Wulf H. Utian
Linda G. Donelson, John E. Donelson
Emphysema is one manifestation of a group of chronic, obstructive, and frequently progressive destructive lung diseases. Cigarette smoking and air pollution are the main causes of emphysema in humans, and cigarette smoking causes emphysema in rodents. This review examines the concept of a homeostatically active lung structure maintenance program that, when attacked by proteases and oxidants, leads to the loss of alveolar septal cells and airspace enlargement. Inflammatory and noninflammatory mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, as well as the role of the innate and adaptive immune systems, are being explored in genetically altered animals and in exposure models of this disease. These recent scientific advances support a model whereby alveolar destruction resulting from a coalescence of mechanical forces, such as hyperinflation, and more recently recognized cellular and molecular events, including apoptosis, cellular senescence, and failed lung tissue repair, produces the clinically recognized syndrome of emphysema.
Laimute Taraseviciene-Stewart, Norbert F. Voelkel
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) frequently occurs in the context of abnormalities of plasma lipoproteins. However, a role for elevated levels of plasma cholesterol in the pathogenesis of this disease is not well established. Recent evidence suggests that alterations of plasma and islet cholesterol levels may contribute to islet dysfunction and loss of insulin secretion. A number of genes involved in lipid metabolism have been implicated in T2D. Recently an important role for ABCA1, a cellular cholesterol transporter, has emerged in regulating cholesterol homeostasis and insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. Here we review the impact of cholesterol metabolism on islet function and its potential relationship to T2D.
Liam R. Brunham, Janine K. Kruit, C. Bruce Verchere, Michael R. Hayden
The marked disruption of the homeostasis of a physiological system, be it a cell, tissue, organ, or whole organism, is more commonly known as stress. In many ways, aging can be considered the ultimate stress. However, physiological systems are constantly exposed to more acute stresses. Advances in our understanding of the molecular response of several physiological systems to both physiologic and pathologic stress is discussed in this Review Series. It is hoped that such understanding will facilitate the development of approaches to ameliorate some of the limitations these stresses place on individuals. However, as pointed out in many of the articles, much remains to be learned before such approaches can be envisioned.
Andrew R. Marks
Inflammation is a rapid yet coordinated response that can lead to the destruction of microbes and host tissue. Triggers capable of inducing an inflammatory response include tissue damage and infection by pathogenic and nonpathogenic microbes. Each of these triggers represents a qualitatively distinct stress to the host immune system, yet our understanding of whether they are interpreted as such remains poor. Accumulating evidence suggests that recognition of these distinct stimuli converges on many of the same receptors of the innate immune system. Here I provide an overview of these innate receptors and suggest that the innate immune system can interpret the context of an inflammatory trigger and direct inflammation accordingly.
Gregory M. Barton
An important, unfilled clinical need is the development of new approaches to improve fracture healing and to treat osteoporosis by increasing bone mass. Recombinant forms of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and BMP7 are FDA approved to promote spinal fusion and fracture healing, respectively, and the first FDA-approved anabolic drug for osteoporosis, parathyroid hormone, increases bone mass when administered intermittently but can only be given to patients in the US for two years. As we discuss here, the tremendous explosion over the last two decades in our fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of bone remodeling has led to the prospect of mechanism-based anabolic therapies for bone disorders.
Sundeep Khosla, Jennifer J. Westendorf, Merry Jo Oursler
Chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification are the cartilage differentiation processes that lead to skeletal formation and growth in the developing vertebrate as well as skeletal repair in the adult. The exquisite regulation of these processes, both in normal development and in pathologic situations, is impacted by a number of different types of stress. These include normal stressors such as mechanical loading and hypoxia as well pathologic stressors such as injury and/or inflammation and environmental toxins. This article provides an overview of the processes of chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification and their control at the molecular level. A summary of the influence of the most well-understood normal and pathologic stressors on the differentiation program is also presented.
Michael J. Zuscik, Matthew J Hilton, Xinping Zhang, Di Chen, Regis J. O’Keefe
Tendons and ligaments are unique forms of connective tissue that are considered an integral part of the musculoskeletal system. The ultimate function of tendon is to connect muscles to bones and to conduct the forces generated by muscle contraction into movements of the joints, whereas ligaments connect bone to bone and provide joint stabilization. Unfortunately, the almost acellular and collagen I–rich structure of tendons and ligaments makes them very poorly regenerating tissues. Injured tendons and ligaments are considered a major clinical challenge in orthopedic and sports medicine. This Review discusses the several factors that might serve as molecular targets that upon activation can enhance or lead to tendon neoformation.
Hadi Aslan, Nadav Kimelman-Bleich, Gadi Pelled, Dan Gazit
Over the past century, understanding the mechanisms underlying muscle fatigue and weakness has been the focus of much investigation. However, the dominant theory in the field, that lactic acidosis causes muscle fatigue, is unlikely to tell the whole story. Recently, dysregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release has been associated with impaired muscle function induced by a wide range of stressors, from dystrophy to heart failure to muscle fatigue. Here, we address current understandings of the altered regulation of SR Ca2+ release during chronic stress, focusing on the role of the SR Ca2+ release channel known as the type 1 ryanodine receptor.
Andrew M. Bellinger, Marco Mongillo, Andrew R. Marks
Sustained exposure to various psychological stressors can exacerbate neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. Addiction is a chronic brain disease in which individuals cannot control their need for drugs, despite negative health and social consequences. The brains of addicted individuals are altered and respond very differently to stress than those of individuals who are not addicted. In this Review, we highlight some of the common effects of stress and drugs of abuse throughout the addiction cycle. We also discuss both animal and human studies that suggest treating the stress-related aspects of drug addiction is likely to be an important contributing factor to a long-lasting recovery from this disorder.
Jessica N. Cleck, Julie A. Blendy
In this issue of the JCI, Mukherjee et al. report that bortezomib, a clinically available proteasome inhibitor active against myeloma, induces the differentiation of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) — rather than mature osteoprogenitor cells — into osteoblasts, resulting in new bone formation (see the related article beginning on page 491). These results were observed when MSCs were implanted subcutaneously in mice or were used to treat a mouse model of postmenopausal bone loss. Others have reported that immunomodulatory drugs (e.g., thalidomide and lenalidomide), which are active against myeloma, also block the activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. These results reflect the utility of targeting endogenous MSCs for the purpose of tissue repair and suggest that combining different classes of agents that are antineoplastic and also inhibit bone destruction and increase bone formation should be very beneficial for myeloma patients suffering from severe bone disease.
