difference across the hindleg during ketoacid infusion demonstrates that peripheral uptake of potassium is unlikely to be responsible for the observed hypokalemia. Although the tissue responsible for the different kalemic responses could not be defined with certainty, the data are compatible with an hepatic role in response to alterations in the portal vein insulin and/or glucagon levels in both acid infusion studies. We propose that cellular uptake of potassium is enhanced by hyperinsulinemia in ketoacid infusion, and release of potassium results from increased glucagon levels in HCl acidosis. Whether the changes in plasma potassium that other types od organic acid acidosis produce are accounted for by a similar hormonal mechanism remains to be determined.
H J Adrogué, Z Chap, T Ishida, J B Field
Hypertension and glucose intolerance, determined in a random population sample (n = 2,475), showed a highly significant (P less than 0.001) association from the mildest levels of both conditions, independent of the confounding effects of age, sex, obesity, and antihypertensive medications. Summary rate ratios for hypertension were 1.48 (1.18-1.87) in abnormal tolerance and 2.26 (1.69-2.84) in diabetes compared with normal tolerance. Altogether, 83.4% of the hypertensives were either glucose-intolerant or obese--both established insulin-resistant conditions. Fasting and post-load insulin levels in a representative subgroup (n = 1,241) were significantly elevated in hypertension independent of obesity, glucose intolerance, age, and antihypertensive medications. The mean increment in summed 1- and 2-h insulin levels (milliunits per liter) compared with nonobese normotensives with normal tolerance was 12 for hypertension alone, 47 for obesity alone, 52 for abnormal tolerance alone, and 124 when all three conditions were present. The prevalence of concentrations (milliequivalents per liter) of erythrocyte Na+ greater than or equal to 7.0, K+ less than 92.5, and plasma K+ greater than or equal to 4.5 in a subsample of 59 individuals with all combinations of abnormal tolerance obesity and hypertension was compared with those in 30 individuals free of these conditions. Altogether, 88.1% of the former vs. 40.0% of the latter group presented at least one of these three markers of internal cation imbalance (P less than 0.001). We conclude that insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulinemia (a) are present in the majority of hypertensives, (b) constitute a common pathophysiologic feature of obesity, glucose intolerance, and hypertension, possibly explaining their ubiquitous association, and (c) may be linked to the increased peripheral vascular resistance of hypertension, which is putatively related to elevated intracellular sodium concentration.
M Modan, H Halkin, S Almog, A Lusky, A Eshkol, M Shefi, A Shitrit, Z Fuchs
Endotoxin producing bacteria cause disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC); however, the mechanism of endotoxin action in man is still unclear. Impairment of the fibrinolytic system has been suggested as a contributing mechanism. A single injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in rabbits resulted in a marked and prolonged increase of the levels of a fast-acting inhibitor of plasminogen activator (PA-inhibitor) in plasma (from 3.9 +/- 0.7 to 41 +/- 13.2 U/ml after 3 h). Gel filtration studies indicated that inhibition of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) by rabbit plasma is accompanied by a change in the elution profile of the activator compatible with the formation of an enzyme-inhibitor complex with an apparent molecular weight of 100,000. Injection of human t-PA (1,500 IU/kg body wt) in endotoxin treated animals resulted in very fast inhibition of t-PA and formation of a similar complex. The half-life of circulating PA-inhibitor activity in rabbits was about 7 min as estimated by donor receiver plasma transfusion experiments. Stimulation of cultured human endothelial cells with endotoxin resulted in enhanced rate of accumulation of PA-inhibitor activity in the culture medium (two- to sevenfold increase). In five patients with septicemia, markedly increased levels of PA-inhibitor (14.3 +/- 15.5 U/ml) as compared with control subjects (1.3 +/- 0.7 U/ml) were observed in plasma. A very strong correlation (r = 0.98) was found between inhibition of t-PA and of urokinase in all conditions, suggesting that this fast-acting inhibitor reacts with both plasminogen activators. These data suggest that the appearance of this fast-acting PA-inhibitor is very sensitive to endotoxin stimulation. The marked increase in the level of PA-inhibitor in blood may contribute to the pathogenesis of DIC in septicemia.
M Colucci, J A Paramo, D Collen
The ultrastructure of normal human cilia and flagella was examined and quantitatively assessed to determine the normal variations in the structure of the axoneme. Ciliated respiratory epithelial cells and spermatozoa from 10 normal, nonsmoking male volunteers who had normal semen parameters were fixed for electron microscopy. Tannic acid and MgSO4 were included during fixation to enhance, in particular, axonemal components. In 75 axonemal cross sections per sample, the number of outer doublet and central singlet microtubules, outer and inner dynein arms, and radial spokes were recorded. Statistical analysis of the results showed a marked reduction, from the expected value of nine, in the numbers of inner dynein arms (mean +/- SE, cilia, 5.31 +/- 0.13; sperm, 5.38 +/- 0.16) and radial spokes (cilia, 4.95 +/- 0.22; sperm, 5.80 +/- 0.19). The ideal axoneme with all its structural components was seen in only 0.13% of cilia and 0.80% of sperm tails. Significantly more doublet microtubules (P less than 0.05) and less central microtubules (P less than 0.01) and radial spokes (P less than 0.01) were seen in cilia than in sperm tail axonemes. Between subjects there was little variation in the mean number of a structure seen per axoneme. However, within each sample, the variation was considerably higher, particularly for the inner and outer dynein arms and radial spokes. The doublet microtubules had significantly greater standard deviations in the sperm tails compared with the cilia (P less than 0.01), and furthermore, a significantly greater number of sperm tails compared with cilia showed the incorrect number of doublet microtubules (P less than 0.02). In one semen sample, with normal semen analysis, 20% of the sperm tails showed incorrect numbers of doublet microtubules, ranging from 12 + 2 to 5 + 2 compared with only 1.3% in cilia from this subject. This study has demonstrated that the ideal axoneme is rarely seen even in normal samples, probably because of the technical difficulties in resolution and visualization, and stresses the need for thorough documentation of axonemal ultrastructure. This work provides a normal data base for comparison with patients who have chronic respiratory disease and suspected infertility.
L J Wilton, H Teichtahl, P D Temple-Smith, D M de Kretser
In previous reports modest levels of beta-endorphin have been found by radioimmunoassay in rat testis, and localized by immunofluorescence to the interstitial cells. We have confirmed these previous reports and extended them by showing that the majority of testicular endorphins are acetylated forms, N-acetyl gamma-endorphin, N-acetyl alpha-endorphin, and N-acetyl beta-endorphin1-27. In addition, N-acetylated endorphins are not found in interstitial cells, but are confined to spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes.
M C Cheng, J A Clements, A I Smith, S J Lolait, J W Funder
The cell surface marker profile and functional analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes from 11 Japanese adult T cell leukemia patients were studied. The phenotypic analysis of Japanese adult T cell leukemia (ATL) cells by a series of 13 monoclonal antibodies showed that all ATL cells are anti-T4 reactive but some differ in their expression of T3, T11, and T12 antigens. Thus, considerable phenotypic heterogeneity exists in these populations of leukemia cells. When analyzed in functional assays, ATL cells were suppressive when added to a pokeweed mitogen- (PWM) driven Ig synthesis system. However, the suppression mechanism seemed to be more complex than originally conceived. ATL cells examined in this study seem to function mainly as an inducer of suppressor cells, and as such, activate normal T8 precursors of suppressor cells rather than function as suppressor effector cells. In addition, no evidence was obtained to suggest that suppression of PWM-stimulated IgG synthesis was mediated by natural killer (NK) activity of ATL cells. Rather, ATL cells seem to be markedly deficient in NK activity. These studies suggest that the majority of ATL cells tested are representative of and seem to be the leukemic counterparts of the T4+ suppressor inducer subset.
