Neuroepithelium stained for tight junction protein ZO1(white), phospho-histone H3 (cyan), and DAPI (blue). Cleft lip is a common orofacial birth defect that results from incomplete growth and fusion of facial processes. In this month’s issue, Hiroshi Kurosaka and colleagues uncover a critical link between WNT signaling and the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway in the development of cleft lip (1660). Their studies reveal that altered SHH signaling promotes the formation of cleft lip by antagonizing the canonical WNT pathway and reducing expression of interferon regulatory factor (IRF6).
I would like to express my sincere appreciation to the American Society for Clinical Investigation and the Harrington Discovery Institute for the honor of being named the inaugural recipient of the Harrington Prize for Innovation in Medicine. I accept this distinction with a deep sense of gratitude and debt to my mentors, trainees, colleagues, collaborators, patients, and family. Moments of recognition such as this are rare, savored, and sustaining. They also invariably provoke personal reflection about what exactly is being recognized. If something innovative truly stands apart in my work, I have come to the conclusion that it relates less to the methods utilized to address questions and more to the questions I choose to ask, and when I ask them.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of visual loss in the elderly, with increasing prevalence due to increasing life expectancy. While the introduction of anti-VEGF therapy has improved outcomes, there are still major unmet needs and gaps in the understanding of underlying biological processes. These include early, intermediate, and atrophic disease stages. Recent studies have assessed therapeutic approaches addressing various disease-associated pathways, including complement inhibitors. Drug-delivery aspects are also relevant, as many agents have to be administered repeatedly. Herein, relevant pathogenetic factors and underlying mechanisms as well as recent and potential therapeutic approaches are reviewed.
Frank G. Holz, Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg, Monika Fleckenstein
Early demonstrations that mice could be tolerized to transplanted tissues with short courses of immunosuppressive therapy and that with regard to tolerance to self, CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) appeared to play a critical role, have catalyzed strategies to harness FOXP3-dependent processes to control rejection in human transplantation. This review seeks to examine the scientific underpinning for this new approach to finesse immunosuppression.
Herman Waldmann, Robert Hilbrands, Duncan Howie, Stephen Cobbold
It is increasingly evident that cancer results from altered organ homeostasis rather than from deregulated control of single cells or groups of cells. This applies especially to epithelial cancer, the most common form of human solid tumors and a major cause of cancer lethality. In the vast majority of cases, in situ epithelial cancer lesions do not progress into malignancy, even if they harbor many of the genetic changes found in invasive and metastatic tumors. While changes in tumor stroma are frequently viewed as secondary to changes in the epithelium, recent evidence indicates that they can play a primary role in both cancer progression and initiation. These processes may explain the phenomenon of field cancerization, i.e., the occurrence of multifocal and recurrent epithelial tumors that are preceded by and associated with widespread changes of surrounding tissue or organ “fields.”
G. Paolo Dotto
Nearly two decades ago, we evaluated ten patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We determined that alarming nocturnal oscillations in arterial pressure and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) were caused by regulatory coupling and neural interactions among SNA, apnea, and ventilation. Patients with OSA exhibited high levels of SNA when awake, during normal ventilation, and during normoxia, which contributed to hypertension and organ damage. Additionally, we achieved a beneficial and potentially lifesaving reduction in SNA through the application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), which remains a primary therapeutic approach for patients with OSA. With these results in hindsight, we herein discuss three concepts with functional and therapeutic relevance to the integrative neurobiology of autonomic cardiovascular control and to the mechanisms involved in excessive sympathoexcitation in OSA.