G. David Roodman
Chronic inflammatory disorders are often associated with an increased cancer risk. A particularly striking example of the chronic inflammation–cancer link is seen in inflammatory bowel disease, in which chronic colitis or persistent inflammation in the colon is associated with elevated risk of colorectal cancer. Animal models exploring the mechanisms by which inflammation increases the risk of colon cancer have shown that inflammatory cells, through the effects of the cytokines they produce, have a major role in promoting neoplastic transformation. In this issue of the JCI, Popivanova and colleagues demonstrate that TNF-α, through its effects on the immune system, plays a critical role in promoting neoplastic transformation in this setting (see the related article beginning on page 560). Importantly, the study also provides evidence that anti–TNF-α therapies, which are currently in clinical use, may interrupt the process.
Ezra Burstein , Eric R. Fearon
Erythropoietin (Epo) leads to the proliferation and differentiation of erythroid precursors, but is also involved in diverse nonhematopoietic biological functions. In this issue of the JCI, Chen, Smith, and colleagues demonstrate that the temporal expression of Epo is critical for determining whether physiological or pathological repair occurs following neurovascular retinal injury in the oxygen-induced retinopathy neonatal mouse model (see the related article beginning on page 526). The pleiotrophic properties of Epo make it a likely novel therapy for treatment of neurovascular damage, but the timing of its use must be carefully considered to prevent untoward effects.
Maria B. Grant, Michael E. Boulton, Alexander V. Ljubimov
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is characterized by the occurrence of fluid in the middle-ear cavity in the absence of any signs of acute ear infection and occurs most frequently in children with auditory or eustachian tube dysfunction. Its chronic form is an important clinical issue for pediatricians and otologists alike. The study by Depreux et al. in this issue of the JCI shows that absence of the transcriptional activator Eya4 in knockout mice results in abnormal structuring of the eustachian tube, thus predisposing these animals to OME (see the related article beginning on page 651). The development of this genetics-based animal model is an important advance for understanding OME and for exploring new avenues of treatment.
Evelyn Lazaridis, James C. Saunders
Mutation in superoxide dismutase–1 (SOD1) causes the inherited degenerative neurological disease familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a non–cell-autonomous disease: mutant SOD1 synthesis in motor neurons and microglia drives disease onset and progression, respectively. In this issue of the JCI, Harraz and colleagues demonstrate that SOD1 mutants expressed in human cell lines directly stimulate NADPH oxidase (Nox) by binding to Rac1, resulting in overproduction of damaging ROS (see the related article beginning on page 659). Diminishing ROS by treatment with the microglial Nox inhibitor apocynin or by elimination of Nox extends survival in ALS mice, reviving the proposal that ROS mediate ALS pathogenesis, but with a new twist: it’s ROS produced by microglia.
Séverine Boillée, Don W. Cleveland
Eosinophilic inflammation is a cornerstone of chronic asthma that often culminates in subepithelial fibrosis with variable airway obstruction. Pulmonary eosinophils (Eos) are a predominant source of TGF-β1, which drives fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition. We investigated the regulation of TGF-β1 and show here that the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) Pin1 promoted the stability of TGF-β1 mRNA in human Eos. In addition, Pin1 regulated cytokine production by both in vitro and in vivo activated human Eos. We found that Pin1 interacted with both PKC-α and protein phosphatase 2A, which together control Pin1 isomerase activity. Pharmacologic blockade of Pin1 in a rat asthma model selectively reduced eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation, TGF-β1 and collagen expression, and airway remodeling. Furthermore, chronically challenged Pin1–/– mice showed reduced peribronchiolar collagen deposition compared with wild-type controls. These data suggest that pharmacologic suppression of Pin1 may be a novel therapeutic option to prevent airway fibrosis in individuals with chronic asthma.
Zhong-Jian Shen, Stephane Esnault, Louis A. Rosenthal, Renee J. Szakaly, Ronald L. Sorkness, Pamela R. Westmark, Matyas Sandor, James S. Malter
Drug targeting of adult stem cells has been proposed as a strategy for regenerative medicine, but very few drugs are known to target stem cell populations in vivo. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) are a multipotent population of cells that can differentiate into muscle, bone, fat, and other cell types in context-specific manners. Bortezomib (Bzb) is a clinically available proteasome inhibitor used in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Here, we show that Bzb induces MSCs to preferentially undergo osteoblastic differentiation, in part by modulation of the bone-specifying transcription factor runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2) in mice. Mice implanted with MSCs showed increased ectopic ossicle and bone formation when recipients received low doses of Bzb. Furthermore, this treatment increased bone formation and rescued bone loss in a mouse model of osteoporosis. Thus, we show that a tissue-resident adult stem cell population in vivo can be pharmacologically modified to promote a regenerative function in adult animals.
Siddhartha Mukherjee, Noopur Raje, Jesse A. Schoonmaker, Julie C. Liu, Teru Hideshima, Marc N. Wein, Dallas C. Jones, Sonia Vallet, Mary L. Bouxsein, Samantha Pozzi, Shweta Chhetri, Y. David Seo, Joshua P. Aronson, Chirayu Patel, Mariateresa Fulciniti, Louise E. Purton, Laurie H. Glimcher, Jane B. Lian, Gary Stein, Kenneth C. Anderson, David T. Scadden
Despite progress in cardiovascular research, a cure for peripheral vascular disease has not been found. We compared the vascularization and tissue regeneration potential of murine and human undifferentiated multipotent adult progenitor cells (mMAPC-U and hMAPC-U), murine MAPC-derived vascular progenitors (mMAPC-VP), and unselected murine BM cells (mBMCs) in mice with moderate limb ischemia, reminiscent of intermittent claudication in human patients. mMAPC-U durably restored blood flow and muscle function and stimulated muscle regeneration, by direct and trophic contribution to vascular and skeletal muscle growth. This was in contrast to mBMCs and mMAPC-VP, which did not affect muscle regeneration and provided only limited and transient improvement. Moreover, mBMCs participated in a sustained inflammatory response in the lower limb, associated with progressive deterioration in muscle function. Importantly, mMAPC-U and hMAPC-U also remedied vascular and muscular deficiency in severe limb ischemia, representative of critical limb ischemia in humans. Thus, unlike BMCs or vascular-committed progenitors, undifferentiated multipotent adult progenitor cells offer the potential to durably repair ischemic damage in peripheral vascular disease patients.
