This month’s cover image shows degeneration in knee joint articular cartilage of a chondrocyte- specific Bmal1 knockout mouse. On page 365, Dudek et al. demonstrate the importance of peripheral clock regulation in chondrocytes and report that the circadian transcription factor BMAL1 plays an essential role in maintaining the integrity of cartilage tissue.
As Editor of the
Howard A. Rockman
Identification of HPV infection as the etiologic agent of virtually all cases of cervical cancer, as well as a proportion of other epithelial cancers, has led to development of three FDA-approved multivalent prophylactic HPV vaccines composed of virus-like particles (VLPs). This essay describes the research and development that led to the VLP vaccines; discusses their safety, efficacy, and short-term effect on HPV-associated disease; and speculates that even a single dose of these vaccines, when given to adolescents, might be able to confer long-term protection. The HPV field exemplifies how long-term funding for basic research has lead to clinical interventions with the long-term potential to eradicate most cancers attributable to HPV infection. Although this essay is the result of my receiving the 2015 Harrington Prize for Innovation in Medicine from the Harrington Discovery Institute and the American Society for Clinical Investigation, this clinical advance has depended on the research of many investigators, development of commercial vaccines by the pharmaceutical companies, and participation of many patient volunteers in the clinical trials.
Douglas R. Lowy
Insulin resistance arises when the nutrient storage pathways evolved to maximize efficient energy utilization are exposed to chronic energy surplus. Ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle triggers pathways that impair insulin signaling, leading to reduced muscle glucose uptake and decreased hepatic glycogen synthesis. Muscle insulin resistance, due to ectopic lipid, precedes liver insulin resistance and diverts ingested glucose to the liver, resulting in increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis and hyperlipidemia. Subsequent macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to increased lipolysis, which further increases hepatic triglyceride synthesis and hyperlipidemia due to increased fatty acid esterification. Macrophage-induced WAT lipolysis also stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis, promoting fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia through increased fatty acid delivery to the liver, which results in increased hepatic acetyl-CoA content, a potent activator of pyruvate carboxylase, and increased glycerol conversion to glucose. These substrate-regulated processes are mostly independent of insulin signaling in the liver but are dependent on insulin signaling in WAT, which becomes defective with inflammation. Therapies that decrease ectopic lipid storage and diminish macrophage-induced WAT lipolysis will reverse the root causes of type 2 diabetes.
Varman T. Samuel, Gerald I. Shulman
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response induced by an infection, leading to organ dysfunction and mortality. Historically, sepsis-induced organ dysfunction and lethality were attributed to the interplay between inflammatory and antiinflammatory responses. With advances in intensive care management and goal-directed interventions, early sepsis mortality has diminished, only to surge later after “recovery” from acute events, prompting a search for sepsis-induced alterations in immune function. Sepsis is well known to alter innate and adaptive immune responses for sustained periods after clinical “recovery,” with immunosuppression being a prominent example of such alterations. Recent studies have centered on immune-modulatory therapy. These efforts are focused on defining and reversing the persistent immune cell dysfunction that is associated with mortality long after the acute events of sepsis have resolved.
Matthew J. Delano, Peter A. Ward
The development of high-affinity antibodies in response to infection is an iterative process in which B cells cycle between proliferation/somatic hypermutation and antigen-driven selection. These processes occur within specific regions of the secondary lymphoid structures known as germinal centers (GCs) and the environmental and signaling cues provided by these regions guide the GC reactions that drive B cell maturation and antibody production, ultimately determining B cell fate. In this issue of the
Yee Ling Wu, Cristina Rada
The clinical application of T cell immunotherapy depends on ex vivo modification and expansion of T cells for adoptive transfer. In preclinical models, the use of a purified, naive T cell subset enhances persistence and antitumor immunity; however, the majority of clinical studies rely on modification of mixed populations of T cells that contain only a small subset of highly functional T cells with less-differentiated phenotype. In this month’s issue of the JCI, Klebanoff and colleagues uncover a Fas-mediated interaction between naive T cells and antigen-experienced T cells that drives differentiation and impairs adoptive immunotherapy. Further, they show that blockade of Fas signaling enhances antitumor immunity and increases survival in a mouse model of melanoma. Their work supports a growing body of evidence that the use of naive T cells enhances the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy and suggests a new therapeutic strategy for preserving less-differentiated T cell populations.
Yang Xu, Gianpietro Dotti
Circadian rhythms mediated by both central and tissue-specific peripheral clocks allow for the synchronization of biological processes with diurnal cycles such as activity and rest. Disruption of these rhythms can be caused by altered sleep-awake patterns or by pathological conditions and can initiate or exacerbate human disease through mechanisms that are only partially understood. In this issue, Dudek et al. identify a chondrocyte-autonomous cartilage clock and demonstrate that expression of an important circadian pacemaker, BMAL1, decreases during osteoarthritis progression. They show that chondrocyte-specific deletion of BMAL1 leads to cartilage degradation and disruption of key pathways, shifting cartilage homeostasis toward a catabolic state. These findings provide insight into the interplay between circadian rhythm and cartilage in osteoarthritis.