C Morimoto, T Matsuyama, C Oshige, H Tanaka, T Hercend, E L Reinherz, S F Schlossman
To investigate factors regulating ammonia (NH3) production by isolated defined proximal tubule segments, we examined the rates of total NH3 (NH3 + NH+4) production by individual proximal tubule segments perfused in vitro under a variety of perfusion conditions. Segments consisting of late convoluted and early straight portions of superficial proximal tubules were incubated at 37 degrees C in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate (KRB) buffer containing 0.5 mM L-glutamine and 1.0 mM sodium acetate, pH 7.4. The rate of total ammonia production was calculated from the rate of accumulation of total NH3 in the bath. The total ammonia production rate by unperfused proximal segments was 6.0 +/- 0.2 (+/- SE) pmol/mm per minute, which was significantly lower than segments perfused at a flow rate of 22.7 +/- 3.4 nl/min with KRB buffer (21.5 +/- 1.4 pmol/mm per minute; P less than 0.001) or with KRB buffer containing 0.5 mM L-glutamine (31.9 +/- 2.5; P less than 0.001). The rate of NH3 production was higher in segments perfused with glutamine than in segments perfused without glutamine (P less than 0.01). The perfusion-associated stimulation of NH3 production was characterized further. Analysis of collected luminal fluid samples revealed that the luminal fluid total NH3 leaving the distal end of the perfused proximal segment accounted for 91% of the increment in NH3 production observed with perfusion. Increasing the perfusion flow rate from 3.7 +/- 0.1 to 22.7 +/- 3.4 nl/min by raising the perfusion pressure resulted in an increased rate of total NH3 production in the presence or absence of perfusate glutamine (mean rise in rate of total NH3 production was 14.9 +/- 3.7 pmol/mm per minute in segments perfused with glutamine and 7.8 +/- 0.9 in those perfused without glutamine). In addition, increasing the perfusion flow rate at a constant perfusion pressure increased the rate of luminal output of NH3. Total NH3 production was not affected by reducing perfusate sodium concentration to 25 mM and adding 1.0 mM amiloride to the perfusate, a condition that was shown to inhibit proximal tubule fluid reabsorption. These observations demonstrate that the rate of total NH3 production by the mouse proximal tubule is accelerated by perfusion of the lumen of the segment, by the presence of glutamine in the perfusate, and by increased perfusion flow rates. The increased rate of NH3 production with perfusion seems not to depend upon normal rates of sodium reabsorption. The mechanism underlying the stimulation of NH3 production by luminal flow is unknown and requires further study.
G T Nagami, K Kurokawa
It is conventionally considered that because of their fiber orientations, the external intercostal muscles elevate the ribs, whereas the internal interosseous intercostals lower the ribs. The mechanical action of the intercostal muscles, however, has never been studied directly, and the electromyographic observations supporting this conventional thinking must be interpreted with caution. In the present studies, the external and internal interosseous intercostal muscles have been separately stimulated in different interspaces at, above, and below end-expiratory rib cage volume in anesthetized dogs. The axial (cephalo-caudal) displacements of the ribs were measured using linear displacement transducers. The results indicate that when contracting in a single interspace and other muscles are relaxed, both the external and internal intercostals have a net rib elevating action at end-expiratory rib cage volume. This action increases as rib cage volume decreases, but it progressively decreases as rib cage volume increases such that at high rib cage volumes, both the external and internal intercostals lower the ribs. Stimulating the intercostal muscles in three adjacent intercostal spaces simultaneously produced similar directional rib motion results. We conclude that (a) in contrast with the conventional thinking, the external and internal interosseous intercostals acting alone have by and large a similar effect on the ribs into which they insert; (b) this effect is very much dependent on rib cage (lung) volume; and (c) intercostal muscle action is primarily determined by the resistance of the upper ribs to caudad displacement relative to the resistance of the lower ribs to cephalad displacement. The lateral intercostals, however, might be more involved in postural movements than in respiration. Their primary involvement in rotations of the trunk might account for the presence of two differently oriented muscle layers between the ribs.
A De Troyer, S Kelly, P T Macklem, W A Zin
Decreased function of human mitochondrial branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex results in branched chain ketoacidemia or maple syrup urine disease. Activity of this multienzyme complex varies from 0 to approximately 15% of wild type branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex activity within the population of homozygous affected individuals. We used the technique of Western Blotting with antibodies against purified bovine liver branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex to screen mitochondrial proteins from cultured human fibroblasts for immunocrossreactive proteins. This method probes the physical structure of the proteins forming this multienzyme complex. One patient with branched chain ketoacidemia lacked an immunoreactive transacylase protein. This protein catalyzes the transfer of the branched chain acyl group from the decarboxylase to reduced coenzyme A. Kinetic analysis of the enzyme activity in cell lysates from this patient confirmed that the complex would not utilize coenzyme A. Thus, we have defined a structural basis for an impaired multienzyme complex of mitochondria in man.
D J Danner, N Armstrong, S C Heffelfinger, E T Sewell, J H Priest, L J Elsas
Monocyte infiltration and activation of the coagulation system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of glomerulonephritis. In this study, spontaneous procoagulant activity (PCA) was measured in circulating mononuclear cells to determine whether elevated PCA correlated with the presence of proliferative glomerulonephritis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). No increase in PCA was found in 20 patients with end-stage renal failure, 8 patients with glomerulonephritis without SLE, and 10 patients undergoing abdominal surgical or orthopedic procedures as compared with 20 normal controls. In eight patients with SLE but with no apparent active renal disease, PCA was not elevated above normal basal levels. Seven additional patients with SLE who had only mesangial proliferation on biopsy also had no increase in PCA. In contrast, eight patients with focal or diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis, and one patient with membranous nephritis who ultimately developed a proliferative lesion, had a marked increase in PCA with greater than 100 times the base-line levels. The activity was shown to originate in the monocyte fraction of the mononuclear cells and was shown to be capable of cleaving prothrombin directly. The prothrombinase activity was not Factor Xa, because it was not neutralized by anti-Factor X serum and was not inhibited by an established panel of Factor Xa inhibitors. Monocyte plasminogen activator determinations did not correlate with renal disease activity. We conclude that monocyte procoagulant activity, a direct prothrombinase, seems to correlate with endocapillary proliferation in lupus nephritis and could be a mediator of tissue injury.
E H Cole, J Schulman, M Urowitz, E Keystone, C Williams, G A Levy
Developmental aspects of taurocholate transport into ileal brush border membrane vesicles were studied in 2-wk-old (suckling), 3-wk-old (weanling), and 6-wk-old (adolescent) rats. Taurocholate uptake (picomoles per milligram protein) into brush border membrane vesicles prepared from 2-wk-old rats was similar under Na+ and K+ gradient conditions (outside greater than inside). By contrast, uptake in 3- and 6-wk-old rats was significantly enhanced at 20 s, and at 1, 2, and 5 min of incubation in the presence of a Na+ gradient when compared with a K+ gradient incubation (P less than 0.05). Under isotope exchange conditions, a plot of active uptake velocity versus taurocholate concentration (0.10-1.0 mM) in 2-wk-old rat membrane vesicles was linear and approached the horizontal axis, suggesting the absence of active transport. However, similar plots in 3- and 6-wk-old rats described a rectangular hyperbola, indicating a Na+-dependent, saturable cotransport system. Woolf-Augustinsson-Hofstee plots of the uptake velocity versus concentration data from 3- and 6-wk-old rat brush border membrane vesicles yielded Vmax values that were not significantly different, 844 and 884 pmol uptake/mg protein per 120 s, respectively. The respective Km values were 0.59 and 0.66 mM taurocholate. The induction of an electrochemical diffusion potential by incubating K+-loaded vesicles with valinomycin did not significantly enhance taurocholate uptake in 2-, 3-, or 6-wk-old rat vesicle preparations. These data indicate that taurocholate transport into rat ileal brush border membrane vesicles is mediated by an electroneutral, sodium-coupled, cotransport system that is incompletely developed in the 2-wk-old suckling rat but fully developed by the time of weaning at 3 wk of age.
J A Barnard, F K Ghishan, F A Wilson
Cholesterol net transport, esterification, and cholesteryl ester transfer have been determined in plasma during fasting, and postprandially, after a high fat-cholesterol meal. Significant rises in plasma triglyceride, phospholipid, and free cholesterol were associated with increases in cholesterol net transport, esterification, and transfer (all P less than 0.005), which were well correlated in individual subjects (r greater than 0.60). Essentially, the whole of free cholesterol required for such increased esterification was derived from cell membranes, when cultured fibroblasts were present, despite the increased level of free cholesterol in postprandial plasma; most of the additional cholesteryl ester generated was transferred to the low and very low density lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL) of plasma. Postprandial LDL (the major carrier of free and ester cholesterol and phospholipids among the acceptor lipoproteins) contained significantly decreased ratios of free cholesterol to phospholipid (P less than 0.001), which may modulate the increased transfer of cholesteryl ester to VLDL and LDL. These data suggest that the presence of postprandial acceptor lipoproteins in plasma may play an important role in stimulating the "reverse" transport of cholesterol from peripheral cells for hepatic degradation, which is effective even after the ingestion of dietary cholesterol.