François Abboud, Ravinder Kumar
The metastatic spread of tumor epithelial cells accounts for over 90% of cancer-specific mortality; however, the molecular mechanisms that govern tumor spread and distant recolonization remain unclear. In this issue of
Julienne L. Carstens, Sara Lovisa, Raghu Kalluri
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated
David S. Park, Glenn I. Fishman
Thromboinflammatory diseases result from the interactions of vascular endothelial cells, inflammatory cells, and platelets with cellular adhesion molecules, plasma proteins, and lipids. Tipping the balance toward a prothrombotic, proinflammatory phenotype results from multicellular activation signals. In this issue of the
Gregory M. Vercellotti, John D. Belcher
Recent studies have demonstrated that insulin stimulates bone cells to produce and activate osteocalcin, an endocrine hormone that increases the efficiency of glucose metabolism through its actions on the pancreas and other peripheral tissues. In this issue of the
Ryan C. Riddle, Thomas L. Clemens
The recent identification of multiple dominant mutations in the gene encoding β-catenin in both humans and mice has enabled exploration of the molecular and cellular basis of β-catenin function in cognitive impairment. In humans, β-catenin mutations that cause a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders have been identified. We identified de novo β-catenin mutations in patients with intellectual disability, carefully characterized their phenotypes, and were able to define a recognizable intellectual disability syndrome. In parallel, characterization of a chemically mutagenized mouse line that displays features similar to those of human patients with β-catenin mutations enabled us to investigate the consequences of β-catenin dysfunction through development and into adulthood. The mouse mutant, designated batface (
Valter Tucci, Tjitske Kleefstra, Andrea Hardy, Ines Heise, Silvia Maggi, Marjolein H. Willemsen, Helen Hilton, Chris Esapa, Michelle Simon, Maria-Teresa Buenavista, Liam J. McGuffin, Lucie Vizor, Luca Dodero, Sotirios Tsaftaris, Rosario Romero, Willy N. Nillesen, Lisenka E.L.M. Vissers, Marlies J. Kempers, Anneke T. Vulto-van Silfhout, Zafar Iqbal, Marta Orlando, Alessandro Maccione, Glenda Lassi, Pasqualina Farisello, Andrea Contestabile, Federico Tinarelli, Thierry Nieus, Andrea Raimondi, Barbara Greco, Daniela Cantatore, Laura Gasparini, Luca Berdondini, Angelo Bifone, Alessandro Gozzi, Sara Wells, Patrick M. Nolan
Interactions between platelets, leukocytes, and activated endothelial cells are important during microvascular occlusion; however, the regulatory mechanisms of these heterotypic cell-cell interactions remain unclear. Here, using intravital microscopy to evaluate mice lacking specific isoforms of the serine/threonine kinase AKT and bone marrow chimeras, we found that hematopoietic cell–associated AKT2 is important for neutrophil adhesion and crawling and neutrophil-platelet interactions on activated endothelial cells during TNF-α–induced venular inflammation. Studies with an AKT2-specific inhibitor and cells isolated from WT and
Jing Li, Kyungho Kim, Eunsil Hahm, Robert Molokie, Nissim Hay, Victor R. Gordeuk, Xiaoping Du, Jaehyung Cho
Tumor endothelial marker 1 (TEM1; also known as endosialin or CD248) is a protein found on tumor vasculature and in tumor stroma. Here, we tested whether TEM1 has potential as a therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy by immunizing immunocompetent mice with
John G. Facciponte, Stefano Ugel, Francesco De Sanctis, Chunsheng Li, Liping Wang, Gautham Nair, Sandy Sehgal, Arjun Raj, Efthymia Matthaiou, George Coukos, Andrea Facciabene
Aberrant expression of the secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin) (
Houda Alachkar, Ramasamy Santhanam, Kati Maharry, Klaus H. Metzeler, Xiaomeng Huang, Jessica Kohlschmidt, Jason H. Mendler, Juliana M. Benito, Christopher Hickey, Paolo Neviani, Adrienne M. Dorrance, Mirela Anghelina, Jihane Khalife, Somayeh S. Tarighat, Stefano Volinia, Susan P. Whitman, Peter Paschka, Pia Hoellerbauer, Yue-Zhong Wu, Lina Han, Brad N. Bolon, William Blum, Krzysztof Mrózek, Andrew J. Carroll, Danilo Perrotti, Michael Andreeff, Michael A. Caligiuri, Marina Konopleva, Ramiro Garzon, Clara D. Bloomfield, Guido Marcucci