Karen M. Doody, Nunzio Bottini
Activation of brain melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4Rs) leads to reduced food intake, increased energy expenditure, increased insulin sensitivity, and reduced linear growth. MC4R effects on energy expenditure and glucose metabolism are primarily mediated by the G protein Gsα in brain regions outside of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). However, the G protein(s) that is involved in MC4R-mediated suppression of food intake and linear growth, which are believed to be regulated primarily though action in the PVN, is unknown. Here, we show that PVN-specific loss of Gqα and G11α, which stimulate PLC, leads to severe hyperphagic obesity, increased linear growth, and inactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, without affecting energy expenditure or glucose metabolism. Moreover, we demonstrate that the ability of an MC4R agonist delivered to PVN to inhibit food intake is lost in mice lacking Gq/11α in the PVN but not in animals deficient for Gsα. The blood pressure response to the same MC4R agonist was only lost in animals lacking Gsα specifically in the PVN. Together, our results exemplify how different physiological effects of GPCRs may be mediated by different G proteins and identify a pathway for appetite regulation that could be selectively targeted by Gq/11α-biased MC4R agonists as a potential treatment for obesity.
Yong-Qi Li, Yogendra Shrestha, Mritunjay Pandey, Min Chen, Ahmed Kablan, Oksana Gavrilova, Stefan Offermanns, Lee S. Weinstein
Vascular oxidative injury accompanies many common conditions associated with hypertension. In the present study, we employed mouse models with excessive vascular production of ROS (tgsm/p22phox mice, which overexpress the NADPH oxidase subunit p22
Jing Wu, Mohamed A. Saleh, Annet Kirabo, Hana A. Itani, Kim Ramil C. Montaniel, Liang Xiao, Wei Chen, Raymond L. Mernaugh, Hua Cai, Kenneth E. Bernstein, Jörg J. Goronzy, Cornelia M. Weyand, John A. Curci, Natalia R. Barbaro, Heitor Moreno, Sean S. Davies, L. Jackson Roberts II, Meena S. Madhur, David G. Harrison
MDM4 is a promising target for cancer therapy, as it is undetectable in most normal adult tissues but often upregulated in cancer cells to dampen p53 tumor-suppressor function. The mechanisms that underlie MDM4 upregulation in cancer cells are largely unknown. Here, we have shown that this key oncogenic event mainly depends on a specific alternative splicing switch. We determined that while a nonsense-mediated, decay-targeted isoform of
Michael Dewaele, Tommaso Tabaglio, Karen Willekens, Marco Bezzi, Shun Xie Teo, Diana H.P. Low, Cheryl M. Koh, Florian Rambow, Mark Fiers, Aljosja Rogiers, Enrico Radaelli, Muthafar Al-Haddawi, Soo Yong Tan, Els Hermans, Frederic Amant, Hualong Yan, Manikandan Lakshmanan, Ratnacaram Chandrahas Koumar, Soon Thye Lim, Frederick A. Derheimer, Robert M. Campbell, Zahid Bonday, Vinay Tergaonkar, Mark Shackleton, Christine Blattner, Jean-Christophe Marine, Ernesto Guccione
The DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B are primarily responsible for de novo methylation of specific cytosine residues in CpG dinucleotides during mammalian development. While loss-of-function mutations in DNMT3A are highly recurrent in acute myeloid leukemia (AML),
Christopher B. Cole, Angela M. Verdoni, Shamika Ketkar, Elizabeth R. Leight, David A. Russler-Germain, Tamara L. Lamprecht, Ryan T. Demeter, Vincent Magrini, Timothy J. Ley
Magnetic resonance–guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) facilitates noninvasive image-guided conformal thermal therapy of cancer. Yet in many scenarios, the sensitive tissues surrounding the tumor constrain the margins of ablation; therefore, augmentation of MRgFUS with chemotherapy may be required to destroy remaining tumor. Here, we used 64Cu-PET-CT, MRI, autoradiography, and fluorescence imaging to track the kinetics of long-circulating liposomes in immunocompetent mammary carcinoma–bearing FVB/n and BALB/c mice. We observed a 5-fold and 50-fold enhancement of liposome and drug concentration, respectively, within MRgFUS thermal ablation–treated tumors along with dense accumulation within the surrounding tissue rim. Ultrasound-enhanced drug accumulation was rapid and durable and greatly increased total tumor drug exposure over time. In addition, we found that the small molecule gadoteridol accumulates around and within ablated tissue. We further demonstrated that dilated vasculature, loss of vascular integrity resulting in extravasation of blood cells, stromal inflammation, and loss of cell-cell adhesion and tissue architecture all contribute to the enhanced accumulation of the liposomes and small molecule probe. The locally enhanced liposome accumulation was preserved even after a multiweek protocol of doxorubicin-loaded liposomes and partial ablation. Finally, by supplementing ablation with concurrent liposomal drug therapy, a complete and durable response was obtained using protocols for which a sub-mm rim of tumor remained after ablation.