G R Castro, C J Fielding
We studied the effect of the same genetic but different environmental factors on total immunoglobulin and specific antibody levels in twins reared apart. Sera were analyzed from 26 monozygotic (MZ) and 10 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, who were separated on average 2 mo after birth and reared apart. Total IgM, IgG, and IgA were measured by single radial diffusion. Specific antibodies of each isotype to tetanus toxoid, and to polyvalent and type 14 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides were measured by a solid-phase antigen-enzyme-labeled anti-Ig immunoassay. One-way analysis of variance showed intrapair total Ig and antibody levels to be more highly correlated in MZ compared with DZ twins. Our results indicate that genetic factors are more important than environment in regulating these humoral immune responses.
P F Kohler, V J Rivera, E D Eckert, T J Bouchard Jr, L L Heston
Immunoreactivity similar to that of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is found in regions of the central nervous system that modulate autonomic responses, including gastrointestinal functions. We examined the central nervous system effects of ovine CRF on gastric acid secretion in conscious dogs. Male beagle dogs (11-13 kg) were fitted with chronic intracerebroventricular cannulae and gastric fistulae. Gastric acid secretion in response to intravenously administered gastric secretory stimuli was measured by in vitro titration of gastric juice to pH 7.0 and in response to an intragastric meal by in vivo intragastric titration at pH 5.0. Plasma gastrin was determined by radioimmunoassay. CRF microinjected into the third cerebral ventricle decreased pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion for 3 h (P less than 0.01) dose-dependently (0.2-6.0 nmol X kg-1). CRF did not inhibit histamine-stimulated gastric secretion but significantly (P less than 0.01) decreased the secretory response after 2-deoxy-D-glucose for 3 h. The gastric inhibitory action of intracerebroventricularly administered CRF on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion was completely abolished by ganglionic blockade with chlorisondamine. The opioid antagonist, naloxone, and the vasopressin antagonist, [1-deaminopenicillamine,2-(O-methyl) tyrosine,8-arginine]-vasopressin, significantly suppressed the inhibitory effect of CRF on gastric acid secretion stimulated by pentagastrin. In contrast, truncal vagotomy did not prevent the inhibition of gastric acid secretion induced by CRF. CRF (0.2-2.0 nmol X kg-1) administered intracerebroventricularly decreased gastric acid secretion stimulated by 200-ml liquid meals containing 8% peptone. CRF did not affect plasma gastrin concentrations. These results indicate that CRF microinjected into the third cerebral ventricle inhibits gastric acid secretion in conscious dogs. CRF-induced inhibition of gastric acid secretion appears to be mediated by the sympathetic nervous system and, in part, by opiate and vasopressin-dependent mechanisms.
H J Lenz, S E Hester, M R Brown
We have previously described a series of monoclonal antibodies against platelet membrane glycoproteins. Two of the antibodies, B59.2 and B2.12, recognize the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex. These two antibodies react specifically with glycoprotein (GP) IIIa, as shown by immunoblotting of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels of solubilized platelet membranes. Monoclonal B2.12, but not B59.2, binds to cultured human endothelial cells obtained from umbilical vein, internal iliac artery, and inferior vena cava. At saturation approximately 100,000 binding sites were detected per human umbilical vein endothelial cell. When solubilized radioiodinated cells were chromatographed on a column of agarose-bound B2.12, a single radiolabeled protein was obtained whose apparent molecular weight is slightly larger than that of platelet GP IIIa. This protein incorporated [35S]methionine when endothelial cells were labeled metabolically. These results demonstrate that human endothelial cell membranes synthesize a protein immunologically related to platelet GP IIIa.
P Thiagarajan, S S Shapiro, E Levine, L DeMarco, A Yalcin
Systemic complement activation with intravascularly administered cobra venom factor (CVF) or infusion of either zymosan-activated rabbit plasma or a fifth component of complement fragment with anaphylatoxin activity in the rabbit have not caused significant increases in bronchoalveolar lavage albumin in rabbits (Webster, R. O., G. L. Larsen, B. C. Mitchell, A. J. Goins, and P. M. Henson. 1982. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 125:335-340). To assess if another stimulus (hypoxia) acting in concert with complement activation can produce significant lung injury, rabbits were challenged with CVF alone, 10 min of 12% oxygen alone, or CVF followed by a 10-min exposure to 12% oxygen. Either stimulus alone caused no significant changes in arterial oxygen, pulmonary resistance, or dynamic compliance during the 240 min of observation after either stimulus, and neither stimulus alone caused increased albumin accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage over a 30-min period at the end of the experiment. However, the combination of insults significantly altered arterial oxygen, pulmonary resistance, and dynamic compliance while also increasing albumin and neutrophils recovered by lavage. The increase in lavage albumin did not appear to be due to hemodynamic events in that the pulmonary artery pressure increased acutely after CVF infusion and again during the hypoxic exposure, but was normal when albumin accumulation in the lung was measured. Neutrophil depletion with nitrogen mustard abolished all of these changes induced by CVF plus hypoxia. In addition, meclofenamate pretreatment and infusion during the 4-h study abolished the increases in lavage albumin and neutrophils as well as the increase in pulmonary artery pressure after CVF. Meclofenamate pretreatment did not, however, block accumulation of albumin in the lung (interstitium). We conclude that complement activation, as an isolated event, will not cause a significant increase in lavage albumin in this model. However, combining complement activation with an episode of hypoxia will lead to an increase in lavage albumin that is dependent on the presence of neutrophils for its expression. Meclofenamate treatment will prevent increases in lavage albumin and neutrophils while not preventing albumin accumulation in the lung (interstitium), suggesting a product of the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism is needed to produce movement of albumin and/or neutrophils across the alveolar epithelium in this model.
G L Larsen, R O Webster, G S Worthen, R S Gumbay, P M Henson
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was measured in isolated peripheral blood monocytes and culture medium from 28 patients with sarcoidosis and compared with values obtained from monocytes of 25 normal control subjects. ACE activity was determined by radioimmunoassay of angiotensin II produced from angiotensin I. While there was no measurable ACE activity in monocytes or culture medium from normal controls under the conditions of our study, monocytes from patients with sarcoidosis all showed activity both in cells and culture medium. The mean ACE activity of monocytes from patients with sarcoidosis was 2.0 pg angiotensin II formed/min per 10(5) cells, and that released into medium over a 24-h interval was 30.4 pg angiotensin II/min per 10(5) cells. The monocyte ACE from patients with sarcoidosis was activated by chloride ions and inhibited by EDTA, captopril, and rabbit antiserum to purified human plasma ACE, indicating that enzymatic activity was effected specifically by ACE. Thus, our studies show a significant elevation and release of ACE by peripheral blood monocytes of patients with sarcoidosis under conditions where monocytes of normal control subjects do not demonstrate ACE activity.
T Okabe, K Yamagata, M Fujisawa, J Watanabe, F Takaku, J J Lanzillo, B L Fanburg
Three patients (two sisters and a brother) in one family are described with chronic granulomatous disease. The granulocytes of these patients did not respond with a metabolic burst to various stimuli and failed to kill catalase-positive microorganisms. The magnitude of the cytochrome b signal in the optical spectrum of the patients' granulocytes was less than 4% of the normal value, whereas the amount of noncovalently bound flavin in these cells was normal. The mode of inheritance of the genetic defect in this family is autosomal because the granulocytes of both parents (first cousins) and a nonaffected sister of the patients expressed 70-80% of the normal cytochrome b signal, showed low-normal or subnormal oxidative reactions during stimulation, and did not display mosaicism in the stimulated nitroblue-tetrazolium slide test. Somatic cell hybridization was performed between the monocytes from the affected boy in this family with monocytes from either a cytochrome b-negative male patient with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease or a cytochrome b-positive male patient with the classic autosomal form of this disease. In both combinations, monocyte hybrids were observed with nitroblue tetrazolium reductase activity after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate. This complementation of the oxidase activity required protein synthesis. Our results prove that the defect in this family is genetically distinct from that in the other two forms of chronic granulomatous disease. Moreover, our results also indicate that the expression of cytochrome b in human phagocytes is coded by at least two loci, one on the X chromosome and one on an autosome.