Xabier L. Aranguren, Jonathan D. McCue, Benoit Hendrickx, Xiao-Hong Zhu, Fei Du, Eleanor Chen, Beatriz Pelacho, Ivan Peñuelas, Gloria Abizanda, Maialen Uriz, Sarah A. Frommer, Jeffrey J. Ross, Betsy A. Schroeder, Meredith S. Seaborn, Joshua R. Adney, Julianna Hagenbrock, Nathan H. Harris, Yi Zhang, Xiaoliang Zhang, Molly H. Nelson-Holte, Yuehua Jiang, An D. Billiau, Wei Chen, Felipe Prósper, Catherine M. Verfaillie, Aernout Luttun
Myocardin (Myocd) is a potent transcriptional coactivator that has been implicated in cardiovascular development and adaptation of the cardiovascular system to hemodynamic stress. To determine the function of myocardin in the developing cardiovascular system, MyocdF/F/Wnt1-Cre+ and MyocdF/F/Pax3-Cre+ mice were generated in which the myocardin gene was selectively ablated in neural crest–derived SMCs populating the cardiac outflow tract and great arteries. Both MyocdF/F/Wnt1-Cre+ and MyocdF/F/Pax3-Cre+ mutant mice survived to birth, but died prior to postnatal day 3 from patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Neural crest–derived SMCs populating the ductus arteriosus (DA) and great arteries exhibited a cell autonomous block in expression of myocardin-regulated genes encoding SMC-restricted contractile proteins. Moreover, Myocd-deficient vascular SMCs populating the DA exhibited ultrastructural features generally associated with the SMC synthetic, rather than contractile, phenotype. Consistent with these findings, ablation of the Myocd gene in primary aortic SMCs harvested from Myocd conditional mutant mice caused a dramatic decrease in SMC contractile protein expression. Taken together, these data demonstrate that myocardin regulates expression of genes required for the contractile phenotype in neural crest–derived SMCs and provide new insights into the molecular and genetic programs that may underlie PDA.
Jianhe Huang, Lan Cheng, Jian Li, Mary Chen, Deying Zhou, Min Min Lu, Aaron Proweller, Jonathan A. Epstein, Michael S. Parmacek
Erythropoietin (Epo), a hormone known to stimulate bone marrow erythrocyte production, is widely used to treat anemia in patients at risk for vascular disease. However, the effects of Epo on angiogenesis are not well defined. We studied the role of Epo in a mouse model of retinopathy characterized by oxygen-induced vascular loss followed by hypoxia-induced pathological neovascularization. Without treatment, local retinal Epo levels were suppressed during the vessel loss phase. Administration of exogenous Epo prevented both vessel dropout and subsequent hypoxia-induced neovascularization. Early use of Epo also protected against hypoxia-induced retinal neuron apoptosis. In contrast, retinal Epo mRNA levels were highly elevated during the retinopathy neovascular phase. Exogenous late Epo treatment did not protect the retina, but rather enhanced pathological neovascularization. Epo’s early protective effect occurred through both systemic retinal recruitment of proangiogenic bone marrow–derived progenitor cells and activation of prosurvival NF-κB via Epo receptor activation on retinal vessels and neurons. Thus early retinal Epo suppression contributed to retinal vascular instability, and elevated Epo levels during the proliferation stage contributed to neovascularization and disease. Understanding the role of Epo in angiogenesis is critical to timing its intervention in patients with retinopathy or other diseases in which pathological angiogenesis plays a significant role.
Jing Chen, Kip M. Connor, Christopher M. Aderman, Lois E.H. Smith
Expression of IL-22 is induced in several human inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Expression of the IL-22 receptor is restricted to innate immune cells; however, the role of IL-22 in colitis has not yet been defined. We developed what we believe to be a novel microinjection-based local gene-delivery system that is capable of targeting the inflamed intestine. Using this approach, we demonstrated a therapeutic potency for IL-22–mediated activation of the innate immune pathway in a mouse model of Th2-mediated colitis that induces disease with characteristics similar to that of IBD ulcerative colitis (UC). IL-22 gene delivery enhanced STAT3 activation specifically within colonic epithelial cells and induced both STAT3-dependent expression of mucus-associated molecules and restitution of mucus-producing goblet cells. Importantly, IL-22 gene delivery led to rapid amelioration of local intestinal inflammation. The amelioration of disease by IL-22 was mediated by enhanced mucus production. In addition, local gene delivery was used to inhibit IL-22 activity through overexpression of IL-22–binding protein. Treatment with IL-22–binding protein suppressed goblet cell restitution during the recovery phase of a dextran sulfate sodium–induced model of acute colitis. These data demonstrate what we believe to be a novel function for IL-22 in the intestine and suggest the potency of a local IL-22 gene–delivery system for treating UC.
Ken Sugimoto, Atsuhiro Ogawa, Emiko Mizoguchi, Yasuyo Shimomura, Akira Andoh, Atul K. Bhan, Richard S. Blumberg, Ramnik J. Xavier, Atsushi Mizoguchi
The mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of individuals with caspase recruitment domain 15 (CARD15) mutations and corresponding abnormalities of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) protein to Crohn disease are still poorly understood. One possibility is based on previous studies showing that muramyl dipeptide (MDP) activation of NOD2 negatively regulates TLR2 responses and that absence of such regulation leads to heightened Th1 responses. We now report that administration of MDP protects mice from the development of experimental colitis by downregulating multiple TLR responses, not just TLR2. The basis of these in vivo findings was suggested by in vitro studies of DCs, in which we showed that prestimulation of cells with MDP reduces cytokine responses to multiple TLR ligands and this reduction is dependent on enhanced IFN regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) activity. Further studies of mouse models of colitis showed that this inhibitory role of IRF4 does in fact apply to MDP-mediated protection from colitis, since neither IRF4-deficient mice nor mice treated with siRNA specific for IRF4 were protected. These findings indicate that MDP activation of NOD2 regulates innate responses to intestinal microflora by downregulating multiple TLR responses and suggest that the absence of such regulation leads to increased susceptibility to Crohn disease.
Tomohiro Watanabe, Naoki Asano, Peter J. Murray, Keiko Ozato, Prafullakumar Tailor, Ivan J. Fuss, Atsushi Kitani, Warren Strober
The inflammatory bowel disease ulcerative colitis (UC) frequently progresses to colon cancer. To understand the mechanisms by which UC patients develop colon carcinomas, we used a mouse model of the disease whereby administration of azoxymethane (AOM) followed by repeated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) ingestion causes severe colonic inflammation and the subsequent development of multiple tumors. We found that treating WT mice with AOM and DSS increased TNF-α expression and the number of infiltrating leukocytes expressing its major receptor, p55 (TNF-Rp55), in the lamina propria and submucosal regions of the colon. This was followed by the development of multiple colonic tumors. Mice lacking TNF-Rp55 and treated with AOM and DSS showed reduced mucosal damage, reduced infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils, and attenuated subsequent tumor formation. WT mice transplanted with TNF-Rp55–deficient bone marrow also developed significantly fewer tumors after AOM and DSS treatment than either WT mice or TNF-Rp55–deficient mice transplanted with WT bone marrow. Furthermore, administration of etanercept, a specific antagonist of TNF-α, to WT mice after treatment with AOM and DSS markedly reduced the number and size of tumors and reduced colonic infiltration by neutrophils and macrophages. These observations identify TNF-α as a crucial mediator of the initiation and progression of colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis and suggest that targeting TNF-α may be useful in treating colon cancer in individuals with UC.