Andrew W. Wong, Brett Z. Fite, Yu Liu, Azadeh Kheirolomoom, Jai W. Seo, Katherine D. Watson, Lisa M. Mahakian, Sarah M. Tam, Hua Zhang, Josquin Foiret, Alexander D. Borowsky, Katherine W. Ferrara
Increased sodium influx via incomplete inactivation of the major cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5 is correlated with an increased incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in humans. Here, we sought to determine whether increased sodium entry is sufficient to cause the structural and electrophysiological perturbations that are required to initiate and sustain AF. We used mice expressing a human NaV1.5 variant with a mutation in the anesthetic-binding site (F1759A-NaV1.5) and demonstrated that incomplete Na+ channel inactivation is sufficient to drive structural alterations, including atrial and ventricular enlargement, myofibril disarray, fibrosis and mitochondrial injury, and electrophysiological dysfunctions that together lead to spontaneous and prolonged episodes of AF in these mice. Using this model, we determined that the increase in a persistent sodium current causes heterogeneously prolonged action potential duration and rotors, as well as wave and wavelets in the atria, and thereby mimics mechanistic theories that have been proposed for AF in humans. Acute inhibition of the sodium-calcium exchanger, which targets the downstream effects of enhanced sodium entry, markedly reduced the burden of AF and ventricular arrhythmias in this model, suggesting a potential therapeutic approach for AF. Together, our results indicate that these mice will be important for assessing the cellular mechanisms and potential effectiveness of antiarrhythmic therapies.
Elaine Wan, Jeffrey Abrams, Richard L. Weinberg, Alexander N. Katchman, Joseph Bayne, Sergey I. Zakharov, Lin Yang, John P. Morrow, Hasan Garan, Steven O. Marx
According to the neurovascular hypothesis, impairment of low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein-1 (LRP1) in brain capillaries of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) contributes to neurotoxic amyloid-β (Aβ) brain accumulation and drives Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. However, due to conflicting reports on the involvement of LRP1 in Aβ transport and the expression of LRP1 in brain endothelium, the role of LRP1 at the BBB is uncertain. As global
Steffen E. Storck, Sabrina Meister, Julius Nahrath, Julius N. Meißner, Nils Schubert, Alessandro Di Spiezio, Sandra Baches, Roosmarijn E. Vandenbroucke, Yvonne Bouter, Ingrid Prikulis, Carsten Korth, Sascha Weggen, Axel Heimann, Markus Schwaninger, Thomas A. Bayer, Claus U. Pietrzik
E2F transcription factors are known regulators of the cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. Here, we reveal that E2F1 plays an essential role in liver physiopathology through the regulation of glycolysis and lipogenesis. We demonstrate that E2F1 deficiency leads to a decrease in glycolysis and de novo synthesis of fatty acids in hepatocytes. We further demonstrate that E2F1 directly binds to the promoters of key lipogenic genes, including
Pierre-Damien Denechaud, Isabel C. Lopez-Mejia, Albert Giralt, Qiuwen Lai, Emilie Blanchet, Brigitte Delacuisine, Brandon N. Nicolay, Nicholas J. Dyson, Caroline Bonner, François Pattou, Jean-Sébastien Annicotte, Lluis Fajas
Satellite cells are a stem cell population within adult muscle and are responsible for myofiber regeneration upon injury. Satellite cell dysfunction has been shown to underlie the loss of skeletal muscle mass in many acquired and genetic muscle disorders. The transcription factor paired box-protein-7 (PAX7) is indispensable for supplementing the reservoir of satellite cells and driving regeneration in normal and diseased muscle. TNF receptor–associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an adaptor protein and an E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates the activation of multiple cell signaling pathways in a context-dependent manner. Here, we demonstrated that TRAF6-mediated signaling is critical for homeostasis of satellite cells and their function during regenerative myogenesis. Selective deletion of
Sajedah M. Hindi, Ashok Kumar
Matthew L. Hedberg, Gerald Goh, Simion I. Chiosea, Julie E. Bauman, Maria L. Freilino, Yan Zeng, Lin Wang, Brenda B. Diergaarde, William E. Gooding, Vivian W.Y. Lui, Roy S. Herbst, Richard P. Lifton, Jennifer R. Grandis
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a variable disease; therefore, markers to identify aggressive forms are essential for patient management. Here, we have shown that expression of the costimulatory molecule and microbial sensor SLAMF1 (also known as CD150) is lost in a subset of patients with an aggressive CLL that associates with a shorter time to first treatment and reduced overall survival. SLAMF1 silencing in CLL-like Mec-1 cells, which constitutively express SLAMF1, modulated pathways related to cell migration, cytoskeletal organization, and intracellular vesicle formation and recirculation. SLAMF1 deficiency associated with increased expression of CXCR4, CD38, and CD44, thereby positively affecting chemotactic responses to CXCL12. SLAMF1 ligation with an agonistic monoclonal antibody increased ROS accumulation and induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK1/2, and BCL2, thereby promoting the autophagic flux. Beclin1 dissociated from BCL2 in response to SLAMF1 ligation, resulting in formation of the autophagy macrocomplex, which contains SLAMF1, beclin1, and the enzyme VPS34. Accordingly, SLAMF1-silenced cells or SLAMF1lo primary CLL cells were resistant to autophagy-activating therapeutic agents, such as fludarabine and the BCL2 homology domain 3 mimetic ABT-737. Together, these results indicate that loss of SLAMF1 expression in CLL modulates genetic pathways that regulate chemotaxis and autophagy and that potentially affect drug responses, and suggest that these effects underlie unfavorable clinical outcome experienced by SLAMF1lo patients.