R S Weening, L Corbeel, M de Boer, R Lutter, R van Zwieten, M N Hamers, D Roos
The present studies probe the role of Ca2+ and Na+ in the stimulation-permeability coupling sequences by which antidiuretic hormone (ADH) induces a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-mediated increase in urea permeability in toad urinary bladder. The following results were obtained: (a) Removal of mucosal Na+ or Ca2+ or deletion of serosal Ca2+ did not modify ADH action. (b) Reduction of the serosal Na+ concentration to less than 50 mM inhibited the effects of both ADH and cAMP. The minimal concentration of serosal Na+ needed for the hormone to elicit its maximal effect was reduced to approximately 10 mM if serosal Ca2+ was concomitantly deleted. (c) The Na+ ionophore monensin produced an inhibition of ADH and cAMP actions that was dependent on the presence of Na+ and Ca2+ in the serosa. (d) The Ca2+ ionophore A23187 produced a serosal Ca2+-dependent inhibition of ADH effect and did not modify cAMP action. (e) Carbachol, which increases Ca2+ uptake to the same extent that A23187 does, had no effect on ADH action. (f) Quinidine, which releases Ca2+ from intracellular stores, produced a large inhibition of the action of ADH but not that of cAMP; the inhibition was greatly reduced if serosal Ca2+ was deleted. (g) Dinitrophenol and iodoacetate, which also release Ca2+ from intracellular pools, had no effect on ADH action. (h) The Ca2+ channel blocker diltiazem had no effect on ADH action and did not modify the inhibitions produced by deletion of serosal Na+ or monensin. (i) The cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin partially removed the inhibition produced by deletion of serosal Na+ and almost completely impeded the inhibitions produced by either monensin or A23187. It is concluded: (a) Extracellular Ca2+, Na+ transport rates, and serosal Na+, in concentrations between 10 and 110 mM, have no participation in modulating the increase in urea permeability produced by ADH. (b) Increases in cytosolic Ca2+ activity, which are capable of inhibiting the effect of ADH on urea permeability at pre- and/or post-cAMP steps, seem to be highly compartmentalized. (c) Endogenous prostaglandins might play a role in the inhibitions produced by absence of serosal Na+, monensin, or A23187.
M A Hardy, H M Ware
The initial characterization of two monoclonal antibodies directed at antigens selectively expressed on large granular lymphocytes (LGL) is reported in the present paper. These two reagents, anti-natural killer (NK) H1A and anti-NKH2, were obtained following immunization of mouse spleen cells with a cloned human NK cell line termed JT3. In fresh human peripheral blood, both anti-NKH1A and anti-NKH2 selectively reacted with cells that appeared morphologically as large granular lymphocytes. However, complement lysis studies and two color fluorescence analysis demonstrated that some LGL express both antigens and other cells express only NKH1A or NKH2. Functional analysis of these subsets indicated that the population of NKH1A+ cells contains the entire pool of NK active lymphocytes, whereas expression of NKH2 antigen appeared to delineate a unique subpopulation of LGL which, in a resting state, display a low degree of spontaneous cytotoxicity. Expression of NKH1A and NKH2 was also investigated using a series of nine well characterized human NK clones. All NK clones were found to be NKH1A+ and four out of nine also expressed NKH2. These results strongly supported the view that NKH1A is a "pan-NK" associated antigen, and indicated that at least a fraction of cloned NKH2 + LGL are strongly cytotoxic. Anti-NKH1A was shown to have the same specificity as the previously described N901 antibody and was found here to precipitate a 200,000-220,000-mol wt molecule in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis. Anti-NKH2 was specific for a structure that migrates at 60,000 mol wt in SDS-PAGE analysis under reducing conditions. Two color immunofluorescence analysis of NKH1A, NKH2, and other NK-associated antigens (Leu7 and B73.1) demonstrated variable degrees of coexpression of these antigens, which confirmed that NKH1A and NKH2 define distinct cell surface structures. Anti-NKH1A and anti-NKH2 appear to be useful reagents for characterizing LGL present in human peripheral blood and for identifying functionally relevant subsets within this heterogeneous population of cytotoxic lymphocytes.
T Hercend, J D Griffin, A Bensussan, R E Schmidt, M A Edson, A Brennan, C Murray, J F Daley, S F Schlossman, J Ritz
We previously reported that the oligosaccharide chains of hog gastric mucin were degraded by unidentified subpopulations numbering approximately 1% of normal human fecal bacteria. Here we report on the enzyme-producing properties of five strains of mucin oligosaccharide chain-degrading bacteria isolated from feces of four healthy subjects. Four were isolated from the greatest fecal dilutions yielding mucin side chain-degrading activity in culture, and thus were the numerically dominant side chain-degrading bacteria in their respective hosts. Three were Ruminococcus strains and two were Bifidobacterium strains. Two Ruminococcus torques strains, IX-70 and VIII-239, produced blood group A- and H-degrading alpha-glycosidase activities, sialidase, and the requisite beta-glycosidases; these strains released greater than 90% of the anthrone-reacting hexoses from hog gastric mucin during growth in culture. The Bifidobacterium strains lacked A-degrading activity but were otherwise similar; these released 60-80% of the anthrone-reacting hexoses but not the A antigenic structures from hog gastric mucin. Only Ruminococcus AB strain VI-268 produced blood group B-degrading alpha-galactosidase activity, but this strain lacked beta-N-acetylhexosaminidases to complete degradation of B antigenic chains. When this strain was co-cultured with a strain that produced beta-N-acetylhexosaminidases, release of hexoses from blood group B salivary glycoprotein increased from 50 to greater than 90%, and bacterial growth was enhanced. The glycosidases required for side chain degradation were produced by these strains in the absence of mucin substrate, and a substantial fraction of each activity in stationary phase cultures was extracellular. In contrast, none of 16 other fecal Bacteroides, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, and Bifidobacterium strains produced ABH blood group-degrading enzymes; other glycosidases produced by these strains were predominantly cell bound except for extracellular beta-N-acetylhexosaminidases produced by the five S. faecalis strains. We conclude that certain Bifidobacterium and Ruminococcus strains are numerically dominant populations degrading mucin oligosaccharides in the human colon due to their constitutive production of the requisite extracellular glycosidases including blood group antigen-specific alpha-glycosidases. These properties characterize them as a functionally distinct subpopulation of normal human enteric microflora comprised of specialized subsets that produce blood group H antigen-degrading glycosidases alone or together with either blood group A- or B-degrading glycosidases.