Boryana K. Popivanova, Kazuya Kitamura, Yu Wu, Toshikazu Kondo, Takashi Kagaya, Shiuchi Kaneko, Masanobu Oshima, Chifumi Fujii, Naofumi Mukaida
Astrogliosis is a pathological hallmark of the epileptic brain. The identification of mechanisms that link astrogliosis to neuronal dysfunction in epilepsy may provide new avenues for therapeutic intervention. Here we show that astrocyte-expressed adenosine kinase (ADK), a key negative regulator of the brain inhibitory molecule adenosine, is a potential predictor and modulator of epileptogenesis. In a mouse model of focal epileptogenesis, in which astrogliosis is restricted to the CA3 region of the hippocampus, we demonstrate that upregulation of ADK and spontaneous focal electroencephalographic seizures were both restricted to the affected CA3. Furthermore, spontaneous seizures in CA3 were mimicked in transgenic mice by overexpression of ADK in this brain region, implying that overexpression of ADK without astrogliosis is sufficient to cause seizures. Conversely, after pharmacological induction of an otherwise epileptogenesis-precipitating acute brain injury, transgenic mice with reduced forebrain ADK were resistant to subsequent epileptogenesis. Likewise, ADK-deficient ES cell–derived brain implants suppressed astrogliosis, upregulation of ADK, and spontaneous seizures in WT mice when implanted after the epileptogenesis-precipitating brain injury. Our findings suggest that astrocyte-based ADK provides a critical link between astrogliosis and neuronal dysfunction in epilepsy.
Tianfu Li, Gaoying Ren, Theresa Lusardi, Andrew Wilz, Jing Q. Lan, Takuji Iwasato, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Roger P. Simon, Detlev Boison
Many patients with anemia fail to respond to treatment with erythropoietin (Epo), a commonly used hormone that stimulates erythroid progenitor production and maturation by human BM or by murine spleen. The protein product of growth arrest–specific gene 6 (Gas6) is important for cell survival across several cell types, but its precise physiological role remains largely enigmatic. Here, we report that murine erythroblasts released Gas6 in response to Epo and that Gas6 enhanced Epo receptor signaling by activating the serine-threonine kinase Akt in these cells. In the absence of Gas6, erythroid progenitors and erythroblasts were hyporesponsive to the survival activity of Epo and failed to restore hematocrit levels in response to anemia. In addition, Gas6 may influence erythropoiesis via paracrine erythroblast-independent mechanisms involving macrophages. When mice with acute anemia were treated with Gas6, the protein normalized hematocrit levels without causing undesired erythrocytosis. In a transgenic mouse model of chronic anemia caused by insufficient Epo production, Gas6 synergized with Epo in restoring hematocrit levels. These findings may have implications for the treatment of patients with anemia who fail to adequately respond to Epo.
Anne Angelillo-Scherrer, Laurent Burnier, Diether Lambrechts, Richard J. Fish, Marc Tjwa, Stéphane Plaisance, Rocco Sugamele, Maria DeMol, Eduardo Martinez-Soria, Patrick H. Maxwell, Greg Lemke, Stephen P. Goff, Glenn K. Matsushima, H. Shelton Earp, Marc Chanson, Désiré Collen, Shozo Izui, Marc Schapira, Edward M. Conway, Peter Carmeliet
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease resulting from the dysregulated interplay between keratinocytes and infiltrating immune cells. We report on a psoriasis-like disease model, which is induced by the transfer of CD4+CD45RBhiCD25– cells to pathogen-free scid/scid mice. Psoriasis-like lesions had elevated levels of antimicrobial peptide and proinflammatory cytokine mRNA. Also, similar to psoriasis, disease progression in this model was dependent on the p40 common to IL-12 and IL-23. To investigate the role of IL-22, a Th17 cytokine, in disease progression, mice were treated with IL-22–neutralizing antibodies. Neutralization of IL-22 prevented the development of disease, reducing acanthosis (thickening of the skin), inflammatory infiltrates, and expression of Th17 cytokines. Direct administration of IL-22 into the skin of normal mice induced both antimicrobial peptide and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression. Our data suggest that IL-22, which acts on keratinocytes and other nonhematopoietic cells, is required for development of the autoreactive Th17 cell–dependent disease in this model of skin inflammation. We propose that IL-22 antagonism might be a promising therapy for the treatment of human psoriasis.
Hak-Ling Ma, Spencer Liang, Jing Li, Lee Napierata, Tom Brown, Stephen Benoit, Mayra Senices, Davinder Gill, Kyriaki Dunussi-Joannopoulos, Mary Collins, Cheryl Nickerson-Nutter, Lynette A. Fouser, Deborah A. Young
The inflammatory kidney disease membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II (MPGN2) is associated with dysregulation of the alternative pathway of complement activation. MPGN2 is characterized by the presence of complement C3 along the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Spontaneous activation of C3 through the alternative pathway is regulated by 2 plasma proteins, factor H and factor I. Deficiency of either of these regulators results in uncontrolled C3 activation, although the breakdown of activated C3 is dependent on factor I. Deficiency of factor H, but not factor I, is associated with MPGN2 in humans, pigs, and mice. To explain this discordance, mice with single or combined deficiencies of these factors were studied. MPGN2 did not develop in mice with combined factor H and I deficiency or in mice deficient in factor I alone. However, administration of a source of factor I to mice with combined factor H and factor I deficiency triggered both activated C3 fragments in plasma and GBM C3 deposition. Mouse renal transplant studies demonstrated that C3 deposited along the GBM was derived from plasma. Together, these findings provide what we believe to be the first evidence that factor I–mediated generation of activated C3 fragments in the circulation is a critical determinant for the development of MPGN2 associated with factor H deficiency.