Eugene J. Koay, Mark J. Truty, Vittorio Cristini, Ryan M. Thomas, Rong Chen, Deyali Chatterjee, Ya’an Kang, Priya R. Bhosale, Eric P. Tamm, Christopher H. Crane, Milind Javle, Matthew H. Katz, Vijaya N. Gottumukkala, Marc A. Rozner, Haifa Shen, Jeffery E. Lee, Huamin Wang, Yuling Chen, William Plunkett, James L. Abbruzzese, Robert A. Wolff, Gauri R. Varadhachary, Mauro Ferrari, Jason B. Fleming
Development of host protective immunity against
Roanne Keeton, Nasiema Allie, Ivy Dambuza, Brian Abel, Nai-Jen Hsu, Boipelo Sebesho, Philippa Randall, Patricia Burger, Elizabeth Fick, Valerie F.J. Quesniaux, Bernhard Ryffel, Muazzam Jacobs
Familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD) is characterized by autosomal dominant heritability and early disease onset. Mutations in the gene encoding presenilin-1 (PS1) are found in approximately 80% of cases of FAD, with some of these patients presenting cerebellar damage with amyloid plaques and ataxia with unclear pathophysiology. A Colombian kindred carrying the PS1-E280A mutation is the largest known cohort of PS1-FAD patients. Here, we investigated PS1-E280A–associated cerebellar dysfunction and found that it occurs early in PS1-E208A carriers, while cerebellar signs are highly prevalent in patients with dementia. Postmortem analysis of cerebella of PS1-E280A carrier revealed greater Purkinje cell (PC) loss and more abnormal mitochondria compared with controls. In PS1-E280A tissue, ER/mitochondria tethering was impaired, Ca2+ channels IP3Rs and CACNA1A were downregulated, and Ca2+-dependent mitochondrial transport proteins MIRO1 and KIF5C were reduced. Accordingly, expression of PS1-E280A in a neuronal cell line altered ER/mitochondria tethering and transport compared with that in cells expressing wild-type PS1. In a murine model of PS1-FAD, animals exhibited mild ataxia and reduced PC simple spike activity prior to cerebellar β-amyloid deposition. Our data suggest that impaired calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction in PS1-FAD PCs reduces their activity and contributes to motor coordination deficits prior to Aβ aggregation and dementia. We propose that PS1-E280A affects both Ca2+ homeostasis and Aβ precursor processing, leading to FAD and neurodegeneration.
Diego Sepulveda-Falla, Alvaro Barrera-Ocampo, Christian Hagel, Anne Korwitz, Maria Fernanda Vinueza-Veloz, Kuikui Zhou, Martijn Schonewille, Haibo Zhou, Luis Velazquez-Perez, Roberto Rodriguez-Labrada, Andres Villegas, Isidro Ferrer, Francisco Lopera, Thomas Langer, Chris I. De Zeeuw, Markus Glatzel
The use of pegylated interferon-α (pegIFN-α) has replaced unmodified recombinant IFN-α for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis. While the superior antiviral efficacy of pegIFN-α is generally attributed to improved pharmacokinetic properties, the pharmacodynamic effects of pegIFN-α in the liver have not been studied. Here, we analyzed pegIFN-α–induced signaling and gene regulation in paired liver biopsies obtained prior to treatment and during the first week following pegIFN-α injection in 18 patients with chronic hepatitis C. Despite sustained high concentrations of pegIFN-α in serum, the Jak/STAT pathway was activated in hepatocytes only on the first day after pegIFN-α administration. Evaluation of liver biopsies revealed that pegIFN-α induces hundreds of genes that can be classified into four clusters based on different temporal expression profiles. In all clusters, gene transcription was mainly driven by IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3). Compared with conventional IFN-α therapy, pegIFN-α induced a broader spectrum of gene expression, including many genes involved in cellular immunity. IFN-induced secondary transcription factors did not result in additional waves of gene expression. Our data indicate that the superior antiviral efficacy of pegIFN-α is not the result of prolonged Jak/STAT pathway activation in hepatocytes, but rather is due to induction of additional genes that are involved in cellular immune responses.