Cinzia Bologna, Roberta Buonincontri, Sara Serra, Tiziana Vaisitti, Valentina Audrito, Davide Brusa, Andrea Pagnani, Marta Coscia, Giovanni D’Arena, Elisabetta Mereu, Roberto Piva, Richard R. Furman, Davide Rossi, Gianluca Gaidano, Cox Terhorst, Silvia Deaglio
RNA splicing is a major contributor to total transcriptome complexity; however, the functional role and regulation of splicing in heart failure remain poorly understood. Here, we used a total transcriptome profiling and bioinformatic analysis approach and identified a muscle-specific isoform of an RNA splicing regulator, RBFox1 (also known as A2BP1), as a prominent regulator of alternative RNA splicing during heart failure. Evaluation of developing murine and zebrafish hearts revealed that RBFox1 is induced during postnatal cardiac maturation. However, we found that RBFox1 is markedly diminished in failing human and mouse hearts. In a mouse model, RBFox1 deficiency in the heart promoted pressure overload–induced heart failure. We determined that RBFox1 is a potent regulator of RNA splicing and is required for a conserved splicing process of transcription factor MEF2 family members that yields different MEF2 isoforms with differential effects on cardiac hypertrophic gene expression. Finally, induction of RBFox1 expression in murine pressure overload models substantially attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and pathological manifestations. Together, this study identifies regulation of RNA splicing by RBFox1 as an important player in transcriptome reprogramming during heart failure that influence pathogenesis of the disease.
Chen Gao, Shuxun Ren, Jae-Hyung Lee, Jinsong Qiu, Douglas J. Chapski, Christoph D. Rau, Yu Zhou, Maha Abdellatif, Astushi Nakano, Thomas M. Vondriska, Xinshu Xiao, Xiang-Dong Fu, Jau-Nian Chen, Yibin Wang
Heparan sulfate (HS) is an essential component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which serves as a barrier to tumor invasion and metastasis. Heparanase promotes tumor growth by cleaving HS chains of proteoglycan and releasing HS-bound angiogenic growth factors and facilitates tumor invasion and metastasis by degrading the ECM. HS mimetics, such as PG545, have been developed as antitumor agents and are designed to suppress angiogenesis and metastasis by inhibiting heparanase and competing for the HS-binding domain of angiogenic growth factors. However, how PG545 exerts its antitumor effect remains incompletely defined. Here, using murine models of lymphoma, we determined that the antitumor effects of PG545 are critically dependent on NK cell activation and that NK cell activation by PG545 requires TLR9. We demonstrate that PG545 does not activate TLR9 directly but instead enhances TLR9 activation through the elevation of the TLR9 ligand CpG in DCs. Specifically, PG545 treatment resulted in CpG accumulation in the lysosomal compartment of DCs, leading to enhanced production of IL-12, which is essential for PG545-mediated NK cell activation. Overall, these results reveal that PG545 activates NK cells and that this activation is critical for the antitumor effect of PG545. Moreover, our findings may have important implications for improving NK cell–based antitumor therapies.
Todd V. Brennan, Liwen Lin, Joshua D. Brandstadter, Victoria R. Rendell, Keith Dredge, Xiaopei Huang, Yiping Yang
Ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) is central to the generation of extracellular adenosine. Previous studies have highlighted a detrimental role for extracellular adenosine in cancer, as it dampens T cell–mediated immune responses. Here, we determined that, in contrast to other cancers, CD73 is markedly downregulated in poorly differentiated and advanced-stage endometrial carcinoma compared with levels in normal endometrium and low-grade tumors. In murine models, CD73 deficiency led to a loss of endometrial epithelial barrier function, and pharmacological CD73 inhibition increased in vitro migration and invasion of endometrial carcinoma cells. Given that CD73-generated adenosine is central to regulating tissue protection and physiology in normal tissues, we hypothesized that CD73-generated adenosine in endometrial carcinoma induces an innate reflex to protect epithelial integrity. CD73 associated with cell-cell contacts, filopodia, and membrane zippers, indicative of involvement in cell-cell adhesion and actin polymerization–dependent processes. We determined that CD73-generated adenosine induces cortical actin polymerization via adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) induction of a Rho GTPase CDC42–dependent conformational change of the actin-related proteins 2 and 3 (ARP2/3) actin polymerization complex member N-WASP. Cortical F-actin elevation increased membrane E-cadherin, β-catenin, and Na+K+ ATPase. Together, these findings reveal that CD73-generated adenosine promotes epithelial integrity and suggest why loss of CD73 in endometrial cancer allows for tumor progression. Moreover, our data indicate that the role of CD73 in cancer is more complex than previously described.