Kirsten L. Rose, Danielle Paixao-Cavalcante, Jennifer Fish, Anthony P. Manderson, Talat H. Malik, Anne E. Bygrave, Tao Lin, Steven H. Sacks, Mark J. Walport, H. Terence Cook, Marina Botto, Matthew C. Pickering
Tight junctions (TJs) play a key role in mediating paracellular ion reabsorption in the kidney. Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) is an inherited disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the TJ proteins claudin-16 (CLDN16) and CLDN19; however, the mechanisms underlying the roles of these claudins in mediating paracellular ion reabsorption in the kidney are not understood. Here we showed that in pig kidney epithelial cells, CLDN19 functioned as a Cl– blocker, whereas CLDN16 functioned as a Na+ channel. Mutant forms of CLDN19 that are associated with FHHNC were unable to block Cl– permeation. Coexpression of CLDN16 and CLDN19 generated cation selectivity of the TJ in a synergistic manner, and CLDN16 and CLDN19 were observed to interact using several criteria. In addition, disruption of this interaction by introduction of FHHNC-causing mutant forms of either CLDN16 or CLDN19 abolished their synergistic effect. Our data show that CLDN16 interacts with CLDN19 and that their association confers a TJ with cation selectivity, suggesting a mechanism for the role of mutant forms of CLDN16 and CLDN19 in the development of FHHNC.
Jianghui Hou, Aparna Renigunta, Martin Konrad, Antonio S. Gomes, Eveline E. Schneeberger, David L. Paul, Siegfried Waldegger, Daniel A. Goodenough
Aberrant glycosylation of IgA1 plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy. This abnormality is manifested by a deficiency of galactose in the hinge-region O-linked glycans of IgA1. Biosynthesis of these glycans occurs in a stepwise fashion beginning with the addition of N-acetylgalactosamine by the enzyme N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 and continuing with the addition of either galactose by β1,3-galactosyltransferase or a terminal sialic acid by a N-acetylgalactosamine–specific α2,6-sialyltransferase. To identify the molecular basis for the aberrant IgA glycosylation, we established EBV-immortalized IgA1-producing cells from peripheral blood cells of patients with IgA nephropathy. The secreted IgA1 was mostly polymeric and had galactose-deficient O-linked glycans, characterized by a terminal or sialylated N-acetylgalactosamine. As controls, we showed that EBV-immortalized cells from patients with lupus nephritis and healthy individuals did not produce IgA with the defective galactosylation pattern. Analysis of the biosynthetic pathways in cloned EBV-immortalized cells from patients with IgA nephropathy indicated a decrease in β1,3-galactosyltransferase activity and an increase in N-acetylgalactosamine–specific α2,6-sialyltransferase activity. Also, expression of β1,3-galactosyltransferase was significantly lower, and that of N-acetylgalactosamine–specific α2,6-sialyltransferase was significantly higher than the expression of these genes in the control cells. Thus, our data suggest that premature sialylation likely contributes to the aberrant IgA1 glycosylation in IgA nephropathy and may represent a new therapeutic target.
Hitoshi Suzuki, Zina Moldoveanu, Stacy Hall, Rhubell Brown, Huong L. Vu, Lea Novak, Bruce A. Julian, Milan Tomana, Robert J. Wyatt, Jeffrey C. Edberg, Graciela S. Alarcón, Robert P. Kimberly, Yasuhiko Tomino, Jiri Mestecky, Jan Novak
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) is a bHLH/Per-ARNT-Sim transcription factor located in a region of chromosome 5 (5p15.3) that has been proposed to contain one or more tumor suppressor genes. We report here consistent downregulation of AHRR mRNA in human malignant tissue from different anatomical origins, including colon, breast, lung, stomach, cervix, and ovary, and demonstrate DNA hypermethylation as the regulatory mechanism of AHRR gene silencing. Knockdown of AHRR gene expression in a human lung cancer cell line using siRNA significantly enhanced in vitro anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth as well as cell growth after transplantation into immunocompromised mice. In addition, knockdown of AHRR in non-clonable normal human mammary epithelial cells enabled them to grow in an anchorage-independent manner. Further, downregulation of AHRR expression in the human lung cancer cell line conferred resistance to apoptotic signals and enhanced motility and invasion in vitro and angiogenic potential in vivo. Ectopic expression of AHRR in tumor cells resulted in diminished anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth and reduced angiogenic potential. These results therefore demonstrate that AHRR is a putative new tumor suppressor gene in multiple types of human cancers.
Enrique Zudaire, Natalia Cuesta, Vundavalli Murty, Karen Woodson, Lisa Adams, Nieves Gonzalez, Alfredo Martínez, Gopeshwar Narayan, Ilan Kirsch, Wilbur Franklin, Fred Hirsch, Michael Birrer, Frank Cuttitta
Otitis media is an extremely common pediatric inflammation of the middle ear that often causes pain and diminishes hearing. Vulnerability to otitis media is due to eustachian tube dysfunction as well as other poorly understood factors, including genetic susceptibility. As EYA4 mutations cause sensorineural hearing loss in humans, we produced and characterized Eya4-deficient (Eya4–/–) mice, which had severe hearing deficits. In addition, all Eya4–/– mice developed otitis media with effusion. Anatomic studies revealed abnormal middle ear cavity and eustachian tube dysmorphology; thus, Eya4 regulation is critical for the development and function of these structures. We suggest that some human otitis media susceptibility reflects underlying genetic predisposition in genes like EYA4 that regulate middle ear and eustachian tube anatomy.
Frederic F.S. Depreux, Keith Darrow, David A. Conner, Roland D. Eavey, M. Charles Liberman, Christine E. Seidman, J.G. Seidman
Neurodegeneration in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with enhanced redox stress caused by dominant mutations in superoxide dismutase–1 (SOD1). SOD1 is a cytosolic enzyme that facilitates the conversion of superoxide (O2•–) to H2O2. Here we demonstrate that SOD1 is not just a catabolic enzyme, but can also directly regulate NADPH oxidase–dependent (Nox-dependent) O2•– production by binding Rac1 and inhibiting its GTPase activity. Oxidation of Rac1 by H2O2 uncoupled SOD1 binding in a reversible fashion, producing a self-regulating redox sensor for Nox-derived O2•– production. This process of redox-sensitive uncoupling of SOD1 from Rac1 was defective in SOD1 ALS mutants, leading to enhanced Rac1/Nox activation in transgenic mouse tissues and cell lines expressing ALS SOD1 mutants. Glial cell toxicity associated with expression of SOD1 mutants in culture was significantly attenuated by treatment with the Nox inhibitor apocynin. Treatment of ALS mice with apocynin also significantly increased their average life span. This redox sensor mechanism may explain the gain-of-function seen with certain SOD1 mutations associated with ALS and defines new therapeutic targets.