Michael T. Dill, Zuzanna Makowska, Gaia Trincucci, Andreas J. Gruber, Julia E. Vogt, Magdalena Filipowicz, Diego Calabrese, Ilona Krol, Daryl T. Lau, Luigi Terracciano, Erik van Nimwegen, Volker Roth, Markus H. Heim
Targeted cancer therapies often induce “outlier” responses in molecularly defined patient subsets. One patient with advanced-stage lung adenocarcinoma, who was treated with oral sorafenib, demonstrated a near-complete clinical and radiographic remission for 5 years. Whole-genome sequencing and RNA sequencing of primary tumor and normal samples from this patient identified a somatic mutation,
Marcin Imielinski, Heidi Greulich, Bethany Kaplan, Luiz Araujo, Joseph Amann, Leora Horn, Joan Schiller, Miguel A. Villalona-Calero, Matthew Meyerson, David P. Carbone
Thomas O. Carpenter, Erik A. Imel, Mary D. Ruppe, Thomas J. Weber, Mark A. Klausner, Margaret M. Wooddell, Tetsuyoshi Kawakami, Takahiro Ito, Xiaoping Zhang, Jeffrey Humphrey, Karl L. Insogna, Munro Peacock
Hereditary deafness affects approximately 1 in 2,000 children. Mutations in the gene encoding the cochlear gap junction protein connexin 26 (CX26) cause prelingual, nonsyndromic deafness and are responsible for as many as 50% of hereditary deafness cases in certain populations. Connexin-associated deafness is thought to be the result of defective development of auditory sensory epithelium due to connexion dysfunction. Surprisingly, CX26 deficiency is not compensated for by the closely related connexin CX30, which is abundantly expressed in the same cochlear cells. Here, using two mouse models of CX26-associated deafness, we demonstrate that disruption of the CX26-dependent gap junction plaque (GJP) is the earliest observable change during embryonic development of mice with connexin-associated deafness. Loss of CX26 resulted in a drastic reduction in the GJP area and protein level and was associated with excessive endocytosis with increased expression of caveolin 1 and caveolin 2. Furthermore, expression of deafness-associated
Kazusaku Kamiya, Sabrina W. Yum, Nagomi Kurebayashi, Miho Muraki, Kana Ogawa, Keiko Karasawa, Asuka Miwa, Xueshui Guo, Satoru Gotoh, Yoshinobu Sugitani, Hitomi Yamanaka, Shioko Ito-Kawashima, Takashi Iizuka, Takashi Sakurai, Tetsuo Noda, Osamu Minowa, Katsuhisa Ikeda
Focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) is a primary kidney disease that is commonly associated with proteinuria and progressive loss of glomerular function, leading to development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). FSGS is characterized by podocyte injury and depletion and collapse of glomerular capillary segments. Progression of FSGS is associated with TGF-β activation in podocytes; however, it is not clear how TGF-β signaling promotes disease. Here, we determined that podocyte-specific activation of TGF-β signaling in transgenic mice and BALB/c mice with Adriamycin-induced glomerulosclerosis is associated with endothelin-1 (EDN1) release by podocytes, which mediates mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction in adjacent endothelial cells via paracrine EDN1 receptor type A (EDNRA) activation. Endothelial dysfunction promoted podocyte apoptosis, and inhibition of EDNRA or scavenging of mitochondrial-targeted ROS prevented podocyte loss, albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis, and renal failure. We confirmed reciprocal crosstalk between podocytes and endothelial cells in a coculture system. Biopsies from patients with FSGS exhibited increased mitochondrial DNA damage, consistent with EDNRA-mediated glomerular endothelial mitochondrial oxidative stress. Our studies indicate that segmental glomerulosclerosis develops as a result of podocyte-endothelial crosstalk mediated by EDN1/EDNRA-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and suggest that targeting the reciprocal interaction between podocytes and endothelia may provide opportunities for therapeutic intervention in FSGS.
Ilse Daehn, Gabriella Casalena, Taoran Zhang, Shaolin Shi, Franz Fenninger, Nicholas Barasch, Liping Yu, Vivette D’Agati, Detlef Schlondorff, Wilhelm Kriz, Borje Haraldsson, Erwin P. Bottinger
Pathological remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by fibroblasts leads to organ failure. Development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by a progressive fibrotic scarring in the lung that ultimately leads to asphyxiation; however, the cascade of events that promote IPF are not well defined. Here, we examined how the interplay between the ECM and fibroblasts affects both the transcriptome and translatome by culturing primary fibroblasts generated from IPF patient lung tissue or nonfibrotic lung tissue on decellularized lung ECM from either IPF or control patients. Surprisingly, the origin of the ECM had a greater impact on gene expression than did cell origin, and differences in translational control were more prominent than alterations in transcriptional regulation. Strikingly, genes that were translationally activated by IPF-derived ECM were enriched for those encoding ECM proteins detected in IPF tissue. We determined that genes encoding IPF-associated ECM proteins are targets for miR-29, which was downregulated in fibroblasts grown on IPF-derived ECM, and baseline expression of ECM targets could be restored by overexpression of miR-29. Our data support a model in which fibroblasts are activated to pathologically remodel the ECM in IPF via a positive feedback loop between fibroblasts and aberrant ECM. Interrupting this loop may be a strategy for IPF treatment.