Jessica L. Bowser, Michael R. Blackburn, Gregory L. Shipley, Jose G. Molina, Kenneth Dunner Jr., Russell R. Broaddus
The Popeye domain–containing 1 (
Roland F.R. Schindler, Chiara Scotton, Jianguo Zhang, Chiara Passarelli, Beatriz Ortiz-Bonnin, Subreena Simrick, Thorsten Schwerte, Kar-Lai Poon, Mingyan Fang, Susanne Rinné, Alexander Froese, Viacheslav O. Nikolaev, Christiane Grunert, Thomas Müller, Giorgio Tasca, Padmini Sarathchandra, Fabrizio Drago, Bruno Dallapiccola, Claudio Rapezzi, Eloisa Arbustini, Francesca Romana Di Raimo, Marcella Neri, Rita Selvatici, Francesca Gualandi, Fabiana Fattori, Antonello Pietrangelo, Wenyan Li, Hui Jiang, Xun Xu, Enrico Bertini, Niels Decher, Jun Wang, Thomas Brand, Alessandra Ferlini
Sphingolipids make up a family of molecules associated with an array of biological functions, including cell death and migration. Sphingolipids are often altered in cancer, though how these alterations lead to tumor formation and progression is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens and cell lines and determined that ceramide synthase 6 (CERS6) is markedly overexpressed compared with controls. Elevated CERS6 expression was due in part to reduction of microRNA-101 (miR-101) and was associated with increased invasion and poor prognosis. CERS6 knockdown in NSCLC cells altered the ceramide profile, resulting in decreased cell migration and invasion in vitro, and decreased the frequency of RAC1-positive lamellipodia formation while CERS6 overexpression promoted it. In murine models, CERS6 knockdown in transplanted NSCLC cells attenuated lung metastasis. Furthermore, combined treatment with
Motoshi Suzuki, Ke Cao, Seiichi Kato, Yuji Komizu, Naoki Mizutani, Kouji Tanaka, Chinatsu Arima, Mei Chee Tai, Kiyoshi Yanagisawa, Norie Togawa, Takahiro Shiraishi, Noriyasu Usami, Tetsuo Taniguchi, Takayuki Fukui, Kohei Yokoi, Keiko Wakahara, Yoshinori Hasegawa, Yukiko Mizutani, Yasuyuki Igarashi, Jin-ichi Inokuchi, Soichiro Iwaki, Satoshi Fujii, Akira Satou, Yoko Matsumoto, Ryuichi Ueoka, Keiko Tamiya-Koizumi, Takashi Murate, Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Mamoru Kyogashima, Takashi Takahashi
HDL from healthy humans and lean mice inhibits palmitate-induced adipocyte inflammation; however, the effect of the inflammatory state on the functional properties of HDL on adipocytes is unknown. Here, we found that HDL from mice injected with AgNO3 fails to inhibit palmitate-induced inflammation and reduces cholesterol efflux from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, HDL isolated from obese mice with moderate inflammation and humans with systemic lupus erythematosus had similar effects. Since serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations in HDL increase with inflammation, we investigated whether elevated SAA is a causal factor in HDL dysfunction. HDL from AgNO3-injected mice lacking
Chang Yeop Han, Chongren Tang, Myriam E. Guevara, Hao Wei, Tomasz Wietecha, Baohai Shao, Savitha Subramanian, Mohamed Omer, Shari Wang, Kevin D. O’Brien, Santica M. Marcovina, Thomas N. Wight, Tomas Vaisar, Maria C. de Beer, Frederick C. de Beer, William R. Osborne, Keith B. Elkon, Alan Chait
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients show abnormalities in early B cell tolerance checkpoints, resulting in the accumulation of large numbers of autoreactive B cells in their blood. Treatment with rituximab, an anti-CD20 mAb that depletes B cells, has been shown to preserve β cell function in T1D patients and improve other autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. However, it remains largely unknown how anti–B cell therapy thwarts autoimmunity in these pathologies. Here, we analyzed the reactivity of Abs expressed by single, mature naive B cells from 4 patients with T1D before and 52 weeks after treatment to determine whether rituximab resets early B cell tolerance checkpoints. We found that anti–B cell therapy did not alter the frequencies of autoreactive and polyreactive B cells, which remained elevated in the blood of all patients after rituximab treatment. Moreover, the limited proliferative history of autoreactive B cells after treatment revealed that these clones were newly generated B cells and not self-reactive B cells that had escaped depletion and repopulated the periphery through homeostatic expansion. We conclude that anti–B cell therapy may provide a temporary dampening of autoimmune processes through B cell depletion. However, repletion with autoreactive B cells may explain the relapse that occurs in many autoimmune patients after anti–B cell therapy.