Maged M. Harraz, Jennifer J. Marden, Weihong Zhou, Yulong Zhang, Aislinn Williams, Victor S. Sharov, Kathryn Nelson, Meihui Luo, Henry Paulson, Christian Schöneich, John F. Engelhardt
APOE genotype is a major genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). ABCA1, a member of the ATP-binding cassette family of active transporters, lipidates apoE in the CNS. Abca1–/– mice have decreased lipid associated with apoE and increased amyloid deposition in several AD mouse models. We hypothesized that mice overexpressing ABCA1 in the brain would have increased lipidation of apoE-containing lipoproteins and decreased amyloid deposition. To address these hypotheses, we created PrP-mAbca1 Tg mice that overexpress mouse Abca1 throughout the brain under the control of the mouse prion promoter. We bred the PrP-mAbca1 mice to the PDAPP AD mouse model, a transgenic line overexpressing a mutant human amyloid precursor protein. PDAPP/Abca1 Tg mice developed a phenotype remarkably similar to that seen in PDAPP/Apoe–/– mice: there was significantly less amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) deposition, a redistribution of Aβ to the hilus of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, and an almost complete absence of thioflavine S–positive amyloid plaques. Analyses of CSF from PrP-mAbca1 Tg mice and media conditioned by PrP-mAbca1 Tg primary astrocytes demonstrated increased lipidation of apoE-containing particles. These data support the conclusions that increased ABCA1-mediated lipidation of apoE in the CNS can reduce amyloid burden and that increasing ABCA1 function may have a therapeutic effect on AD.
Suzanne E. Wahrle, Hong Jiang, Maia Parsadanian, Jungsu Kim, Aimin Li, Amanda Knoten, Sanjay Jain, Veronica Hirsch-Reinshagen, Cheryl L. Wellington, Kelly R. Bales, Steven M. Paul, David M. Holtzman
Transgenic mice expressing HCV core protein develop hepatic steatosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. Because PPARα is a central regulator of triglyceride homeostasis and mediates hepatocarcinogenesis in rodents, we determined whether PPARα contributes to HCV core protein–induced diseases. We generated PPARα-homozygous, -heterozygous, and -null mice with liver-specific transgenic expression of the core protein gene (Ppara+/+:HCVcpTg, Ppara+/–:HCVcpTg, and Ppara–/–:HCVcpTg mice. Severe steatosis was unexpectedly observed only in Ppara+/+:HCVcpTg mice, which resulted from enhanced fatty acid uptake and decreased mitochondrial β-oxidation due to breakdown of mitochondrial outer membranes. Interestingly, HCC developed in approximately 35% of 24-month-old Ppara+/+:HCVcpTg mice, but tumors were not observed in the other genotypes. These phenomena were found to be closely associated with sustained PPARα activation. In Ppara+/–:HCVcpTg mice, PPARα activation and the related changes did not occur despite the presence of a functional Ppara allele. However, long-term treatment of these mice with clofibrate, a PPARα activator, induced HCC with mitochondrial abnormalities and hepatic steatosis. Thus, our results indicate that persistent activation of PPARα is essential for the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis and HCC induced by HCV infection.
Naoki Tanaka, Kyoji Moriya, Kendo Kiyosawa, Kazuhiko Koike, Frank J. Gonzalez, Toshifumi Aoyama
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a cholestatic disease associated with autoimmune phenomena and alterations in both biliary bicarbonate excretion and expression of the bicarbonate carrier AE2. The bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UCDA) is currently used in treatment of cholestatic liver diseases and is the treatment of choice in PBC; however, a subset of PBC patients respond poorly to UDCA monotherapy. In these patients, a combination of UDCA and glucocorticoid therapy appears to be beneficial. To address the mechanism of this benefit, we analyzed the effects of UDCA and dexamethasone on AE2 gene expression in human liver cells from hepatocyte and cholangiocyte lineages. The combination of UDCA and dexamethasone, but not UDCA or dexamethasone alone, increased the expression of liver-enriched alternative mRNA isoforms AE2b1 and AE2b2 and enhanced AE2 activity. Similar effects were obtained after replacing UDCA with UDCA conjugates. In in vitro and in vivo reporter assays, we found that a UDCA/dexamethasone combination upregulated human AE2 alternate overlapping promoter sequences from which AE2b1 and AE2b2 are expressed. In chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrated that combination UCDA/dexamethasone treatment induced p300-related interactions between HNF1 and glucocorticoid receptor on the AE2 alternate promoter. Our data provide a potential molecular explanation for the beneficial effects of the combination of UDCA and glucocorticoids in PBC patients with inadequate response to UDCA monotherapy.
Fabián Arenas, Isabel Hervias, Miriam Úriz, Ruth Joplin, Jesús Prieto, Juan F. Medina
To assess physiological and pathophysiological events that involve dynamic interplay between multiple cell types, real-time, in vivo analysis is necessary. We developed a technique based on confocal laser microscopy that enabled us to analyze and compare the 3-dimensional structures, cellular dynamics, and vascular function within mouse lean and obese adipose tissue in vivo with high spatiotemporal resolution. We found increased leukocyte-EC-platelet interaction in the microcirculation of obese visceral adipose tissue in ob/ob and high-fat diet–induced obese mice. These changes were indicative of activation of the leukocyte adhesion cascade, a hallmark of inflammation. Local platelet activation in obese adipose tissue was indicated by increased P-selectin expression and formation of monocyte-platelet conjugates. We observed upregulated expression of adhesion molecules on macrophages and ECs in obese visceral adipose tissue, suggesting that interactions between these cells contribute to local activation of inflammatory processes. Furthermore, administration of anti–ICAM-1 antibody normalized the cell dynamics seen in obese visceral fat. This imaging technique to analyze the complex cellular interplay within obese adipose tissue allowed us to show that visceral adipose tissue obesity is an inflammatory disease. In addition, this technique may prove to be a valuable tool to evaluate potential therapeutic interventions.
Satoshi Nishimura, Ichiro Manabe, Mika Nagasaki, Kinya Seo, Hiroshi Yamashita, Yumiko Hosoya, Mitsuru Ohsugi, Kazuyuki Tobe, Takashi Kadowaki, Ryozo Nagai, Seiryo Sugiura
Patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) and the hyp-mouse, a model of XLH characterized by a deletion in the Phex gene, manifest hypophosphatemia, renal phosphate wasting, and rickets/osteomalacia. Cloning of the PHEX/Phex gene and mutations in affected patients and hyp-mice established that alterations in PHEX/Phex expression underlie XLH. Although PHEX/Phex expression occurs primarily in osteoblast lineage cells, transgenic Phex expression in hyp-mouse osteoblasts fails to rescue the phenotype, suggesting that Phex expression at other sites underlies XLH. To establish whether abnormal Phex in osteoblasts and/or osteocytes alone generates the HYP phenotype, we created mice with a global Phex knockout (Cre-PhexΔflox/y mice) and conditional osteocalcin-promoted (OC-promoted) Phex inactivation in osteoblasts and osteocytes (OC-Cre-PhexΔflox/y). Serum phosphorus levels in Cre-PhexΔflox/y, OC-Cre-PhexΔflox/y, and hyp-mice were lower than those in normal mice. Kidney cell membrane phosphate transport in Cre-PhexΔflox/y, OC-Cre-PhexΔflox/y, and hyp-mice was likewise reduced compared with that in normal mice. Abnormal renal phosphate transport in Cre-PhexΔflox/y and OC-Cre-PhexΔflox/y mice was associated with increased bone production and serum FGF-23 levels and decreased kidney membrane type IIa sodium phosphate cotransporter protein, as was the case in hyp-mice. In addition, Cre-PhexΔflox/y, OC-Cre-PhexΔflox/y, and hyp-mice manifested comparable osteomalacia. These data provide evidence that aberrant Phex function in osteoblasts and/or osteocytes alone is sufficient to underlie the hyp-mouse phenotype.