L C Hoskins, M Agustines, W B McKee, E T Boulding, M Kriaris, G Niedermeyer
1,25(OH)2D3 induces 25(OH)D3-24-hydroxylase (24-OHase) in cultured skin fibroblasts from normal subjects. We evaluated 24-OHase induction by 1,25(OH)2D3 in skin fibroblasts from 10 normal subjects and from four unrelated patients with hereditary resistance to 1,25(OH)2D or vitamin D-dependent rickets type II (DD II). Fibroblasts were preincubated with varying concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 for 15 h and were then incubated with 0.5 microM [3H]25(OH)D3 at 37 degrees C for 30 min; lipid extracts of the cells were analyzed for [3H]24,25(OH)2D3 by high performance liquid chromatography and periodate oxidation. Apparent maximal [3H]24,25(OH)2D3 production in normal cell lines was 9 pmol/10(6) cells per 30 min and occurred after induction with 10(-8) M 1,25(OH)2D3. 24-OHase induction was detectable in normal fibroblasts at approximately 3 X 10(-10) M 1,25(OH)2D3. [3H]24,25(OH)2D3 formation after exposure to 1,25(OH)2D3 was abnormal in fibroblasts from all four patients with DD II. In fibroblasts from two patients with DD II, [3H]24,25(OH)2D3 formation was unmeasurable (below 0.2 pmol/10(6) cells per 30 min) at 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations up to 10(-6) M. Fibroblasts from the other two patients with DD II required far higher than normal concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 for detectable [3H]24,25(OH)2D3 induction. In one, [3H]24,25(OH)2D3 production reached 2.9 pmol/10(6) cells per 30 min at 10(-6) M 1,25(OH)2D3 (30% normal maximum at 10(-6) M 1,25(OH)2D3). In the other, [3H]24,25(OH)2D3 production achieved normal levels, 7.3 pmol/10(6) cells per 30 min after 10(-6) M 1,25(OH)2D3. The two patients whose cells had a detectable 24-OHase induction by 1,25(OH)2D3 showed a calcemic response to high doses of calciferols in vivo. Our current observations correlate with these two patients' responsiveness to calciferols in vivo and suggest that their target organ defects can be partially or completely overcome with extremely high concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3. The two patients whose cells showed no detectable 24-OHase induction in vitro failed to show a calcemic response to high doses of calciferols in vivo. In conclusion: (a) the measurement of 24-OHase induction by 1,25(OH)2D3 in cultured skin fibroblasts is a sensitive in vitro test for defective genes in the 1,25(OH)2D effector pathway. (b) This assay provides a useful tool for characterizing the target tissue defects in DD II and predicting response to calciferol therapy.
G T Gamblin, U A Liberman, C Eil, R W Downs Jr, D A DeGrange, S J Marx
Long-term cultures were initiated with leukemic marrow aspirate cells from each of 13 newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients. Initial assessment of the clonogenic potential of the marrow suggested that normal hemopoietic progenitors were reduced in most cases and progenitors of abnormal colonies and clusters were present in 10 cases. Subsequent assays of both nonadherent and adherent fractions of long-term cultures revealed two patterns of progenitor cell behavior. The most common pattern (nine cases) featured the detection after 1-4 wk of near normal numbers of typical erythroid, granulopoietic, and mixed colony-forming progenitor cells. Progenitors of abnormal (blast) colonies and clusters initially demonstrable in eight of these nine cases were, in these cases, not sustained in long-term culture and could not be found after 4 wk. Conversion to cytogenetic normalcy in long-term culture was confirmed in two experiments in this group. The second pattern (four cases) was characterized by the failure of progenitors capable of normal differentiation to become detectable in long-term cultures, and the concomitant maintenance of blast progenitors in the two cases in this group where such cells were initially demonstrable. Although progenitors capable of producing abnormal (blast) colonies or clusters in methylcellulose were not detected in either of the other two experiments, the maintenance for 6 wk of a hypercellular nonadherent blast population in one of these suggested the persisting activity of an "adherent layer-dependent" leukemic progenitor cell. Taken together, these findings indicate a strong correlation between the presence of leukemic blasts and their progenitors and a decreased level of normal hemopoiesis. In addition, the failure of leukemic cells to be maintained in long-term marrow cultures from some (but not all) AML patients suggests new applications of this methodology for studies of early stages of leukemic cell development.
L Coulombel, C Eaves, D Kalousek, C Gupta, A Eaves
Long-term production of murine hematopoietic cells in vitro is dependent on establishment of a complex microenvironment consisting of a variety of stromal cells and an extensive extracellular matrix which includes collagen, fibronectin, laminin, proteoglycans, and other undefined components adherent to the culture dishes. Cis-4-hydroxyproline (CHP), a relatively specific inhibitor of collagen secretion, was used to examine the role of extracellular collagen deposition in supporting hematopoiesis in long-term C57B1/6J mouse bone marrow cell cultures. Throughout the 10-wk culture period, all culture dishes contained either 0, 10, 25, or 50 micrograms/ml of CHP. All medium and nonadherent cells were removed at weekly intervals and replaced with fresh medium containing the previous concentrations of CHP. Nonadherent cells were assayed weekly for total cells and pluripotent, erythroid, megakaryocytic, and granulocytic-macrophage progenitor cells. Dishes were killed at selected intervals to assess protein and collagen synthesis in the adherent layer. Adherent cell numbers, as judged by microscopic examination and DNA assays, correlated inversely with CHP concentrations used and paralleled degree of collagen synthesis inhibition. The decreased hemopoietic progenitor cell production correlated closely with percent inhibition of collagen synthesis and stromal cellularity. The CHP concentrations tested were not directly toxic to hemopoietic progenitor cells. These studies demonstrate that collagen deposition in the extracellular matrix of murine bone marrow cell cultures is essential to the establishment of a functional stromal microenvironment that is supportive of long-term hematopoiesis.
K S Zuckerman, R K Rhodes, D D Goodrum, V R Patel, B Sparks, J Wells, M S Wicha, L A Mayo
To investigate the effects of chronic ethanol administration on the mobilization and excretion of cholesterol, turnover and balance studies were carried out in baboons pair-fed cholesterol-free diets containing 50% of energy either as ethanol or as additional carbohydrate for several years. Ethanol feeding increased free cholesterol in all plasma lipoprotein fractions, and esterified cholesterol in very low density lipoprotein, intermediate density lipoprotein, and high density lipoprotein (HDL). The major increase occurred in HDL, mainly as esterified cholesterol. The latter was associated with decreased transfer of esterified cholesterol from HDL to low density lipoprotein. By contrast, the smaller increase in HDL-free cholesterol was associated with increased turnover in the plasma, increased splanchnic uptake, and increased fecal excretion of plasma cholesterol, mainly as neutral steroids. Cholesterol extraction predominated over release in the splanchnic vascular bed, suggesting that the excess of cholesterol excreted in the feces originated in extrasplanchnic tissues. Thus, these findings indicate that alcohol consumption favors mobilization of tissue free cholesterol for hepatic removal and excretion. By contrast the increase in HDL-cholesterol (mainly esterified) appears to be a poor indicator of cholesterol mobilization.
C Karsenty, E Baraona, M J Savolainen, C S Lieber
The effect of human thrombomodulin isolated from placenta on the procoagulant activity of thrombin was studied and compared to that of rabbit thrombomodulin. The isolated protein was proved to be thrombomodulin because a rabbit antibody against the isolated protein blocked protein C activation by thrombomodulin in solution and also blocked the protein-C-activating cofactor activity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The affinity of human thrombomodulin for human thrombin in the presence of fibrinogen is 30 times less than that of rabbit thrombomodulin. This value is based on the measurements of the clotting time of human fibrinogen and thrombin in the presence of increasing amounts of thrombomodulin. Human thrombomodulin was also much less effective compared with rabbit thrombomodulin in inhibiting thrombin-induced human coagulation factor V activation. The ability to inhibit release of [3H]serotonin from washed human platelets was at least 10 times less using human thrombomodulin compared with rabbit thrombomodulin. A partially purified preparation of human lung thrombomodulin was also relatively ineffective in inhibiting thrombin-induced serotonin release from platelets, indicating that the difference between rabbit and human thrombomodulin is one of species rather than of tissue. Thus, while human thrombomodulin is a potent cofactor in protein C activation, it is not an efficient inhibitor of the procoagulant actions of thrombin.