Nicolas Chamberlain, Christopher Massad, Tyler Oe, Tineke Cantaert, Kevan C. Herold, Eric Meffre, the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study Group
Here, we have described and validated a strategy for monitoring skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in rodents and humans over days or weeks from blood samples. We based this approach on label incorporation into proteins that are synthesized specifically in skeletal muscle and escape into the circulation. Heavy water labeling combined with sensitive tandem mass spectrometric analysis allowed integrated synthesis rates of proteins in muscle tissue across the proteome to be measured over several weeks. Fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of plasma creatine kinase M-type (CK-M) and carbonic anhydrase 3 (CA-3) in the blood, more than 90% of which is derived from skeletal muscle, correlated closely with FSR of CK-M, CA-3, and other proteins of various ontologies in skeletal muscle tissue in both rodents and humans. Protein synthesis rates across the muscle proteome generally changed in a coordinate manner in response to a sprint interval exercise training regimen in humans and to denervation or clenbuterol treatment in rodents. FSR of plasma CK-M and CA-3 revealed changes and interindividual differences in muscle tissue proteome dynamics. In human subjects, sprint interval training primarily stimulated synthesis of structural and glycolytic proteins. Together, our results indicate that this approach provides a virtual biopsy, sensitively revealing individualized changes in proteome-wide synthesis rates in skeletal muscle without a muscle biopsy. Accordingly, this approach has potential applications for the diagnosis, management, and treatment of muscle disorders.
Mahalakshmi Shankaran, Chelsea L. King, Thomas E. Angel, William E. Holmes, Kelvin W. Li, Marc Colangelo, John C. Price, Scott M. Turner, Christopher Bell, Karyn L. Hamilton, Benjamin F. Miller, Marc K. Hellerstein
Group A streptococcal (GAS) infection induces the production of Abs that cross-react with host neuronal proteins, and these anti-GAS mimetic Abs are associated with autoimmune diseases of the CNS. However, the mechanisms that allow these Abs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and induce neuropathology remain unresolved. We have previously shown that GAS infection in mouse models induces a robust Th17 response in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). Here, we identified GAS-specific Th17 cells in tonsils of humans naturally exposed to GAS, prompting us to explore whether GAS-specific CD4+ T cells home to mouse brains following i.n. infection. Intranasal challenge of repeatedly GAS-inoculated mice promoted migration of GAS-specific Th17 cells from NALT into the brain, BBB breakdown, serum IgG deposition, microglial activation, and loss of excitatory synaptic proteins under conditions in which no viable bacteria were detected in CNS tissue. CD4+ T cells were predominantly located in the olfactory bulb (OB) and in other brain regions that receive direct input from the OB. Together, these findings provide insight into the immunopathology of neuropsychiatric complications that are associated with GAS infections and suggest that crosstalk between the CNS and cellular immunity may be a general mechanism by which infectious agents exacerbate symptoms associated with other CNS autoimmune disorders.
Thamotharampillai Dileepan, Erica D. Smith, Daniel Knowland, Martin Hsu, Maryann Platt, Peter Bittner-Eddy, Brenda Cohen, Peter Southern, Elizabeth Latimer, Earl Harley, Dritan Agalliu, P. Patrick Cleary
Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of purified naive, stem cell memory, and central memory T cell subsets results in superior persistence and antitumor immunity compared with ACT of populations containing more-differentiated effector memory and effector T cells. Despite a clear advantage of the less-differentiated populations, the majority of ACT trials utilize unfractionated T cell subsets. Here, we have challenged the notion that the mere presence of less-differentiated T cells in starting populations used to generate therapeutic T cells is sufficient to convey their desirable attributes. Using both mouse and human cells, we identified a T cell–T cell interaction whereby antigen-experienced subsets directly promote the phenotypic, functional, and metabolic differentiation of naive T cells. This process led to the loss of less-differentiated T cell subsets and resulted in impaired cellular persistence and tumor regression in mouse models following ACT. The T memory–induced conversion of naive T cells was mediated by a nonapoptotic Fas signal, resulting in Akt-driven cellular differentiation. Thus, induction of Fas signaling enhanced T cell differentiation and impaired antitumor immunity, while Fas signaling blockade preserved the antitumor efficacy of naive cells within mixed populations. These findings reveal that T cell subsets can synchronize their differentiation state in a process similar to quorum sensing in unicellular organisms and suggest that disruption of this quorum-like behavior among T cells has potential to enhance T cell–based immunotherapies.