Baozhi Yuan, Masanori Takaiwa, Thomas L. Clemens, Jian Q. Feng, Rajiv Kumar, Peter S. Rowe, Yixia Xie, Marc K. Drezner
T cell Ig mucin (Tim) molecules modulate CD4+ T cell responses. In keeping with the view that Tim-1 generates a stimulatory signal for CD4+ T cell activation, we hypothesized that an agonist Tim-1–specific mAb would intensify the CD4+ T cell–dependant allograft response. Unexpectedly, we determined that a particular Tim-1–specific mAb exerted reciprocal effects upon the commitment of alloactivated T cells to regulatory and effector phenotypes. Commitment to the Th1 and Th17 phenotypes was fostered, whereas commitment to the Treg phenotype was hindered. Moreover, ligation of Tim-1 in vitro effectively deprogrammed Tregs and thus produced Tregs unable to control T cell responses. Overall, the effects of the agonist Tim-1–specific mAb on the allograft response stemmed from enhanced expansion and survival of T effector cells; a capacity to deprogram natural Tregs; and inhibition of the conversion of naive CD4+ T cells into Tregs. The reciprocal effects of agonist Tim-1–specific mAbs upon effector T cells and Tregs serve to prevent allogeneic transplant tolerance.
Nicolas Degauque, Christophe Mariat, James Kenny, Dong Zhang, Wenda Gao, Minh Diem Vu, Sophoclis Alexopoulos, Mohammed Oukka, Dale T. Umetsu, Rosemarie H. DeKruyff, Vijay Kuchroo, Xin Xiao Zheng, Terry B. Strom
T cell Ig mucin 1 (TIM-1) plays an important role in regulating immune responses in autoimmune and asthma models, and it is expressed on both Th1 and Th2 cells. Using an antagonistic TIM-1–specific antibody, we studied the role of TIM-1 in alloimmunity. A short course of TIM-1–specific antibody monotherapy prolonged survival of fully MHC-mismatched vascularized mouse cardiac allografts. This prolongation was associated with inhibition of alloreactive Th1 responses and preservation of Th2 responses. TIM-1–specific antibody treatment was more effective in Th1-type cytokine–deficient Stat4–/– recipients as compared with Th2-type cytokine–deficient Stat6–/– recipients. Subtherapeutic doses of rapamycin plus TIM-1–specific antibody resulted in allograft acceptance and prevented the development of chronic allograft vasculopathy. Allograft survival via this treatment was accompanied by a Th1- to Th2-type cytokine switch. Depletion of natural Tregs abrogated the graft-protecting effect of the TIM-1–specific antibody. Importantly, CD4+CD25+ Tregs obtained from long-term survivors had enhanced regulatory activity as compared with naive CD4+CD25+ Tregs. Consistent with this, TIM-1–specific antibody treatment both preserved Tregs and prevented the expansion of alloreactive effector Th1 cells in an alloreactive TCR transgenic adoptive transfer model. These studies define previously unknown functions of TIM-1 in regulating alloimmune responses in vivo and may provide a novel approach to promoting transplantation tolerance.
Takuya Ueno, Antje Habicht, Michael R. Clarkson, Monica J. Albin, Kazuhiro Yamaura, Olaf Boenisch, Joyce Popoola, Ying Wang, Hideo Yagita, Hisaya Akiba, M. Javeed Ansari, Jaeseok Yang, Laurence A. Turka, David M. Rothstein, Robert F. Padera, Nader Najafian, Mohamed H. Sayegh
Hypercapnia (elevated CO2 levels) occurs as a consequence of poor alveolar ventilation and impairs alveolar fluid reabsorption (AFR) by promoting Na,K-ATPase endocytosis. We studied the mechanisms regulating CO2-induced Na,K-ATPase endocytosis in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and alveolar epithelial dysfunction in rats. Elevated CO2 levels caused a rapid activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in AECs, a key regulator of metabolic homeostasis. Activation of AMPK was mediated by a CO2-triggered increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase-β (CaMKK-β). Chelating intracellular Ca2+ or abrogating CaMKK-β function by gene silencing or chemical inhibition prevented the CO2-induced AMPK activation in AECs. Activation of AMPK or overexpression of constitutively active AMPK was sufficient to activate PKC-ζ and promote Na,K-ATPase endocytosis. Inhibition or downregulation of AMPK via adenoviral delivery of dominant-negative AMPK-α1 prevented CO2-induced Na,K-ATPase endocytosis. The hypercapnia effects were independent of intracellular ROS. Exposure of rats to hypercapnia for up to 7 days caused a sustained decrease in AFR. Pretreatment with a β-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, or a cAMP analog ameliorated the hypercapnia-induced impairment of AFR. Accordingly, we provide evidence that elevated CO2 levels are sensed by AECs and that AMPK mediates CO2-induced Na,K-ATPase endocytosis and alveolar epithelial dysfunction, which can be prevented with β-adrenergic agonists and cAMP.
István Vadász, Laura A. Dada, Arturo Briva, Humberto E. Trejo, Lynn C. Welch, Jiwang Chen, Péter T. Tóth, Emilia Lecuona, Lee A. Witters, Paul T. Schumacker, Navdeep S. Chandel, Werner Seeger, Jacob I. Sznajder
Local anesthetics (LAs) block the generation and propagation of action potentials by interacting with specific sites of voltage-gated Na+ channels. LAs can also excite sensory neurons and be neurotoxic through mechanisms that are as yet undefined. Nonspecific cation channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family that are predominantly expressed by nociceptive sensory neurons render these neurons sensitive to a variety of insults. Here we demonstrated that the LA lidocaine activated TRP channel family receptors TRPV1 and, to a lesser extent, TRPA1 in rodent dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons as well as in HEK293t cells expressing TRPV1 or TRPA1. Lidocaine also induced a TRPV1-dependent release of calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP) from isolated skin and peripheral nerve. Lidocaine sensitivity of TRPV1 required segments of the putative vanilloid-binding domain within and adjacent to transmembrane domain 3, was diminished under phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate depletion, and was abrogated by a point mutation at residue R701 in the proximal C-terminal TRP domain. These data identify TRPV1 and TRPA1 as putative key elements of LA-induced nociceptor excitation. This effect is sufficient to release CGRP, a key component of neurogenic inflammation, and warrants investigation into the role of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in LA-induced neurotoxicity.