I Maruyama, H H Salem, H Ishii, P W Majerus
In an effort to evaluate the synthesis and function of eicosanoids in myocardial infarction, we have developed a technique of in vivo myocardial infarction in rabbits followed by ex vivo cardiac perfusion. Isolated Langendorff perfused infarcted hearts (removed 1 or 4 d after infarction) responded to the inflammatory cell agonist N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) with (a) the release of leukotrienes B4, C4, and D4; (b) the release of large amounts of thromboxane (235 +/- 66 ng/5 min), prostacyclin (714 +/- 285 ng/5 min), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (330 +/- 108 ng/5 min); and (c) a coronary vasoconstriction (21.1 +/- 2.5% increase in coronary perfusion pressure) that was specifically inhibited by the peptidoleukotriene receptor antagonist FPL-55712. While noninfarcted hearts challenged with fMLP also released leukotrienes B4, C4, and D4, they released only small amounts of the cyclooxygenase products (thromboxane, 30 +/- 9 ng/5 min; prostacyclin, 120 +/- 54 ng/5 min; PGE2, 27 +/- 10 ng/5 min) and showed minimal vasoconstriction (5.6 +/- 2.1% increase in perfusion pressure). Similarly, hearts challenged with fMLP 30 d following infarction released only small amounts of the cyclooxygenase products (thromboxane, 42 +/- 8 ng/5 min; prostacyclin, 386 +/- 31 ng/5 min; PGE2, 79 +/- 25 ng/5 min). When bradykinin was administered, no leukotrienes were produced, but acutely infarcted hearts released 10 times more thromboxane, prostacyclin, and PGE2 than normal hearts and significantly larger amounts of these products than 30-d infarcted hearts. Histologic analysis showed no inflammatory cells in normal hearts, a prominent polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration in 1-d infarcted tissue, fibroblast proliferation with mononuclear cell invasion in 4-d infarcted tissue, and a fibrotic scar with scanty mononuclear cell infiltrate in 30-d infarcted tissue. Inflammatory cell invasion was temporarily associated with augmented cyclooxygenase metabolism, suggesting that infiltrating leukocytes may be responsible for production of thromboxane, prostacyclin, and PGE2 in acutely infarcted hearts. The finding that endogenously produced peptidoleukotrienes are potent coronary vasoconstrictors in infarcted rabbit hearts suggests that these products may contribute to tissue injury in myocardial infarction.
A S Evers, S Murphree, J E Saffitz, B A Jakschik, P Needleman
Cigarette smoking is associated with significant increases in the number of pulmonary mononuclear phagocytes and neutrophils. A potent chemoattractant for these cells is C5a, a peptide generated during complement (C) activation. We, therefore, investigated the possibility that cigarette smoke could activate the complement system in vitro. Our results show that factor(s) (mol wt less than 1,000) present in an aqueous solution of whole, unfiltered cigarette smoke can deplete the hemolytic capacity of whole human serum in a dose-dependent manner. The particle-free, filtered gas phase of cigarette smoke is inactive. The smoke factor(s) do not activate serum C1, but do deplete serum C4 activity. Treatment of purified human C3 with whole smoke solution modifies the molecule such that its subsequent addition to serum (containing Mg/EGTA to block the classical pathway) results in consumption of hemolytic complement by activation of the alternative pathway. Smoke-modified C3 shows increased anodal migration in agarose electrophoresis, but this is not due to proteolytic cleavage of the molecule as evidenced by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In contrast to methylamine-treated C3, C3 treated with smoke is only partially susceptible to the action of the complement regulatory proteins Factors H and I. In addition, smoke-modified C3 has diminished binding to Factor H as compared with methylamine-treated C3. Finally, smoke-modified C3 incorporates [14C]methylamine which suggests that the thiolester bond may be intact. These data indicate that aqueous whole cigarette smoke solution can modify C3 and activate the alternative pathway of complement, perhaps by a previously unrecognized mechanism. Should this occur in vivo, complement activation might partly account for the extensive pulmonary leukocyte recruitment observed in smokers.
R R Kew, B Ghebrehiwet, A Janoff
Immature myeloid precursor cells were preferentially selected from normal human bone marrow by using immune rosette techniques that employed monoclonal antibodies against mature granulocytes, monocytes, T and B lymphocytes, and erythroid precursors (Mo5, M3, OKT3, B1, and EP1, respectively). We examined the formation, retention, and cytotoxic effects of methotrexate (MTX) polyglutamates (MTX-PGs) in these purified myeloid precursor cells. After 1- and 24-h exposures to MTX, with thymidine and deoxyinosine as rescue, the intracellular MTX-PG profile was examined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Efflux patterns of MTX-PGs were also studied after additional 1- and 24-h incubations in drug-free media. Cytotoxic effects of retained MTX-PGs on bone marrow myeloid precursors were examined by colony formation in drug-free semisolid agar. Normal myeloid precursor cells converted MTX to MTX-PGs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, preferentially retaining MTX-PGs with three to five glutamyl moieties. At low concentrations of MTX (1 microM), MTX-PG formation was insufficient to maintain saturation of the target enzyme dihydrofolate reductase after removal of drug from the incubation medium, and there was no decrease in myeloid colony formation. At higher concentrations of MTX (10 microM), formation of higher molecular weight polyglutamates was sufficient to allow for 24-h saturation of intracellular binding capacity after removal of extracellular drug and resulted in a 35% reduction in the formation of colony-forming units in culture. Comparison of MTX metabolism in normal bone marrow cells and the MTX-sensitive HL-60 human leukemia cell line showed twofold greater PG formation by these tumor cells after 24-h exposure to 1 or 10 microM MTX, and a marked (greater than 30-fold) increase in cytotoxicity for the HL-60 cells as compared with normal myeloid precursors, suggesting that the MTX polyglutamation may be important to its selective antitumor action.
S Koizumi, G A Curt, R L Fine, J D Griffin, B A Chabner
Using a gel overlay technique we have previously described a 90,000-mol wt actin-binding protein in a number of hormone-secreting tissues and tentatively identified this protein as gelsolin. Gelsolin is a protein that cuts or solates cross-linked actin filaments and can also serve as a nucleating site for actin polymerization. The objective of this study was to isolate this protein from a hamster insulin-secreting (HIT) cell line and compare the immunologic properties and peptide maps of purified rabbit macrophage gelsolin, human platelet gelsolin, and the HIT cell 90,000-mol wt protein. DNase I-Sepharose retained the HIT cell actin-binding proteins in 1 mM CaCl2; some of the 90,000-mol wt protein could then be eluted with 1 mM EGTA. The remaining actin-binding proteins were eluted using a buffer containing SDS. The EGTA peak fractions contained two major protein bands of Mr = 90,000 and 42,000, which suggested that a 90,000-mol wt-actin complex was eluted from the DNase I-Sepharose column. Specific antibodies to the human platelet and rabbit macrophage gelsolins bound to the 90,000-mol wt bands in the eluates, but did not crossreact with other actin-binding proteins. Indirect immunofluorescence using an anti-human platelet gelsolin antibody localized the 90,000-mol wt protein to stress fibers that were also stained with phalloidin, which suggested that gelsolin is associated with actin in vivo. Tryptic peptide maps of all three radioiodinated gelsolins were virtually indistinguishable. Thus, gelsolin is a highly conserved gene product found in at least three diverse cell types, an insulin-secreting beta cell line, macrophages, and platelets, and may link a transient increase in Ca2+ cellular levels with changes in actin polymerization and/or the gel-sol state of these cells.
T Y Nelson, A E Boyd 3rd
This paper describes a suppressor T cell factor which protects mice against intraabdominal abscesses caused by Bacteroides fragilis. This soluble cell-free factor (ITF) is derived from splenic T cells from mice immunized with capsular polysaccharide (CP) of B. fragilis. Mice receiving ITF are protected from developing abscesses caused by B. fragilis to the same degree as animals receiving intact immune splenic T cells. The factor appears to be small in molecular size as protective activity is dialyzable through a 12,000-mol wt exclusion dialysis membrane and is present in fractions intermediate between the bed and void volumes of a P2 Biogel column. The protective effect of ITF is antigen-specific to B. fragilis alone. Mice given a complex inoculum of B. fragilis, enterococcus, and another anaerobe develop abscesses even after receiving column-purified ITF. The activity of ITF also is eliminated after adsorption with B. fragilis CP coupled to sheep erythrocytes but not with an unrelated CP coupled to sheep erythrocytes. ITF, therefore, appears to have a binding site for B. fragilis CP. ITF is heat-labile and loses efficacy after protease digestion, suggesting that the active material is a protein. These studies define a suppressor cell factor with activity in a model system resembling human disease and offer promise for increased understanding of the diversity of cell-mediated immune systems.