Matthew W. Parker, Daniel Rossi, Mark Peterson, Karen Smith, Kristina Sikström, Eric S. White, John E. Connett, Craig A. Henke, Ola Larsson, Peter B. Bitterman
The transcription factor SOX2 is an essential regulator of pluripotent stem cells and promotes development and maintenance of squamous epithelia. We previously reported that
Hideo Watanabe, Qiuping Ma, Shouyong Peng, Guillaume Adelmant, Danielle Swain, Wenyu Song, Cameron Fox, Joshua M. Francis, Chandra Sekhar Pedamallu, David S. DeLuca, Angela N. Brooks, Su Wang, Jianwen Que, Anil K. Rustgi, Kwok-kin Wong, Keith L. Ligon, X. Shirley Liu, Jarrod A. Marto, Matthew Meyerson, Adam J. Bass
Bone metastasis is a frequent complication of breast cancer that is often accelerated by TGF-β signaling; however, little is known about how the TGF-β pathway is regulated during bone metastasis. Here we report that deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) is an important regulator of TGF-β responses and osteolytic metastasis of breast cancer cells. In murine models, breast cancer cells lacking DLC1 expression exhibited enhanced capabilities of bone metastasis. Knockdown of DLC1 in cancer cells promoted bone metastasis, leading to manifested osteolysis and accelerated death in mice, while DLC1 overexpression suppressed bone metastasis. Activation of Rho-ROCK signaling in the absence of DLC1 mediated SMAD3 linker region phosphorylation and TGF-β–induced expression of parathyroid hormone–like hormone (PTHLH), leading to osteoclast maturation for osteolytic colonization. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of Rho-ROCK effectively reduced PTHLH production and breast cancer bone metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Evaluation of clinical breast tumor samples revealed that reduced
Yufeng Wang, Rong Lei, Xueqian Zhuang, Ning Zhang, Hong Pan, Gang Li, Jing Hu, Xiaoqi Pan, Qian Tao, Da Fu, Jianru Xiao, Y. Eugene Chin, Yibin Kang, Qifeng Yang, Guohong Hu
Cleft lip, which results from impaired facial process growth and fusion, is one of the most common craniofacial birth defects. Many genes are known to be involved in the etiology of this disorder; however, our understanding of cleft lip pathogenesis remains incomplete. In the present study, we uncovered a role for sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling during lip fusion. Mice carrying compound mutations in hedgehog acyltransferase (
Hiroshi Kurosaka, Angelo Iulianella, Trevor Williams, Paul A. Trainor
The G1 kinase CDK4 is amplified or overexpressed in some human tumors and promotes tumorigenesis by inhibiting known tumor suppressors. Here, we report that CDK4 deficiency markedly accelerated lymphoma development in the Eμ-
Yuanzhi Lu, Yongsheng Wu, Xiaoling Feng, Rulong Shen, Jing H. Wang, Mohammad Fallahi, Weimin Li, Chunying Yang, William Hankey, Weiqiang Zhao, Ramesh K. Ganju, Ming O. Li, John L. Cleveland, Xianghong Zou
Terminal maturation of invariant NKT (iNKT) cells from stage 2 (CD44+NK1.1–) to stage 3 (CD44+NK1.1+) is accompanied by a functional acquisition of a predominant IFN-γ–producing (iNKT-1) phenotype; however, some cells develop into IL-17–producing iNKT (iNKT-17) cells. iNKT-17 cells are rare and restricted to a CD44+NK1.1– lineage. It is unclear how iNKT terminal maturation is regulated and what factors mediate the predominance of iNKT-1 compared with iNKT-17. The tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis 1 (TSC1) is an important negative regulator of mTOR signaling, which regulates T cell differentiation, function, and trafficking. Here, we determined that mice lacking TSC1 exhibit a developmental block of iNKT differentiation at stage 2 and skew from a predominantly iNKT-1 population toward a predominantly iNKT-17 population, leading to enhanced airway hypersensitivity. Evaluation of purified iNKT cells revealed that TSC1 promotes T-bet, which regulates iNKT maturation, but downregulates ICOS expression in iNKT cells by inhibiting mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). Furthermore, mice lacking T-bet exhibited both a terminal maturation defect of iNKT cells and a predominance of iNKT-17 cells, and increased ICOS expression was required for the predominance of iNKT-17 cells in the population of TSC1-deficient iNKT cells. Our data indicate that TSC1-dependent control of mTORC1 is crucial for terminal iNKT maturation and effector lineage decisions, resulting in the predominance of iNKT-1 cells.