Christopher A. Klebanoff, Christopher D. Scott, Anthony J. Leonardi, Tori N. Yamamoto, Anthony C. Cruz, Claudia Ouyang, Madhu Ramaswamy, Rahul Roychoudhuri, Yun Ji, Robert L. Eil, Madhusudhanan Sukumar, Joseph G. Crompton, Douglas C. Palmer, Zachary A. Borman, David Clever, Stacy K. Thomas, Shashankkumar Patel, Zhiya Yu, Pawel Muranski, Hui Liu, Ena Wang, Francesco M. Marincola, Alena Gros, Luca Gattinoni, Steven A. Rosenberg, Richard M. Siegel, Nicholas P. Restifo
Insulin resistance is a fundamental pathogenic factor that characterizes various metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue contributes to the development of obesity-related insulin resistance through increased release of fatty acids, altered adipokine secretion, and/or macrophage infiltration and cytokine release. Here, we aimed to analyze the participation of the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) in adipose tissue biology. We determined that white adipose tissue (WAT) from CDK4-deficient mice exhibits impaired lipogenesis and increased lipolysis. Conversely, lipolysis was decreased and lipogenesis was increased in mice expressing a mutant hyperactive form of CDK4 (CDK4R24C). A global kinome analysis of CDK4-deficient mice following insulin stimulation revealed that insulin signaling is impaired in these animals. We determined that insulin activates the CCND3-CDK4 complex, which in turn phosphorylates insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) at serine 388, thereby creating a positive feedback loop that maintains adipocyte insulin signaling. Furthermore, we found that CCND3 expression and IRS2 serine 388 phosphorylation are increased in human obese subjects. Together, our results demonstrate that CDK4 is a major regulator of insulin signaling in WAT.
Sylviane Lagarrigue, Isabel C. Lopez-Mejia, Pierre-Damien Denechaud, Xavier Escoté, Judit Castillo-Armengol, Veronica Jimenez, Carine Chavey, Albert Giralt, Qiuwen Lai, Lianjun Zhang, Laia Martinez-Carreres, Brigitte Delacuisine, Jean-Sébastien Annicotte, Emilie Blanchet, Sébastien Huré, Anna Abella, Francisco J. Tinahones, Joan Vendrell, Pierre Dubus, Fatima Bosch, C. Ronald Kahn, Lluis Fajas
MicroRNA (miR) are important regulators of gene expression, and aberrant miR expression has been linked to oncogenesis; however, little is understood about their contribution to lung tumorigenesis. Here, we determined that miR-31 is overexpressed in human lung adenocarcinoma and this overexpression independently correlates with decreased patient survival. We developed a transgenic mouse model that allows for lung-specific expression of miR-31 to test the oncogenic potential of miR-31 in the lung. Using this model, we observed that miR-31 induction results in lung hyperplasia, followed by adenoma formation and later adenocarcinoma development. Moreover, induced expression of miR-31 in mice cooperated with mutant KRAS to accelerate lung tumorigenesis. We determined that miR-31 regulates lung epithelial cell growth and identified 6 negative regulators of RAS/MAPK signaling as direct targets of miR-31. Our study distinguishes miR-31 as a driver of lung tumorigenesis that promotes mutant KRAS-mediated oncogenesis and reveals that miR-31 directly targets and reduces expression of negative regulators of RAS/MAPK signaling.
Mick D. Edmonds, Kelli L. Boyd, Tamara Moyo, Ramkrishna Mitra, Robert Duszynski, Maria Pia Arrate, Xi Chen, Zhongming Zhao, Timothy S. Blackwell, Thomas Andl, Christine M. Eischen
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent and debilitating joint disease, and there are currently no effective disease-modifying treatments available. Multiple risk factors for OA, such as aging, result in progressive damage and loss of articular cartilage. Autonomous circadian clocks have been identified in mouse cartilage, and environmental disruption of circadian rhythms in mice predisposes animals to OA-like damage. However, the contribution of the cartilage clock mechanisms to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis is still unclear. Here, we have shown that expression of the core clock transcription factor BMAL1 is disrupted in human OA cartilage and in aged mouse cartilage. Furthermore, targeted Bmal1 ablation in mouse chondrocytes abolished their circadian rhythm and caused progressive degeneration of articular cartilage. We determined that BMAL1 directs the circadian expression of many genes implicated in cartilage homeostasis, including those involved in catabolic, anabolic, and apoptotic pathways. Loss of BMAL1 reduced the levels of phosphorylated SMAD2/3 (p-SMAD2/3) and NFATC2 and decreased expression of the major matrix-related genes Sox9, Acan, and Col2a1, but increased p-SMAD1/5 levels. Together, these results define a regulatory mechanism that links chondrocyte BMAL1 to the maintenance and repair of cartilage and suggest that circadian rhythm disruption is a risk factor for joint diseases such as OA.