D F Zaleznik, R W Finberg, M E Shapiro, A B Onderdonk, D L Kasper
It has been suggested that elevated levels of insulin or insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a role in the development of diabetic vascular complications. Previously, we have shown a differential response to insulin between vascular cells from retinal capillaries and large arteries with the former being much more insulin responsive. In the present study, we have characterized the receptors and the growth-promoting effect of insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) and multiplication-stimulating activity (MSA, an IGF-II) on endothelial cells and pericytes from calf retinal capillaries and on endothelial and smooth muscle cells from calf aorta. We found single and separate populations of high affinity receptors for IGF-I and MSA with respective affinity constants of 1 X 10(-9) M-1 and 10(-8) M-1 in all four cell types studied. Specific binding of IGF-I was between 7.2 and 7.9% per milligram of protein in endothelial cells and 9.1 and 10.4% in the vascular supporting cells. For 125I-MSA, retinal endothelial cells bound only 1.7-2.5%, whereas the aortic endothelial cells and the vascular supporting cells bound between 5.6 and 8.5% per milligram of protein. The specificity of the receptors for IGF-I and MSA differed, as insulin and MSA was able to compete with 125I-IGF-I for binding to the IGF-I receptors with 0.01-0.1, the potency of unlabeled IGF-I, whereas even 1 X 10(-6) M, insulin did not significantly compete with 125I-MSA for binding to the receptors for MSA. For growth-promoting effects, as measured by the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA, confluent retinal endothelial cells responded to IGF-I and MSA by up to threefold increase in the rate of DNA synthesis, whereas confluent aortic endothelial cells did not respond at all. A similar differential of response to insulin between micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells was reported by us previously. In the retinal endothelium, insulin was more potent than IGF-I and IGF-I was more potent that MSA. In the retinal and aortic supporting cells, no differential response to insulin or the IGFs was observed. In the retinal pericytes, IGF-I, which stimulated significant DNA synthesis beginning at 1 X 10(-9) M, and had a maximal effect at 5 X 10(-8) M, was 10-fold more potent than MSA and equally potent to insulin. In the aortic smooth muscle cells, IGF-I was 10-100 times more potent than insulin or MSA. In the retinal and aortic supporting cells, no differential response to insulin or the IGFs was observed. In the retinal pericytes, IGF-I, which stimulated significant DNA synthesis beginning at 1 X 10(-9) M, and had a maximal effect at 5 X 10(-8) M, was 10-fold more potent than MSA and equally potent to insulin. In the aortic smooth muscle cells, IGF-I was 10-100 times more potent than insulin or MSA. In addition, insulin and IGF-I at 1 X 10(-6) and 1 X 10(-8) M, respectively, stimulated these cells to grow by doubling the number of cells as well. In all responsive tissues, the combination of insulin and IGFs were added together, no further increase in effect was seen. These data showed that vascular cells have insulin and IGF receptors, but have a differential response to these hormones. These differences in biological response between cells from retinal capillaries and large arteries could provide clues to understanding the pathogenesis of diabetic micro- and macroangiopathy.
G L King, A D Goodman, S Buzney, A Moses, C R Kahn
Evidence has accumulated suggesting that the state of secondary hyperparathyroidism and the elevated blood levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in uremia participate in the genesis of many uremic manifestations. The present study examined the role of PTH in glucose intolerance of chronic renal failure (CRF). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) and euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamp studies were performed in dogs with CRF with (NPX) and without parathyroid glands (NPX-PTX). There were no significant differences among the plasma concentrations of electrolytes, degree of CRF, and its duration. The serum levels of PTH were elevated in NPX and undetectable in NPX-PTX. The NPX dogs displayed glucose intolerance after CRF and blood glucose concentrations during IVGTT were significantly (P less than 0.01) higher than corresponding values before CRF. In contrast, blood glucose levels after IVGTT in NPX-PTX before and after CRF were not different. K-g rate fell after CRF from 2.86 +/- 0.48 to 1.23 +/- 0.18%/min (P less than 0.01) in NPX but remained unchanged in NPX-PTX (from 2.41 +/- 0.43 to 2.86 +/- 0.86%/min) dogs. Blood insulin levels after IVGTT in NPX-PTX were more than twice higher than in NPX animals (P less than 0.01) and for any given level of blood glucose concentration, the insulin levels were higher in NPX-PTX than NPX dogs. Clamp studies showed that the total amount of glucose utilized was significantly lower (P less than 0.025) in NPX (6.64 +/- 1.13 mg/kg X min) than in NPX-PTX (10.74 +/- 1.1 mg/kg X min) dogs. The early, late, and total insulin responses were significantly (P less than 0.025) greater in the NPX-PTX than NPX animals. The values for the total response were 143 +/- 28 vs. 71 +/- 10 microU/ml, P less than 0.01. There was no significant difference in the ratio of glucose metabolized to the total insulin response, a measure of tissue sensitivity to insulin, between the two groups. The glucose metabolized to total insulin response ratio in NPX (5.12 +/- 0.76 mg/kg X min per microU/ml) and NPX-PTX (5.18 +/- 0.57 mg/kg X min per microU/ml) dogs was not different but significantly (P less than 0.01) lower than in normal animals (9.98 +/- 1.26 mg/kg X min per microU/ml). The metabolic clearance rate of insulin was significantly (P less than 0.02) reduced in both NPX (12.1 +/- 0.7 ml/kg X min) and NPX-PTX (12.1 +/- 0.9 ml/kg X min) dogs, as compared with normal animals (17.4 +/- 1.8 ml/kg X min). The basal hepatic glucose production was similar in both groups of animals and nor different from normal dogs; both the time course and the magnitude of suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin were similar in both in groups. There were no differences in the binding affinity, binding sites concentration, and binding capacity of monocytes to insulin among NPX, NPX-PTX, and normal dogs. The data show that (a) glucose intolerance does not develop with CRF in the absence of PTH, (b) PTH does not affect metabolic clearance of insulin or tissue resistance to insulin in CRF, and (c) the normalization of metabolism in CRF in the absence of PTH is due to increased insulin secretion. The results indicate that excess PTH in CRF interferes with the ability of the beta-cells to augment insulin secretion appropriately in response to the insulin-resistant state.
M Akmal, S G Massry, D A Goldstein, P Fanti, A Weisz, R A DeFronzo
Aldolase B is an enzyme of the glycolytic pathway whose activity and mRNA levels in the liver fluctuate according to dietary status. Both the enzyme activity and the mRNA concentration decline during fasting and increase four- to eightfold upon refeeding of a carbohydrate-rich diet. The mechanism, however, of the mRNA induction remains unknown. To elucidate the mechanisms that regulate this induction responsive to dietary stimuli, we have studied the roles of hormones and glycolytic substrates on aldolase B gene expression in three tissues that synthesize the enzyme. Using a cDNA probe complementary to rat aldolase B mRNA, we determined the amount of cytoplasmic RNAs in the liver, kidney, and small intestine of normal, adrenalectomized, thyroidectomized, diabetic, and glucagon- or cAMP-treated animals refed either a fructose-rich or a maltose-rich diet. The in vivo hormonal control of gene expression was found to be very different in the three organs tested. In the liver, cortisone and thyroid hormones were required for the induction of the specific mRNA by carbohydrates, while in the kidney none of the hormonal modifications tested altered the level of mRNA induction. In the liver, but not in the kidney, diabetes and glucagon administration abolished the induction of aldolase B mRNAs in animals refed the maltose-rich diets. In the small intestine, only diabetes and thyroidectomy affected the gene expression. Finally, no induction occurred when normal fasted rats were given any of the hormones. Thus, the in vivo hormonal control of liver aldolase B gene expression differs significantly from that of kidney and small intestine. In the liver, the mRNA induction requires the presence of dietary carbohydrates, of permissive hormones, and the cessation of glucagon release, while in the kidney, the induction of the mRNAs by fructose occurs regardless of the hormonal status of the animals. The hormonal control of aldolase B mRNA levels in the small intestine is intermediate.
A Munnich, C Besmond, S Darquy, G Reach, S Vaulont, J C Dreyfus, A Kahn
More than 300 sera from patients with a connective tissue disease were analyzed with the immunoblotting technique. The presence of autoantibodies against an 86,000-mol wt marker antigen for diffuse scleroderma (Scl-86) was found in 14 out of 33 patients with scleroderma. The presence of anti-Scl-86 antibodies seemed to correlate with the diagnosis of diffuse scleroderma since they were found in 13 out of 22 diffuse scleroderma patients and in only one out of 11 patients with limited scleroderma. All scleroderma sera (33 patients' sera and 13 reference sera) were also tested for the presence of anti-Scl-70 antibodies. It was found that all anti-Scl-70 positive sera (n = 25) contained anti-Scl-86 antibody as well, suggesting a relationship between these two antigens. However, the Scl-86 antigen was shown to be an extremely insoluble nonchromosomal protein, resistant to boiling in sodium dodecyl sulfate. This contrasts with the Scl-70 antigen, which has been described as a thermolabile, soluble antigen present in the chromatin fraction. Together, our results are consistent with the idea that Scl-70 is a degradation product of Scl-86. The Scl-86 antigen is present in freshly prepared rabbit thymus, spleen, and liver nuclei as well as in nuclei from various cultured cell lines, but is not detectable in extractable nuclear antigen from rabbit thymus. In a limited retrospective study, the anti-Scl-86 antibodies were found in two sera from patients with Raynaud's phenomenon before the development of diffuse scleroderma. Therefore, it is possible that screening of patients' serum for this antibody might predict the development of diffuse scleroderma.