Jinhong Wu, Jialong Yang, Kai Yang, Hongxia Wang, Balachandra Gorentla, Jinwook Shin, Yurong Qiu, Loretta G. Que, W. Michael Foster, Zhenwei Xia, Hongbo Chi, Xiao-Ping Zhong
Genetic studies have identified common variants within the intergenic region (
Ralph Stadhouders, Suleyman Aktuna, Supat Thongjuea, Ali Aghajanirefah, Farzin Pourfarzad, Wilfred van IJcken, Boris Lenhard, Helen Rooks, Steve Best, Stephan Menzel, Frank Grosveld, Swee Lay Thein, Eric Soler
Nitric oxide (NO) production is critical for the host defense against intracellular pathogens; however, it is unclear whether NO-dependent control of intracellular organisms depends on cell-intrinsic or cell-extrinsic activity of NO. For example, NO production by infected phagocytes may enable these cells to individually control their pathogen burden. Alternatively, the ability of NO to diffuse across cell membranes might be critical for infection control. Here, using a murine ear infection model, we found that, during infection with the intracellular parasite
Romain Olekhnovitch, Bernhard Ryffel, Andreas J. Müller, Philippe Bousso
T cell depletion is commonly used in organ transplantation for immunosuppression; however, a restoration of T cell homeostasis following depletion leads to increased memory T cells, which may promote transplant rejection. The cytokine IL-7 is important for controlling lymphopoiesis under both normal and lymphopenic conditions. Here, we investigated whether blocking IL-7 signaling with a mAb that targets IL-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα) alone or following T cell depletion confers an advantage for allograft survival in murine transplant models. We found that IL-7R blockade alone induced indefinite pancreatic islet allograft survival if anti–IL-7R treatment was started 3 weeks before graft. IL-7R blockade following anti-CD4– and anti-CD8–mediated T cell depletion markedly prolonged skin allograft survival. Furthermore, IL-7 inhibition in combination with T cell depletion synergized with either CTLA-4Ig administration or suboptimal doses of tacrolimus to induce long-term skin graft acceptance in this stringent transplant model. Together, these therapies inhibited T cell reconstitution, decreased memory T cell numbers, increased the relative frequency of Tregs, and abrogated both cellular and humoral alloimmune responses. Our data suggest that IL-7R blockade following T cell depletion has potential as a robust, immunosuppressive therapy in transplantation.
Hoa-Le Mai, Françoise Boeffard, Julie Longis, Richard Danger, Bernard Martinet, Fabienne Haspot, Bernard Vanhove, Sophie Brouard, Jean-Paul Soulillou
Protein temporal dynamics play a critical role in time-dimensional pathophysiological processes, including the gradual cardiac remodeling that occurs in early-stage heart failure. Methods for quantitative assessments of protein kinetics are lacking, and despite knowledge gained from single-protein studies, integrative views of the coordinated behavior of multiple proteins in cardiac remodeling are scarce. Here, we developed a workflow that integrates deuterium oxide (2H2O) labeling, high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS), and custom computational methods to systematically interrogate in vivo protein turnover. Using this workflow, we characterized the in vivo turnover kinetics of 2,964 proteins in a mouse model of β-adrenergic–induced cardiac remodeling. The data provided a quantitative and longitudinal view of cardiac remodeling at the molecular level, revealing widespread kinetic regulations in calcium signaling, metabolism, proteostasis, and mitochondrial dynamics. We translated the workflow to human studies, creating a reference dataset of 496 plasma protein turnover rates from 4 healthy adults. The approach is applicable to short, minimal label enrichment and can be performed on as little as a single biopsy, thereby overcoming critical obstacles to clinical investigations. The protein turnover quantitation experiments and computational workflow described here should be widely applicable to large-scale biomolecular investigations of human disease mechanisms with a temporal perspective.
Maggie P.Y. Lam, Ding Wang, Edward Lau, David A. Liem, Allen K. Kim, Dominic C.M. Ng, Xiangbo Liang, Brian J. Bleakley, Chenguang Liu, Jason D. Tabaraki, Martin Cadeiras, Yibin Wang, Mario C. Deng, Peipei Ping
Peripheral nerve injuries and neuropathies lead to profound functional deficits. Here, we have demonstrated that muscle-derived stem/progenitor cells (MDSPCs) isolated from adult human skeletal muscle (hMDSPCs) can adopt neuronal and glial phenotypes in vitro and ameliorate a critical-sized sciatic nerve injury and its associated defects in a murine model. Transplanted hMDSPCs surrounded the axonal growth cone, while hMDSPCs infiltrating the regenerating nerve differentiated into myelinating Schwann cells. Engraftment of hMDSPCs into the area of the damaged nerve promoted axonal regeneration, which led to functional recovery as measured by sustained gait improvement. Furthermore, no adverse effects were observed in these animals up to 18 months after transplantation. Following hMDSPC therapy, gastrocnemius muscles from mice exhibited substantially less muscle atrophy, an increase in muscle mass after denervation, and reorganization of motor endplates at the postsynaptic sites compared with those from PBS-treated mice. Evaluation of nerve defects in animals transplanted with vehicle-only or myoblast-like cells did not reveal histological or functional recovery. These data demonstrate the efficacy of hMDSPC-based therapy for peripheral nerve injury and suggest that hMDSPC transplantation has potential to be translated for use in human neuropathies.