Michal Dudek, Nicole Gossan, Nan Yang, Hee-Jeong Im, Jayalath P.D. Ruckshanthi, Hikari Yoshitane, Xin Li, Ding Jin, Ping Wang, Maya Boudiffa, Ilaria Bellantuono, Yoshitaka Fukada, Ray P. Boot-Handford, Qing-Jun Meng
The production of high-affinity antibodies by B cells is essential for pathogen clearance. Antibody affinity for antigen is increased through the affinity maturation in germinal centers (GCs). This is an iterative process in which B cells cycle between proliferation coupled with the acquisition of mutations and antigen-based positive selection, resulting in retention of the highest-affinity B cell clones. The posttranscriptional regulator microRNA-155 (miR-155) is critical for efficient affinity maturation and the maintenance of the GCs; however, the cellular and molecular mechanism by which miR-155 regulates GC responses is not well understood. Here, we utilized a miR-155 reporter mouse strain and showed that miR-155 is coexpressed with the proto-oncogene encoding c-MYC in positively selected B cells. Functionally, miR-155 protected positively selected c-MYC+ B cells from apoptosis, allowing clonal expansion of this population, providing an explanation as to why
Rinako Nakagawa, Rebecca Leyland, Michael Meyer-Hermann, Dong Lu, Martin Turner, Giuseppina Arbore, Tri Giang Phan, Robert Brink, Elena Vigorito
Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated by the membrane iron exporter ferroportin and its regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin. The hepcidin/ferroportin axis is considered a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases of iron overload or deficiency. Here, we conducted a chemical screen in zebrafish to identify small molecules that decrease ferroportin protein levels. The chemical screen led to the identification of 3 steroid molecules, epitiostanol, progesterone, and mifepristone, which decrease ferroportin levels by increasing the biosynthesis of hepcidin. These hepcidin-inducing steroids (HISs) did not activate known hepcidin-inducing pathways, including the BMP and JAK/STAT3 pathways. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) was required for HIS-dependent increases in hepcidin biosynthesis, as PGRMC1 depletion in cultured hepatoma cells and zebrafish blocked the ability of HISs to increase hepcidin mRNA levels. Neutralizing antibodies directed against PGRMC1 attenuated the ability of HISs to induce hepcidin gene expression. Inhibiting the kinases of the SRC family, which are downstream of PGRMC1, blocked the ability of HISs to increase hepcidin mRNA levels. Furthermore, HIS treatment increased hepcidin biosynthesis in mice and humans. Together, these data indicate that PGRMC1 regulates hepcidin gene expression through an evolutionarily conserved mechanism. These studies have identified drug candidates and potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of diseases of abnormal iron metabolism.
Xiang Li, David K. Rhee, Rajeev Malhotra, Claire Mayeur, Liam A. Hurst, Emily Ager, Georgia Shelton, Yael Kramer, David McCulloh, David Keefe, Kenneth D. Bloch, Donald B. Bloch, Randall T. Peterson
Deborah A. Knight, Shin Foong Ngiow, Ming Li, Tiffany Parmenter, Stephen Mok, Ashley Cass, Nicole M. Haynes, Kathryn Kinross, Hideo Yagita, Richard C. Koya, Thomas G. Graeber, Antoni Ribas, Grant A. McArthur, Mark J. Smyth
Joshua W. Knowles, Weijia Xie, Zhongyang Zhang, Indumathi Chennamsetty, Themistocles L. Assimes, Jussi Paananen, Ola Hansson, James Pankow, Mark O. Goodarzi, Ivan Carcamo-Orive, Andrew P. Morris, Yii-Der I. Chen, Ville-Petteri Mäkinen, Andrea Ganna, Anubha Mahajan, Xiuqing Guo, Fahim Abbasi, Danielle M. Greenawalt, Pek Lum, Cliona Molony, Lars Lind, Cecilia Lindgren, Leslie J. Raffel, Philip S. Tsao, The RISC (Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease) Consortium, The EUGENE (European Network on Functional Genomics of Type Diabetes) Study, The GUARDIAN (Genetics UndeRlying DIAbetes in HispaNics) Consortium, The SAPPHIRe (Stanford Asian and Pacific Program for Hypertension and Insulin Resistance) Study, Eric E. Schadt, Jerome I. Rotter, Alan Sinaiko, Gerald Reaven, Xia Yang, Chao A. Hsiung, Leif Groop, Heather J. Cordell, Markku Laakso, Ke Hao, Erik Ingelsson, Timothy M. Frayling, Michael N. Weedon, Mark Walker, Thomas Quertermous
Tiffany Chang, Kimberly Krisman, Emily Harding Theobald, Jin Xu, Jon Akutagawa, Jennifer O. Lauchle, Scott Kogan, Benjamin S. Braun, Kevin Shannon