W J van Venrooij, S O Stapel, H Houben, W J Habets, C G Kallenberg, E Penner, L B van de Putte
In previous studies, antitransferrin receptor antibody 42/6 inhibited growth of normal granulocyte/macrophage progenitors and some malignant myeloid cells. In these studies, leukemia cell lines cultured without serum and fresh leukemia cells were used to investigate the roles of Fe, transferrin receptors, and transferrin in leukemia cell growth, and mechanisms of 42/6 inhibition and resistance. HL60 and KG-1 leukemia cells grown in serum-free medium were inhibited by 42/6. In contrast to results in fetal calf serum (FCS), soluble Fe (ferric nitriloacetate) reversed 42/6 growth inhibition of serum-free HL60 cells. When HL60 cells were adapted for growth in serum-free, transferrin-free medium, they became refractory to 42/6 growth inhibition. By using radiolabeled transferrin and 42/6, HL60 cells cultured in FCS and transferrin displayed similar quantities of transferrin receptors (29,000-30,000/cell) and similar Kd's (3.8-4.9 X 10(-9) M). Cells grown in transferrin-free medium showed a similar Kd (3.1 X 10(-9) M), but fewer transferrin binding sites (5,000/cell). Transferrin-independent cells contained a log higher concentration of intracellular ferritin. For both FCS and serum-free HL60 cells, calculated affinities for 42/6 were lower (5.7-10.0 X 10(-9) M), but the number of binding sites was three- to fourfold higher. To investigate further the relationship between receptor display and antibody inhibition in proliferating normal and malignant myeloid cells, simultaneous immunofluorescence was used to determine the cell cycle status of transferrin receptor-positive cells. Malignant cells in S + G2/M displayed approximately 50% of the amount of transferrin receptors detected in normal dividing colony-stimulating factor-stimulated marrow cells. Receptor display by dividing cells from two patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia was variable. When HL60 cells were exposed to dimethyl sulfoxide, transferrin receptor display decreased, and 42/6 growth inhibition was abrogated or greatly diminished. The presence of 42/6 did not prevent dimethyl sulfoxide-induced HL60 differentiation in serum-containing or serum-free cultures. We conclude that human leukemia cells require Fe for growth and that 42/6 inhibits transferrin-dependent cells by Fe deprivation. Some dividing normal and differentiating malignant cells display reduced transferrin receptors, and can also escape antibody inhibition. The increased ferritin levels and decreased transferrin receptors in transferrin-independent HL60 cells confirm the inverse relationship between cell ferritin content and transferrin receptor display. These studies indicate a critical role for Fe in leukemia cell growth and possible roles in cellular differentiation.
R Taetle, K Rhyner, J Castagnola, D To, J Mendelsohn
The mechanisms by which FFA are absorbed by the gut are unclear. To examine these processes, binding of [14C]oleate to isolated rat jejunal microvillous membranes (MVM) was studied in vitro. When [14C]oleate alone or compounded with bovine serum albumin at various molar ratios was incubated with MVM aliquots, binding was time- and temperature-dependent, inhibitable by addition of excess cold oleate, and decreased by heat denaturation or trypsin digestion of the membranes. When [14C]oleate binding to heat denatured MVM, which increased continuously as a function of the free oleate concentration and was taken as a measure of nonspecific binding, was subtracted from total binding to native MVM, a curve suggestive of saturable specific binding was observed. In contrast to fatty acids, there was no specific binding of [14C]taurocholate or [35S]sulfobromophthalein to jejunal MVM. After MVM solubilization with 1% Triton X-100, affinity chromatography over oleate-agarose and elution with 7 M urea yielded a single 40,000-mol-wt protein. This Sudan Black/periodic acid-Schiff-stain-negative protein co-chromatographed on Sephadex G-100 with [14C]oleate, [14C]palmitate, [14C]arachidonate, and [14C]linoleate, but not with the [14C]oleate ester of cholesterol, [14C]phosphatidylcholine, [14C]taurocholate, or [35S]sulfobromophthalein. A rabbit antibody to the previously reported hepatic membrane fatty acid binding protein (FABP) gave a single line of immunologic identity between the FABPs of rat jejunum and rat liver membrane. It inhibited the binding of [14C]oleate to native MVM but not heat denatured MVM, and, in immunohistochemical studies, demonstrated the presence of the FABP in the apical and lateral portions of the brush border cells of the jejunum, but not on the luminal surface of esophagus or colon. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that a specific FABP plays a role in fatty acid absorption from the gut.
W Stremmel, G Lotz, G Strohmeyer, P D Berk
The human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is known to be homologous to the v-erb B oncogene protein of the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression of the EGF receptor gene in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells is due to gene amplification. In this study, a variety of squamous cell carcinomas were examined and one, SCC-15, contained high levels of the EGF receptor as determined by immunoprecipitation via an EGF receptor-specific polyclonal antibody. Using a cloned EGF receptor complementary DNA as a probe, the level of EGF receptor RNA was found to be elevated four-fold in SCC-15 relative to normal cultured keratinocytes. When the same probe was used to identify EGF receptor gene fragments on a genomic DNA blot, the SCC-15 cell line was shown to possess an EGF receptor gene copy number amplified four to five times. Gene amplification results in the enhancement in the level of the EGF receptor in several carcinomas and could be responsible for the appearance of the transformed phenotype in these cells.
G T Merlino, Y H Xu, N Richert, A J Clark, S Ishii, S Banks-Schlegel, I Pastan
Bone marrow cells from a patient with Ph' positive chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase were cultured for multilineage hematopoietic colonies (CFU-GEMMT), erythroid bursts, and granulocytic colonies. With CFU-GEMMT colonies, T lymphocytes were identified by reaction with monoclonal antibodies Leu-5 and OKT-3; B cells were identified by reaction with B1. All CFU-GEMMT colonies examined contained the Ph' chromosome. Recloned secondary colonies of T cells reacted with Leu-5 and OKT-3 and were Ph' positive. This demonstrates that Ph' positive T lymphocytes were generated from the pluripotential stem cell of this patient. The presence of B cells in the mixed colonies indicates that these may also be derived from the neoplastic clone.
A A Fauser, L Kanz, K J Bross, G W Löhr
Atherosclerotic arteries have enhanced reactivity to vasoconstrictors, which suggests that features of the atherosclerotic process itself may result in this abnormal responsiveness. Since vascular smooth muscle proliferation is a prominent feature of atherosclerosis, we postulated that vasoactive agonists and smooth muscle mitogens may share certain common cellular mechanisms of action which potentially contribute to this hyperreactivity. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF), a well-characterized mitogen, on rat aortic vascular smooth muscle, both in intact aortic strips and in culture. EGF caused contraction (EC50 = 19 nM) of rat aortic strips which maximally was equivalent to 40% of that induced by angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. EGF increased 45Ca efflux (EC50 = 3 nM) from cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells, which was an effect shared by angiotensin II and thought to reflect increased cytosolic-free calcium concentration. EGF (7.5 nM) also stimulated growth of these cultured cells to the same extent as 10% calf serum. These results demonstrate that EGF is both a vasoconstrictor and mitogen for rat aortic smooth muscle cells. The similarities in the effects of EGF and angiotensin II suggest that certain common intracellular mechanisms of action may exist for vasoactive agonists and growth factors which may contribute to the altered vasoreactivity of atherosclerotic vessels.
B C Berk, T A Brock, R C Webb, M B Taubman, W J Atkinson, M A Gimbrone Jr, R W Alexander