Mitra Lavasani, Seth D. Thompson, Jonathan B. Pollett, Arvydas Usas, Aiping Lu, Donna B. Stolz, Katherine A. Clark, Bin Sun, Bruno Péault, Johnny Huard
Injury to the specialized epithelial cells of the glomerulus (podocytes) underlies the pathogenesis of all forms of proteinuric kidney disease; however, the specific genetic changes that mediate podocyte dysfunction after injury are not fully understood. Here, we performed a large-scale insertional mutagenic screen of injury-resistant podocytes isolated from mice and found that increased expression of the gene
Uma Potla, Jie Ni, Justin Vadaparampil, Guozhe Yang, Jeremy S. Leventhal, Kirk N. Campbell, Peter Y. Chuang, Alexei Morozov, John C. He, Vivette D. D’Agati, Paul E. Klotman, Lewis Kaufman
Konstantinos D. Rizas, Tuomo Nieminen, Petra Barthel, Christine S. Zürn, Mika Kähönen, Jari Viik, Terho Lehtimäki, Kjell Nikus, Christian Eick, Tim O. Greiner, Hans P. Wendel, Peter Seizer, Jürgen Schreieck, Meinrad Gawaz, Georg Schmidt, Axel Bauer
Insulin signaling in osteoblasts has been shown recently to contribute to whole-body glucose homeostasis in animals fed a normal diet; however, it is unknown whether bone contributes to the insulin resistance that develops in animals challenged by a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, we evaluated the consequences of osteoblast-specific overexpression of or loss of insulin receptor in HFD-fed mice. We determined that the severity of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance that mice develop when fed a HFD is in part a consequence of osteoblast-dependent insulin resistance. Insulin resistance in osteoblasts led to a decrease in circulating levels of the active form of osteocalcin, thereby decreasing insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Insulin resistance developed in osteoblasts as the result of increased levels of free saturated fatty acids, which promote insulin receptor ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Together, these results underscore the involvement of bone, among other tissues, in the disruption of whole-body glucose homeostasis resulting from a HFD and the involvement of insulin and osteocalcin cross-talk in glucose intolerance. Furthermore, our data indicate that insulin resistance develops in bone as the result of lipotoxicity-associated loss of insulin receptors.
Jianwen Wei, Mathieu Ferron, Christopher J. Clarke, Yusuf A. Hannun, Hongfeng Jiang, William S. Blaner, Gerard Karsenty
The genes encoding RAS family members are frequently mutated in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). RAS proteins are difficult to target pharmacologically; therefore, targeting the downstream PI3K and RAF/MEK/ERK pathways represents a promising approach to treat RAS-addicted tumors. The p110α isoform of PI3K (encoded by
Kira Gritsman, Haluk Yuzugullu, Thanh Von, Howard Yan, Linda Clayton, Christine Fritsch, Sauveur-Michel Maira, Gregory Hollingworth, Christine Choi, Tulasi Khandan, Mahnaz Paktinat, Rachel O. Okabe, Thomas M. Roberts, Jean J. Zhao
Alteration of the surface glycosylation pattern on malignant cells potentially affects tumor immunity by directly influencing interactions with glycan-binding proteins (lectins) on the surface of immunomodulatory cells. The sialic acid–binding Ig-like lectins Siglec-7 and -9 are MHC class I–independent inhibitory receptors on human NK cells that recognize sialic acid–containing carbohydrates. Here, we found that the presence of Siglec-9 defined a subset of cytotoxic NK cells with a mature phenotype and enhanced chemotactic potential. Interestingly, this Siglec-9+ NK cell population was reduced in the peripheral blood of cancer patients. Broad analysis of primary tumor samples revealed that ligands of Siglec-7 and -9 were expressed on human cancer cells of different histological types. Expression of Siglec-7 and -9 ligands was associated with susceptibility of NK cell–sensitive tumor cells and, unexpectedly, of presumably NK cell–resistant tumor cells to NK cell–mediated cytotoxicity. Together, these observations have direct implications for NK cell–based therapies and highlight the requirement to consider both MHC class I haplotype and tumor-specific glycosylation.