Andreas Leffler, Michael J. Fischer, Dietlinde Rehner, Stephanie Kienel, Katrin Kistner, Susanne K. Sauer, Narender R. Gavva, Peter W. Reeh, Carla Nau
Altered degradation of α-synuclein (α-syn) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). We have shown that α-syn can be degraded via chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), a selective lysosomal mechanism for degradation of cytosolic proteins. Pathogenic mutants of α-syn block lysosomal translocation, impairing their own degradation along with that of other CMA substrates. While pathogenic α-syn mutations are rare, α-syn undergoes posttranslational modifications, which may underlie its accumulation in cytosolic aggregates in most forms of PD. Using mouse ventral medial neuron cultures, SH-SY5Y cells in culture, and isolated mouse lysosomes, we have found that most of these posttranslational modifications of α-syn impair degradation of this protein by CMA but do not affect degradation of other substrates. Dopamine-modified α-syn, however, is not only poorly degraded by CMA but also blocks degradation of other substrates by this pathway. As blockage of CMA increases cellular vulnerability to stressors, we propose that dopamine-induced autophagic inhibition could explain the selective degeneration of PD dopaminergic neurons.
Marta Martinez-Vicente, Zsolt Talloczy, Susmita Kaushik, Ashish C. Massey, Joseph Mazzulli, Eugene V. Mosharov, Roberto Hodara, Ross Fredenburg, Du-Chu Wu, Antonia Follenzi, William Dauer, Serge Przedborski, Harry Ischiropoulos, Peter T. Lansbury, David Sulzer, Ana Maria Cuervo
Mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle has been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. However, whether these changes are a cause or a consequence of insulin resistance is not clear. We investigated the structure and function of muscle mitochondria during the development of insulin resistance and progression to diabetes in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet. Although 1 month of high-fat, high-sucrose diet feeding was sufficient to induce glucose intolerance, mice showed no evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction at this stage. However, an extended diet intervention induced a diabetic state in which we observed altered mitochondrial biogenesis, structure, and function in muscle tissue. We assessed the role of oxidative stress in the development of these mitochondrial abnormalities and found that diet-induced diabetic mice had an increase in ROS production in skeletal muscle. In addition, ROS production was associated with mitochondrial alterations in the muscle of hyperglycemic streptozotocin-treated mice, and normalization of glycemia or antioxidant treatment decreased muscle ROS production and restored mitochondrial integrity. Glucose- or lipid-induced ROS production resulted in mitochondrial alterations in muscle cells in vitro, and these effects were blocked by antioxidant treatment. These data suggest that mitochondrial alterations do not precede the onset of insulin resistance and result from increased ROS production in muscle in diet-induced diabetic mice.
Charlotte Bonnard, Annie Durand, Simone Peyrol, Emilie Chanseaume, Marie-Agnes Chauvin, Béatrice Morio, Hubert Vidal, Jennifer Rieusset
Compartmentalization of immunity ensures tight regulation of T cell activation in the LN and precise effector T cell delivery to inflamed sites. Herein we show that the tissue-specific accumulation of effector T cells can be subverted by a pathogen at the infection site. Using the Leishmania major mouse model of dermal infection, we observed a restricted chemokine profile at the infection site, i.e., the expression of Th2 cell–attracting CCL7 but not of Th1 cell–attracting chemokines. Consistent with these chemokine expression data, recruitment of cytokine-producing T cells to the infection site was also selective. Both IL-4– and IFN-γ–producing effector T cells homed to inflamed OVA/CFA-immunized dermis, but only IL-4–producing cells homed to L. major–infected dermis. The narrowing of the cytokine repertoire at the site of infection with L. major was driven, in part, by pathogen-induced CCL7. Inflammatory signals failed to disrupt the early restrictive L. major infection site, which suggests that L. major dominantly modifies the local milieu. We have highlighted an emerging principle in pathogen-host interactions: that the cytokine repertoire at the infection site and the LN draining the infection site can be different because of the ability of the pathogen to modify the chemokine profile at the infection site. Thus, pathogens may edit the LN cytokine repertoire through differential recruitment of cytokine-producing cells.
Shoshana D. Katzman, Deborah J. Fowell
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is an abundant phospholipid that contributes to second messenger formation and has also been shown to contribute to the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics in all eukaryotic cells. Although the α, β, and γ isoforms of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase I (PIP5KI) all synthesize PIP2, mammalian cells usually contain more than one PIP5KI isoform. This raises the question of whether different isoforms of PIP5KI fulfill different functions. Given the speculated role of PIP2 in platelet and megakaryocyte actin dynamics, we analyzed murine megakaryocytes lacking individual PIP5KI isoforms. PIP5KIγ–/– megakaryocytes exhibited plasma membrane blebbing accompanied by a decreased association of the membrane with the cytoskeleton. This membrane defect was rescued by adding back wild-type PIP5KIγ, but not by adding a catalytically inactive mutant or a splice variant lacking the talin-binding motif. Notably, both PIP5KIβ- and PIP5KIγ–/– cells had impaired PIP2 synthesis. However, PIP5KIβ-null cells lacked the membrane-cytoskeleton defect. Furthermore, overexpressing PIP5KIβ in PIP5KIγ–/– cells failed to revert this defect. Megakaryocytes lacking the PIP5KIγ-binding partner, talin1, mimicked the membrane-cytoskeleton defect phenotype seen in PIP5KIγ–/– cells. These findings demonstrate a unique role for PIP5KIγ in the anchoring of the cell membrane to the cytoskeleton in megakaryocytes, probably through a pathway involving talin. These observations further demonstrate that individual PIP5KI isoforms fulfill distinct functions within cells.
Yanfeng Wang, Rustem I. Litvinov, Xinsheng Chen, Tami L. Bach, Lurong Lian, Brian G. Petrich, Susan J. Monkley, David R. Critchley, Takehiko Sasaki, Morris J. Birnbaum, John W. Weisel, John Hartwig, Charles S. Abrams
Juan Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Valério Monteiro-Neto, Maria A. Ledesma, Dianna M. Jordan, Olivera Francetic, James B. Kaper, José Luis Puente, Jorge A. Girón