Camilla Jandus, Kayluz Frias Boligan, Obinna Chijioke, He Liu, Meike Dahlhaus, Thomas Démoulins, Christoph Schneider, Marc Wehrli, Robert E. Hunger, Gabriela M. Baerlocher, Hans-Uwe Simon, Pedro Romero, Christian Münz, Stephan von Gunten
The autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) results from low levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein; however, it is unclear how reduced SMN promotes SMA development. Here, we determined that ubiquitin-dependent pathways regulate neuromuscular pathology in SMA. Using mouse models of SMA, we observed widespread perturbations in ubiquitin homeostasis, including reduced levels of ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 1 (UBA1). SMN physically interacted with UBA1 in neurons, and disruption of
Thomas M. Wishart, Chantal A. Mutsaers, Markus Riessland, Michell M. Reimer, Gillian Hunter, Marie L. Hannam, Samantha L. Eaton, Heidi R. Fuller, Sarah L. Roche, Eilidh Somers, Robert Morse, Philip J. Young, Douglas J. Lamont, Matthias Hammerschmidt, Anagha Joshi, Peter Hohenstein, Glenn E. Morris, Simon H. Parson, Paul A. Skehel, Thomas Becker, Iain M. Robinson, Catherina G. Becker, Brunhilde Wirth, Thomas H. Gillingwater
Broadly HIV-1–neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) display one or more unusual traits, including a long
Mattia Bonsignori, Kevin Wiehe, Sebastian K. Grimm, Rebecca Lynch, Guang Yang, Daniel M. Kozink, Florence Perrin, Abby J. Cooper, Kwan-Ki Hwang, Xi Chen, Mengfei Liu, Krisha McKee, Robert J. Parks, Joshua Eudailey, Minyue Wang, Megan Clowse, Lisa G. Criscione-Schreiber, M. Anthony Moody, Margaret E. Ackerman, Scott D. Boyd, Feng Gao, Garnett Kelsoe, Laurent Verkoczy, Georgia D. Tomaras, Hua-Xin Liao, Thomas B. Kepler, David C. Montefiori, John R. Mascola, Barton F. Haynes
Malou van den Boogaard, Scott Smemo, Ozanna Burnicka-Turek, David E. Arnolds, Harmen J.G. van de Werken, Petra Klous, David McKean, Jochen D. Muehlschlegel, Julia Moosmann, Okan Toka, Xinan H. Yang, Tamara T. Koopmann, Michiel E. Adriaens, Connie R. Bezzina, Wouter de Laat, Christine Seidman, J.G. Seidman, Vincent M. Christoffels, Marcelo A. Nobrega, Phil Barnett, Ivan P. Moskowitz
Members of the miR-34 family are induced by the tumor suppressor p53 and are known to inhibit epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and therefore presumably suppress the early phases of metastasis. Here, we determined that exposure of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to the cytokine IL-6 activates the oncogenic STAT3 transcription factor, which directly represses the
Matjaz Rokavec, Meryem Gülfem Öner, Huihui Li, Rene Jackstadt, Longchang Jiang, Dmitri Lodygin, Markus Kaller, David Horst, Paul K. Ziegler, Sarah Schwitalla, Julia Slotta-Huspenina, Franz G. Bader, Florian R. Greten, Heiko Hermeking
Ele Ferrannini, Elza Muscelli, Silvia Frascerra, Simona Baldi, Andrea Mari, Tim Heise, Uli C. Broedl, Hans-Juergen Woerle
Eric D. Berglund, Chen Liu, Jong-Woo Sohn, Tiemin Liu, Mi Hwa Kim, Charlotte E. Lee, Claudia R. Vianna, Kevin W. Williams, Yong Xu, Joel K. Elmquist
Marieta Caganova, Chiara Carrisi, Gabriele Varano, Federica Mainoldi, Federica Zanardi, Pierre-Luc Germain, Laura George, Federica Alberghini, Luca Ferrarini, Asoke K. Talukder, Maurilio Ponzoni, Giuseppe Testa, Takuya Nojima, Claudio Doglioni, Daisuke Kitamura, Kai-M. Toellner, I-hsin Su, Stefano Casola
Bárbara González-Terán, José R. Cortés, Elisa Manieri, Nuria Matesanz, Ángeles Verdugo, María E. Rodríguez, Águeda González-Rodríguez, Ángela M. Valverde, Pilar Martín, Roger J. Davis, Guadalupe Sabio